This course introduces you to the following thermal and flow analysis modules within the Advanced Simulation application:
NX Thermal NX Flow NX Thermal and Flow NX Electronic Systems Cooling NX Space Systems Thermal
Setup information
Part folder: simulation NX role: Advanced with full menus System preparation
NX Thermal analysis
1. Introduction
NX Thermal is an NX Advanced Simulation application that you can use to model steadystate or transient thermal analysis for any product or system. Create your simulation using these types of tools:
Boundary conditions, modeling, and simulation objects To specify loads, constraints, and other objects that characterize a specific portion of the model. Although assigned to geometric features of the model (points, edges, faces, or solid bodies), boundary conditions are ultimately applied to the elements by the solver. Solution definition tools To set controls and specify solver parameters that govern the entire model. They are always applied to the solution as a whole, not to specific elements or geometry.
To change geometry, access the idealized part using the Part Navigator and the Modeling application. A part update applies the change to the idealized part and marks the mesh for update. Mesh changes in the Finite Element model (FEM) are automatically propagated to the Simulation. You can override the mesh collector properties, defined in the FEM file, by using Edit Attributes Overrides, or an Override Set simulation object in in the Simulation file. You can access and modify any simulation entity using the Simulation Navigator. Selecting an object highlights the corresponding elements or graphics symbols in the graphics window. You can also copy or clone any boundary condition or solution.
Modeling conduction
The thermal solver uses a finite volume formulation for modeling heat conduction between elements that share nodes, provided that:
Thermal conductivity and specific heat properties are defined for the elements. Specific heat is required only for transient analyses. 2D elements have thickness physical property defined. 1D elements have a beam section defined. 0D elements have a mass and diameter defined.
Modeling convection
You can model convection implicitly using boundary conditions provided that you define a Convection to Environment constraint on:
Faces of 3D solids 2D elements 1D elements with cross area defined 0D elements with diameter defined
Use this option when you know either the Convection Coefficient or Parameter and Exponent and the fluid temperature.
Free Convection to Environment
Use this option when you want to use a specific free convection correlation (example: hot air rising). Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
Use this option when you want to use a specific forced convection correlation (example: fans).
Both in transient and steady state solves, the solver calculates a single convection coefficient value for the entire convecting surface based on the characteristic information you specify. Convection can also be explicitly model using a coupled NX Thermal and Flow solution by simulating the fluid volume and the embedded volumes and surfaces in a model.
Modeling radiation
The software simulates radiation based on view factors between radiating elements. The solver calculates black body view factors between all radiation elements. To calculate radiative conductances, it combines these factors with thermooptical properties, which you define for every radiating element. For surfaces that do not obey the gray body approximation, raytraced view factors can be calculated instead of black body view factors. You can calculate radiation between surfaces defined by:
Faces of 3D solid elements. The top and/or bottom of 2D shell elements based on the orientation of the element normals that you specify. The implied surface of 1D beam elements based on the section properties you define. The implied surface of 0D concentrated mass elements based on the diameters you specify.
If you want an element or group of elements to participate in radiation exchange, you must apply ThermoOptical Properties and define a Radiation simulation object to calculate view factors between these elements.
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Define solution options and solver parameters. 5. Define loads, constraints, and other special boundary conditions. Solve and review solution messages. Review and display results using postprocessing tools. 6. Refresh results to obtain additional results sets. Simulation file (.sim) Advanced Simulation Advanced Simulation Simulation file (.sim)
Physical properties define characteristics of your part that are not being explicitly modeled. Use the properties in the Physical Properties Manager dialog box to describe the physical qualities and characteristics of an element, such as thickness, layer stack definition, and others. You can define physical properties to specify:
A spherical Concentrated Mass with a diameter and mass that you specify for 0D elements. For example, you can model the effect of rivets in a riveted plate under thermal loads by creating 0D elements at the appropriate locations and then assigning a concentrated mass to them. You can also use 0D elements to model the mass of liquid inside a soda can without modeling the liquid volume as a 3D mesh. A linear uniformly varying NonStructural Mass in Mass per Length units, for 1D Beam elements. Use this to add additional capacitance to 1D elements. A Thickness value, or a NonStructural Mass value in mass per area units, for Thin Shell collectors of 2D Shell elements. Use the NonStructural Mass to add weight without explicitly modeling geometry and meshing elements for it. For example, material inserts and surface coatings. A Layer Definition for a MultiLayer Shell Uniform collector type definition for 2D shell elements, in which you specify the Total Thickness and the Number of Layers. Use this property to model multiple layers with detailed throughplane conduction and conduction.
A layer Stack Definition for a MultiLayer Shell NonUniform collector type definition for 2D shell elements, in which you define a layer stack with multiple Layer modeling objects. Each layer can have defined different materials, thickness, and thermooptical properties. Use this property to model conductive or radiative heat transfer through the physical layers of a sandwich material construction. For example, you can use MultiLayer Shell NonUniform to model accurate heat transfer through composite materials.
When you define a physical property in the active FEM file, you assign it to a mesh collector. The meshes and their elements are assigned to the mesh collector inherit those physical properties. Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
Use modeling objects to define particular properties for specific entities or for the whole model. You can create or modify modeling objects from the Modeling Objects Manager simulation objects, loads, and constraint dialog boxes. Some NX Thermal modeling objects include:
AblationCharing Active Heater Controller Duct Head Loss Layer ThermoOptical Properties / ThermoOptical Properties Advanced Thermostat
Thermooptical properties
Use the ThermoOptical Properties or ThermoOptical Properties Advanced modeling objects to define Emissivity, which is required for all radiation modeling. Absorptivity is required to model radiative heat transfer in the solar band. To model specular and transmissive effects, you can also define a ThermoOptical Properties Advanced modeling object with values for:
You can model radiation in different bands defining corresponding thermooptical properties in a ThermoOptical Properties Advanced modeling object, and choosing one of the following two types:
Select Gray to define constant or temperature varying values for infrared Emissivity and a value for Absorptivity when want to define properties in the solar spectrum. Select NonGray Wavelength Dependent to define wavelength dependent values of nongray Emissivity, Specular Reflectivity and Transmissivity.
Emissivity and absorptivity values can be constant or defined in function of a Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF). Specular Reflectivity and Transmissivity can be defined in terms of direction of incidence and angle of incidence.
Note: When you define ThermoOptical Properties or ThermoOptical Properties Advanced for a 2D mesh, you should always first check the element normals to identify the top and bottom sides of the mesh.
[NX7.5 CAST]  THERMAL AND FLOW ANALYSIS Boundary condition Description loads over geometry or elements as:
Lets you specify a known temperature for the geometry or elements that you select, regardless of heat flow. This temperature can be constant, time varying, or spatially distributed. Implicitly models natural and forced convection based on a heat transfer coefficient or standard correlation. You specify the known heat Convection Coefficient value or the Correlation and the Characteristic Information.
Models areadependent radiation of surfaces with known emissivities and view factors to a radiative environment temperature. You can specify a value for Emissivity and View Factor from zero to one.
For more information on all simulation objects see the Advanced Simulation online help. Boundary Conditions Solver Specific Simulation Objects Solver Specific Simulation Objects NX Thermal and Flow, NX Electronic Systems Cooling, and NX Space Systems Thermal .
Heat transfer between the surfaces of solid objects or components that are physically or thermally in contact. Create generalized conductances defined by a coefficient.
The use of thermal couplings can ease meshing tasks and reduce model size and complexity during the solution. Heat paths can be modeled within the model defining:
Conduction and radiation for a perfect contact using a SurfacetoSurface Contact simulation object. Convection using a Thermal Coupling Convection simulation object.
One way or userspecified conduction using a Thermal Coupling Advanced simulation object. Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
[NX7.5 CAST]  THERMAL AND FLOW ANALYSIS A complete description on how to manually calculate thermal coupling values is available in the online help.
Conducting heat paths
You usually create a Thermal Coupling between parallel surfaces. If you create thermal couplings between nonparallel surfaces and edges, you introduce inaccuracies. The farther the two surfaces are from parallel, the greater the inaccuracy. You define thermal couplings between:
The faces of 3D meshed bodies Faces meshed with 2D elements Polygon edges or curves meshed with 1D elements Points meshed with 0D elements.
Most geometry/mesh combinations are supported. The software uses the area of the primary region and the direction of the surfaces normals to calculate the magnitude of the heat path, as shown in the table. Select Face of polygon body meshed with 3D elements Polygon face meshed with 2D elements Heat Transfer Calculation Area Polygon face surface area Polygon face surface area
Curve or polygon edge meshed with 1D Length of polygon edge x perimeter of the associated beam elements cross section Mesh point meshed with 0D element
Radiating heat paths
The Thermal Coupling Radiation simulation object models simple radiation between close parallel surfaces, or between objects at great distances. It does this by creating radiative heat paths (radiative conductances) between elements with view factors greater than 0. The Thermal Coupling Radiation simulation object calculates radiative heat transfer q: q= x GBVF x 1 x A1 (T12 + T22) (T1 +T2) You define either of the following:
Element emissivities Gray Body View Factor Effective Emissivity (Emissivity * Gray Body View Factor)
Where
is the StefanBoltzmann constant. GBVF is the specified gray body view factor. 1 is the emissivity of the primary elements. A1 is the area of overlap of the primary element with the secondary element. T1 is the absolute temperature of the primary elements. Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
A view factor represents the fraction of radiative energy that is emitted from one entity and arrives to a second entity. The thermal solver uses view factors to compute radiative heat transfer. Two parallel surfaces in close proximity have a view factor that tends to unity. Two surfaces that are nearly coplanar have a view factor that tends to zero.
An enclosure divides the space into compartments on which view factors for a radiation requests are calculated. View factor calculation is expensive in terms of machine resources, therefore defining radiation enclosures saves solution time. For radiation requests with transmissivity thermooptical properties defined, the solver will automatically track rays that go through elements. You can indicate that an enclosure radiates to ambient. In this case the solver will create radiative conductances from a point at a very large distance outside the model to elements of the enclosure visible to the point.
