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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO AULA 3 TEXT 1: THE TRENDS OF GREEN BUSINESS FOR

2010 AND BEYOND Today's business is all about being green. From Wal-Mart to Apple, everyone is talking about how green their approach, packaging, or methods are. But green business is really in its infancy, and the future of being green will no doubt distill down to some very real and definable goals and practices. 5 In fact, businesses that today find themselves carrying the green banner will be put to the test to define their actions, and it must make sense to the soon to be green savvy public. So, what are some of these definable trends that will dictate the future of green business? Lets take a look. 10 A Measure Impact First up, businesses will find it harder to do business under the "Green" herald unless they hold themselves accountable to their own carbon footprint. While today we can find a number of carbon footprint calculators, the net 15 results tend to vary between sites. As time continues on, these results will merge together to a more cohesive reporting structure, and this is the measuring stick to which the company will report. A company's net carbon footprint may be as important to its success as its bottom line, since no doubt one could drive the other. This is especially true if 20 it is a public company that is directly coupled to selling to the public. Building Greener Buildings For a lot of businesses, a major part of their environmental impact can be 25 found in the very building that their business takes place in. A green building is not only potentially cheaper to operate; it can pay big dividends in brand appearance and customer loyalty. In other words, you may find that it is cheaper to be green than not. Today utilities are being held accountable for energy standards, but incentives may 30 make it the logical choice for all businesses. Green Branding With the Customer Soon businesses will find that it is simply not enough to talk to consumers 35 about being green, instead they will need to educate them through promotions, handouts, special deals, and other means, businesses will find that an educated customer will better appreciate the new emphasis on being green. Prof. Carlos Augusto www.pontodosconcursos.com.br 1

CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO By relating to the customer on green issues, the door is open for further dialog on others. Even such things as giving out free branded reusable bags is 40 a simple but effective way of using the green relationship to build the business and improve the customer relationship. Open Green Practices 45 The consumer of today is better informed than ever before, and this is a trend that will no doubt continue. In order for a business to be seen as green, it will no doubt need to have the chain more open to all parties. This can be seen today by the inclusion of local growers in big chain grocery stores, and the trend will no doubt continue. Not only grocery stores and produce markets will be affected by the need for open green practices. Restaurants will find it beneficial to proudly declare that a particular side item is being provided by a given local producer. The act of being green is really building a responsible community on a global scale, so it should come to no surprise that strengthening the local community ties works well with being green. With these trends, the future of a successful green business will be defined. The businesses soon must responsibly measure and report their environmental impact to a given standard. They must build the places of business to a green standard. They will need to reach out and connect to their customers on green matters, to the advantage of both. And finally, they will need to develop and refine openly green practices that tie together the sense of a green community. While these trends are more evolutionary than revolutionary in their arrival, you may be surprised at how fast they can become a standard accepted business process in 2010 and beyond.
(By Guest Blogger on Jun 8, 2010) [BNDES / TECNICO ADM / 2010] http://www.futureofbusiness.info/-retrieved on June 27, 2010.

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1. The main purpose of the article is to (A) criticize private companies that still do not calculate their own carbon footprints. (B) report on some recent and future tendencies of environmentally correct businesses. (C) justify why only large companies like Wal-Mart and Apple can be considered truly green businesses. (D) encourage new companies to reduce their environmental impact only by limiting their energy consumption. (E) convince consumers to buy food products exclusively from green grocery stores, markets and restaurants.
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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO 2. According to the text, all the examples below are definable trends that will dictate the future of green business, EXCEPT (A) building greener working environments. (B) consuming items provided by local growers or producers. (C) educating customers to adopt greener practices while shopping. (D) paying financial dividends to loyal consumers of green companies. (E) adopting a more standardized measurement of the company's carbon footprint. 3. In the fragment "A company's net carbon footprint may be as important to its success as its bottom line, since no doubt one could drive the other." (L18/19), "since" can be substituted by (A) because. (B) however. (C) while. (D) when. (E) so. 4. According to paragraphs 7 and 8, educating customers to become green is beneficial to green businesses because customers (A) must learn about all the limitations imposed by a green lifestyle. (B) do not want to give up fashionable branded shopping bags for reusable ones. (C) will not be tricked by promotions, handouts and special deals for green products. (D) are not interested at all in learning about modem green practices that will raise the price of products. (E) will identify with an environmentally-friendly shop if they perceive the importance of being green. 5. According to the text, "...the inclusion of local growers in big chain grocery stores," (L-48) is seen as a(n) (A) effort made by all shops i n order to attract local consumers. (B) excuse used by some irresponsible stores that pretend to be green. (C) frequent strategy used by local producers to please small restaurants. (D) tendency already adopted by food markets that follow green practices. (E) attempt to develop the sense of a green community in the poorest environments.

