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The propulsion of a 12 500TEU container ship

The propulsion of a 12 500TEU container ship


JS Carlton, Lloyds Register, London The paper considers the propulsion of a 12 500TEU container ship in conceptual terms and builds on the earlier propulsion studies that were published by Lloyds Register in 2001/2.The cases for single and twin screw hull forms are considered as well as the various trade-offs that inevitably form part of the design process. Conclusions are reached about the feasibility of achieving an acceptable propulsion solution. Within the discussion the problems of rudder erosion are also addressed. The mechanical propulsion aspects are examined from the points of view of propulsion efficiency, the achievement of acceptable shaft-line vibration behaviour and the static and dynamic alignment characteristics

AUTHORS BIOGRAPHY Following training as a mechanical engineer and mathematician, John Stephen Carlton served in the Royal Naval Scientific Service under taking research into underwater vehicle hydrodynamic design and propulsors. Five years later he joined Stone Manganese Marine Ltd at Greenwich as a propeller designer and research engineer, specialising in controllable pitch propeller and transverse propulsion unit technology but also under taking analysis into other aspects of ship propulsion technology. In 1975, he joined Lloyds Register, first in the Technical Investigation Depar tment and after nine years transferred to the Advanced Engineering Depar tment as its Deputy Head. He later moved to the newly formed Performance Technology Depar tment where he initiated and led several research and development activities but subsequently returned, in 1992, to the Technical Investigation Depar tment as the Senior Principal Surveyor and Head of Depar tment. In 2003 Mr Carlton was invited to become the Global Head of Marine Technology and Investigation for Lloyds Register repor ting directly to the Marine Director. During his career he has presented some 80 technical papers on several aspects of marine technology, written many ar ticles for technical journals as well as a textbook on marine propellers and propulsion. Mr Carlton is a Denny Gold Medallist of the Institute of Marine Engineers Science and Technology and has also won the Stanley Gray Award for Marine Technology twice. Additionally, he sits on a number of international and government committees and is a visiting lecturer and external examiner to universities in the UK and abroad. Earlier this year he was awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Science for his contribution to marine technology and shipping.

INTRODUCTION

he conceptual design and propulsion of large containerships was examined and initially reported by Lloyds Register.1,2 The driver for that early work was to test the feasibility of current technology to accommodate the design of large container ships and to identify where, if necessary, further research and development was required. In addition the problem of whether such a ship would provide a cost-effective means of marine transport for containers was considered.1 Since that time a considerable body of work has been done internationally and a continuing programme of further study has been undertaken within Lloyds Register.3 Within these programmes a range of ship sizes has been considered up to and including 18 500TEU ships. While such large sizes may be developed in the future, current developments of post-Panamax ships are largely governed by the present port sizes and their planned developments. Set against this background the present paper examines the propulsion aspects of a nominal 12 500TEU container ship. Lloyds Registers ultra large container ship design study, published in 20021, determined that the largest container ship which could be accommodated by the majority of the world's large container terminals would have a capacity of around 12 500TEU. In order to test this finding to the fullest extent, the original concept design was developed on the assumption that a larger proportion of high cube containers will be carried in the future than at present. In this context high cube containers were defined as 9' 6" high, whereas, historically most containers have been 8' 6" in height. Consequently, in keeping with this definition, the depth of the ship, taken as 29m, was based on the following parameters: i. Depth of double bottom (according to the Rule formula) = 2.377m ii. Height of 9 tiers of high-cube containers = 26.061m

No. A8 2006

Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology

Numerical optimisation of propeller-hull configurations at full scale


400 50.0 45.0 40.0 35.0 30.0 25.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0 5000

Moulded beam & draught (m)

Length overall (m)

350

Moulded Beam

300

Draught

250

6000

7000

8000

9000

10000

200 5000

Ship nominal capacity (TEU)


6000 7000 8000 9000 10000

Ship nominal capacity (TEU)