2D mesh A ThermoOptical Properties: Top (blue arrows) Enclosure 1 Radiation heat is exchanged from:
2D mesh B ThermoOptical Properties: Top (blue arrows) and Bottom (green arrows) Enclosure 2
Heatsource 2D mesh A ThermoOptical Properties: Top (blue arrows) Enclosure 1 2D mesh B ThermoOptical Properties: Top (blue arrows) Enclosure 2
Radiation heat is exchanged only from the heatsource to mesh B because thermooptical properties are not defined on the bottom side of the 2D elements. To model radiation to environment the elements of mesh A must have bottom thermooptical properties.
Heatsource
Radiation simulation object
Use a Radiation simulation object to create view factor calculation requests for enclosures comprised of selected geometry or elements. To simulate radiation exchange you must define:
Entities with ThermoOptical Properties with a specified value for emissivity and/or absorptivity. A Radiation simulation object. You can create one of these types of radiation requests: o All Radiation to let the thermal solver detect enclosures. o Enclosure Radiation where you define the relevant enclosures by selecting entities with the top and/or bottom thermooptical properties defined.
The solver can use one of these techniques as the black body view factor calculation method:
Hemicube Rendering This technique uses your computer's graphics card to calculate view factors quickly and accurately. You can only use this option if your computer's graphics card supports the Open Graphics Library (OGL) standard.
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Deterministic This is an analytical approach that uses a ray casting algorithm, which calculates the black body view factors based on the mathematical definition of view factor or form factor. Monte Carlo This technique determines view factors as part of the radiative exchange calculation. It uses a ray casting algorithm with statistical sampling to evaluate the radiative exchange in an enclosure.
Use a Solar Heating simulation object to model heating of objects on the surface of the earth due to sun incidence. This command calculates direct solar view factors for selected elements at a fixed sun position or at calculation points along the sun's trajectory. Solar view factors are the direct view of an element to the solar source, which is treated as a distant point source. You can model multiple solar sources to simulate multidirectional heating of elements in a multiple heat source system. Solar Heating is useful, for example, for modeling the thermal effects of the sun on exterior equipment, buildings, and installations. To define a Solar Heating simulation object:
Define a ThermoOptical Properties Advanced modeling object with a value for Absorptivity under the Solar Properties group, for all elements included in the Solar Heating simulation object.
Note
To specify a value for Absorptivity under the Solar Properties group, you must select the Define Solar Properties (radiative source spectrum) check box in the ThermoOptical Properties Advanced dialog box.
Create a Radiation simulation object that includes all affected elements to account for the radiative heat that is diffusely reflected to and from the elements.
The options on the Model Orientation tab of the Solar Heating Space dialog box let you position the model in relation to the sun to determine how the sun strikes it. The options available in this tab depend on the method you select from the Orientation Method list. Some examples inlcude:
Latitude The options in the Planet Vectors and Solar Vectors group let you define two vectors to orient the model in relation to the Earth or selected planet. These two vectors cannot be parallel to each other. Often, they are perpendicular to each other. Sun Planet Vectors You can use Specify Field to specify a series of time varying vectors to model the position of the sun with respect to the global coordinate system by specifying point sets in Cartesian or Spherical coordinates.
Radiative Heating
You define a Radiative Heating simulation object to model the radiative thermal effects of heat sources such as electrical heater elements, engine and exhaust systems, lasers, or any object in the model that emits significant and known quantities of radiative energy. Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
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Create a Radiative Heating simulation object to define selected elements in your model as diffusely or collimated radiating heat sources. The software then calculates the direct heat flux view factors to other elements per heat source that you define. With Radiative Heating:
You can define the energy to radiate in solar, infrared, or any other spectral distribution. You can define a spectral distribution of the energy by specifying the Source Temperature of the emitting surfaces or by specifying intensity, expressed as a fraction of the entire energy emitted, as a function of wavelength. Diffuse reflection and absorption of the incident radiative energy throughout the enclosure is automatically computed, provided that you also create a Radiation simulation object. Ray tracing is used for specular or transmissive surfaces. Heat flux view factors are calculated from the radiative source elements to the elements of the illuminated objects. If any of the illuminated elements have specular or diffuse properties, rays will be traced from those elements. Diffuse reflections are also computed from the illuminated elements, provided you also create an Enclosure Radiation type of Radiation simulation object.
For loads applied to 2D or 1D geometry, you can specify how the load varies spatially over the area of the 2D geometry or length of the 1D geometry.
You can account for the motion of a spacecraft's moveable appendages, such as solar panels, antennas, robotic systems, and optical platforms, in your thermal model to provide an accurate picture of the heating cycles. Use an Articulation simulation object to model the transient thermal effects of the movement of selected elements in the model. The thermal solver uses the displacements of the articulation sequence to calculate:
Timevarying radiative conductances View factors at each location Heat loads (including radiative and solar heating) Varying conductances of thermal couplings Shadowing of elements
To define the movement of the selected elements in your model, you use an Articulation simulation object in conjunction with:
A Joint type modeling object to model the translation or rotation of the moving elements. A JointOrbital Tracker type modeling object to link the rotation of the moving elements to defined orbits.
Options in the Articulation Parameters group on the Transient Setup tab of the Solution dialog box let you control the start and end times for the articulation as well as the calculation interval. You can also choose to match the orbital start and end times and calculation interval that you may have previously defined. Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
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You can view an animated display or the articulating motion in postprocessing. The animated model accurately displays all the rotations and translations of its articulated parts, including compound articulations.
Boundary condition Duct Flow Boundary Conditions Joule Heating Peltier Cooler
Description Lets you model duct flow networks such as pipes and HVAC systems. Lets you model the heating generated due in an electrical circuit defining a currents and voltages. Lets you model the effect of a thermo electrical cooler generated by a current or a voltage.
You can set simulation options in the Solution dialog box. The most commonly used settings are located on the Solution Details and the Ambient Conditions tabs. You should always review the settings on the other tabs when they apply to the model you are solving. For steady state solutions setting expected values for the solution on the Initial Conditions tab may save analysis time.
For a transient analysis, you must specify a Start Time and an End Time in the Transient Setup tab, and review the other settings. You can set global initial boundary conditions in the Initial Conditions tab. For a large model, deselecting the options for unneeded results types on the Results Options tab can improve processing time and reduce the size of the results file.
Refreshing results
After you run a solution you can request additional results sets not included in the Results Option tab of the Solution dialog box. In the Results Options tab expand the Control group, click on Refresh Results, and follow the instructions given by the interface.
Performing a restart
You usually restart an analysis in the following situations: Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
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A steady state analysis has reached its iteration limit but has not converged yet. A transient analysis has been run and you wish to continue the analysis over a new end time. You have stopped a steady state or transient analysis and wish to continue the run. You want re run your model with different properties but want to reuse information already calculated. For example you want to change an object's emissivity but reuse previously calculated view factors.
To perform a simulation restart use the options available in the Restart tab of the Solution dialog box.
Solver Parameters
Use Solver Parameters to control time step, convergence, speed calculation time, or to adjust the solver for unusual modeling situations. For example you must set an appropriate time step for natural convection problems. After every solution, you should verify the convergence of the model. Review the message files for global heat balance and mass balance for flow problems. Investigate warnings and check the view factor sums for radiation problems.
Solving
An Information window displays model check results. The Analysis Job Monitor dialog box lists the solve status for single or multiple runs. The Solution Monitor displays all errors, warnings, and information messages from the module currently executing.
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Click Inspect to scroll and check current solution status. These messages are also available after the solution is completed. Click Stop possible. to halt the current solution and discard the results. Restarting is not
Click Pause to stop solution and recover results for post processing. In complex models pause the solution to inspect the results after a few iterations, verify its integrity, and continue the run. Continue the solve using the Restart tab at the Solution dialog box.
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Mapping overview
Temperature mapping creates associations between the element's centroid on the thermal model to the closest element on the target model. If the nodes do not match, temperatures are interpolated using the element's CG.
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The FEM global coordinate system from target model must be the same as in the source model. Both models should be geometrically congruent but do not need to have the same mesh. Mapped temperatures are written in a result file (*.bun).
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Suggested activity
In this activity, you perform the thermal radiation analysis of a oven.
Launch the Heat transfer analysis of an oven activity. For more information, use the Command Finder to search for an icon or command.
NX Flow analysis
1. Introduction
NX Flow is an NX Advanced Simulation application that you can use to model steadystate or transient fluid flow for any product or system. Create your simulation using these types of tools:
Boundary conditions, modeling, and simulation objects To specify loads, constraints, and other objects that characterize a specific portion of the model. Although assigned to geometric features of the model (points, edges, faces, or solid bodies), boundary conditions are ultimately applied to the elements by the solver. Solution definition tools To set controls and specify solver parameters that govern the entire model. They are always applied to the solution as a whole, not to specific elements or geometry. Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
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To change geometry, access the idealized part using the Part Navigator and the Modeling application. A part update applies the change to the idealized part and marks the mesh for update. Mesh changes in the Finite Element model (FEM) are automatically propagated to the Simulation. You can override the mesh collector properties, defined in the FEM file, by using Edit Attributes Overrides, or an Override Set simulation object in in the Simulation file. You can access and modify any simulation entity using the Simulation Navigator. Selecting an object highlights the corresponding elements or graphics symbols in the graphics window. You can also copy or clone any boundary condition or solution.
Modeling fluid flow
The flow solver is an implicit code that uses a conservative finite volume formulation to solve the Reynolds Averaged NavierStokes (RANS) equations describing fluid flow. All elements you include in a flow solution must be 3D elements for which you assign the following fluid material properties.
Mass density Dynamic Viscosity Thermal conductivity and specific heat Coefficient of thermal expansion Gas constant
For coupled solutions, the solver automatically simulates convection for fluid elements that touch solid walls, or where you define Flow Surface simulation objects. Convection properties can be tailored where appropriate.
