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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO AULA 2 TEXTO 1: Social Innovation: Good For You,

Good For Me Ethical Corporation, 10 April 2008 World Business Council for Sustainable Development Big firms are joining the queue to follow in Muhammad Yunus's footsteps by developing businesses designed to fix social ills. Muhammad Yunus has for more than 30 years challenged business leaders to find radical ways of creating new markets in poor countries. The Nobel Peace Prize winners latest book, explores how big companies can invest in external partners to develop products and services that will benefit the poor. Yunus outlines the concept of a "social business", which he defines as a "no loss, no dividend" company with social objectives. Social business ventures are set up by a "social entrepreneur", who combines the risk-taking of enterprise with an explicit mission to address urgent problems, such as access to healthcare, sanitation, education and so on. The new products and services that these inventive individuals devise are examples of "social innovation". Unlike charities, social businesses do not need to keep applying to governments or foundations for grants. They support themselves by selling goods and services at cost, or at a small profit - all of which is reinvested to fund their expansion. But to do this, social entrepreneurs must find investors willing to help take a new idea to scale. Now multinational companies are emerging as an important source of funding for social innovation. Big companies are looking for exciting and potentially lucrative new ways to meet their sustainability goals. The archetypal social business is Danone Grameen Foods, a joint venture set up two years ago between Yunus's own Grameen group and the French food and drink multinational Danone. The partners have developed an affordable, fortified yoghurt for poor children in Bangladesh. The yoghurt is high in calcium and other nutrients that children lack. It is cheap because it is produced locally, cutting down on expensive refrigeration. As a social business, Danone Grameen Foods measures its success in terms of "social dividend" or "social return on investment - its positive impact on the rate of market failure that it was set up to redress. In this case, the dividend and return are the improvement in child health in Bangladesh and the number of jobs its activities supports. The first yoghurt processing plant in Bogra will in 3 to 4 years support 1,600 jobs, while the company plans to build 50 plants over the next ten years. Investing in social entrepreneurs can boost a company's reputation for being responsible in a way that limits the risks of investing in new products, especially when these could take years to become commercially viable.
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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO Alternatively, big companies can buy up innovative firms that have already done the groundwork on products with social benefits and commercial potential. Dow Chemical, for example, in 2006 added three water purification 40 technologies to its Dow Water Solutions portfolio when it acquired Chinese firm Zhejiang Omex Environmental Engineering. Dow backs up this work with its sponsorship of Blue Planet Run, a non-profit group that raises money for clean drinking water projects in developing countries. One reason why partnerships between companies and social entrepreneurs 45 are yet to take off could be mutual ignorance of each other. "This is quite new territory for business," says International! Business Leaders' Forum director Ros Tennyson, who advises companies on partnerships. "Most do not know what the term 'social entrepreneurship' means." She says business must listen to social entrepreneurs "if it is to get beyond simply philanthropic funding of a 50 good idea". However, she adds, social entrepreneurs, too, must be flexible and understanding of companies. "They need to develop a genuine interest in business drivers and priorities in order to conduct purposeful and equitable conversations." [BNDES / TECNICO ADMINISTRATIVO 2008]
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1. The main purpose of this text is to A) introduce examples of highly prosperous industrial plants. B) explain the concept of social business and introduce its main characteristics. C) discuss the innovative water purification technologies developed in China. D) complain against Muhammed Yunus's idea of social innovation. E) describe how to increase jobs and put an end to famine in Bangladesh in four years. 2. It is NOT true that Muhammad Yunus A) was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts in improving the life of poor citizens through business ventures. B) is the archetype of an investor who is looking for high profits in exploring the poor. C) has long been devoted to social businesses in order to help poor communities in relevant areas as healthcare and education. D) has been a leader in creating innovative products or services for poor nations for more than three decades. E) wrote a book to explain how some companies can partner with larger corporations to produce goods or services that will help the needy.

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO 3. According to the text, social businesses A) have often small margins of earnings because they aim at making a positive impact on the social environment of the region invested in. B) have multinational companies as important partners to support potentially lucrative ways to explore social misery. C) need to be supported by grants or government funding to be able to survive. D) provide very costly products and services because the businessmen are only interested in material gains. E) should only be implemented in Asian countries, where the governments are incapable of providing the necessary access of poor citizens to healthcare, sanitation and education. 4. Danone Grameen Foods is a good example of social business because it A) produces yoghurt, which is children's favorite food, in assorted flavors. B) will soon employ millions of people living in Bogra and in other 50 Bangladeshi cities. C) opened an yoghurt processing plant in Bangladesh that will impact the nutritional needs of the children in the region. D) is showing positive results in the market and will soon pay dividends to the investors. E) was very successful in changing the official politics for adult healthcare in Bangladesh. 5. Ros Tennyson, International Business Leaders' Forum director, believes that A) the majority of businessmen are familiar with the term 'social entrepreneurship' but have refused to do business in this new territory. B) it is important to see social entrepreneurship exclusively as a means of philanthropy without any intention of earning profit. C) most social entrepreneurs are not ready to develop an interest in original business partnerships because they do not believe in new priorities. D) social businesses must only emerge in developing countries where no other companies exist, with the aim of developing the nation's economy. E) social entrepreneurs and investors should learn more about each other so as to establish fruitful partnerships. 6. Which option expresses an accurate relationship between the items? A) "address" (L-10) and deal with are antonyms. B) "expansion" (L-17) is the opposite of growth C) "looking for" (L-20) means the same as searching for. D) "affordable" (L-25) and expensive are synonymous. E) "cutting down on" (L-27) and reducing reflect contradictory ideas.
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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO 7. The boldfaced item introduces a purpose in A) "Unlike charities, social businesses do not need to keep applying to governments or foundations for grants." (L-14/15) B) "But to do this, social entrepreneurs must find investors willing to help take a new idea to scale." (L-17/18) C) "It is cheap because it is produced locally, cutting down on expensive refrigeration." (L-26/28) D) "Alternatively, big companies can buy up innovative firms that have already done the groundwork on products with social benefits and commercial potential." (L-40/41) E) "They need to develop a genuine interest in business drivers and priorities in order to conduct purposeful! And equitable conversations." (L-56/58) 8. Mark the sentence in which "take off' has the same meaning as in "One reason why partnerships between companies and social entrepreneurs are yet to take off could be mutual ignorance of each other." (L-48/50) A) Take off your coat and stay for a while. B) She just took off without saying goodbye to anyone in the room. C) I'm taking Thursday off because I'm moving to a new house. D) That actors career took off after that successful movie. E) He took 20 percent off the original price as had a discount card.