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO 6. Based on the meanings in the text, (A) "goals" (L-4) cannot be substituted by a/m. (B) "loyalty" (L-27) and suspicion express similar ideas. (C) "accountable" (L-29) and responsible are synonyms. (D) "reusable" (L-39) is the opposite of recyclable. (E) "beneficial" (L-51) & advantageous express contradictory ideas. 7. The fragment "to the advantage of both" (L-60) indicates that there will be (A) advantages for customers exclusively. (B) benefits for customers and green businesses alike. (C) gains for the customers and loss for the businesses. (D) positive results for clients and more environmental impact. (E) further development of green matters regardless of customers. 8. In "you may be surprised at how fast they can become a Standard accepted business process in 2010 and beyond." (L-64/65) the verb form "may" expresses (A) necessity. (B) certainty. (C) obligation. (D) capability. (E) possibility. USEFUL TIPS Quando afirmo a meus alunos que no necessrio forar nenhuma barra para apresentar os top ten subjects, os dez pontos que eu considero essenciais no estudo do ingls para concursos, a pura verdade; no h nenhum exagero nisso. O text 1 um bom exemplo disto. Faremos nesta aula um verdadeiro tour por esses pontos quentes que sempre martelo nas minhas aulas. Tudo porque este texto de prova sobre environmental issues nos permite tal explorao. Se voc ainda no estiver convencido da importncia do estudo sistemtico desses tpicos, espero que esta aula venha a convert-lo num entusiasta, num praticante e disciplinado defensor dele.

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO A TOUR OF THE TOP TEN ESSENTIAL POINTS I. FUCTION WORDS & CONTENT WORDS I. a) Destaque 5 function words do primeiro pargrafo do text 1: _______________________________________________________ I. b) Destaque 10 content words do segundo pargrafo do text 1: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ II. REGULAR & IRREGULAR VERBS II. a) Write the past forms of the following verbs: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Put (L-6) - __________________________________________________ Take (L-8) - _________________________________________________ find (L-5/12) - __________________________________________ do (L-12) - __________________________________________________ tend (L-15) - ___________________________________________ drive (L-19) - ________________________________________________ have (L-47) - ________________________________________________ build (L-58) - ________________________________________________

II. b) Write the infinitive forms of the following verbs: 1. 2. 3. 4. found (L-25) - _______________________________________________ held (L-29) - ________________________________________________ seen (L-46) - ________________________________________________ given (L-58) - ________________________________________________

III. TRUE & FALSE COGNATES III. a) TRUE COGNATES 1. 2. 3. 4. Dictate (L-8) - _______________________________________________ public (L-20) - _______________________________________________ dividends (L-26) ______________________________________________ community (L-62) - ___________________________________________

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO III. b) FALSE COGNATES (*) Utilities (L-29) contas de luz, gua, gs, ... Tenants normally pay their own utilities. ___________________________________________ utility utilidade The CEO saw no utility in having a local representative. ____________________________________________ utility companies empresa de servios pblicos IV. DISCOURSE MARKERS Leia o texto com ateno de novo para dizer o que as seguintes palavras (locues) esto indicando: 1. In fact (L-5) _______________________________________________ 2. So (L-7) - ___________________________________________________ 3. First up (L-12) - _____________________________________________ 4. unless (L-13) - ______________________________________________ 5. While (L-14) - _______________________________________________ 6. if (L-19) - ___________________________________________________ 7. instead (L-35) - ______________________________________________ 8. so (L-53) - __________________________________________________ 9. While (L-63) _______________________________________________ 10. In other words (L-28) - ______________________________________ V. VERB TENSES Qual o tempo verbal predominante no text 1? Escreva alguns exemplos dessas construes verbais: _____________________________________________________________ VI. MODAL VERBS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 5. 6. Will (L-4) - ___________________________________________________ Must (L-6) - __________________________________________________ may (L-18) - _________________________________________________ can (L-47) - __________________________________________________ must (L-58) - ________________________________________________ should (L-54) - _______________________________________________ can (L-64) - _________________________________________________
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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO VII. PHRASAL VERBS 1. giving out (L-39) - __________________________________________ 2. reach out (L-59) - ___________________________________________ 3. tie together (L-61) - _________________________________________ VIII. AFFIXES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Definable (L-7) - ____________________________________________ Loyalty (L-27) - _____________________________________________ Reusable (L-39) - ___________________________________________ relationship (L-40) - _________________________________________ Strengthening (L-54) - _______________________________________ Successful (L-56) __________________________________________ Openly (L-61) _____________________________________________

IX. COLLOCATION / IDIOMS Collocations 1. to do business (L-12) - _______________________________________ 2. being held accountable for (L-29) - __________________________ 3. take a look (L-8) - _________________________________________ X. - Idiomatic Expressions 1. carrying the green banner (L-5) - _______________________________ 2. its bottom line (L-18/19) - ____________________________________ 3. takes place (L-25) - __________________________________________

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO MAIN MODAL VERBS Como voc observou a questo 8, abaixo reproduzida, foi elaborada para testar seu conhecimento desse importantssimo assunto. Nenhum candidato ou candidata pode deixar de estudar os principais modal verbs ingleses. 8. In "you may be surprised at how fast they can become a Standard accepted business process in 2010 and beyond." (L-64/65) the verb form "may" expresses (A) necessity. (B) certainty. (C) obligation. (D) capability. (E) possibility. H, neste text 1, vrios outros exemplos com modal verbs: From text 1: and it must make sense to the soon to be green savvy public (L-6/7) E tm de fazer sentido para o em breve bem informado pblico defensor do verde For a lot of businesses, a major part of their environmental impact can be found in the very building that their business takes place in (L-24/25) Para muitas empresas, a maior parte do impacto ambiental pode ser encontrado no prprio prdio onde ocorrem seus negcios so it should come to no surprise that strengthening the local community ties works well with being green. (L-53/55) Portanto no deveria parecer nenhuma surpresa que fortalecer os laos comunitrios regionais funciona bem com o ser ecologicamente correto They must build the places of business to a green standard. Eles tm de construir os locais das empresas de acordo com padres ecologicamente corretos Vamos procurar incluir exerccios sobre os modal verbs nas nossas aulas. Procure estudar o resumo dos principais verbos modais a seguir.