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Mesh the model and define mesh collectors to organize meshes Advanced Simulation and assign physical properties. FEM file (.fem) Consider using a Fluid Domain meshing (discussed later in this lesson) before meshing the flow model. Assembly FEM file (.afm) Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
[NX7.5 CAST]  THERMAL AND FLOW ANALYSIS Step Task Associate all FEMs to their corresponding parts when using an assembly FEM. Define solution options and solver parameters. 5. Define loads, constraints, and other special boundary conditions. Solve and review solution messages. Review and display results using postprocessing tools. 6. Refresh results to obtain additional results sets. Simulation file (.sim)
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Advanced Simulation
You can model the geometry of the fluid inside an assembly or a part with a complex internal cavity. You can also model multiple fluids in a single model, provided no mixing takes place. You can create a fluid volume using one of these methods: Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
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Define a sketch representing the 2D shape of a regular fluid volume and then Extrude and/or Revolve the sketch. Use this technique if you know the shape and dimensions of the fluid volume. Use Boolean operations to create the fluid volumes. You create a solid representing the enclosed space and select the Unite, Subtract, or Intersect to modify the shape of the volume based on the intersecting solid component geometry. Use this technique if you want to create this fluid volume for single use in an analysis and if you are not interested in maintaining links for geometry updates. Create the enclosed fluid volume as a separate part file and component in your assembly file structure using the WAVE Geometry Linker command. This command copies an instance of the geometry of the inner volume and the components from the assembly part file. You then modify the contour to represent the fluid volume by using the Delete Face command (on the Synchronous Modeling toolbar). Use this technique if you want to maintain a link to the geometry of assembly components to allow for geometry updates.
Use modeling objects to define particular properties for specific entities or for the whole model. You can create or modify modeling objects from the Modeling Objects Manager simulation objects, loads, and constraint dialog boxes. Some NX Flow modeling objects include:
External Conditions Fan Speed Controller NonNewtonian Fluid Planer Head Loss Scalar
Lets you specify a known temperature for the geometry or elements that you select, regardless of heat flow. This temperature can be constant, time varying, or spatially distributed. Models flow boundary conditions, like inlet, outlet, opening, internal, and recirculation fans.
For more information on all simulation objects see the Advanced Simulation online help. Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
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Boundary Conditions Solver Specific Simulation Objects Solver Specific Simulation Objects NX Thermal and Flow, NX Electronic Systems Cooling, and NX Space Systems Thermal .
Within the same model, you can combine both approaches to mesh adjacent fluid volumes. The flow solver automatically connects adjacent fluid volumes when their polygon bodies share faces. When you use the Fluid Domain simulation object:
The solver automatically detects solid bodies that are not part of the fluid domain but obstruct the flow and meshes around them. The solver automatically detects any changes to the arrangement of obstructions in the overall volume when you resolve and accounts for them You can create boundary layer meshes. Boundary layer meshes are inherently more accurate when modeling boundary layer effects.
The Fluid Mesh type defines a mesh for general fluid volumes. Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
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The Fluid Surface Mesh type lets you modify a Fluid Domain mesh by defining the surface mesh size and boundary layer mesh parameters.
You cannot view a Fluid Domain mesh in the simulation or FEM file automatically or change its display properties during flow model creation. However, you can inspect the Fluid Domain mesh in the PostProcessing Navigator by reviewing:
Devices that move the fluid, such as fans or pumps. The known movement of the entire model through a stationary fluid. An example is the analysis of air flowing around a moving object. Openings in the boundary of the fluid domain through which fluid enters or exits at a specified pressure, such as a vent or other passive opening.
To obtain good results, you must specify a sufficiently dense 3D flow mesh adjoining a Flow Boundary Condition. For accurate modeling, the solver needs at least three fluid elements across the face of any flow boundary condition. The following are the basic Flow Boundary Condition types:
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Inlet / Outlet
Models the flow of fluids in or out of the flow domain at a known rate. The boundary condition must lie on the free faces of models.
Opening
Models openings that allow fluid to flow into or out of the flow domain. The direction of the flow is determined by to the solution. The boundary condition must lie on the free faces of models.
Opening faces adjacent to free faces of 3D fluid elements
Internal Fan
Models a fan inside a flow domain where an outlet direction must be specified. The boundary condition must lie in an internal face with matching nodes on either sides. Ensure this by using mesh matting conditions on these faces.
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Recirculation Loop
Models the extraction and the subsequent return of fluid from and to the flow model. The boundary condition must lie on the free faces of models.
Extract face and return face lying on the free faces of fluid elements Other flow boundary conditions
You can also use other flow boundary conditions to model special scenarios in your model: Boundary condition Moving Frame of Reference For example you can use this simulation object to model rotating fans. Lets you interface two or more fluid regions with different flow conditions. Mixing Plane For example, you can use a Mixing Plane simulation object when you want to interface a rotating flow region with a non rotating flow region. Particle Injection Screen Supersonic Inlet Lets you define a plane about which a fluid volume is symmetrical. Symmetry Plane Lets you track the location of particles injected to the fluid with specific size and mass properties. Lets you model two dimensional openings that direct and impede the fluid flow from moving within the fluid domain. Lets you model the fluid entering the domain at velocities over Mach 1. Description Lets you model the effect of rotating machinery or watercraft on the surrounding fluid.
8. Flow surfaces
You define a Flow Surface
3D obstructions in a fluid volume using a simplified 2D geometry representation of the original part. Specific wall function characteristics. Specific convection properties. Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
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For the selected faces, a Flow Surface overrides the default Friction and Convection Parameters options on the 3D Flow tab in the Solution dialog box. When you solve the model, the solver:
Establishes heat paths (conductances) from the surfaces and obstructions to adjacent 3D fluid elements. Opens the 3D flow mesh at the embedded Flow Surface, and models friction on both sides of the Flow Surface.
Temperature sectioned contours of a shell mesh. The shell models a heatsink inside a fluid domain.
9. Flow blockages
You can use flow blockages to model 3D obstructions in a fluid volume using a simplified geometry representation of the original part. A Flow Blockage simulation object provides a resistance to flow either completely diverting the flow or to let the flow pass through with a slight drop in pressure.
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Solid Models a 3D obstruction with solid material properties that blocks the 3D flow and is usually defined to exchange heat with the fluid by convection at its polygon faces. You can also model surface friction.
Porous Isotropic Models an obstruction with fluid material properties, which equally impedes the flow with the same resistance values in every direction but does not entirely block the flow.
Porous Orthotropic Models an obstruction with fluid material properties, which impedes the flow in three orthogonal directions with a different resistance value in each direction but does not entirely block the flow.
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Solution options
You can set simulation options in the Solution dialog box. The most commonly used settings are located on the Solution Details and the Ambient Conditions tabs. You should always review the settings on the other tabs when they apply to the model you are solving. Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
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For steady state solutions setting expected values for the solution on the Initial Conditions tab may save analysis time.
For a transient analysis, you must specify a Start Time and an End Time in the Transient Setup tab, and review the other settings. You can set global initial boundary conditions in the Initial Conditions tab. For a large model, deselecting the options for unneeded results types on the Results Options tab can improve processing time and reduce the size of the results file.
Turbulence Models
The flow solver uses the ReynoldsAveraged Navier Stokes (RANS) methods to solve for turbulence. You set the Turbulence Model for your flow analysis on the Solution Details page of the Solution dialog box. In the flow solver, you have the following options to model turbulence:
Fixed Viscosity
Defines uniform turbulence levels throughout the model, therefore it can be inaccurate and should only be used for an initial study.
Mixing Length
Ideal for validated applications or quick initial analyses during early design stages.

It is widely used in the industry, and is more accurate than the Fixed Viscosity or Mixing Length models, however it must be used with wall functions. Not ideal for large pressure gradients, flow separation, or free shear flow.

Allows integration through the viscous sublayer. No wall functions are required. Better predicts large pressure gradients.
Shear Stress Transport (SST)
Is a combination of the  and the  models. It behaves as the  formulation in the inner parts of the boundary layer, and as a  model in the free stream. It is a better model for adverse pressure gradients and separating flow. This model is computationally expensive.
Refreshing results
After you run a solution you can request additional results sets not included in the Results Option tab of the Solution dialog box. In the Results Options tab expand the Control group, click on Refresh Results, and follow the instructions given by the interface. Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
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A steady state analysis has reached its iteration limit but has not converged yet. A transient analysis has been run and you wish to continue the analysis over a new end time. You have stopped a steady state or transient analysis and wish to continue the run. You want re run your model with different properties but want to reuse information already calculated. For example you want to change an object's emissivity but reuse previously calculated view factors.
To perform a simulation restart use the options available in the Restart tab of the Solution dialog box.
Solver Parameters
Use Solver Parameters to control time step, convergence, speed calculation time, or to adjust the solver for unusual modeling situations. For example you must set an appropriate time step for natural convection problems. After every solution, you should verify the convergence of the model. Review the message files for global heat balance and mass balance for flow problems. Investigate warnings and check the view factor sums for radiation problems.
Solving
An Information window displays model check results. The Analysis Job Monitor dialog box lists the solve status for single or multiple runs. The Solution Monitor displays all errors, warnings, and information messages from the module currently executing.
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Click Inspect to scroll and check current solution status. These messages are also available after the solution is completed. Click Stop possible. to halt the current solution and discard the results. Restarting is not
Click Pause to stop solution and recover results for post processing. In complex models pause the solution to inspect the results after a few iterations, verify its integrity, and continue the run. Continue the solve using the Restart tab at the Solution dialog box.
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Mapping overview
Flow mapping associates the face of the fluid element source model to the closest nodes on the target model. Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
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Static pressure and shear stress results are mapped to vector forces generated by the fluid on the surface of the target model.
General considerations
The FEM global coordinate system from target model must be the same as in the source model. Both models should be geometrically congruent but do not need to have the same mesh. Mapped flow forces are written in a result file (*.bun).
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Suggested activity
In this activity, you perform a flow analysis of fluid passing through a valve.