Fig 2:Variation of beam and draught with ship capacity latter shows the variations in moulded beam and maximum draught with nominal ship capacity. It is clear that the trends in ship design show that moulded beam has been steadily increasing to around 46m for a 10 000TEU ship while the maximum draught has been maintained a sensibly constant value at just below 15m. Both these principal dimensions have been constrained by existing port configurations: the former by gantry outreach while the latter by water depth. Consequently, the primary variability in dimension has been in ship length as shown by Fig 1. The basis of the developed hull form for the 12 500TEU ship2 is still considered valid when viewed against the experience gained with the increasing size of container ships in the intervening four years. Consequently, relatively few geometric changes have been implemented to reflect our current understanding of large container ship hydrodynamic behaviour. However, the correct selection of operating draught is of particular importance since not only does it determine the power requirement for the ship, but also has a profound influence on the propeller blade design in terms of the required blade area and, consequently, the blade chord lengths, section form and rake and skew distributions. Analysis of operational container ship draughts used in service3 have shown that in recent years a greater equality between eastbound and westbound draughts is achieved for ships engaged on the Far Eastern to European trade routes than was the case some years ago. If this trend persists then it will have a helpful influence on the propeller design problem since the accommodation of a significant change of draught condition over a round trip potentially becomes less important than previously was the case. Therefore, while the design draught has been maintained at 15m, a lesser constant operating draught has been considered for the ship powering based upon analysis of the economic and operating trends. The principal dimensions of the ship based on design draught are shown in Table 1.
Length between perpendiculars Lpp Length along the waterline Lwl Moulded breadth B(Mld) Design draught Tdes Block coefficient at Tdes Midship section coefficient at Tdes Waterplane area coefficient at Tdes Longitudinal centre of buoyancy at Tdes 381.0m 384.0m 57.0m 15.0m 0.630 0.990 0.786 -2.25% Aft

Fig 1:Variation in ship length with capacity A ship depth of 29m will also accommodate a mixed stow of 8 6 and 9 6 containers ten tiers high. Recent analysis of container types being transported by sea3 indicates that the proportion of high cube containers is increasing. This, therefore, tends to vindicate the earlier assumption of high cube containers acting as the basis for defining the capacity of the ultra large container ship. If, however, the ships capacity was re-defined in terms of standard height containers, then the capacity of the nominal 12 500TEU ship would increase to 13 970TEU. Notwithstanding this increase, it is considered that to use such a definition within a conceptual study of this type may overestimate the earning capacity of the ship compared to today's fleet and, furthermore, it would overestimate the number of container lifts required and, consequently, the turn round time in port. The single screw, slow speed diesel engine propulsion option for container ships is well established and is one that has gained much favour with ship owners and operators. Consequently, this tenet forms the initial starting point of this study and its feasibility is considered in the context of the larger ship sizes. The analysis then expands, first to embrace the effects of variations and trade offs about the standard ship operational conditions of draught and speed and then explores the boundary for a single screw propulsion design with a reasonable expectation of success. When considering the propulsion of large container ships the propeller and rudder need to be considered together since the propulsion solution adopted for the propeller will have a significant influence on the performance of the rudder. Indeed, the development of a satisfactory rudder design which will be tolerant of the onerous hydrodynamic conditions within which it is required to operate has been problematic in a number of recent smaller designs. Various options are discussed whereby the potential for minimising the occurrence of structural erosion may be achieved. Within the overall machinery design problem the design of the propulsion shafting is an important consideration. Furthermore, the behaviour of the shafting system requires exploration under both static and dynamic conditions: the latter embracing aspects of steady state operation, manoeuvring and operation in rough weather. These problems are examined within the context of alignment and the torsional, lateral and axial vibration dynamics.

HULL FORM
The trends in container ship principal dimensions are shown in Figs 1 and 2, the former showing overall length while the