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO PRINCIPAL MODAL VERBS CAN / COULD / CAN HAVE / COULD HAVE a) Can or Could (usado para pedir e conceder permisso, uso mais informal que may) Could I use your car tonight? Posso usar seu carro hoje noite? You can go upstairs now. Voc pode subir agora. b) Can or Could (para expressar habilidade) She can play the flute very well. (= she is able to do it.) Ela sabe tocar flauta muito bem. Can you play soccer? (Do you know how to play soccer?) Voc sabe jogar futebol? I could play chess quite well when I was in College. Sabia jogar xadrez bastante bem quando estava na faculdade. c) can or one form of be able to (para expressar aes futuras) I dont speak English fluently but I will be able to soon. No falo ingls fluentemente mas falarei em breve. I wont be able to help you because I have an exam at the university. No poderei ajud-la pois tenho uma prova na faculdade. d) can have / could have (usado para expressar possibilidade no passado) If you had phoned me, I could have dropped by to help you out. Se voc tivesse me telefonado eu poderia ter dado uma chegada a para ajudlo. I was wondering what can/could have happened to my felt-tip pens. Estava pensado no que poderia ter acontecido com minhas canetas hidrogrficas.
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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO MUST / HAVE TO / MUST HAVE a) Must and have to (usados para expressar algo que indispensvel que se faa) I must (have to) leave early today. Tenho de sair cedo hoje. Must you leave us so soon? Voc tem de nos deixar to cedo? Do you have to leave now? Voc tem de partir agora? b) Must and have to in negative statements. Ateno! No se pode usar um pelo outro. You must not enter that area. The sign says: Authorized Personnel only. (= here must not indicates prohibition) Voc no pode entrar naquela rea. A placa diz: S pessoal autorizado. You dont have to come with us if you dont want to. (dont have to indicating lack of necessity) Voc no tem de vir conosco se no quiser. C) must (tambm pode ser usado para tirar concluses lgicas) I cant see Bobs car in the garage. He must be at work. consigo ver o carro do Bob na garagem. Ele deve estar no trabalho. d) must have + past participle of main verb (usado para expressar probabilidade no passado) Look how tanned Linda is! She must have stayed a long time in the sun. Veja como a Linda est bronzeada! Deve ter ficado no sol um tempo. NB: In the negative cant have + past part. of main verb should be used. Bobs car is still in the garage. He cant have left for work yet.
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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO MAY / MIGHT / MAY HAVE / MIGHT HAVE a) may and might (so usados para expressar possibilidade) Jones may (might) be promoted this time. Jones pode (podia) ser promovido desta vez. One may (might) say that she was enjoying the whole thing. Podia-se dizer que ela estava gostando de tudo. It may(might)be said that English is basically a monosyllabic language. Pode-se dizer que o ingls basicamente uma lngua monossilbica. b) may (might) (usados para expressar contraste) She may (might) like mangoes, but she shouldnt eat a dozen of them. Ela podia gostar de mangas, mas no deveria comer uma dzia delas c) may / might have + past participle of main verb (usado para expressar possibilidade no passado) The police believe Derrick may have killed his wife. A polcia acredita que Derrick pode ter assassinado a esposa dele. If you had invited Jean to the party, she might have shown up. Se voc tivesse convidado a Jean para a festa ela podia ter vindo. Joshua might not have left if you had been more polite to him. Joshua poderia no ter partido se voc tivesse sido mais gentil com ele. SHALL / SHOULD / SHOULD HAVE a) should (Ought to) (usados para indicar algo que aconselhvel fazer) You should see your dentist twice a year. Voc deve consultar seu dentista duas vezes por ano. She shouldnt smoke so much, in my opinion. Ela no deveria fumar tanto, na minha opinio.
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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO We ought to review our lessons before the exam. Devamos revisar nossas lies antes da prova. b) Should have and ought to have (usados para expressar aes que se esperava acontecessem no passado mas que no aconteceram) My secretary is late for work today. She should have (or ought to have) gotten here half an hour ago. Minha secretria est atrasada pro trabalho hoje; ela j deveria ter chegado h meia hora. Shouldnt they have finished their lessons by now? Eles j no deveriam ter terminado suas lies? HAD BETTER I. Just like should and ought to the expression had better - considered by some grammarians as a quasi-modal- can also be used to give advice. Had better is followed by the infinitive without to. You had better study for the test; otherwise you wont succeed. melhor voc estudar para o teste do contrrio no ter xito. We had better not talk to Mr. Simpson now. Hes not in a good mood today. melhor ns no falarmos com o Sr. Simpson agora. Ele no est de bom humor hoje. WOULD / WOULD HAVE a) O modal would o passado de will em termos puramente gramaticais. Fica visvel esta mudana quando se passa para o discurso indireto: I pray that you will get there safe and sound, my grandma said. - Rezo para que voc chegue l so e salvo. Minha av disse. My grandma said that she prayed that I would get there safe and sound. - Minha av disse que rezava para que eu chegasse l so e salvo.
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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO b) would (usado com aes repetidas no passado) Every Sunday my brother and I would go to Maracan to watch soccer games when we lived in Rio. Todos os domingos meu irmo e eu amos ao Maracan assistir aos jogos de futebol quando morvamos no Rio. The musician would get back home late at night, he would take off his clothes; next, he would take a shower and then go to bed. O msico voltava para casa tarde da noite; tirava suas roupas, em seguida tomava um banho e ento ia para a cama. NB: Used to must be employed when we deal with continuous states or actions in progress in the past. Our family used to live in the north of Brazil before Dad got transferred to Rio de Janeiro. Nossa famlia morava no norte do Brasil antes que meu pai se transferisse para o Rio de Janeiro. My uncle used to sell electronic gadgets to make a living. Meu tio costumava vender engenhocas eletrnicas para ganhar a vida. c) Conditional sentences corresponde ao nosso futuro do pretrito. I would become a millionaire if I won the big lottery prize. Eu me tornaria um milionrio se eu ganhasse o grande prmio da loteria. d) Would rather expresso indicando preferncia I would rather stay home than go to the beach with you. Prefiro ficar em casa a ir praia com vocs. I would rather you didnt smoke here. Prefiro que no fume aqui.