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO ANSWERS & COMMENTS 1. B - O objetivo do texto explicar o conceito de empresa com fim social e introduzir suas caractersticas principais. Nas demais l-se: em (A), introduzir exemplos de indstrias altamente prsperas; em (C), discutir as tecnologias de purificao da gua desenvolvidas na China; em (D), reclamar contra a ideia de Muhammed Yunus sobre inovao social; em (E), descrever como aumentar o nmero de empregos e colocar um fim na fome em Bangladesh em 4 anos. 2. B No correto afirmar-se que Muhammad Yunus o prottipo do investidor que busca lucros na explorao dos pobres. Nas outras opes: em (A) recebeu o prmio Nobel da Paz por seus esforos em melhorar a vida de cidados pobres atravs de seus empreendimentos de risco; em (C), h muito vem se dedicando s empresas sociais a fim de ajudar comunidades pobres em reas relevantes como assistncia mdica e educao; em (D), tem sido um lder na criao de produtos inovadores ou servios para naes pobres por mais de trs dcadas; em (E), escreveu um livro para explicar como algumas companhias podem se associar com corporaes maiores para produzir mercadorias ou servios que iro ajudar os necessitados. 3. A Lendo o texto descobrimos que as empresas com fins sociais tm margens de lucro frequentemente pequenas pois visam a causar um impacto positivo no ambiente social da regio onde investem. Nas demais opes, empresas com fins sociais: em (B), tm nas multinacionais parceiros importantes para apoiar potencialmente formas lucrativas de explorar a misria social; em (C), precisam ser apoiadas por concesses ou financiamento governamental para poderem sobreviver; em (D), fornecem produtos muito caros e servios pois seus diretores s esto interessados em ganhos materiais; em (E), s devem ser implementadas nos pases asiticos onde os governos so incapazes de prover o acesso necessrio dos cidados de baixa renda aos servios de assistncia mdica, saneamento e educao. 4. C A Danone Grameen Foods um bom exemplo de empresa com fins sociais porque abriu uma fbrica de produo de iogurte em Bangladesh que provocar um impacto nas necessidades nutricionais das crianas da regio; nas demais opes, essa empresa: em (A), produz iogurte com sabores diversos, que o alimento preferido das crianas, em (B), em breve empregar milhes de pessoas vivendo em Bogra e em outras 50 cidades de Bangladesh; em (D), est apresentando resultados positivos no mercado e logo pagar dividendos aos seus investidores; em (E), foi muito bem sucedida na mudana da poltica de assistncia mdica dos adultos em Bangladesh.
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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO 5. E Ros Tennyson, acredita que empresrios sociais e investidores deveriam aprender um pouco mais sobre si mesmos a fim de estabelecer parcerias proveitosas. Nas demais: em (A), a maioria dos homens de negcio esto familiarizados com o termo empreendedorismo social porm se recusaram a realizar negcio nesta nova rea; em (B), importante olhar para o empreendedorismo social exclusivamente como uma forma de filantropia sem nenhuma inteno de obter lucro; em (C), a maioria dos empresrios sociais no est preparada para desenvolver um interesse em parcerias empresariais originais porque no acreditam em novas prioridades; em (D), empresas com fins sociais tm de surgir somente nos pases em desenvolvimento onde nenhuma outra companhia existe, com o fim de desenvolver a economia do pas. 6. C O autor quer saber qual a opo que expressa uma correspondncia precisa entre os dois itens. De fato, looking for (procurando), se me permitem, um dos mais manjados phrasal verbs do ingls, tem sentido similar a searching for (pesquisando, localizando, procurando). Nas outras opes: em A), address & deal with podem ser considerados sinnimos, com o sentido de lidar com; em B), expansion (expanso) no o oposto de growth (crescimento); em D), affordable (accessvel, que se pode pagar) e expensive (caro) no so sinnimos; em E) cutting down on & reducing refletem idias afins; e, no, contraditrias. 7. E H indicao de propsito em: "They need to develop a genuine interest in business drivers and priorities in order to conduct purposeful and equitable conversations." (Precisam desenvolver um interesse real nos controladores de empresas e nas prioridades a fim de conduzir conversaes objetivas e equnimes). Nas outras opes: em (A), "Unlike charities, social businesses do not need to keep applying to governments or foundations for grants." (Ao contrrio das instituies filantrpicas, empresas com fins sociais no precisam ficar solicitando ajuda ao governo ou a fundaes); em (B) "But to do this, social entrepreneurs must find investors willing to help take a new idea to scale." (Porm, para fazer isso os empresrios sociais tm de achar investidores dispostos a ajudar a colocar uma nova ideia em prtica); em (C) "It is cheap because it is produced locally, cutting down on expensive refrigeration." ( barato porque produzido localmente, reduzindo os pesados custos de refrigerao); em (D) "Alternatively, big companies can buy up innovative firms that have already done the groundwork on products with social benefits and commercial potential." (Por outro lado, grandes companhias podem adquirir integralmente empresas inovadoras que j tenham feito o trabalho de base com produtos que apresentem benefcios sociais e potencial de comercializao).
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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO 8. D Uma questo sobre o phrasal verb "take off que possui vrios significados. Traduzindo o fragmento: One reason why partnerships between companies and social entrepreneurs are yet to take off could be mutual ignorance of each other (Uma razo pela qual as parcerias entre empresas e empresrios sociais ainda no deslancharam poderia ser desconhecimento de parte a parte); com sentido similar a: That actors career took off after that successful movie (A carreira daquele ator deslanchou aps aquele filme de sucesso). Traduzindo as demais opes: em (A), Take off your coat and stay for a while (Tire o seu casaco e fique por um instante); em (B), She just took off without saying goodbye to anyone in the room (Ela simplesmente partiu sem dizer adeus para ningum na sala); em (C), I'm taking Thursday off because I'm moving to a new house (Vou tirar a quinta-feira de folga porque estou me mudando para uma casa nova); em (E) He took 20 percent off the original price as I had a discount card (Ele abateu 20% do preo original j que eu tinha um carto de desconto). USEFUL TIPS Os candidatos e candidatas que fizeram a prova de 2011 - analisada na aula anterior - e que haviam analisado esta prova de 2008 da CESGRANRIO, cujo texto enfatizava social innovation, levaram vantagem por responder a questes sobre um assunto j estudado anteriormente. Mas isto, eu lhes garanto, exceo. However, (voc j deve estar cheio de saber que este discourse marker corresponde a contudo, entretanto), o mais importante a ser salientado, neste caso, o fato de voc encontrar questes versando sobre reading comprehension (obviously), no estilo da CESGRANRIO e uma nova questo sobre discourse markers (Q.7), uma questo sobre vocabulary items (Q.6), e principalmente, uma questo muito bem elaborada sobre phrasal verbs (Q.8). Por isso, procuraremos explorar os phrasal verbs nesta aula com mais cuidado; after all, este um tpico que eu incluo nos top ten subjects que voc no deve deixar de dar nfase, tamanha a sua relevncia. By the way, minha prpria mensagem de incentivo aos meus alunos, em todas as minhas participaes, seja em aulas, seja na rea livre do site, contm dois belos exemplos dos phrasal verbs: keep on (continuar) & give up (desistir). E aqui vai ela: Keep on studying, guys. Never give up. Acredito que aps a traduo de tantos fragmentos extrados do text 1, usados para anlise dos diversos outros assuntos nesta aula, voc ter uma noo muito mais clara do que o autor procurou expressar.