Boundary conditions, modeling, and simulation objects To specify loads, constraints, and other objects that characterize a specific portion of the model. Although assigned to geometric features of the model (points, edges, faces, or solid bodies), boundary conditions are ultimately applied to the elements by the solver. Solution definition tools To set controls and specify solver parameters that govern the entire model. They are always applied to the solution as a whole, not to specific elements or geometry.
To change geometry, access the idealized part using the Part Navigator and the Modeling application. A part update applies the change to the idealized part and marks the mesh for update. Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
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Mesh changes in the Finite Element model (FEM) are automatically propagated to the Simulation. You can override the mesh collector properties, defined in the FEM file, by using Edit Attributes Overrides, or an Override Set simulation object in in the Simulation file. You can access and modify any simulation entity using the Simulation Navigator. Selecting an object highlights the corresponding elements or graphics symbols in the graphics window. You can also copy or clone any boundary condition or solution.
Modeling conduction
The thermal solver uses a finite volume formulation for modeling heat conduction between elements that share nodes, provided that:
Thermal conductivity and specific heat properties are defined for the elements. Specific heat is required only for transient analyses. 2D elements have thickness physical property defined. 1D elements have a beam section defined. 0D elements have a mass and diameter defined.
Modeling convection
You can model convection implicitly using boundary conditions provided that you define a Convection to Environment constraint on:
Faces of 3D solids 2D elements 1D elements with cross area defined 0D elements with diameter defined
Use this option when you know either the Convection Coefficient or Parameter and Exponent and the fluid temperature.
Free Convection to Environment
Use this option when you want to use a specific free convection correlation (example: hot air rising).
Forced Convection to Environment
Use this option when you want to use a specific forced convection correlation (example: fans).
Both in transient and steady state solves, the solver calculates a single convection coefficient value for the entire convecting surface based on the characteristic information you specify. Convection can also be explicitly model using a coupled NX Thermal and Flow solution by simulating the fluid volume and the embedded volumes and surfaces in a model.
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The software simulates radiation based on view factors between radiating elements. The solver calculates black body view factors between all radiation elements. To calculate radiative conductances, it combines these factors with thermooptical properties, which you define for every radiating element. For surfaces that do not obey the gray body approximation, raytraced view factors can be calculated instead of black body view factors. You can calculate radiation between surfaces defined by:
Faces of 3D solid elements. The top and/or bottom of 2D shell elements based on the orientation of the element normals that you specify. The implied surface of 1D beam elements based on the section properties you define. The implied surface of 0D concentrated mass elements based on the diameters you specify.
If you want an element or group of elements to participate in radiation exchange, you must apply ThermoOptical Properties and define a Radiation simulation object to calculate view factors between these elements.
Modeling fluid flow
The flow solver is an implicit code that uses a conservative finite volume formulation to solve the Reynolds Averaged NavierStokes (RANS) equations describing fluid flow. All elements you include in a flow solution must be 3D elements for which you assign the following fluid material properties.
Mass density Dynamic Viscosity Thermal conductivity and specific heat Coefficient of thermal expansion Gas constant
For coupled solutions, the solver automatically simulates convection for fluid elements that touch solid walls, or where you define Flow Surface simulation objects. Convection properties can be tailored where appropriate.
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[NX7.5 CAST]  THERMAL AND FLOW ANALYSIS Step Task 3. Define materials, physical properties, and thermooptical properties. Mesh the model and define mesh collectors to organize meshes and assign physical properties. 4. Associate all FEMs to their corresponding parts when using an assembly FEM. Define solution options and solver parameters. 5. Define loads, constraints, and other special boundary conditions. Solve and review solution messages. Review and display results using postprocessing tools. 6. Refresh results to obtain additional results sets. Simulation file (.sim) Advanced Simulation Advanced Simulation Simulation file (.sim)
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Application and file type Advanced Simulation FEM file (.fem) Advanced Simulation FEM file (.fem) Assembly FEM file (.afm)
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You can model the geometry of the fluid inside an assembly or a part with a complex internal cavity. You can also model multiple fluids in a single model, provided no mixing takes place. You can create a fluid volume using one of these methods:
Define a sketch representing the 2D shape of a regular fluid volume and then Extrude and/or Revolve the sketch. Use this technique if you know the shape and dimensions of the fluid volume. Use Boolean operations to create the fluid volumes. You create a solid representing the enclosed space and select the Unite, Subtract, or Intersect to modify the shape of the volume based on the intersecting solid component geometry. Use this technique if you want to create this fluid volume for single use in an analysis and if you are not interested in maintaining links for geometry updates. Create the enclosed fluid volume as a separate part file and component in your assembly file structure using the WAVE Geometry Linker command. This command copies an instance of the geometry of the inner volume and the components from the assembly part file. You then modify the contour to represent the fluid volume by using the Delete Face command (on the Synchronous Modeling toolbar). Use this technique if you want to maintain a link to the geometry of assembly components to allow for geometry updates.
Physical properties define characteristics of your part that are not being explicitly modeled. Use the properties in the Physical Properties Manager dialog box to describe the physical qualities and characteristics of an element, such as thickness, layer stack definition, and others. You can define physical properties to specify:
A spherical Concentrated Mass with a diameter and mass that you specify for 0D elements. For example, you can model the effect of rivets in a riveted plate under thermal loads by creating 0D elements at the appropriate locations and then assigning a concentrated mass to them. You can also use 0D elements to model the mass of liquid inside a soda can without modeling the liquid volume as a 3D mesh. A linear uniformly varying NonStructural Mass in Mass per Length units, for 1D Beam elements. Use this to add additional capacitance to 1D elements. A Thickness value, or a NonStructural Mass value in mass per area units, for Thin Shell collectors of 2D Shell elements. Use the NonStructural Mass to add weight without Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
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explicitly modeling geometry and meshing elements for it. For example, material inserts and surface coatings. A Layer Definition for a MultiLayer Shell Uniform collector type definition for 2D shell elements, in which you specify the Total Thickness and the Number of Layers. Use this property to model multiple layers with detailed throughplane conduction and conduction.
A layer Stack Definition for a MultiLayer Shell NonUniform collector type definition for 2D shell elements, in which you define a layer stack with multiple Layer modeling objects. Each layer can have defined different materials, thickness, and thermooptical properties. Use this property to model conductive or radiative heat transfer through the physical layers of a sandwich material construction. For example, you can use MultiLayer Shell NonUniform to model accurate heat transfer through composite materials.
When you define a physical property in the active FEM file, you assign it to a mesh collector. The meshes and their elements are assigned to the mesh collector inherit those physical properties.
Modeling objects
Use modeling objects to define particular properties for specific entities or for the whole model. You can create or modify modeling objects from the Modeling Objects Manager simulation objects, loads, and constraint dialog boxes. Some NX Electronic Systems Cooling modeling objects include:
External Conditions Fan Speed Controller NonNewtonian Fluid Planer Head Loss Scalar
Temperature Convection to
Lets you specify a known temperature for the geometry or elements that you select, regardless of heat flow. This temperature can be constant, time varying, or spatially distributed. Implicitly models natural and forced convection based on a heat transfer Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
[NX7.5 CAST]  THERMAL AND FLOW ANALYSIS Boundary condition Environment Description coefficient or standard correlation.
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You specify the known heat Convection Coefficient value or the Correlation and the Characteristic Information. Simple Radiation to Environment You can specify a value for Emissivity and View Factor from zero to one. Flow Boundary Condition For more information on all simulation objects see the Advanced Simulation online help. Boundary Conditions Solver Specific Simulation Objects Solver Specific Simulation Objects NX Thermal and Flow, NX Electronic Systems Cooling, and NX Space Systems Thermal . Models flow boundary conditions, like inlet, outlet, opening, internal, and recirculation fans. Models areadependent radiation of surfaces with known emissivities and view factors to a radiative environment temperature.
Heat transfer between the surfaces of solid objects or components that are physically or thermally in contact. Create generalized conductances defined by a coefficient.
The use of thermal couplings can ease meshing tasks and reduce model size and complexity during the solution. Heat paths can be modeled within the model defining:
Conduction and radiation for a perfect contact using a SurfacetoSurface Contact simulation object. Convection using a Thermal Coupling Convection simulation object.
One way or userspecified conduction using a Thermal Coupling Advanced simulation object.
A complete description on how to manually calculate thermal coupling values is available in the online help.
Conducting heat paths
You usually create a Thermal Coupling between parallel surfaces. If you create thermal couplings between nonparallel surfaces and edges, you introduce inaccuracies. The farther the two surfaces are from parallel, the greater the inaccuracy. Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
[NX7.5 CAST]  THERMAL AND FLOW ANALYSIS You define thermal couplings between:
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The faces of 3D meshed bodies Faces meshed with 2D elements Polygon edges or curves meshed with 1D elements Points meshed with 0D elements.
Most geometry/mesh combinations are supported. The software uses the area of the primary region and the direction of the surfaces normals to calculate the magnitude of the heat path, as shown in the table. Select Face of polygon body meshed with 3D elements Polygon face meshed with 2D elements Heat Transfer Calculation Area Polygon face surface area Polygon face surface area
Curve or polygon edge meshed with 1D Length of polygon edge x perimeter of the associated beam elements cross section Mesh point meshed with 0D element
Radiating heat paths
The Thermal Coupling Radiation simulation object models simple radiation between close parallel surfaces, or between objects at great distances. It does this by creating radiative heat paths (radiative conductances) between elements with view factors greater than 0. The Thermal Coupling Radiation simulation object calculates radiative heat transfer q: q= x GBVF x 1 x A1 (T12 + T22) (T1 +T2) You define either of the following:
Element emissivities Gray Body View Factor Effective Emissivity (Emissivity * Gray Body View Factor)
Where
is the StefanBoltzmann constant. GBVF is the specified gray body view factor. 1 is the emissivity of the primary elements. A1 is the area of overlap of the primary element with the secondary element. T1 is the absolute temperature of the primary elements. T2 is the absolute temperature of the secondary elements.
NX meshing tools in the FEM file. Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
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A Fluid Domain
simulation object.