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO

e) would have +past participle of main verb in if-clauses (past unreal situations) We would have visited you but we didnt know where you lived. Nos teramos visitado voc, mas no sabamos onde voc morava. I would have invited you to the party if I had known you were in town. Teria convidado voc para a festa se tivesse sabido que voc estava na cidade. You would have met Alice if you had gone to the show. Voc teria encontrado a Alice se tivesse ido ao show.

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO VOCABULARY BUILD UP Choose the better alternative in brackets: Mini text 1: Sector performance BNDES disbursements for the industry have grown 8% in the last 12 months ended in April, [1. a) amounting / b) importing) to R$ 31.8 billion. Performance of approvals was even better in the same period, 10% higher as [2. a) comparison / b) compared] to the previous months, amounting to R$ 48 billion. The textile and the food and [3. a) beverages / b) benefits] industry were the highlights in loans disbursed and loans approved. The textile industry reached 185% in disbursements and 182% in [4. a) approving / b) approvals], the food industry achieved 72% and beverages, 115%. The infrastructure segment kept a fast [5. a) pace / b) path] in the last months. Disbursements, of R$ 30.2 billion, grew 77% and approvals, of R$ 46.5 billion grew 69%. Visit: www.bndes.gov.br/english/news ANALYSIS OF MINI TEXT 1 1. Neste mini texto voc tem as duas formas de passado do verbo to grow (crescer), respectivamente grew & grown. Escreva a seguir a forma de substantivo deste verbo, correspondente a crescimento: 2. Translate the following fragments: a) Disbursements for the industry have grown 8% ___________________________________________________________ b) Performance of approvals was even better ___________________________________________________________ c) were the highlights in loans ___________________________________________________________ d) The textile industry reached 185% in disbursements ___________________________________________________________

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO AFFIXES A SUMMARY Quanto mais familiarizado voc estiver com os vrios affixes (prefixes /suffixes) mais facilidade ter em decoding novos significados, e mais fluentemente voc conseguir ler e estar aumentando o seu vocabulary power. Aqui esto alguns dos principais affixes do ingls para voc consultar sempre que houver necessidade. 1) PREFIXES Anti Auto Dis En Il Im In Inter Ir Mid Mis Multi Non Out Over Pre Pro Semi Un Under as in: as in: as in: as in: as in: as in as in: as in as in as in: as in as in as in as in as in as in: as in: as in: as in as in: anti-war autobiography disconnect enlarge illegal impatient indecent interdependent irrelevant mid-way misinterpret multinational nonsmoking outlive overweight pre-test pro-abortion semicircle unwrap undernourished manifestao contra a guerra autobiografia desconectar ampliar ilegal impaciente indecente interdependente irelevante a meio caminho interpretar mal multinacional no fumante viver mais que obeso, acima do peso pr teste posio em favor do aborto semicrculo desembrulhar subnutrido

2) SUFFIXES Formadores de verbos -ate -en -fy -ize as as as as in: in: in: in: estimate blacken certify liberalize estimar escurecer certificar liberar

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO Formadores de advrbios -ly as in -ward(s) as in: -wise as in: sincere toward(s) clockwise sincerely em direo a no sentido horrio

Formadores de substantivos -age -ance -ence -er -hood -ician -ics -ish -ism -ist -ity -ment -ness -or -ship -sis -tion as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as as in: in in in in: in: in: in: in: in: in: in: in: in: in: in: in: marriage attendance independence hunter childhood statistician statistics childish fanaticism physicist brutality improvement happiness survivor friendship synthesis attention casamento presena independncia caador infncia estatstico estatstica infantil fanatismo fsico brutalidade melhoria felicidade sobrevivente amizade sntese ateno

Formadores de adjetivos -able -al -an -ation -ed* -ee -ful -ible -ic -ive -less -ly -ous -y as as as as as as as as as as as as as as in: in: in in: in in in: in: in: in: in: in: in: in: reliable cultural American explanation experienced trainee grateful responsible classic responsive careless friendly ambitious rainy confivel cultural americano explicao experiente estagrio/a, treinando grato/a, agradecido/a responbsvel clssico responsivo/a descuidado amigvel ambicioso/a chuvoso
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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO JUST FOR FUN PICTURE TEST

There is just a little problem with [a) blind spots / b) blind dates].