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO ANALYSIS OF TEXT 1 1. Translate the title of text 1: Social Innovation: Good For You, Good For Me ____________________________________________________________ 2. In: Big firms are joining the queue (L-1), a palavra queue caracterstica do ingls britnico. Como se diz fila em ingls do USA? ____________________________________________________________ 3. No 2 pargrafo do text 1, Muhammad Yunus apresenta seu conceito de social business. Sucintamente, qual ele? ____________________________________________________________ 4. How can you explain the expression in bold: social entrepreneurs must find investors willing to help take a new idea to scale (L-16/17)? ____________________________________________________________ 5. How can you translate the following fragment: its positive impact on the rate of market failure that it was set up to redress (L-28/29) ____________________________________________________________ 6. In the fragment: innovative firms that have already done the groundwork on products (L-37/38), what does the expression in bold mean? ____________________________________________________________ 7. O que significam as duas palavras formadas com o acrscimo do sufixo SHIP: sponsorship (L-42) & partnerships (L-44). Translate these words: ____________________________________________________________ 8. In the fragment: could be mutual ignorance of each other (L-45), what does the modal verb could indicate? ____________________________________________________________

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO WORD FORMS A) THE SUFFIXES ABLE / -IBLE From text 1: World Business Council for Sustainable Development (sub-title) Conselho Mundial dos Negcios para um desenvolvimento sustentvel The partners have developed an affordable, fortified yoghurt for poor children in Bangladesh (L-23/24) Os parceiros desenvolveram um iogurte fortificado a preos razoveis para crianas pobres de Bangladesh Investing in social entrepreneurs can boost a company's reputation for being responsible (L-34/35) Investir em empresrios sociais pode elevar a reputao de uma empresa de ser responsvel especially when these could take years to become commercially viable (L35/36) particularmente quando estas poderiam levar anos para se tornarem comercialmente viveis Aproveitando que o examinador testou os conhecimentos dos candidatos que fizeram essa prova no tocante ao suffix ABLE (vide questo 6), vamos falar um pouco deste, e do suffix IBLE, que geralmente correspondem a adjetivos do nosso portugus terminadas em -VEL, -VEL, -VEL. Study these examples: VERB explain tolerate consider question VERB + PREFIX explicable tolerable considerable questionable TRADUO explicvel tolervel considervel questionvel