Within the same model, you can combine both approaches to mesh adjacent fluid volumes. The flow solver automatically connects adjacent fluid volumes when their polygon bodies share faces. When you use the Fluid Domain simulation object:
The solver automatically detects solid bodies that are not part of the fluid domain but obstruct the flow and meshes around them. The solver automatically detects any changes to the arrangement of obstructions in the overall volume when you resolve and accounts for them You can create boundary layer meshes. Boundary layer meshes are inherently more accurate when modeling boundary layer effects.
The Fluid Mesh type defines a mesh for general fluid volumes. The Fluid Surface Mesh type lets you modify a Fluid Domain mesh by defining the surface mesh size and boundary layer mesh parameters.
You cannot view a Fluid Domain mesh in the simulation or FEM file automatically or change its display properties during flow model creation. However, you can inspect the Fluid Domain mesh in the PostProcessing Navigator by reviewing:
Element size Element skewness Element aspect ratio Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
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Devices that move the fluid, such as fans or pumps. The known movement of the entire model through a stationary fluid. An example is the analysis of air flowing around a moving object. Openings in the boundary of the fluid domain through which fluid enters or exits at a specified pressure, such as a vent or other passive opening.
To obtain good results, you must specify a sufficiently dense 3D flow mesh adjoining a Flow Boundary Condition. For accurate modeling, the solver needs at least three fluid elements across the face of any flow boundary condition. The following are the basic Flow Boundary Condition types:
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Inlet / Outlet
Models the flow of fluids in or out of the flow domain at a known rate. The boundary condition must lie on the free faces of models.
Opening
Models openings that allow fluid to flow into or out of the flow domain. The direction of the flow is determined by to the solution. The boundary condition must lie on the free faces of models.
Opening faces adjacent to free faces of 3D fluid elements
Internal Fan
Models a fan inside a flow domain where an outlet direction must be specified. The boundary condition must lie in an internal face with matching nodes on either sides. Ensure this by using mesh matting conditions on these faces.
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Recirculation Loop
Models the extraction and the subsequent return of fluid from and to the flow model. The boundary condition must lie on the free faces of models.
Extract face and return face lying on the free faces of fluid elements Other flow boundary conditions
You can also use other flow boundary conditions to model special scenarios in your model: Boundary condition Moving Frame of Reference For example you can use this simulation object to model rotating fans. Lets you interface two or more fluid regions with different flow conditions. Mixing Plane For example, you can use a Mixing Plane simulation object when you want to interface a rotating flow region with a non rotating flow region. Particle Injection Screen Supersonic Inlet Lets you define a plane about which a fluid volume is symmetrical. Symmetry Plane Lets you track the location of particles injected to the fluid with specific size and mass properties. Lets you model two dimensional openings that direct and impede the fluid flow from moving within the fluid domain. Lets you model the fluid entering the domain at velocities over Mach 1. Description Lets you model the effect of rotating machinery or watercraft on the surrounding fluid.
9. Flow surfaces
You define a Flow Surface
3D obstructions in a fluid volume using a simplified 2D geometry representation of the original part. Specific wall function characteristics. Specific convection properties. Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
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For the selected faces, a Flow Surface overrides the default Friction and Convection Parameters options on the 3D Flow tab in the Solution dialog box. When you solve the model, the solver:
Establishes heat paths (conductances) from the surfaces and obstructions to adjacent 3D fluid elements. Opens the 3D flow mesh at the embedded Flow Surface, and models friction on both sides of the Flow Surface.
Temperature sectioned contours of a shell mesh. The shell models a heatsink inside a fluid domain.
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Articulation
You can account for the motion of a spacecraft's moveable appendages, such as solar panels, antennas, robotic systems, and optical platforms, in your thermal model to provide an accurate picture of the heating cycles. Use an Articulation simulation object to model the transient thermal effects of the movement of selected elements in the model. The thermal solver uses the displacements of the articulation sequence to calculate:
Timevarying radiative conductances View factors at each location Heat loads (including radiative and solar heating) Varying conductances of thermal couplings Shadowing of elements
To define the movement of the selected elements in your model, you use an Articulation simulation object in conjunction with:
A Joint type modeling object to model the translation or rotation of the moving elements. Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
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A JointOrbital Tracker type modeling object to link the rotation of the moving elements to defined orbits.
Options in the Articulation Parameters group on the Transient Setup tab of the Solution dialog box let you control the start and end times for the articulation as well as the calculation interval. You can also choose to match the orbital start and end times and calculation interval that you may have previously defined. You can view an animated display or the articulating motion in postprocessing. The animated model accurately displays all the rotations and translations of its articulated parts, including compound articulations.
Boundary condition Duct Flow Boundary Conditions Joule Heating Peltier Cooler
Description Lets you model duct flow networks such as pipes and HVAC systems. Lets you model the heating generated due in an electrical circuit defining a currents and voltages. Lets you model the effect of a thermo electrical cooler generated by a current or a voltage.
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Solution options
You can set simulation options in the Solution dialog box. The most commonly used settings are located on the Solution Details and the Ambient Conditions tabs. You should always review the settings on the other tabs when they apply to the model you are solving. For steady state solutions setting expected values for the solution on the Initial Conditions tab may save analysis time.
For a transient analysis, you must specify a Start Time and an End Time in the Transient Setup tab, and review the other settings. You can set global initial boundary conditions in the Initial Conditions tab. For a 3D flow analysis with complex flow, settings on the 3D Flow tab can improve meshing, accuracy, and convergence. For a large model, deselecting the options for unneeded results types on the Results Options tab can improve processing time and reduce the size of the results file.
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The flow solver uses the ReynoldsAveraged Navier Stokes (RANS) methods to solve for turbulence. You set the Turbulence Model for your flow analysis on the Solution Details page of the Solution dialog box. In the flow solver, you have the following options to model turbulence:
Fixed Viscosity
Defines uniform turbulence levels throughout the model, therefore it can be inaccurate and should only be used for an initial study.
Mixing Length
Ideal for validated applications or quick initial analyses during early design stages.

It is widely used in the industry, and is more accurate than the Fixed Viscosity or Mixing Length models, however it must be used with wall functions. Not ideal for large pressure gradients, flow separation, or free shear flow.

Allows integration through the viscous sublayer. No wall functions are required. Better predicts large pressure gradients.
Shear Stress Transport (SST)
Is a combination of the  and the  models. It behaves as the  formulation in the inner parts of the boundary layer, and as a  model in the free stream. It is a better model for adverse pressure gradients and separating flow. This model is computationally expensive.
Refreshing results
After you run a solution you can request additional results sets not included in the Results Option tab of the Solution dialog box. In the Results Options tab expand the Control group, click on Refresh Results, and follow the instructions given by the interface.
Performing a restart
A steady state analysis has reached its iteration limit but has not converged yet. A transient analysis has been run and you wish to continue the analysis over a new end time. You have stopped a steady state or transient analysis and wish to continue the run.
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You want re run your model with different properties but want to reuse information already calculated. For example you want to change an object's emissivity but reuse previously calculated view factors.
To perform a simulation restart use the options available in the Restart tab of the Solution dialog box.
Solver Parameters
Use Solver Parameters to control time step, convergence, speed calculation time, or to adjust the solver for unusual modeling situations. For example you must set an appropriate time step for natural convection problems. After every solution, you should verify the convergence of the model. Review the message files for global heat balance and mass balance for flow problems. Investigate warnings and check the view factor sums for radiation problems.
Solving
An Information window displays model check results. The Analysis Job Monitor dialog box lists the solve status for single or multiple runs. The Solution Monitor displays all errors, warnings, and information messages from the module currently executing.
o
Click Inspect to scroll and check current solution status. These messages are also available after the solution is completed. Click Stop possible. to halt the current solution and discard the results. Restarting is not
Click Pause to stop solution and recover results for post processing. In complex models pause the solution to inspect the results after a few iterations, verify its integrity, and continue the run. Continue the solve using the Restart tab at the Solution dialog box.
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Mapping overview
NX Electronic Systems Cooling allows results transfer from a source model to another solver.
Temperature mapping
Temperature mapping creates associations between the element's centroid on the thermal model to the closest element on the target model. If the nodes do not match, temperatures are interpolated using the element's CG.
Flow forces mapping
Flow mapping associates the face of the fluid element source model to the closest nodes on the target model. Static pressure and shear stress results are mapped to vector forces generated by the fluid on the surface of the target model. Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
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The FEM global coordinate system from target model must be the same as in the source model. Both models should be geometrically congruent but do not need to have the same mesh. Mapped temperatures or flow forces are written in a result file (*.bun).
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Suggested activity
In this activity, you analyze the effects of componentinduced thermal loads on a computer power supply with printed circuit board assemblies. The activity also simulates the effect of a forcedair cooling system on the power supply and its thermal interaction with the electronic components.
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Boundary conditions, modeling, and simulation objects To specify orbits, articulations, loads, constraints, and other objects that characterize a specific portion of the model. Although assigned to geometric features of the model (points, edges, faces, or solid bodies), boundary conditions are ultimately applied to the elements by the solver. Solution definition tools To set controls and specify solver parameters that govern the entire model. They are always applied to the solution as a whole, not to specific elements or geometry.
To change geometry, access the idealized part using the Part Navigator and the Modeling application. A part update applies the change to the idealized part and marks the mesh for update. With NX Space Systems Thermal you can also create a mesh with no underlaying geometry using Primitives. Mesh changes in the Finite Element model (FEM) are automatically propagated to the Simulation. You can override the mesh collector properties, defined in the FEM file, by using Edit Attributes Overrides, or an Override Set simulation object in in the Simulation file. You can access and modify any simulation entity using the Simulation Navigator. Selecting an object highlights the corresponding elements or graphics symbols in the graphics window. You can also copy or clone any boundary condition or solution.
Modeling the space thermal environment
With the commands available in NX Space Systems Thermal, you can define the:
Orbit, attitude, and articulations of a spacecraft. Orbital maneuvers. The celestial body being orbited or specify a body with particular conditions.