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO EXERCISES I. Complete the sentences with one of the words in bold type: 1. belong belonged belongings belonging

Our airline cannot be held responsible for any personal ____________ left on the plane, the flight attendant announced. ________________________________________________________ 2. require requirements requisites requiring

Some big department stores sometimes fail to meet their customers ____________. ________________________________________________________ 3. industrial industrialists industrialized industrialization

Wealthy ____________ in So Paulo begin to demonstrate signs of impatience with the governments economic policies. ________________________________________________________ 4. profit profitable profiting profits

Mr. Weld runs a very _____________ business. ________________________________________________________ 5. account accountable accountings accountant

Soon the auditors found out that the _____________ had been cooking the books for quite a while. ________________________________________________________ 6. unions unified unification reunification

With the advent of computer technology most business enterprises in Brazil have ______________ their controlling systems. ________________________________________________________ 7. private privacy privatization privatizing

My New Years resolutions were made in the __________ of my bedroom. ________________________________________________________


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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO 8. advantage advantageous advantages disadvantage

Talk to your bank manager. He can show you the most ___________ form of investing your money. ________________________________________________________ 9. associates associations associative associating

Mr. Morris, together with his principal ______________, will vote in support of the merger. ________________________________________________________ 10. manager managed managerial managing

Ian is too young for the _____________ position he holds at the bank. ________________________________________________________ 11. compete competition competitor competitiveness

The racers complaints had to do with his cars lack of _____________. ________________________________________________________ 12. disqualified qualifications qualities qualifying

Dont cheat on the exam or else you may run the risk of being ___________________. ________________________________________________________ 13. involved involvement involving involve

His _______________ in the military coup to overthrow the president has never been proved. ________________________________________________________ 14. attractive attraction attracts attractiveness

All I can say is that Jenny looked extremely _____________ in her new dress. ________________________________________________________ 15. economical economic economics economizing

I dont know anything about the recent __________ measures. ________________________________________________________


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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO II. Complete the sentences with the correct past form of the verbs in bold, and then translate them. 1. I _______ [SEND] you an e-mail yesterday. Why didnt you answer it? _________________________________________________________ 2/3. When my little granddaughter __________ [SEE] me at the door, she __________ [RUN] up to me breathlessly. _________________________________________________________ 4. The Consumer Price Index __________ [RISE] 0.6% last month the largest hike in six months. _________________________________________________________ 5. I havent ________ [READ] the new Status magazine. Do you have it? _________________________________________________________ III. Use a word from the box so as to form a phrasal verb with LIVE. WITH FOR UP ON THROUGH

1. I hope I can live ______to your expectations, boss. (= perform as expected) ________________________________________________________ 2. We will live _______ the current crisis with hard work. (= survive) ________________________________________________________ 3. Ideas have endurance, they live ________ for ever, JFK said. (= continue) ________________________________________________________ 4. She failed her exam, now she has to live ________ that. (= accept) ________________________________________________________ 5. Get a life! Find something worth living ________ (= dedicate) ________________________________________________________

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO IV. Complete the sentences with the ING or ED forms of the verbs: 1. We all felt so __________ in the new subject at school. [INTEREST] __________________________________________________________ 2. The movie was based on a very ______________ book. [INTEREST] __________________________________________________________ 3. The hurricane destroyed many dwellings. It will take time to repair the ________________ buildings. [DAMAGE] __________________________________________________________ 4. The boss did not convince us. He did not tell us a ______________ story. [CONVINCE] __________________________________________________________ 5. The referendum surprised many citizens. The ____________ results were announced on TV. [SURPRISE] __________________________________________________________ 6. Our boss declared that he didnt know exactly the amount of money ________ [INVEST] in the project. __________________________________________________________ V. Choose the better alternative in brackets. 1. John scored 675 points out of 700 possible on the exam. He [a) must / b) should] have studied really hard. ________________________________________________________ 2. Look! The sidewalk is somewhat wet and slippery. It [a) could / b) may] have rained while we were watching the movie. ________________________________________________________ 3. It [a) cant / b) mustnt] have been Peter you saw at the station. He was here with us all the time. ________________________________________________________ 4. If I were you, I [a) couldnt / b) wouldnt] talk to Nora any longer. ________________________________________________________ 5. Dora [a) cant / b) wont] play the flute, but her sister plays it well. ________________________________________________________
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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO ANSWERS & COMMENTS
TEXT 1: THE TRENDS OF GREEN BUSINESS FOR 2010 AND BEYOND