Table 1: Principal hull form parameters

Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology

No. A8 2006

The propulsion of a 12 500TEU container ship

times made a distinction between summer and winter operation on the East-Asiatic route of 15 and 20% respectively. In the case of the North Atlantic, depending upon whether east or west passages were being undertaken, allowances of up to 15 and 30% respectively were proposed. The subsequent introduction of anti-fouling 0.7R paints improved this situation consider0.8R ably and permitted a reduction in the 0.9R required allowances. However, because 1.0R some of the chemicals in the more effective coatings are in the process of being 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 banned for environmental reasons the full Angular position in propeller disc (deg) propulsion advantages of those coatings Fig 3: Scaled effective wake for the blade outer radii are not now available to the marine industry. Nevertheless, new technologies are emerging and, in particular, silicon based 4.0 paints, although expensive and the subChord ject of a number of full scale trials, potenp(r)/D 3.0 tially offer significant propulsion advanSkew tages. When traditional anti-fouling coatings were able to be used typical sea marThickness 2.0 gins ranged between 10 and 15%. Rake Consequently, recognising the developCamber 1.0 ing technologies, the added resistance characteristics of modern container ships 0.0 and the present trends in the container ship industry a 15% sea margin over the 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 trial condition has been used in this study. -1.0 Non-dimensional radius (r/R) For the 12 500TEU hull form at an even keel draught of 13.5m the delivered Fig 4: Propeller blade geometry service power at the propeller is shown in Table 3 for a ship speed of 25kts. At this Based on commercial analyses the nominal operating speed the ships quasi-propulsive coefficient was estimated draught for the ship has been taken as 13.5m. At this draught to be 0.74. Additionally, under normal deep water condithe block, midship section and waterplane area coefficients tions some sinkage will occur due to the dynamic pressure and the position of the longitudinal centre of buoyancy are field around the hull: typically this will induce a trim by the shown in Table 2. bow with a mean sinkage of around 0.5m. The power required at this condition from the engine, allowing for shaft line mechanical losses, is estimated to be 67.3MW. Block coefficient 0.613 Midship section coefficient 0.989 The shaft rotational speed together with the associated proWaterplane area coefficient 0.750 peller diameter has a significant influence on the propulLongitudinal centre of buoyancy -2.0% Aft sive efficiency, cavitation development and the radiated Table 2: Hull form coefficients at 13.5m draught hull surface pressure signatures. Indeed, for a given ship size there is no unique solution, rather there is a cluster of The ships bulbous bow has been optimised for the 13.5m solutions whose acceptability is dependent upon the hull parent draught condition at a ship speed of 25kts. Since the form and final choice of prime mover. favoured propulsion configuration by owners for large conCondition Delivered power (P ) Rev/min tainer ships is the single screw hull form, this has been adoptService 65.94MW 90 ed as the parent hull form for this study. Table 3: Ship power requirements at T=13.5m and Vs=25kts
1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

Chord (m), skew (m), p(r)/D,thickness (m), rake (m) & 10Camber (m)

Axial velocity ratio (Vx/Vs)

HYDRODYNAMIC PROPULSION
Sea margin is a function of fouling potential and the added resistance weather allowances. The correct choice of sea margin is a complex issue, particularly in the presently changing scene relating to hull coatings in response to environmental concerns. Service analysis studies conducted some years ago suggested differing sea margins for different sea routes. Harvald4 in pre-improved anti-fouling The ship effective wake field generated by the hull at 25kts was estimated from nominal wake characteristics and the circumferential variations are shown in Fig 3 for the outer propeller radii; these being the principal flow features governing the outer propeller blade cavitation dynamics. The volumetric mean effective, full scale Taylor wake fraction was calculated to be 0.22.

No. A8 2006

Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology

The propulsion of a 12 500TEU container ship

Based on a slow speed, direct drive diesel engine as the prime mover for the propulsion system, a propeller having a diameter of 9700mm operating at the continuous service rating was designed. The leading characteristics of the propeller are shown in Table 4.
Diameter Mean pitch ratio Blade area Skew Material Number of blades 9700mm 1.038 0.853 26.5deg Ni-Al Bronze 6

Table 4: Leading propeller dimensions The radial distributions of chord, thickness, camber, skew and rake are shown graphically in Fig 4. In the tip region of the blades the selection of all of the geometric parameters, but particularly the radial distributions of chord, rake and skew, can have a profound local influence on the development of the cavitation and the consequent magnitude and spectral content of the radiated hull surface pressures. The blade number has been chosen as six, principally in order to control the effects of cavitation. When operating in the scaled ship effective wake field the margin against pressure side cavitation was 0.26KT when operating in the service condition and this is considered to represent a satisfactory margin. With the propeller installed in the hull aperture and located such that first, there was sufficient clearance between the propeller and rudder to permit the propeller to be removed without disturbing the rudder and, secondly, a clearance of 150mm between the blade tips and the ships base line, the propeller-hull clearance was 0.27D. The predicted suction side blade sheet cavitation extents are shown in Figs 5a and 5b for a ship speed of 25kts at the operating draught of 13.5m. The analysis of the propeller radiated hull surface pressures due to the growth and collapse of the sheet cavitation on the blade suction surfaces suggested that the first and second blade rate harmonic pressures were of the order of 6.0kPa and 2.3kPa respectively. While pressure excitation magnitude is not the only determinant of excitation force acceptability and both surface pressure amplitude and phase have to be considered together, such values are thought to be a satisfactory basis from which to achieve hull structural global and local vibrations of acceptable levels. Within the current state of the art excitation minimisation from the tip vortices is best approached from a model testing perspective for a particular design configuration. However, this is not without problems with respect to scaling and when evaluating the results of model tests recall should be made of previous model to full scale behaviour correlation for similar ships. Full scale measurements and observations on smaller container ships have shown that the tip vortex may interact with the supercavitating sheet cavitation shed from the trailing edge tip region of the suction surface of the propeller blade. Fig 6 shows one such set of examples undertaken within the recent EU based EROCAV project in which Lloyds Register was a participant. Such interactions induce the vortex to be twisted violently and then to be thrown outwards and forwards from the vortex core. Partial ring vortices may then be produced in the direction of the twisting motion and, furthermore, during this process it has been noticed that the off-blade sheet cavity vol-