VERB access digest divide reverse


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VERB + PREFIX accessible digestible divisible reversible

TRADUO acessvel digestvel divisvel reversvel


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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO B) THE SUFFIXES ER / -OR / -AR B.1) THE SUFFIX -ER From text 1: has for more than 30 years challenged business leaders (L-3) tem por mais de 30 anos desafiado lderes empresariais Nobel Peace Prize winners latest book (L-4/5) o mais recente livro do ganhador do Prmio Nobel They need to develop a genuine interest in business drivers and priorities (L-56) Necessitam desenvolver um interesse real em incentivadores de negcios e prioridades Talvez este sufixo ER seja o mais frequente dos trs. Porm todos vo formar vocbulos que significam: aquele que realiza tal ao. For example leader (the one who leads), ou seja, aquele que lidera; teacher (the one who teaches) - aquele que ensina. B.2) THE SUFFIX -OR From text 1: But to do this, social entrepreneurs must find investors (L-16) Porm, para realizar isso, empresrios sociais tm de encontrar investidores says International! Business Leaders' Forum director (L-46) afirma o diretor do Frum dos Lderes Empresariais Similarly, investors (the ones who invest) aqueles que investem, os investidores. Igualmente: visitor (the one who visits)- aquele que visita, o / a visitante; and so on. B.3) THE SUFFIX -AR Indiscutivelmente os dois sufixos anteriores so muito mais frequentes que o sufixo -AR. Study these examples: A beggar (mendigo) A liar (mentiroso / a)
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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO C) THE SUFFIX -LY From Text 1: and potentially lucrative new ways to meet their sustainability goals (L19/20) e novas formas potencialmente lucrativas de atingir seus objetivos de sustentabilidade especially when these could take years to become commercially viable (L36) particularmente, quando esses produtos podem levar anos para se tornarem comercialmente viveis Alternatively, big companies can buy up innovative firms (L-37) Por outro lado, (melhor que alternativamente) grandes empresas podem adquirir firmas criativas "if it is to get beyond simply philanthropic funding of a good idea" (L-49/50) se quiser ir alm do financiamento simplesmente filantrpico de uma boa ideia O sufixo LY, formador de advrbios em ingls, deve ser um dos mais conhecidos por todos os alunos. Geralmente vai corresponder a uma palavra terminada em MENTE no nosso portugus. Ateno para os adjetivos terminados em LY. Agora, como so posicionados antes dos substantivos em ingls, acredito que no seja to difcil reconheclos. Study these examples: A manly behavior um comportamento msculo A lively party uma festa animada A deadly weapon uma arma letal

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO A WORD ABOUT PHRASAL VERBS O conhecimento dos principais phrasal verbs realmente fundamental. To fundamental que permitu ao examinador formular a questo 8 da prova anterior, mais especificamente a respeito do phrasal verb take off, com base no fragmento (L-48/50): "One reason why partnerships between companies and social entrepreneurs are yet to take off could be mutual ignorance of each other." (Uma razo pela qual as parcerias entre empresas e empresrios sociais ainda no deslancharam poderia ser desconhecimento de parte a parte). H vrios outros bons exemplos destes verbos no text 1: From text 1: Social business ventures are set up by a "social entrepreneur (L-8/9) Empresas com fins sociais so estabelecidas por um empresrio social Big companies are looking for exciting and potentially lucrative new ways to meet their sustainability goals (L-18/20) As grandes empresas esto procurando por novas formas atraentes e potencialmente lucrativas de satisfazer seus objetivos de sustentabilidade It is cheap because it is produced locally, cutting down on expensive refrigeration (L-25/26) barato porque produzido regionalmente, reduzindo os custos onerosos de refrigerao Alternatively, big companies can buy up innovative firms that have already done the groundwork (L-37/38) Por outro lado, as grandes empresas podem adquirir o controle total de firmas criativas que j tenham se estabelecido com solidez Dow backs up this work with its sponsorship of Blue Planet Run (L-41/42) A Dow apia este trabalho com seu patrocnio da Blue Planet Run Estes belos exemplos extrados do text 1 nos permitem verificar o aspecto principal dos phrasal verbs, namely: verbos conhecidssimos como set (por); look (olhar, parecer); cut (cortar); buy (comprar), etc. quando ligados a preposies e partculas adverbiais como up, down, away, for, through, etc passam a ter um significado s vezes, totalmente diferente daquele mais conhecido. Digo sempre aos meus alunos que impossvel saber todos os phrasal verbs (h dicionrios volumosos sobre este assunto), porm, imprescindvel saber os principais. No final desta aula h um exerccio sobre phrasal verbs e em todas as nossas aulas procurarei incluir um.
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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO VOCABULARY BUILD UP Choose the better alternative in brackets: Mini text 1: Sector performance BNDES disbursements for the industry have grown 8% in the last 12 months ended in April, [1. a) amounting / b) importing) to R$ 31.8 billion. 3 Performance of approvals was even better in the same period, 10% higher as [2. a) comparison / b) compared] to the previous months, amounting to R$ 48 billion. The textile and the food and [3. a) beverages / b) benefits] 6 industry were the highlights in loans disbursed and loans approved. The textile industry reached 185% in disbursements and 182% in [4. a) approving / b) approvals], the food industry achieved 72% and beverages, 115%. 9 The infrastructure segment kept a fast [5. a) pace / b) path] in the last months. Disbursements, of R$ 30.2 billion, grew 77% and approvals, of R$ 46.5 billion grew 69%. Visit: www.bndes.gov.br/english/news ANALYSIS OF MINI TEXT 1 1. Em que grau se encontram os adjetivos a seguir: a) better (L-3) - _________________________________________________ b) higher (L-3) - _________________________________________________ 2. In the fragment were the highlights in loans disbursed (L-6), the word in bold means emprstimos. What is the verb form? ________________________ 3. How can you translate the following fragments: a) disbursements for the industry have grown 8% in the last 12 months ___________________________________________________________ b) Performance of approvals was even better in the same period ___________________________________________________________ c) The textile industry reached 185% in disbursements ___________________________________________________________