1. B O objetivo principal do texto relatar as tendncias recentes e futuras de empresas ecologicamente corretas. Nas demais opes: em (A), criticar firmas particulares que ainda no calculam suas prprias medidas de produo de dixido de carbono; em (C), justificar porque s as grandes empresas como Wal-Mart e Apple podem ser consideradas verdadeiramente verdes; em (D), encorajar novas companhias a reduzir o impacto ambiental apenas por limitar seu consumo de energia; em (E), convencer os consumidores a comprar produtos alimentcios exclusivamente de quitandas, mercados e restaurantes. 2. D O autor fala em todos esses exemplos com exceo de: paying financial dvidends to loyal consumers of green companies (pagar dividendos a clientes fiis de empresas preocupadas com a ecologia). Nas demais opes fala-se de: em (A), building greener working environments (construir ambientes de trabalho mais ecolgicos); em (B), consuming items provided by local growers or producers (consumir gneros fornecidos por produtores ou agricultores regionais); em (C), educating customers to adopt greener practices while shopping (educar os clientes a adotar prticas em defesa do ambiente ao fazerem suas compras); em (E), adopting a more standardized measurement of the company's carbon footprint (adoo de medidas mais padronizadas da quantidade de carbono produzida pelas companhias). 3. A Traduzindo o fragmento "A company's net carbon footprint may be as important to its success as its bottom line, since no doubt one could drive the other." (A quantidade lquida de carbono produzida por uma empresa pode ser to importante para seu sucesso quanto seu resultado financeiro, porque, sem dvida, uma pode impulsionar o outro), verifica-se que "since" pode ser substitudo por because. Nas demais: em (B), however (contudo); em (C), while (enquanto), em (D), when (quando), em (E), so (portanto) 4. A Educar os clientes a se tornarem verdes benfico para empresas ecologicamente corretas porque os clientes tm de aprender sobre todas as limitaes impostas por um estilo de vida. Nas outras opes, os clientes: em (B), no querem abrir mo de bolsas de compras na moda, de marca, por bolsas reutilizveis; em (C), no sero enganados por promoes, folhetos, e negociaes especiais por produtos verdes; em (D), no esto interessados absolutamente em saber sobre prticas modernas ecologicamente corretas que iro elevar os preos dos produtos; em (E) se identificaro com uma loja ecologicamente correta se perceberem a importncia de serem verdes.
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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO 5. D De acordo com autor do texto a incluso de agricultores locais na grande cadeia de distribuio dos produtos hortifrutigranjeiros vista como uma tendncia j adotada por mercados de alimentos que seguem prticas de defesa do meio ambiente. Nas outras opes: em (A), um esforo feito por todas as lojas com o intuito de atrair clientes locais; em (B), uma desculpa usada por algumas lojas irresponsveis que fingem ser ecologicamente corretas; em (C), uma estratgia frequente adotada por produtores locais para agradar pequenos restaurantes; em (E), tentar desenvolver um sentido de uma comunidade ecolgica nos ambientes mais pobres. 6. C A expresso hold somebody accountable significa tornar algum responsvel por algo; assim, pode ser considerada sinnimo de responsible (responsvel). Quanto s outras opes: em (A), goals & aim podem substituir um ao outro; em (B), loyalty (lealdade) e suspicion (suspeita) no expressam ideias similares; em (D), reusable (reutilizvel) no o oposto de recyclable (reciclvel); em (E), beneficial (benfico) & advantageous (vantajoso) no expressam ideias contraditrias. 7. B Traduzindo o fragmento: "to the advantage of both" (com vantagem para ambos) indica que haver benefcios tanto para os clientes quanto para as empresas ecologicamente corretas igualmente. Est dito nas outras opes que haveria: em (A), vantagens exclusivamente para os clientes; em (C), vantagens para os clientes e prejuzo para as empresas; em (D), resultados positivos para os clientes e mais impacto ambiental; em (E), desenvolvimento adicional das questes ecolgicas a despeito do interesse dos clientes. 8. E O modal verb may em "you may be surprised at how fast they can become a Standard accepted business process in 2010 and beyond." (voc pode se surpreender como eles podem rapidamente se tornar um processo empresarial padro aceito em 2010 e mais alm), o auxiliar may aqui expressa possibility (possibilidade). Nas outras opes l-se: em (A), necessity (necessidade); em (B), certainty (certeza); em (C), obligation (obrigao); em (D), capability (capacidade).

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO A TOUR OF THE TOP TEN ESSENTIAL POINTS I. FUCTION WORDS & CONTENT WORDS I. a) 5 function words 1st paragraph text 1 (any five items of these will be OK): about, from, everyone, their, or, but, in, its, and, the, of, will, no. down, to some very I. b) 10 content words 2nd paragraph text 1 text 1(any ten items of these will be OK): today, business, green, talking, approach, packaging, methods, really, infancy, future, doubt, distill, real, definable, goals, practices. II. REGULAR & IRREGULAR VERBS II. a) Past forms of verbs: 1. Put (put, put) por; 2. Take (took, taken) tomar, pegar; 3. find (found, found) achar; 4. do (did, done) fazer; 5. tend (tended, tended) tender; 6. drive (drove, driven) dirigir, guiar; 7. have (had, had) ter, possuir; 8. build (built, built) construir. II. b) Infinitive forms of verbs: 1. found (to find) ; 2. held (to hold); 3. seen (to see); 4. given (to give) III. TRUE & FALSE COGNATES III. a) TRUE COGNATES - 1. Dictate (ditar); 2. public (pblico); 3. dividends (dividendos); 4. community (comunidade) III. b) FALSE COGNATES (*) Utilities (L-29) contas de luz, gua, gs, ... Tenants normally pay their own utilities. Os inquilinos geralmente pagam suas contas de servios. utility utilidade The CEO saw no utility in having a local representative. O diretor-presidente no via nenhuma utilidade em ter um representante local. utility companies empresas de servios pblicos

