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Pipe#3

Covered in this lecture: 1. 2. 3. 4. Minor losses Equivalent Lengths Noncircular pipes Multiple pipe systems - series

Minor Losses S Losses due to entrances, expansions, bends, valves, fittings, etc. S

can be significant

S Caused by turbulence, flow separation S Denoted by h m or h lm = K V 2g where K (or Ke, Kc, Kb, KE, etc.) is determined experimentally for each fitting. Sudden Expansion V2 he = K 1 = 1 2g

2

D1 2 (D ) 2

V2 1 2g

in which D K = 1 - ( 1) 2 D2

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Sudden Contraction S The process of converting pressure to velocity (shown 1 to 0) is very efficient, the vena contracta is point 0 S The process of converting velocity back to pressure to is not as efficient (shown 0 to 2) 1 V1 0 2 V2

S Head loss is expressed in terms of V2 V2 hc = Kc 2 2g S Values are available in Tables S Entrance loss Ke from reservoir varies (0.78 reentrant, 0.5 for square- edged, to 0.04 for well rounded) S Exit loss to a reservoir is always KE = 1.0

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Equivalent Length The head loss through a component is expressed in terms of a length of pipe Le needed for the same head loss, so Le V2 hm = f D 2g Now if K = S? is in the section, and we know f and D, we can write L e = KD f Example: If all the minor loss add up to K = 20 in 5000 ft of line of 12 inch diameter line, and if f = 0.020, the equivalent length of the minor losses 20 (12 in 1 ft/12 in ) = 1000 ft L e = KD = 0.02 f So 5000 ft + 1000 ft = 6000 ft of pipe without the minor losses would have the same amount of head loss as the pipe section with the minor losses. Noncircular Pipes The D used in our equations is actually the hydraulic diameter, D h = 4A P where A is the area of the flow, and P is the wetted perimeter of the pipe section. For a circular pipe

D 4A = 4p 4 = D Dh = P 2p D/2

2

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Example: What are the Reynolds number, relative roughness, and head loss for 1000 ft for a 8 in by 1 ft rectangular cast iron pipe (e = 0.00085 ft carrying water (? = 1 x 10- 5 ft2/s) at 9 ft/s?

4(8/12 ft) 1 ft = 0.80 ft D h = 4A = P 2 (8/12 ft) + 2(1 ft) Using Dh as D VD = (9 ft/s)(0.80 ft) = 720, 000 Re = ? 1 10 - 5 ft 2/s Also use Dh for D in the calculation of relative roughness = 0.00085 ft = 0.001063 D 0.80 ft From Moody, f = 0.022, so 2 hf = f L V D 2g 1000 ft (9 ft/s) 2 h f = 0.022 = 34.6 ft 0.80 ft 2 32.2 ft/s 2

Pipeflow

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Example: If steel pipe with D=15 cm, Find i) the discharge through the pipe in the flowing figure for H = 10 m , and ii) determine the head loss H for Q = 60 l/s.

1

H=? Water at 20 deg C Square- edged entrance 12 m Standard Elbows Globe Valve

Q=?

30 m

60 m

Part i) Writing the energy equation between points 1 and 2, using 2 as the datum (z = 0) and including all losses

H+0+0 =

velocity head at 1 pressure head at 1 V 2 2 pressure head at 2

2g

+0+0+

elevation head at 2

2 1 V2

2 2g

+f

entrance loss

0.15 m 2g

friction loss

L = 30 + 12 + 60 m 102 m V 2 2

+ 2 0.9

V2 2 2g

+ 10

V2 2 2g

+ 1.0

V2 2 2g

elbow loss

valve loss

exit loss

5

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Pipe#3

So for ? = 1.01 m2/s, e/D = 0.0017, then Moody gives (2.63 m/s )(0.15m) = 391, 000 Re = 1.01 m 2/s For which f = 0.023. Repeating the procedure gives V2 = 2.60 m/s, Re = 380,000 and f = 0.023. The discharge is Q = V 2A 2 = (2.60 m/s)(p )(0.15 m) 2 = 0.0459 m 3/s = 45.9 l/s 4 Part ii) Q is known, solution is straightforward 0.06 m 3/s Q V2 = = = 3.40 m/s Re = 505, 000 f = 0.023 A (p /4)(0.15 m) 2 and V2 H = 2 (13.3 + 680 f ) 2g (3.4 m/s) 2 H= (13.3 + 680 0.023 ) = 17.06 m 2 9.8 m/s 2 Using equivalent lengths Using the technique of equivalent lengths, the value of f is approximated, say f = 0.022. The sum of minor losses is 13.3, and the kinetic energy at point 2 is considered a minor loss, so L e = KD = 13.3 0.15 = 90.7 m f 0.022 So the total pipe length is 30 m + 12 m + 60 m +90.7 m = 192.7 m. Solving for Part i) of the problem 2 192.7 m (V 2 m/s) 2 L + Le V2 10 m = f =f D 2g 0.15 m 2g m/s 2 If f = 0.022, V2 = 2.63 m/s, Re = 391,000, so from Moody new f = 0.023.