The software:
Creates an explicit model of the celestial body to calculate radiative heating for each element in the spacecraft. Uses the view factors (calculated when you define a Radiation simulation object) to determine the distribution and absorption of radiative flux. Models eclipses by controlling the direct solar incidence. Heating effects due to planet radiation is still considered. Models the specular and transmissive effects for different spectra. Computes element shadowing to an accuracy that you specify.
After you define the orbit you can use the Orbit Visualizer command to display an animation of the spacecraft in the simulated orbit. You can define multiple orbital maneuvers (slews) or different orbit sections in the same simulation, however in the Orbit Visualizer only the parent orbit will be displayed. You define orbital maneuvers by defining one parent orbit and multiple child orbits. You must ensure that the orbit sections of each orbit match in time and space.
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Modeling conduction
The thermal solver uses a finite volume formulation for modeling heat conduction between elements that share nodes, provided that:
Thermal conductivity and specific heat properties are defined for the elements. Specific heat is required only for transient analyses. 2D elements have thickness physical property defined. 1D elements have a beam section defined. 0D elements have a mass and diameter defined.
Modeling convection
You can model convection implicitly using boundary conditions provided that you define a Convection to Environment constraint on:
Faces of 3D solids 2D elements 1D elements with cross area defined 0D elements with diameter defined
Use this option when you know either the Convection Coefficient or Parameter and Exponent and the fluid temperature.
Free Convection to Environment
Use this option when you want to use a specific free convection correlation (example: hot air rising).
Forced Convection to Environment
Use this option when you want to use a specific forced convection correlation (example: fans).
Both in transient and steady state solves, the solver calculates a single convection coefficient value for the entire convecting surface based on the characteristic information you specify.
Modeling radiation
The software simulates radiation based on view factors between radiating elements. The solver calculates black body view factors between all radiation elements. To calculate radiative Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
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conductances, it combines these factors with thermooptical properties, which you define for every radiating element. For surfaces that do not obey the gray body approximation, raytraced view factors can be calculated instead of black body view factors. You can calculate radiation between surfaces defined by:
Faces of 3D solid elements. The top and/or bottom of 2D shell elements based on the orientation of the element normals that you specify. The implied surface of 1D beam elements based on the section properties you define. The implied surface of 0D concentrated mass elements based on the diameters you specify.
If you want an element or group of elements to participate in radiation exchange, you must apply ThermoOptical Properties and define a Radiation simulation object to calculate view factors between these elements.
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Mesh the model and define mesh collectors to organize meshes and assign physical properties. Advanced Simulation 4. Use mesh primitives to define a simplified model with no underlying geometry (using Insert Primitive). Associate all FEMs to their corresponding parts when using an assembly FEM. Define solution options and solver parameters. 5. Define loads, constraints, and other special boundary conditions. Solve and review solution messages. Review and display results using postprocessing tools. 6. Refresh results to obtain additional results sets. Simulation file (.sim) Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5 Advanced Simulation Advanced Simulation Simulation file (.sim) FEM file (.fem) Assembly FEM file (.afm)
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On geometry created in the Modeling application or imported from other CAD modeling packages. Using primitives in the FEM file to create structured 2D or 3D meshes based on a simple geometric form type. You must specify the size, location, and orientation based on an associated coordinate system, and mesh density of the elements.
Points Allow you to specify threedimensional coordinates to define key points to provide the shape information of the primitive. Parameters Allow you to define the primitive in relation to the X, Y, and Zaxes of a coordinate system using angular and linear values.
You can position the primitive with respect to the global coordinate system by translating or rotating the primitive's origin. You can define a primitive mesh and define a mesh collector to assign material, physical, and thermooptical properties to it. Alternatively, you can define a mesh collector first and then assign the primitive mesh you create to it. When you create a primitive with 2D elements, the top side of each 2D element faces a specific direction by default, depending on the type of primitive.
With threedimensional primitives, such as the Box Primitive or Sphere Primitive, the top sides of the associated 2D elements face outward, away from the primitive. With twodimensional primitives, such as the Rectangle Primitive or Disc Primitive that you create by specifying parameters, the top sides of the associated 2D elements face the +Z direction. With twodimensional primitives, such as the Rectangle Primitive or Disc Primitive, that you create by selecting points, the top sides of the associated 2D elements are determined by the right hand rule, using the sequence P1, P2, P3 to define a rotation.
Note 3D elements have no top or bottom side, so the rules do not apply to primitives created with these elements (example: Solid Brick Primitive, Solid Cylinder Primitive).
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Physical properties define characteristics of your part that are not being explicitly modeled. Use the properties in the Physical Properties Manager dialog box to describe the physical qualities and characteristics of an element, such as thickness, layer stack definition, and others. You can define physical properties to specify:
A spherical Concentrated Mass with a diameter and mass that you specify for 0D elements. For example, you can model the effect of rivets in a riveted plate under thermal loads by creating 0D elements at the appropriate locations and then assigning a concentrated mass to them. You can also use 0D elements to model the mass of liquid inside a soda can without modeling the liquid volume as a 3D mesh. A linear uniformly varying NonStructural Mass in Mass per Length units, for 1D Beam elements. Use this to add additional capacitance to 1D elements. A Thickness value, or a NonStructural Mass value in mass per area units, for Thin Shell collectors of 2D Shell elements. Use the NonStructural Mass to add weight without explicitly modeling geometry and meshing elements for it. For example, material inserts and surface coatings. A Layer Definition for a MultiLayer Shell Uniform collector type definition for 2D shell elements, in which you specify the Total Thickness and the Number of Layers. Use this property to model multiple layers with detailed throughplane conduction and conduction.
A layer Stack Definition for a MultiLayer Shell NonUniform collector type definition for 2D shell elements, in which you define a layer stack with multiple Layer modeling objects. Each layer can have defined different materials, thickness, and thermooptical properties. Use this property to model conductive or radiative heat transfer through the physical layers of a sandwich material construction. For example, you can use MultiLayer Shell NonUniform to model accurate heat transfer through MultiLayer Insulation (MLI) material used to cover spacecraft.
When you define a physical property in the active FEM file, you assign it to a mesh collector. The meshes and their elements are assigned to the mesh collector inherit those physical properties.
Modeling objects
Use modeling objects to define particular properties for specific entities or for the whole model. You can create or modify modeling objects from the Modeling Objects Manager simulation objects, loads, and constraint dialog boxes. Some NX Space Systems Thermal modeling objects include:
AblationCharing Active Heater Controller Duct Head Loss Joint Joint Orbital Tracker Layer Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
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Monte Carlo Settings Orbit ThermoOptical Properties / ThermoOptical Properties Advanced Thermostat
Thermooptical properties
Use the ThermoOptical Properties or ThermoOptical Properties Advanced modeling objects to define Emissivity, which is required for all radiation modeling. Absorptivity is required to model radiative heat transfer in the solar band. To model specular and transmissive effects, you can also define a ThermoOptical Properties Advanced modeling object with values for:
You can model radiation in different bands defining corresponding thermooptical properties in a ThermoOptical Properties Advanced modeling object, and choosing one of the following two types:
Select Gray to define constant or temperature varying values for infrared Emissivity and a value for Absorptivity when want to define properties in the solar spectrum. Select NonGray Wavelength Dependent to define wavelength dependent values of nongray Emissivity, Specular Reflectivity and Transmissivity.
Emissivity and absorptivity values can be constant or defined in function of a Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF). Specular Reflectivity and Transmissivity can be defined in terms of direction of incidence and angle of incidence.
Note
When you define ThermoOptical Properties or ThermoOptical Properties Advanced for a 2D mesh, you should always first check the element normals to identify the top and bottom sides of the mesh.
Temperature
Lets you specify a known temperature for the geometry or elements that you select, regardless of heat flow. This temperature can be constant, time Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
[NX7.5 CAST]  THERMAL AND FLOW ANALYSIS Boundary condition Description varying, or spatially distributed. Simple Radiation to Environment
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Models areadependent radiation of surfaces with known emissivities and view factors to a radiative environment temperature. You can specify a value for Emissivity and View Factor from zero to one.
For more information on all simulation objects see the Advanced Simulation online help. Boundary Conditions Solver Specific Simulation Objects Solver Specific Simulation Objects NX Thermal and Flow, NX Electronic Systems Cooling, and NX Space Systems Thermal .
Heat transfer between the surfaces of solid objects or components that are physically or thermally in contact. Create generalized conductances defined by a coefficient.
The use of thermal couplings can ease meshing tasks and reduce model size and complexity during the solution. Heat paths can be modeled within the model defining:
Conduction and radiation for a perfect contact using a SurfacetoSurface Contact simulation object. Convection using a Thermal Coupling Convection simulation object.
One way or userspecified conduction using a Thermal Coupling Advanced simulation object.
A complete description on how to manually calculate thermal coupling values is available in the online help.
Conducting heat paths
You usually create a Thermal Coupling between parallel surfaces. If you create thermal couplings between nonparallel surfaces and edges, you introduce inaccuracies. The farther the two surfaces are from parallel, the greater the inaccuracy. You define thermal couplings between:
The faces of 3D meshed bodies Faces meshed with 2D elements Polygon edges or curves meshed with 1D elements Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
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Most geometry/mesh combinations are supported. The software uses the area of the primary region and the direction of the surfaces normals to calculate the magnitude of the heat path, as shown in the table. Select Face of polygon body meshed with 3D elements Polygon face meshed with 2D elements Heat Transfer Calculation Area Polygon face surface area Polygon face surface area
Curve or polygon edge meshed with 1D Length of polygon edge x perimeter of the associated beam elements cross section Mesh point meshed with 0D element
Radiating heat paths
The Thermal Coupling Radiation simulation object models simple radiation between close parallel surfaces, or between objects at great distances. It does this by creating radiative heat paths (radiative conductances) between elements with view factors greater than 0. The Thermal Coupling Radiation simulation object calculates radiative heat transfer q: q= x GBVF x 1 x A1 (T12 + T22) (T1 +T2) You define either of the following:
Element emissivities Gray Body View Factor Effective Emissivity (Emissivity * Gray Body View Factor)
Where
is the StefanBoltzmann constant. GBVF is the specified gray body view factor. 1 is the emissivity of the primary elements. A1 is the area of overlap of the primary element with the secondary element. T1 is the absolute temperature of the primary elements. T2 is the absolute temperature of the secondary elements.