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO IV. DISCOURSE MARKERS 1. In fact (de fato, na verdade) indica nfase, 2. So (L-8) indica consequncia; 3. First up (L-14) indica enumerao; 4. unless (a menos que) indica condio; 5. While (enquanto) indica contraste; 6. if (se) - 7. instead (ao invs de) indica oposio; 8. so (L-59) (portanto); 9. While (L-68) indica contraste; 10. In other words (L-32) V. VERB TENSES O tempo verbal predominante no text 1 o future simple: will no doubt distill down (L-3/4); will dictate (L-7/8); will find (L-12); will merge (L15/16); will report (L-17); will need (L-35 / 59/ 60); will better appreciate (L-37); will no doubt continue (L-49) N.B: Poderamos mencionar ainda as construes passivas: Will be put to the test (L-5/6), Will be affected (L-50); Will be defined (L-61/62) VI. MODAL VERBS 1. Will (L-4) - 2. Must (L-7) - 3. may (L-21) - 4. can (L-53) - 5. must (L63); 5. should (L-64) - 6. can (L-69) VII. PHRASAL VERBS - 1. giving out (distribuindo); 2. reach out (tentar alcanar); 3. tie together (unir, atar) VIII. AFFIXES 1. Definable ao verbo regular to define acrescentas-se o sufixo ABLE para formar este adjetivo que significa definvel. 2. Loyalty ao adjetivo loyal (leal) acrescenta-se o sufixo TY para formarse este substantivo que significa lealdade. 3. Reusable ao regular verb to use (usar, utilizar) acrescentou-se o sufixo ABLE para formar o adjetivo usable (usvel, utilizvel), e mais o prefixo REpara chegar ao adjetivo reusable (reutilizvel). 4. relationship ao substantive relation (relao) acrescenta-se o sufixo SHIP para obter outro substantive relationship que significa relacionamento. 5. Strengthening ao substantive strength (fora) acrescentamos o sufixo EN para formarmos o verbo regular to strengthen (fortalecer). 6. Successful ao substantivo success (sucesso) acrescentamos o sufixo FUL para formar o adjetivo successful (bem sucedido) 7. Openly ao verbo regular to open (abrir) acrescentamos o sufixo LY para obter o advrbio openly (abertamente)
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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO X. - Idiomatic Expressions 1. carrying the green banner carregando a bandeira do verde (do ecologicamente correto, da defesa ambiental) 2. its bottom line seu resultado financeiro 3. take place ter lugar, ocorrer VOCABULARY BUILD UP Mini text 1: Sector performance 1. (a) amounting / 2. (b) compared / 3. (a) beverages / 4. (b) approvals / 5. (a) pace ANALYSIS OF MINI TEXT 1 1. The irregular verb is to grow, grew & grown (crescer). The noun: crescimento growth. 2. Translation of the fragments: a) Disbursements for the industry have grown 8% desembolsos (concesses de recursos) para a indstria cresceram 8% b) Performance of approvals was even better os desempenhos das aprovaes foi ainda melhor c) Were the highlights in loans foram os pontos altos em emprstimos d) The textile industry reached 185% in disbursements a indstria txtil alcanou 185% em desembolsos JUST FOR FUN - PICTURE TEST There is just a little problem with (b) blind dates. (*) H apenas um probleminha com encontros s cegas. (*) blind date primeiro encontro entre um homem e uma mulher que no se conhecem.