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO JUST FOR FUN Um ponto que eu sempre enfatizo: deixe sempre espao para o humor na sua vida de concursando. Ningum de ferro! Faa uma leitura light pode ser um trecho engraado, a comic strip (uma historinha em quadrinhos), a joke or anecdote, etc. Enjoy this one. Translate this text. The Four Stages of Life You believe in Santa Claus. You don't believe in Santa Claus. You are Santa Claus. You look like Santa Claus. ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO EXERCISES I. IRREGULAR VERBS Complete the sentences with the appropriate past form of the verbs in brackets. 1. So far finance authorities have _______ [KEEP] inflation rates low. _______________________________________________________ 2. New legislation in Brazil has _______ [GIVE] central bank legal independence. _______________________________________________________ 3. All the company employees _______ [KNOW] how to obtain the best results under the circumstances. _______________________________________________________ 4. A seagull on the beach _____ [SPREAD] its wings and began its flight. _______________________________________________________ 5. Recent surveys in Brazil have _______ [SHOW] that most Brazilian companies approved the government measures. _______________________________________________________ II. Use the particles from the box to form a phrasal verb with KEEP. ON UP DOWN AWAY FROM

1. Keep _______ from that snake. Its poisonous. ______________________________________________________________ 2. Its good to hear your boss say to you, Keep _______ the good work. _________________________________________________________ 3. When I saw Tony wearing that old wig, I just couldnt keep _______ laughing. ______________________________________________________________ 4. Ive been teaching young children for a long time and I intend to keep _______ doing it. ______________________________________________________________ 5. Steve should learn how to keep _______ his anger. ______________________________________________________________
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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO III. ADD AN APPROPRIATE SUFFIX TO THE WORD IN PARENTHESES: 1. The lady came up to me and began to talk ____________. (nervous) ____________________________________________________________ 2. As Paul did not speak Chinese, he needed an _________. (interpret) ____________________________________________________________ 3. We expect many _____________ to come over the weekend. (visit) ____________________________________________________________ 4. Mr. Howard is not our professor; hes just an ____________. (assist) ____________________________________________________________ 5. A notorious drug trafficker was arrested yesterday, but I dont know the exact time of his ____________ (to arrest) ____________________________________________________________ 6. As a matter of fact, Joanne sang __________ at the concert. (beautiful) ____________________________________________________________ 7. Talk to that gas station _____________ over there. (attend) ____________________________________________________________ 8. Daring __________ arrived in the new world after a long trip. (explore) ____________________________________________________________ 9. Its good to see so many ______ faces after such a long absence. (friend) ____________________________________________________________ 10. How many ___________ is the company taking on this year? (train) ____________________________________________________________ 11. Its true that many diseases are not _________ (prevent) but, on the other hand, many others are. ____________________________________________________________ 12. All the passengers died in the plane crash. There were no _____________ (survive). ____________________________________________________________