A view factor represents the fraction of radiative energy that is emitted from one entity and arrives to a second entity. The thermal solver uses view factors to compute radiative heat transfer. Two parallel surfaces in close proximity have a view factor that tends to unity. Two surfaces that are nearly coplanar have a view factor that tends to zero.
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An enclosure divides the space into compartments on which view factors for a radiation requests are calculated. View factor calculation is expensive in terms of machine resources, therefore defining radiation enclosures saves solution time. For radiation requests with transmissivity thermooptical properties defined, the solver will automatically track rays that go through elements. You can indicate that an enclosure radiates to ambient. In this case the solver will create radiative conductances from a point at a very large distance outside the model to elements of the enclosure visible to the point.
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2D mesh A ThermoOptical Properties: Top (blue arrows) Enclosure 1 Radiation heat is exchanged from:
2D mesh B ThermoOptical Properties: Top (blue arrows) and Bottom (green arrows) Enclosure 2
Heatsource 2D mesh A ThermoOptical Properties: Top (blue arrows) Enclosure 1 2D mesh B ThermoOptical Properties: Top (blue arrows) Enclosure 2
Radiation heat is exchanged only from the heatsource to mesh B because thermooptical properties are not defined on the bottom side of the 2D elements. To model radiation to environment the elements of mesh A must have bottom thermooptical properties.
Heatsource
Radiation simulation object
Use a Radiation simulation object to create view factor calculation requests for enclosures comprised of selected geometry or elements. To simulate radiation exchange you must define:
Entities with ThermoOptical Properties with a specified value for emissivity and/or absorptivity. A Radiation simulation object. You can create one of these types of radiation requests: o All Radiation to let the thermal solver detect enclosures. o Enclosure Radiation where you define the relevant enclosures by selecting entities with the top and/or bottom thermooptical properties defined.
The solver can use one of these techniques as the black body view factor calculation method:
Hemicube Rendering This technique uses your computer's graphics card to calculate view factors quickly and accurately. You can only use this option if your computer's graphics card supports the Open Graphics Library (OGL) standard.
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Deterministic This is an analytical approach that uses a ray casting algorithm, which calculates the black body view factors based on the mathematical definition of view factor or form factor. Monte Carlo This technique determines view factors as part of the radiative exchange calculation. It uses a ray casting algorithm with statistical sampling to evaluate the radiative exchange in an enclosure. This technique is useful when: o You want to model the effect of partial illumination of elements. o You define bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) and scattering coefficients in the ThermoOptical Properties Advanced modeling object that you have assigned to a mesh collector to model diffuse reflection and transmission.
Specular reflection is the perfect reflection of radiation from a surface, in which a ray from a single incoming direction is reflected into a single outgoing direction. The law of reflection describes such behavior. Specular reflections are not included in radiation interchange unless you specifically request them. To include specular reflections you must:
Define values for Specular Reflectivity and Transmissivity in the ThermoOptical Properties Advanced modeling object that you define and assign to your specular surface. Clear the Ignore specular and transparent effects for radiation request calculations check box in the Radiation Parameters page of the Solver Parameters dialog box.
Define a ThermoOptical Properties Advanced modeling object, for all elements on which you define an Orbital Heating simulation object. You must specify a value for Absorptivity under the Solar Properties group of the ThermoOptical Properties Advanced dialog box. Define an Orbit modeling object, and any necessary articulations.
Tip To preview a defined orbit prior to solving the model, click Display in the Orbital Heating dialog box. To read a text summary of the defined orbital heating simulation object, click Information.
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9. Defining orbits
Use an Orbit modeling object to define the orbit, calculation positions, spacecraft attitude, sun, and planet characteristics. Use an Orbit modeling object in conjunction with an Orbital Heating simulation object to simulate the thermal effects of an orbit.
Orbital parameters
The options on the Orbit Parameters tab let you define the orbital parameters or select a predefined orbit.
For the Geostationary and Geosynchronous orbit types, the Orbit Parameters tab is inactive. This is because only one geostationary or geosynchronous orbit is defined for each planet. For Planet Earth, some special classical Orbit Types are already partially defined: o Sunsynchronous o Shuttle o Molniya
The options on the Sun Planet Characteristics tab let you define the planet size, period, gravity, and Albedo fluxes for the planet. The options also define the time of year and solar flux. The software provides reasonable default values for the selected planet. Solar flux values should always be verified.
Spacecraft orientation
To define spacecraft orientation you must define two nonparallel vectors on the model. Associate the vectors with two spatial direction options selected from the Aim at list and the Align with lists in the Orientation Options group on the Spacecraft Attitude tab. During the orbital simulation, the solver adjusts spacecraft orientation at each calculation position. If you are modeling a spacecraft that spins to control attitude, you can specify this by defining Rotation Parameters and/or Spinning Parameters on the Spacecraft Attitude tab. Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
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Whether the orbit you are specifying is a Full Orbit or a Partial Orbit. The angular interval between two calculation points.
The solver calculates black body, solar, earth and Albedo view factors and resulting heat loads at each calculation position on the orbit. All calculation positions are referenced from the start angle, the spacecraft position at the beginning of the transient analysis. Regardless of any intermediate calculations you specify, the software calculates results at both the initial position of the spacecraft and the last defined position of the spacecraft. These two calculation positions are respectively 0 and 360 from the start angle for a full orbit, or the start angle and the end angle for a partial orbit. The software defines four additional calculation positions when solving orbits with eclipse. Two are located at the start of the eclipse region and two at its end to capture the rapid heat flux variation that occurs in these regions.
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Solar heating
Use a Solar Heating Space simulation object to model heating of objects on the surface of a planet due to sun incidence. This command calculates direct solar view factors for selected elements at a fixed sun position or at calculation points along the sun's trajectory. Solar view factors are the direct view of an element to the solar source, which is treated as a distant point source. You can model multiple solar sources to simulate multidirectional heating of elements in a multistar system. Solar Heating Space is useful, for example, for modeling the thermal effects of the sun on exterior equipment, buildings, and installations. To define a Solar Heating Space simulation object:
Define a ThermoOptical Properties Advanced modeling object with a value for Absorptivity under the Solar Properties group, for all elements included in the Solar Heating simulation object.
Note
To specify a value for Absorptivity under the Solar Properties group, you must select the Define Solar Properties (radiative source spectrum) check box in the ThermoOptical Properties Advanced dialog box.
Create a Radiation simulation object that includes all affected elements to account for the radiative heat that is diffusely reflected to and from the elements.
The options on the Model Orientation tab of the Solar Heating Space dialog box let you position the model in relation to the sun to determine how the sun strikes it. The options available in this tab depend on the method you select from the Orientation Method list. Some examples inlcude: Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
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Latitude The options in the Planet Vectors and Solar Vectors group let you define two vectors to orient the model in relation to the Earth or selected planet. These two vectors cannot be parallel to each other. Often, they are perpendicular to each other. Sun Planet Vectors You can use Specify Field to specify a series of time varying vectors to model the position of the sun with respect to the global coordinate system by specifying point sets in Cartesian or Spherical coordinates.
Radiative Heating
You define a Radiative Heating simulation object to model the radiative thermal effects of heat sources such as electrical heater elements, engine and exhaust systems, lasers, or any object in the model that emits significant and known quantities of radiative energy. Create a Radiative Heating simulation object to define selected elements in your model as diffusely or collimated radiating heat sources. The software then calculates the direct heat flux view factors to other elements per heat source that you define. With Radiative Heating:
You can define the energy to radiate in solar, infrared, or any other spectral distribution. You can define a spectral distribution of the energy by specifying the Source Temperature of the emitting surfaces or by specifying intensity, expressed as a fraction of the entire energy emitted, as a function of wavelength. Diffuse reflection and absorption of the incident radiative energy throughout the enclosure is automatically computed, provided that you also create a Radiation simulation object. Ray tracing is used for specular or transmissive surfaces. Heat flux view factors are calculated from the radiative source elements to the elements of the illuminated objects. If any of the illuminated elements have specular or diffuse properties, rays will be traced from those elements. Diffuse reflections are also computed from the illuminated elements, provided you also create an Enclosure Radiation type of Radiation simulation object.
For loads applied to 2D or 1D geometry, you can specify how the load varies spatially over the area of the 2D geometry or length of the 1D geometry.
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Articulation
You can account for the motion of a parts in your assembly, such as solar panels, antennas, robotic systems, and optical platforms, in your thermal model to provide an accurate picture of the heating cycles. Use an Articulation simulation object to model the transient thermal effects of the movement of selected elements in the model. The thermal solver uses the displacements of the articulation sequence to calculate:
Timevarying radiative conductances View factors at each location Heat loads (including radiative and solar heating) Varying conductances of thermal couplings Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
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Shadowing of elements
To define the movement of the selected elements in your model, you use an Articulation simulation object in conjunction with:
A Joint type modeling object to model the translation or rotation of the moving elements. A JointOrbital Tracker type modeling object to link the rotation of the moving elements to defined orbits.
Options in the Articulation Parameters group on the Transient Setup tab of the Solution dialog box let you control the start and end times for the articulation as well as the calculation interval. You can also choose to match the orbital start and end times and calculation interval that you may have previously defined. You can view an animated display or the articulating motion in postprocessing. The animated model accurately displays all the rotations and translations of its articulated parts, including compound articulations.
Boundary condition Duct Flow Boundary Conditions Joule Heating Peltier Cooler
Description Lets you model duct flow networks such as pipes and HVAC systems. Lets you model the heating generated due in an electrical circuit defining a currents and voltages. Lets you model the effect of a thermo electrical cooler generated by a current or a voltage.