umes reduce significantly leaving only a fine residue of vapour mist. During this process the cavitating tip vortex can also reduce in volume: recognising that the cavitating part of the vortex is only the visible part of the total vortex system. However, in Lloyds Registers experience the cavitating core of the vortex generally remains in the flow field, although in a weaker form, as it is convected towards the rudder leading edge. Cavitation dynamics of this type significantly increase the risk of broadband excitation being experienced with also the attendant risk of higher harmonic excitation being encountered. The propeller has been designed to be manufactured from nickel-aluminium bronze. This material has a good resistance to cavitation erosion and the requirements and procedures for the repair of mechanical or cavitation erosion damage are now well understood, provided suitably qualified organisations and personnel are employed. Using a mean von Mises tensile stress of 49MPa the corresponding distributions of von Mises stress for the maximum and minimum thrust conditions in the propeller disc are shown in Fig 7. It will be seen that the maximum von Mises stress field occurs just off the top-dead-centre position (180deg). This is due to the influence of the propeller in-plane wake field flow velocities. As expected, due to the influence of the chosen skew, the maximum concentrations within the stress field tend to occur towards the trailing edge of the blade but not actually on the trailing edge. This is a beneficial characteristic since it helps to avoid having the absolute stress maxima along the trailing edge where porosity and inclusions can sometimes gather during the casting process of the blade. However, if the skew were increased then the tendency for the stress concentration to move towards the trailing edge is more pronounced.5 While failure by fatigue action is the dominant consideration for ahead propeller operation, during stopping manoeuvres a yield strength criterion is more appropriate since under these types of condition for highly skewed propellers the blade is susceptible to bending in the outer regions. Fig 8 shows the von Mises stress distribution for a bollard astern loading condition which represents this type of condition at its severest. Given that the 0.15% proof stress of nickel-aluminium bronze is around 270MPa it can be seen that a blade bending failure situation is unlikely to occur.

TRADE-OFFS IN HYDRODYNAMIC DESIGN


A number of variants about the basic hull form suggest themselves as possible contenders for design options. Since beam is essentially fixed by the dockside gantry over-reach, the variables are principally draught, but recalling that maximum draught is also a port constraint, and length in order to achieve the same container capacity: recognising that the block coefficient needs to be as fine as possible within the Froude Number, seakeeping and parametric rolling constraints. A further variable is ship speed which is a trading pattern driven requirement. A variation in draught about the operating draught of 13.5m was explored over a range of 12 to 15m. This has been done in two ways: first, by considering the ship to be driven with the propeller discussed previously and secondly by a purpose

Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology

No. A8 2006

The propulsion of a 12 500TEU container ship


Cavitation Pattern at 150 deg (ITTC Angle)
0.95R 0.9R 0.8R 0.7R 0.6R 0.5R 0.4R 0.3R

Cavitation Pattern at 160 deg (ITTC Angle)


0.95R 0.9R 0.8R 0.7R 0.6R 0.5R 0.4R 0.3R

Cavitation Pattern at 210 deg (ITTC Angle) 0.95R 0.9R 0.8R 0.7R 0.6R 0.5R 0.4R 0.3R

Cavitation Pattern at 220 deg (ITTC Angle) 0.95R 0.9R 0.8R 0.7R 0.6R 0.5R 0.4R 0.3R

Cavitation Pattern at 170 deg (ITTC Angle)


0.95R 0.9R 0.8R 0.7R 0.6R 0.5R 0.4R 0.3R

Cavitation Pattern at 180 deg (ITTC Angle)