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO IV. Say whether the word in bold is Right (R) or Wrong (W); and then translate the sentences. 1. We eventually visit our parents on weekends. ( ) ______________________________________________________________ 2. Stan couldnt believe he had defeated such a formidable opponent. ( ) ______________________________________________________________ 3. Doris speaks Spanish fluently. Actually she is gifted for languages. ( ) ______________________________________________________________ 4. Gloria has some exquisite tastes indeed. In fact she has always been a woman of refined tastes. ( ) ______________________________________________________________ 5. I want you to be very frank. I need your candid opinion on this matter. ( ) ______________________________________________________________ V. Choose the better alternative in brackets: Mini text: The BNDES (I) The Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES) is the main financing agent for development in Brazil. Since its foundation, in 1952, the BNDES has played a fundamental [1. a) roll / b) role] in stimulating the expansion of industry and infrastructure in the country. Over the course of the Banks history, its operations have [2. a) evolved / b) fueled] in accordance with the Brazilian socio-economic challenges, and now they include support for exports, technological innovation, [3. a) sustain / b) sustainable] socioenvironmental development and the modernization of public administration. The Bank offers several financial support mechanisms to Brazilian companies of all sizes as well as public administration entities, [4. a) enabling / b) exacting] investments in all economic sectors. In any supported undertaking, from the analysis phase up to the monitoring, the BNDES emphasizes three factors it considers strategic: innovation, local development and socioenvironmental development. In the 21st century, the BNDES [5. a) amounts / b) aligns] its operations with the reality of a globalized world, with economies deeply connected, and intensifies its efforts to take on roles and duties that surpass the borders of Brazil, in compliance with the increase of the international insertion of the country. Visit: http://www.bndes.gov.br/SiteBNDES/bndes/bndes_en/
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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO ANSWERS & COMMENTS ANALYSIS OF TEXT 1 1. Translation of the title of text 1: Social Innovation: Good For You, Good For Me (Inovao Social: Bom para voc, bom para mim) 2. In: Big firms are joining the queue (L-1), a palavra queue caracterstica do ingls britnico. Como se diz fila Em ingls dos EUA fila line. Da voc poder encontrar expresses como form a line (formar fila) e, stand in line (ficar na fila). 3. Sucintamente o conceito de social business para Muhammad Yunus no loss, no dividend" company with social objectives (uma empresa sem prejuzo, sem dividendos, com fins sociais) 4. Traduzindo o fragmento: social entrepreneurs must find investors willing to help take a new idea to scale (empresrios com preocupao com o social precisam encontrar investidores desejosos de auxiliar a transformar uma nova ideia numa empresa em larga escala) 5. Translation of the fragment: its positive impact on the rate of market failure that it was set up to redress (seu impacto positivo no coeficiente de fracasso de mercado que se propusera em retificar) 6. In the fragment: innovative firms that have already done the groundwork on products a expresso em negrito quer dizer que j lanaram as bases os alicerces de. 7. As palavras formadas com o acrscimo do sufixo -SHIP: sponsorship (patrocnio) & partnerships (parcerias, sociedades) 8. In the fragment: could be mutual ignorance of each other (poderia ser desconhecimento um do outro), the modal verb could indicates possibility. VOCABULARY BUILD UP Mini text 1: Sector performance 1. (a) amounting / 2. (b) compared / 3. (a) beverages / 4. (b) approvals / 5. (a) pace

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO ANALYSIS OF MINI TEXT 1 1. Ambos os adjetivos a seguir se encontram no grau comparativo: (a) better (melhor que); (b) higher (mais alto que) 2. No fragmento were the highlights in loans disbursed (L-6), the word in bold means emprstimos.The verb is lend (lent, lent) 3. Translation of the fragments: a) disbursements for the industry have grown 8% in the last 12 months (os desembolsos, as concesses de verbas, para a indstria cresceram 8% nos ltimos 12 meses) b) Performance of approvals was even better in the same period (o desempenho das aprovaes [dessas concesses] foi ainda melhor no mesmo perodo) c) The textile industry reached 185% in disbursements (a indstria txtil atingiu 185% em desembolsos) JUST FOR FUN The Four Stages of Life You believe in Santa Claus. You don't believe in Santa Claus. You are Santa Claus. You look like Santa Claus. Os quatro estgios na vida Voc acredita em Papai Noel Voc no acredita em Papai Noel Voc Papai Noel Voc se parece com Papai Noel

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO ANSWERS / EXERCISES I. IRREGULAR VERBS 1. So far finance authorities have KEPT inflation rates low. At agora as autoridades financeiras mantiveram os ndices da inflao baixos. 2. New legislation in Brazil has GIVEN central bank legal independence. Nova legislao deu ao BACEN independncia nos assuntos jurdicos. 3. All the company employees KNEW how to obtain the best results under the circumstances. Todos os empregados da companhia sabiam como obter os melhores resultados sob tais circunstncias. 4. A seagull on the beach SPREAD its wings and began its flight. Uma gaivota na praia abriu suas asas e comeou a voar. 5. Recent surveys in Brazil have SHOWN that most Brazilian companies approved the government measures. Pesquisas recentes no Brasil mostraram que a maioria das empresas brasileiras aprovaram as medidas governamentais. II. Phrasal verbs with KEEP. 1. Keep AWAY from that snake. Its poisonous. Afaste-se daquela cobra. Ela venenosa. 2. Its good to hear your boss say to you, Keep UP the good work. bom ouvir seu chefe dizer: - Continuem com o bom trabalho. 3. When I saw Tony wearing that old wig, I just couldnt keep FROM laughing. Quando eu vi o Tony usando aquela velha peruca, no pude deixar de rir. 4. Ive been teaching young children for a long time and I intend to keep ON doing it. Venho ensinando crianas h muito tempo e pretendo continuar ensinando. 5. Steve should learn how to keep DOWN his anger. O Steve deveria aprender a controlar sua raiva.