6

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If f = 0.023, V2 = 2.58, so Q = 45.6 l/s. S Normally it is not necessary to use the new f to improve Le, unless your first guess if f is very poor.

Pipeflow

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Multiple pipe systems When fluid flows from one pipe to another of a different diameter, it is considered as connected in series. A

H 2 1 Ke

Not to scale

In general two type of problems S H is desired for a Q, or S Q is desired for a given H Writing the energy equation from A to B including all minor losses

pressure head at A pressure head at B

H+ 0 + 0 =

velocity head at A

elevation head at B

+0

velocity head at B

V2 + Ke 1 2g

entrance loss

L1 V2 1 + f1 + D 1 2g

friction loss Pipe 1

V2 + K Exp 1 2g

Sudden Expansion

L2 V2 2 f2 D 2 2g

friction loss Pipe 2

V2 + K Exit 2 2g

Expansion

loss Pipe 1- 2

8

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Pipe#3

Using the continuity equation V1D1 = V2D2 to eliminate V2 from the above equation, along with our diameter calculation for Kexp = [1 - (D1/D2) 2 ]2 and setting Kexit = 1, we get V2 f L D f L D D H = 1 K e + 1 1 + [1 - ( 1) 2] 2 + 2 2 ( 1) 4 + ( 1) 4 D1 D2 D2 D2 D2 2g

For pipes of known lengths and sizes, we can reduce this to V2 H = 1 (C 1 + C 2 f 1 + C 3 f 2) 2g Where C1, C2, C3 are known. S With Q given, Re is computed and f read from Moody S With H given, V1, f1, f2 are unknown. Assume values, solve for V, compute estimate of Re, solve for f s, etc. Example: Suppose for our Figure, Ke = 0.5 L1 = 1000 ft D1 = 2 ft e1 = 0.005 ft L2 = 800 ft D2 = 3 ft e2 = 0.001 ft ? = 0.00001 ft2/s, H = 20 ft We get V2 H = 1 0.5 + f 1(1000) + (1 - (2) 2) 2 + f 2(800)(2) 4 + (2) 4 2g 2 3 3 3 3

Pipeflow

Pipe#3

S Now for e1/D1 = 0.0025, and e2/D2 = 0.00033, From the Flat part (complete turbulent) of Moody .f1 = 0.025 f2 = 0.015

Solving for V1, V1 = 9.49 ft/s, and so V2 = 4.21 ft/s, for which 9.49 ft/s 2 ft Re 1 = = 1, 898, 000 0.00001 ft 4.21 ft/s 3 ft Re 2 = = 1, 263, 000 0.00001 ft S With these values, from Moody .f1 = 0.025 So, V1 = 9.46 ft/s, so f2 = 0.016

Q = 9.46 ft/s p (2 ft) 2 = 29.8 cfs 4 Using Equivalent Pipes S Equivalent lengths can be used since two pipe systems are said to be equivalent when the same head loss produces the same discharge in both systems

Writing the head loss for the first pipe Q2 L1 f 1L 1 8Q 2 1 1 hf 1 = f1 = D 1 (D 2p /4) 22g D 5 p 2g 1 1

10

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Writing the head loss for the second pipe f 2L 2 8Q 2 2 hf 2 = D 5 p 2g 2 S For equvilent pipe, flow is equal, an the head loss is the same then: For the two to be equivalent pipes hf 1 = hf 2 Q1 = Q2

Setting hf1 = hf2, and simplifying f 2L 2 f 1L 1 = 5 D2 D5 1 Solving for L2 gives f D L 2 = L 1 1 ( 2) 5 f 2 D1 S This is the length of a second pipe to be equivalent to that of the first pipe Example: Replace 300 m of 25 cm pipe with an equivalent length of 15 cm pipe S Approximate values of f1 and f2, assuming complete turbulence If for this example f1 = 0.020 and f2 = 0.018, then 15 cm 5 L 2 = 300 m 0.020 = 25.9 m 0.018 25 cm S For the assumed conditions, 25.9 m of 15 cm pipe has the same head loss as 300 m of 25 cm pipe.

11

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Example: Solve the previous reservoir example using equivalent pipes S First express minor losses in terms of equivalent lengths, using f1 and f2 as fully turbulent For pipe 1

entrance expansion (2/3) 2] 2

= 0.809

1000 ft + 65 ft = 1065 ft of 2 ft diam. pipe 800 ft + 200 ft = 1000 ft of 3 ft diam. pipe Expressing the 3 ft diam. pipe in terms of 2 ft diam. pipe f D L e = L 2 = L 1 1 ( 2) 5 f2 D1 0.015 2 ft 5 = 79 ft Le = 1000 ft 0.025 3 ft By adding this to the 2 ft pipe, the problem is now equivalent to 1065 ft + 79 ft = 1144 ft of 2 ft diam. pipe So if e = 0.05 ft, and H = 20 ft, With f = 0.025, V = 9.5 ft/s, Re = 1,900,000. Converges, so Q =9.5p = 29.9 ft3/s

12

( )

Pipeflow

Pipe#3

H=f

1144 ft V 2 2 ft 2g

13

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