0.95R 0.9R 0.8R 0.7R 0.6R 0.5R 0.4R 0.3R

Cavitation Pattern at 230 deg (ITTC Angle) 0.95R 0.9R 0.8R 0.7R 0.6R 0.5R 0.4R 0.3R

Cavitation Pattern at 240 deg (ITTC Angle) 0.95R 0.9R 0.8R 0.7R 0.6R 0.5R 0.4R 0.3R

Cavitation Pattern at 190 deg (ITTC Angle)


0.95R 0.9R 0.8R 0.7R 0.6R 0.5R 0.4R 0.3R

Cavitation Pattern at 200 deg (ITTC Angle)


0.95R 0.9R 0.8R 0.7R 0.6R 0.5R 0.4R 0.3R

Cavitation Pattern at 250 deg (ITTC Angle) 0.95R 0.9R 0.8R 0.7R 0.6R 0.5R 0.4R 0.3R

Cavitation Pattern at 260 deg (ITTC Angle) 0.95R 0.9R 0.8R 0.7R 0.6R 0.5R 0.4R 0.3R

Fig 5a: Predicted suction side cavitation extents from 150 to 200degs

Fig 5b: Predicted suction side cavitation extents from 210 to 260degs designed propeller for each draught condition. In each case the parent hull has been utilised but with the appropriate hydrostatic particulars relating to each draught condition. In the case where the ship is propelled by the same propeller at various draughts, Fig 9 shows the resulting power absorption conditions under service conditions for a range of ship speeds between 23 and 27kts. These power absorption characteristics have as a pivot the design condition of the ship which relates to a continuous service engine power of 67.3MW and 90rev/min in association with a ship speed of 25kts. Consequently, for this ship the continuous service rating forms an upper limit on power, without modification to the prime mover, together with an implied limitation for the propeller since its stressing basis relates to the maximum continuous delivered power. While the hull design has been optimised about the design point for effec-

Fig 6: Interacting tip vortex and sheet cavitation


(Courtesy EROCAV)

Fig 7: Propeller blade von Mises stress distributions

No. A8 2006

Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology

The propulsion of a 12 500TEU container ship

Bollard Astern Back von-Mises Stress Contours


70% MCR RPM Astern

90 R 80 MPa 70 MPa 80 R 60 MPa 60 MPa 70 R 50 MPa 40 MPa 60 R 40 MPa 30 MPa 50 R 20 MPa 20 MPa 10 MPa 40 R 30 R

with an increase in the blade surface sheet cavitation extent. The propeller blade number has been fixed at six for this study. This has been to secure a reasonable propeller cavitation performance within the constraints of current merchant ship practice. If, however, the blade number were allowed to vary then it is instructive, within the wake field applicable to this ship, to understand how the blade rate radiated hull surface pressures might increase and Table 5 shows this variation in percentage terms relative to the six bladed design. Blade number Percentage change in pz 6 0 5 5% 4 16%

Table 5: Effect of variation in blade number on blade rate hull pressures Fig 8: Blade bollard pull astern von Mises stress distribution tive power and quasi-propulsive coefficient, some penalty is incurred by the bulbous bow when the ship is run at the lighter draughts in terms of the pressure resistance. This has the effect of increasing the resistance of the ship by a small amount. At the deeper draughts this effect is reduced. The cavitation performance of the propeller at the different draughts also changes. In the case of the deeper draught of 15m the ship speed and propeller speed are 24.3kts and 89.1rev/min given the absorption of 67.3MW. This will have the effect of reducing the sheet cavity extent over the suction surface of the propeller blades and also slightly improving the propeller radiated hull surface pressures by around 5% for the blade rate harmonic component. In the alternative case of operating at the lighter draught the self propulsion point under service conditions is given by 25.6kts and 91rev/min. Due to these changes and more importantly the lesser immersion of the propeller the radiated hull surface pressures can be expected to rise by around 7%, together
110