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO III. ADDING AN APPROPRIATE SUFFIX: 1. The lady came up to me and began to talk nervously. A senhora se aproximou de mim e comeou a falar nervosamente. 2. As Paul did not speak Chinese, he needed an interpreter. Visto que o Paul no falava chins, ele necessitava de um intrprete. 3. We expect many visitors to come over the weekend. Esperamos muitos visitantes no fim de semana. 4. Mr. Howard is not our professor; hes just an assistant. O Sr. Howard no o nosso professor titular, s um assistente. 5. A notorious drug trafficker was arrested yesterday, but I dont know the exact time of his arrest. Um conhecido traficante de drogas foi preso ontem, mas no sei o momento exato de sua priso. 6. As a matter of fact, Joanne sang beautifully at the concert. Na verdade, Joanne cantou lindamente no concerto. 7. Talk to that gas station attendant over there. Fale com aquele frentista ali. 8. Daring explorers arrived in the new world after a long trip. Corajosos exploradores chegaram ao novo mundo aps longa viagem. 9. Its good to see so many friendly faces after such a long absence. bom ver tantos rostos amigveis depois de to longa ausncia. 10. How many trainees is the company taking on this year? Quantos estagirios a companhia contratar este ano? 11. Its true that many diseases are not preventable; but, on the other hand, many others are. verdade que muitas doenas no so evitveis, por outro lado, muitas outras so. 12. All the passengers died in the plane crash. There were no survivors. Todos os passageiros do avio morreram no desastre. No houve sobreviventes.
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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO IV. Right (R) or Wrong (W)? 1. (W) We occasionally visit our parents on weekends. De vez em quando visitamos nossos pais nos fins de semana. (*) reminder: eventually means finally, at last 2. (R) Stan couldnt believe he had defeated such a formidable opponent. Stan no podia acreditar que havia derrotado um adversrio to temvel. 3. (R) Doris speaks Spanish fluently. Actually she is gifted for languages. A Doris fala espanhol fluentemente. De fato, ela tem o dom para lnguas. (*) reminder: if you want to say atualmente use: today, nowadays. 4. (R) Gloria has some exquisite tastes indeed. In fact she has always been a woman of refined tastes. Glria tem mesmo gostos sofisticados. De fato ela sempre foi uma mulher com gostos refinados. (*) reminder: if you want to say esquisito say: strange, odd, weird. 5. (R) I want you to be very frank. I need your candid opinion on this matter. Eu gostaria que todos vocs fossem muito francos. Preciso de sua opinio sincera sobre este assunto. V. Mini text: The BNDES (I) The Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES) is the main financing agent for development in Brazil. Since its foundation, in 1952, the BNDES has played a fundamental role in stimulating the expansion of industry and infrastructure in the country. Over the course of the Banks history, its operations have evolved in accordance with the Brazilian socio-economic challenges, and now they include support for exports, technological innovation, sustainable socioenvironmental development and the modernization of public administration. The Bank offers several financial support mechanisms to Brazilian companies of all sizes as well as public administration entities, enabling investments in all economic sectors. In any supported undertaking, from the analysis phase up to the monitoring, the BNDES emphasizes 3 factors it considers strategic: innovation, local development and socio-environmental development. In the 21st century, the BNDES aligns its operations with the reality of a globalized world, with economies deeply connected, and intensifies its efforts to take on roles and duties that surpass the borders of Brazil, in compliance with the increase of the international insertion of the country.
(*) Voc encontra no site do BNDES este texto em portugus. Consulte!

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO SUPPLEMENT - PRINCIPAL MODAL VERBS CAN / COULD / CAN HAVE / COULD HAVE a) Can or Could (usado para pedir e conceder permisso, uso mais informal que may) Could I use your car tonight? Posso usar seu carro hoje noite? You can go upstairs now. Voc pode subir agora. b) Can or Could (para expressar habilidade) She can play the flute very well. (= she is able to do it.) Ela sabe tocar flauta muito bem. Can you play soccer? (Do you know how to play soccer?) Voc sabe jogar futebol? I could play chess quite well when I was in College. Sabia jogar xadrez bastante bem quando estava na faculdade. c) can or one form of be able to (para expressar aes futuras) I dont speak English fluently but I will be able to soon. No falo ingls fluentemente mas falarei em breve. I wont be able to help you because I have an exam at the university. No poderei ajud-la pois tenho uma prova na faculdade. d) can have / could have (usado para expressar possibilidade no passado) If you had phoned me, I could have dropped by to help you out. Se voc tivesse me telefonado eu poderia ter ido a para ajud-lo. I was wondering what can/could have happened to my felt-tip pens. Estava pensado no que poderia ter acontecido com minhas canetas hidrogrficas.
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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO MUST / HAVE TO / MUST HAVE a) Must and have to (usados para expressar algo que indispensvel que se faa) I must (have to) leave early today. Tenho de sair cedo hoje. Must you leave us so soon? Voc tem de nos deixar to cedo? Do you have to leave now? Voc tem de partir agora? b) Must and have to in negative statements. Ateno! No se pode usar um pelo outro. You must not enter that area. The sign says: Authorized Personnel only. (here must not indicates prohibition) Voc no pode entrar naquela rea. A placa diz: S pessoal autorizado. You dont have to come with us if you dont want to. (dont have to indicating lack of necessity) Voc no tem de vir conosco se no quiser. C) must (tambm pode ser usado para tirar concluses lgicas) I cant see Bobs car in the garage. He must be at work. consigo ver o carro do Bob na garagem. Ele deve estar no trabalho. d) must have + past participle of main verb (usado para expressar probabilidade no passado) Look how tanned Linda is! She must have stayed a long time in the sun. Veja como a Linda est bronzeada! Deve ter ficado no sol um tempo. NB: In the negative cant have + past part. of main verb should be used. Bobs car is still in the garage. He cant have left for work yet.