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO ANSWERS / EXERCISES I. Complete the sentences with one of the words in bold type: 1. Our airline cannot be held responsible for any personal belongings left on the plane, the flight attendant announced. Nossa aerolnea no pode ser responsabilizada por quaisquer objetos pessoais deixados no avio, anunciou a aeromoa. 2. Some big department stores fail to meet their customers requirements. Algumas grandes lojas de departamentos fracassam em satisfazer as exigncias de seus clientes. 3. Wealthy industrialists in So Paulo begin to demonstrate signs of impatience with the governments economic policies. Ricos industriais de So Paulo comeam a demonstrar sinais de impacincia com as polticas econmicas do governo. 4. Mr. Weld runs a very profitable business. O Sr. Weld dirige uma empresa muito lucrativa. 5. Soon the auditors found out that the accountant had been cooking the books for quite a while. Em pouco tempo os auditores descobriram que o contador vinha fraudando os livros contbeis h bastante tempo. 6. With the advent of computer technology most business enterprises in Brazil have unified their controlling systems. Com o advento da tecnologia da computao a maioria das empresas no Brasil unificaram seus sistemas de controle. 7. My New Years resolutions were made in the privacy of my bedroom. Minhas resolues de ano novo foram feitas na privacidade do meu quarto. 8. Talk to your bank manager. He can show you the most advantageous form of investing your money. Fale com seu gerente do banco. Ele pode lhe mostrar a maneira mais vantajosa para investir seu dinheiro. 9. Mr. Morris, together with his principal associates, will vote in support of the merger. O Sr. Morris, juntamente com seus principais parceiros, votar em favor da fuso.
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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO 10. Ian is too young for the managerial position he holds at the bank. Ian muito jovem para o cargo gerencial que detm no banco. 11. The racers complaints had to do with his cars lack of competitiveness. As reclamaes do piloto diziam respeito falta de competitividade do carro. 12. Dont cheat on the exam or else you may run the risk of being disqualified. No cole na prova ou voc pode correr o risco de ser desclassificado. 13. His involvement in the military coup to overthrow the president has never been proved. Seu envolvimento no golpe militar para depor o presidente nunca foi provado. 14. All I can say is that Jenny looked extremely attractive in her new dress. Tudo o que eu posso dizer que a Jenny parecia extremamente atraente no0 seu novo vestido. 15. I dont know anything about the recent economic measures. No sei nada a respeito das recentes medidas econmicas. II. PAST FORM OF THE VERBS: 1. I SENT you an e-mail yesterday. Why didnt you answer it? Eu lhe mandei um e-mail ontem. Por que voc no o respondeu? 2/3. When my little granddaughter SAW me at the door, she RAN up to me breathlessly. Quando minha netinha me viu porta, correu para mim ofegante. 4. The Consumer Price Index ROSE 0.6% last month the largest hike in six months. O ndice de preos ao consumidor cresceu 0,6% no ltimo ms o maior aumento em 6 meses. 5. I havent READ the new Status magazine. Do you have it? No li a nova revista Status. Voc a tem?

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO III. PHRASAL VERBS WITH LIVE 1. I hope I can live up to your expectations, boss. Espero poder satisfazer suas expectativas, chefe. 2. We will live through the current crisis with hard work. Superaremos a atual crise com trabalho rduo. 3. Ideas have endurance, they live on forever, JFK said. Idias perduram. Elas vivem eternamente, disse JFK. 4. She failed her exam, now she has to live with that. Ela fracassou no exame; agora, tem de viver com isso. 5. Get a life! Find something worth living for. V luta! Ache alguma coisa por que valha a pena viver. IV.ING or ED forms? 1. We were all INTERESTED in the new subject at school. Todos ns estvamos interessados na nova matria na escola. 2. The movie was based on a very INTERESTING book. O filme era baseado num livro muito interessante. 3. The hurricane destroyed many dwellings. It will take time to repair the DAMAGED buildings. O furaco destruiu muitas habitaes. Levar tempo para reconstruir os prdios danificados. 4. Our boss didnt convince us. He didnt tell us a CONVINCING story. O chefe no nos convenceu. No nos contou uma histria convincente. 5. The referendum surprised many citizens. The SURPRISING results were announced on TV. O referendum surpreendeu muitos cidados. Os resultados surpreendentes foram anunciados pela TV. 6. Our boss declared that he didnt know exactly the amount of money INVESTED in the project. Nosso chefe declarou no saber exatamente a importncia em dinheiro investida no projeto.
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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO V. Choose the better alternative in brackets. 1. John scored 675 points out of 700 possible on the exam. He (a) must have studied really hard. John fez 675 dos 700 pontos possveis na prova. Ele deve ter estudado verdadeiramente com afinco. 2. Look! The sidewalk is somewhat wet and slippery. It (b) may have rained while we were watching the movie. Veja! A calada est um tanto molhada e escorregadia. Deve ter chovido enquanto estvamos assistindo ao filme. 3. It (a) cant have been Peter you saw at the station. He was here with us all the time. No pode ter sido o Peter que voc viu na estao. Ele estava aqui conosco o tempo todo. 4. If I were you, I (b) wouldnt] talk to Nora any longer. Se eu fosse voc, no falaria nunca mais com a Nora. 5. Dora (a) cant play the flute, but her sister plays it well. Dora no sabe tocar flauta, mas sua irm toca bem.

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CURSOS ON-LINE - INGLS BNDES 2011 PROFESSOR CARLOS AUGUSTO Avalie se os seguintes objetivos da AULA 3 foram alcanados. OBJECTIVES OBJETIVOS Raise your awareness of: Despertar sua conscientizao para: I. Text 1: The Trends Of Green Business For 2010 And Beyond CESGRANRIO / 2010 Texto 1 As tendncias das empresas ecologicamente corretas para 2010 e para o futuro - [CESGRANRIO / 2011] II. A Tour of the top tem points based on text 1 Uma viagem pelos dez pontos principais - com base no texto 1 III. Main MODAL VERBS Os principais Verbos Modais IV. Vocabulary Build Up Mini text 1: Sector performance Construo do vocabulrio Mini texto Desempenho Setorial V. Affixes A summary Resumo dos principais prefixos e sufixos VI. Just for Fun Picture test S para divertir Teste de Gravuras VII. Exercise Section Seo de Exerccios VIII. Answers & Comments Respostas & Comentrios

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