Some advantage in hull surface pressure generation might be gained by the deployment of a seven bladed propeller since this could yield a reduction of around 3% over the six bladed option. However, only a few seven bladed propellers have been produced in merchant practice and none of the size contemplated for this ship. Indeed, because of the high blade area ratio and the root thicknesses of the propeller blades, some difficulty may be experienced in satisfactorily sitting the blades on the boss without increasing the boss diameter and hence weight of the finished propeller. Considering the hydrodynamic design problem in terms of the recently proposed ITTC Difficulty Index6 the six bladed propeller returns a value of 7.2 with the coefficient rising inversely with blade number to 10.6 for a four bladed design. Set against their tentative criterion of 7 also reinforces the choice of a high blade number from the hydrodynamic viewpoint but with the caveat of avoiding any hull structural vibration critical frequencies. If propellers were specifically designed for each of the operational speeds at the 13.5m draught case the resulting set of propellers would conform to the pattern shown in Table 6. Ship speed (kts) Diameter (mm) Mean pitch ratio Expanded blade area ratio Blade rate hull surface pressure (kPa) Propeller weight (tonnes) 23.0 9200 1.013 0.792 4.5 101.7 25.0 9700 1.038 0.853 6.2 128.0 27.0 10125 1.069 0.985 6.6 164..8

100 Revolutions (rpm)

90

Tm = 15.0 m

Tm=13.5 m 80 Tm = 12.0 m

Table 6: Propeller parameters over the ship speed range In each case the power requirements at 13.5m draught can be accommodated by the presently offered range of slow speed diesel engines with the exception of the highest ship speeds when an additional power source would need to be supplied. At 27kts the largest diesel engine would need to be supplemented by a shaft electric motor of around 4MW capacity. The maximum ship speed that can be accommodated by a single slow speed diesel engine operating at its continuous service rating is around 26.7kts at 13.5m draught. Nevertheless, at speeds higher than 25kts for a ship of this size, 12 500 to 13 900TEU as discussed previously, the propeller cavitation problem will become increasingly severe. This may, therefore, dictate that a twin screw hull form should be selected for either larger sizes of ship or ships of this size travelling significantly faster.

Shaft Power (MW)

70

CSR 67283 Kw

60

50

40 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Ship Speed Vs (kts)

Fig 9: Power absorption for a range of ship mean draughts

Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology

No. A8 2006

The propulsion of a 12 500TEU container ship

Comparing the ratio of propulsion efficiencies of the ship at 13.5m draught when propellers specifically designed for each speed are utilised to the case where a propeller designed for 25kts is utilised over the speed range, 23 to 27kts, it is seen that an improvement in propulsive efficiency of around 2% occurs at the high speed end of the speed range; Table 7. Ship speed (kts) Propulsion efficiency ratio 23 1% 25 0 27 2%

ing conditions the torsional behaviour of the tail and intermediate shafts was satisfactory with the shafting arrangement defined by Table 8. The crankshaft characteristics were, however, found to be troublesome in the misfiring conditions and in some engines at the normal firing condition. For the set of systems considered Fig 10 shows a typical set of characteristics under misfiring conditions without a damper fitted.
Sys-2, Station 22-23 Propeller shaft Cyl1 misfiring

Table 7: Effects on propulsion efficiency ratio

PROPULSION MACHINERY
For the purposes of this conceptual study the propulsion system comprised the elements shown in Table 8 coupled to a slow speed marine diesel engine. With regard to the slow speed diesel engines, a range of commercially available engines was considered embracing cylinder diameters from 960mm through to 1080mm. The maximum continuous rating speed was taken as either 94rev/min or 102rev/min as appropriate. The shafting system was equipped with forward and aft stern-tube bearings and five intermediate plummer bearings supporting the shafting. Shaft speed at MCR (rev/min) Rule tail-shaft diameter (mm) Rule inter-shaft diameter (mm) Shaft length to engine flange (m) Tail-shaft length (m) Intermediate shaft 1 length (m) Intermediate shaft 2 length (m) Intermediate shaft 3 length (m) Intermediate shaft 4 length (m) 94 1042 853 70.0 15.5 13.7 12.8 14.0 14.0 102 1018 834 70.0 15.5 13.7 12.8 14.0 14.0

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0

Torsional vibratory 0,5 range stress (N/mm2)

Prop. Shaft Rule MCR 94 rpm

20

40

60 80 Shaft speed (rpm)

100

120

Fig 10a: Propeller shaft characteristics with cylinder 1 misfiring


Sys-2, Station 21-22 Intermediate shaft 4 Cyl1 misfiring 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Torsional vibratory 0,5 range stress (N/mm2) Inter. Shaft 4 Rule MCR 94 rpm

Table 8: Shafting system principal dimensions Although the shafts have diameters in excess of 1m it is considered that they are unlikely to present intractable problems during their manufacture provided that the appropriate measures are taken during production.