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO MAY / MIGHT / MAY HAVE / MIGHT HAVE a) may and might (so usados para expressar possibilidade) Jones may (might) be promoted this time. Jones pode (podia) ser promovido desta vez. One may (might) say that she was enjoying the whole thing. Podia-se dizer que ela estava gostando de tudo. It may(might)be said that English is basically a monosyllabic language. Pode-se dizer que o ingls basicamente uma lngua monossilbica. b) may (might) (usados para expressar contraste) She may (might) like mangoes, but she shouldnt eat a dozen of them. Ela podia gostar de mangas, mas no deveria comer uma dzia delas c) may / might have + past participle of main verb (usado para expressar possibilidade no passado) The police believe Derrick may have killed his wife. A polcia acredita que Derrick pode ter assassinado a esposa dele. If you had invited Jean to the party, she might have shown up. Se voc tivesse convidado a Jean para a festa ela podia ter vindo. Joshua might not have left if you had been more polite to him. Joshua poderia no ter partido se voc tivesse sido mais gentil com ele. SHALL / SHOULD / SHOULD HAVE a) should (Ought to) - usados para indicar algo que aconselhvel fazer You should see your dentist twice a year. Voc deve consultar seu dentista duas vezes por ano. She shouldnt smoke so much, in my opinion. Ela no deveria fumar tanto, na minha opinio. We ought to review our lessons before the exam. Devamos revisar nossas lies antes da prova.
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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO b) Should have and ought to have (usados para expressar aes que se esperava acontecessem no passado mas que no aconteceram) My secretary is late for work today. She should have (or ought to have) gotten here half an hour ago. Minha secretria est atrasada pro trabalho hoje; ela j deveria ter chegado h meia hora. Shouldnt they have finished their lessons by now? Eles j no deveriam ter terminado suas lies? HAD BETTER I. Just like should and ought to the expression had better - considered by some grammarians as a quasi-modal- can also be used to give advice. Had better is followed by the infinitive without to. You had better study for the test; otherwise you wont succeed. melhor voc estudar para o teste do contrrio no ter xito. We had better not talk to Mr. Simpson now. Hes not in a good mood today. melhor ns no falarmos com o Sr. Simpson agora. Ele no est de bom humor hoje. WOULD / WOULD HAVE a) O modal would o passado de will em termos puramente gramaticais. Fica visvel esta mudana quando se passa para o discurso indireto: I pray that you will get there safe and sound, my grandma said. - Rezo para que voc chegue l so e salvo. Minha av disse. My grandma said that she prayed that I would get there safe and sound. - Minha av disse que rezava para que eu chegasse l so e salvo. b) would (usado com aes repetidas no passado) Every Sunday my brother and I would go to Maracan to watch soccer games when we lived in Rio. Todos os domingos meu irmo e eu amos ao Maracan assistir aos jogos de futebol quando morvamos no Rio.

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO The musician would get back home late at night, he would take off his clothes; next, he would take a shower and then go to bed. O msico voltava para casa tarde da noite; tirava suas roupas, em seguida tomava um banho e ento ia para a cama. c) Conditional sentences corresponde ao nosso futuro do pretrito. I would become a millionaire if I won the big lottery prize. Eu me tornaria um milionrio se eu ganhasse o grande prmio da loteria. NB: Used to must be employed when we deal with continuous states or actions in progress in the past. Our family used to live in the north of Brazil before Dad got transferred to Rio de Janeiro. Nossa famlia morava no norte do Brasil antes que meu pai se transferisse para o Rio de Janeiro. My uncle used to sell electronic gadgets to make a living. Meu tio costumava vender engenhocas eletrnicas para ganhar a vida. d) Would rather expresso indicando preferncia I would rather stay home than go to the beach with you. Prefiro ficar em casa a ir praia com vocs. I would rather you didnt smoke here. Prefiro que no fume aqui. e) would have +past participle of main verb in if-clauses (past unreal situations) We would have visited you but we didnt know where you lived. Nos teramos visitado voc, mas no sabamos onde voc morava. I would have invited you to the party if I had known you were in town. Teria convidado voc para a festa se tivesse sabido que voc estava na cidade. You would have met Alice if you had gone to the show. Voc teria encontrado a Alice se tivesse ido ao show.

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO Avalie se os seguintes objetivos da AULA 2 foram alcanados. OBJECTIVES / OBJETIVOS Raise your awareness of: Despertar sua conscientizao para: I. Text 1: Social Innovation: Good For You, Good for Me [CESGRANRIO / 2008] Texto 1: Inovao Social Bom para voc, bom para mim [CESGRANRIO / 2008]

II. Answers & Comments Respostas & Comentrios III- Useful Tips Dicas teis IV. Analysis of Text 1 Focusing on the top ten points Anlise do texto 1 Enfatizando os dez pontos principais V. Word Forms Suffixes: -ABLE / -IBLE / -ER / -OR/ -AR/ -LY Formao de Palavras Sufixos: -ABLE / -IBLE / -ER / -OR/ -AR/ -LY VI. A Word about Phrasal Verbs Uma palavra sobre os Phrasal Verbs VII. Vocabulary Build Up Mini text 1: Sector Performance Construo do vocabulrio Mini texto Desempenho Setorial VIII. Just for Fun The Four stages of Life S para divertir Os quatro estgios na vida IX. Exercise Section Seo de Exerccios X. Answers & Comments Respostas & Comentrios XI. Principal Modal Verbs A Supplement Suplemento com os principais verbos modais

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