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Solution options
You can set simulation options in the Solution dialog box. The most commonly used settings are located on the Solution Details and the Ambient Conditions tabs. You should always review the settings on the other tabs when they apply to the model you are solving. For steady state solutions setting expected values for the solution on the Initial Conditions tab may save analysis time.
For a transient analysis, you must specify a Start Time and an End Time in the Transient Setup tab, and review the other settings. You can set global initial boundary conditions in the Initial Conditions tab. Nguyn Th Quang Dng NXPLM 2011 11 5
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For orbital analysis, you can define a periodic convergence by specifying the End Time as Based on Cyclic Criterion or Based on Orbit Period.
For a large model, deselecting the options for unneeded results types on the Results Options tab can improve processing time and reduce the size of the results file.
Refreshing results
After you run a solution you can request additional results sets not included in the Results Option tab of the Solution dialog box. In the Results Options tab expand the Control group, click on Refresh Results, and follow the instructions given by the interface.
Performing a restart
A steady state analysis has reached its iteration limit but has not converged yet. A transient analysis has been run and you wish to continue the analysis over a new end time. You have stopped a steady state or transient analysis and wish to continue the run. You want re run your model with different properties but want to reuse information already calculated. For example you want to change an object's emissivity but reuse previously calculated view factors.
To perform a simulation restart use the options available in the Restart tab of the Solution dialog box.
Solver Parameters
Use Solver Parameters to control time step, convergence, speed calculation time, or to adjust the solver for unusual modeling situations. For example you must set an appropriate time step for natural convection problems. After every solution, you should verify the convergence of the model. Review the message files for global heat balance and mass balance for flow problems. Investigate warnings and check the view factor sums for radiation problems.
Solving
An Information window displays model check results. The Analysis Job Monitor dialog box lists the solve status for single or multiple runs. The Solution Monitor displays all errors, warnings, and information messages from the module currently executing.
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Click Inspect to scroll and check current solution status. These messages are also available after the solution is completed. Click Stop possible. to halt the current solution and discard the results. Restarting is not
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Click Pause to stop solution and recover results for post processing. In complex models pause the solution to inspect the results after a few iterations, verify its integrity, and continue the run. Continue the solve using the Restart tab at the Solution dialog box.
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Mapping overview
NX Space Systems Thermal allows results transfer from a source model to another solver.
Temperature mapping
Temperature mapping creates associations between the element's centroid on the thermal model to the closest element on the target model. If the nodes do not match, temperatures are interpolated using the element's CG.
General considerations
The FEM global coordinate system from target model must be the same as in the source model. Both models should be geometrically congruent but do not need to have the same mesh. Mapped temperatures are written in a result file (*.bun).
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Suggested activity
In this activity, you analyze transient thermal effects of orbital heating on a spacecraft. The model simulates a spacecraft in low Earth orbit exposed to direct solar heating, Earth IR and Albedo.
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Activities
1. Activity: Heat transfer analysis of an oven
Estimated time to complete: 1520 minutes You will learn how to:
[NX7.5 CAST]  THERMAL AND FLOW ANALYSIS Define the flow boundary conditions.
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Obtain the temperature results for a specific time step and set up an structural analysis in NX Nastran.
Contents
Thermal and Flow Analysis .............................................................................................................................. 1 Setup information ........................................................................................................................................ 1 NX Thermal analysis ......................................................................................................................................... 1 1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 1 Modifying the model.................................................................................................................................... 2 Modeling conduction ................................................................................................................................... 2 Modeling convection ................................................................................................................................... 2 Modeling radiation....................................................................................................................................... 3 2. 3. Workflow and file structure ..................................................................................................................... 3 Defining element and model properties.................................................................................................. 4 Physical properties ....................................................................................................................................... 4 Modeling objects ......................................................................................................................................... 5 Thermooptical properties ........................................................................................................................... 5 4. 5. Defining boundary conditions .................................................................................................................. 5 Defining thermal couplings ...................................................................................................................... 6 Conducting heat paths ................................................................................................................................. 7
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Radiating heat paths .................................................................................................................................... 7 6. About radiation enclosures and view factors .......................................................................................... 8 View Factors ................................................................................................................................................. 8 Enclosures .................................................................................................................................................... 8 Radiation simulation object ......................................................................................................................... 9 7. Solar and radiative heating .................................................................................................................... 10 Solar Heating .............................................................................................................................................. 10 Radiative Heating ....................................................................................................................................... 10 8. Other simulation objects........................................................................................................................ 11 Articulation ................................................................................................................................................ 11 Other simulation objects............................................................................................................................ 12 9. Solving the model .................................................................................................................................. 12 Solution options ......................................................................................................................................... 12 Refreshing results ...................................................................................................................................... 12 Performing a restart ................................................................................................................................... 12 Solver Parameters ...................................................................................................................................... 13 Solving ........................................................................................................................................................ 13 10. 11. Mapping overview ............................................................................................................................. 13 Suggested activity .............................................................................................................................. 14
NX Flow analysis ............................................................................................................................................ 14 1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 14 Modifying the model.................................................................................................................................. 15 Modeling fluid flow .................................................................................................................................... 15 2. 3. 4. Workflow and file structure ................................................................................................................... 15 Creating a fluid volume .......................................................................................................................... 16 Defining element and model properties................................................................................................ 17 Modeling objects ....................................................................................................................................... 17 5. 6. 7. Defining boundary conditions ................................................................................................................ 17 Fluid domain and fluid surface meshing ................................................................................................ 18 Flow boundary conditions...................................................................................................................... 19 Other flow boundary conditions ................................................................................................................ 21 8. 9. 10. Flow surfaces ......................................................................................................................................... 21 Flow blockages ....................................................................................................................................... 22 Solving the model .............................................................................................................................. 23
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Refreshing results ...................................................................................................................................... 24 Performing a restart ................................................................................................................................... 25 Solver Parameters ...................................................................................................................................... 25 Solving ........................................................................................................................................................ 25 11. 12. Mapping overview ............................................................................................................................. 25 Suggested activity .............................................................................................................................. 26
Electronic Systems Cooling and coupled thermal flow ................................................................................. 26 1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 26 Modifying the model.................................................................................................................................. 26 Modeling conduction ................................................................................................................................. 27 Modeling convection ................................................................................................................................. 27 Modeling radiation..................................................................................................................................... 28 Modeling fluid flow .................................................................................................................................... 28 2. 3. 4. Workflow and file structure ................................................................................................................... 28 Creating a fluid volume .......................................................................................................................... 29 Defining element and model properties................................................................................................ 30 Physical properties ..................................................................................................................................... 30 Modeling objects ....................................................................................................................................... 31 5. 6. Defining boundary conditions ................................................................................................................ 31 Defining thermal couplings .................................................................................................................... 32 Conducting heat paths ............................................................................................................................... 32 Radiating heat paths .................................................................................................................................. 33 7. 8. Fluid domain and fluid surface meshing ................................................................................................ 33 Flow boundary conditions...................................................................................................................... 35 Other flow boundary conditions ................................................................................................................ 37 9. 10. Flow surfaces ......................................................................................................................................... 37 Other simulation objects.................................................................................................................... 38
Articulation ................................................................................................................................................ 38 Other simulation objects............................................................................................................................ 39 11. Solving the model .............................................................................................................................. 39
Solution options ......................................................................................................................................... 39 Turbulence Models .................................................................................................................................... 40 Refreshing results ...................................................................................................................................... 40 Performing a restart ................................................................................................................................... 40 Solver Parameters ...................................................................................................................................... 41 Solving ........................................................................................................................................................ 41
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Space Systems Thermal ................................................................................................................................. 42 1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 42 Modifying the model.................................................................................................................................. 43 Modeling the space thermal environment ................................................................................................ 43 Modeling conduction ................................................................................................................................. 44 Modeling convection ................................................................................................................................. 44 Modeling radiation..................................................................................................................................... 44 2. 3. 4. Workflow and file structure ................................................................................................................... 45 Creating meshes using primitives volumes ............................................................................................ 46 Defining element and model properties................................................................................................ 46 Physical properties ..................................................................................................................................... 47 Modeling objects ....................................................................................................................................... 47 Thermooptical properties ......................................................................................................................... 48 5. 6. Defining boundary conditions ................................................................................................................ 48 Defining thermal couplings .................................................................................................................... 49 Conducting heat paths ............................................................................................................................... 49 Radiating heat paths .................................................................................................................................. 50 7. About radiation enclosures and view factors ........................................................................................ 50 View Factors ............................................................................................................................................... 50 Enclosures .................................................................................................................................................. 51 Radiation simulation object ....................................................................................................................... 52 8. 9. Defining orbital heating ......................................................................................................................... 53 Defining orbits........................................................................................................................................ 54 Orbital parameters..................................................................................................................................... 54 Sun planet characteristics .......................................................................................................................... 54 Spacecraft orientation ............................................................................................................................... 54 Spacecraft positions ................................................................................................................................... 55 10. Solar heating ...................................................................................................................................... 55
Solar Heating Space ................................................................................................................................... 55 Radiative Heating ....................................................................................................................................... 56 11. Other simulation objects.................................................................................................................... 56
Articulation ................................................................................................................................................ 56 Other simulation objects............................................................................................................................ 57 12. Solving the model .............................................................................................................................. 57
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Solution options ......................................................................................................................................... 57 Refreshing results ...................................................................................................................................... 58 Performing a restart................................................................................................................................... 58 Solver Parameters ...................................................................................................................................... 58 Solving ........................................................................................................................................................ 58 13. 14. Mapping overview ............................................................................................................................. 59 Suggested activity .............................................................................................................................. 59
Activities ........................................................................................................................................................ 60 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Activity: Heat transfer analysis of an oven ............................................................................................ 60 Activity: Flow analysis of a valve ............................................................................................................ 60 Activity: Coupled thermal and flow analysis of a power supply ............................................................ 61 Activity: Space Systems Thermal analysis .............................................................................................. 62 Activity: Mapping the heat distribution of an Ibeam on a structural analysis ..................................... 63