20

40

60 80 Shaft speed (rpm)

100

120

Fig 10b: Intermediate shaft characteristics with cylinder 1 misfiring


Sys-2, Station 11-12 Cyl 9 Cyl1 misfiring 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
Torsional vibratory 0,5 range stress (N/mm2)

Torsional vibration analysis


The torsional vibration characteristics were evaluated for the range of propulsion systems. The overall torsional vibration characteristics exhibited similar behaviours in which the II-node resonance of the system was excited, particularly in the misfiring case which resulted in high vibratory stresses in the crankshaft exceeding the permissible stress levels for continuous operation. The effect of this torsional behaviour was investigated for the following three characteristic 14 cylinder systems. Systems 1 and 2 relate to a 980 and 1080mm bore diesel engine while System 3 refers to a 960mm bore engine. The torsional natural frequencies of the three systems are defined in Table 9. System System-1 System-1 + damper System-2 System-2 + damper System-3 System-3 + damper I-node 136.0 134.0 122.0 120.7 133.8 128.7 II-node 649.2 620.5 585.6 560.1 602.2 532.3 III-node 1215.7 1175.1 1129.9 1085.0 1145.9 1032.4

Cyl 9 Rule MCR 94 rpm

20

40

60

80

100

120

Shaft speed (rpm)

Fig 10c: Crankshaft at cylinder 9 with cylinder 1 misfiring To attenuate this resonance, dampers were tuned to dissipate energy at the II-node frequency and, hence, reduce the torsional vibratory peak stresses in the crankshafts at their critical II-node speeds. The inclusion of a torsional damper into the systems considerably assisted the suppression of the unwelcome crankshaft torsional behaviour. For the same system shown in Fig 10c, the modification of the torsional characteristics by fitting a tuned damper to the shafting arrangement, described in Table 8, is shown in Fig 11.

Table 9:Torsional vibration undamped natural frequencies (cpm) The forced damped torsional response of the systems was predicted. In all cases under both normal and misfir-

No. A8 2006

Journal of Marine Engineering and Technology

The propulsion of a 12 500TEU container ship

Sys-2, Station 12-13 Cyl 9 with Geislinger damper, Cyl 1 misfiring 30 Torsional vibratory 0,5 range stress (N/mm2) 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80 Shaft speed (rpm) 100 120 Cyl 10 Rule MCR 94 rpm

machinery options. This was varied from the values quoted in Table 8 up to a maximum of a 22% increase keeping the shaft lengths constant. Again, considering a synthesis of the first 12 orders and a propeller specific damping of 30, it was found that a change in intermediate shaft diameter in association with a tuned damper was sufficient to control the torsional characteristics to an acceptable level in the operating ranges for the propeller, intermediate and crank shafts. Variations in cylinder number, with attendant changes in brake mean effective cylinder pressure, and firing order were seen to have minimal influence on the overall system characteristics.

Fig 11: Crankshaft at cylinder 9 with cylinder 1 misfiring with a tuned damper fitted From Fig 11 the torsional stress in the crankshaft is now just within the limiting value for the engine under misfiring conditions. However, the general torsional characteristic is on a rising flank and some of the systems examined would lead to the introduction of a barred speed range embracing the operating speed range. To explore removing the barred speed range from the normal operating speed range a variational study was undertaken on the intermediate shaft diameter for another of the

Lateral vibration

Calculations were performed with both a single and two point of support arrangement for the aft stern tube bearing models. The former model assumed a single support point at half the shaft diameter (D/2) into the bearing from the aft end while the latter model assumed two points of support 100mm into the bearing from each end. The lateral stiffnesses of the stern tube bearings were changed through a range of 50 to 600tonne/mm per support point and a plummer bearing stiffness of 100tonne/mm was assumed for all plummer bearings. The recommended stiffnesses of the engine bearings were used. The sensitivity of lateral vibraFig 12: Lateral vibration blade rate critical speeds D/2 model tion natural frequencies to stern tube bearing stiffness was explored and for the shafting conShaft Whirling Container Ship, Sys.2 D2 model, 6.0 order figuration designed for 94rev/min 160 Figs 12 and 13 show this sensitivi140 ty at blade rate, 6th order, for the single and two points of support 120 models respectively. 6.0 order, mode 2 100 These figures show that the -6.0 order, mode 2 6.0 order, mode 1 blade rate critical speeds of the for80 -6.0 order, mode 1 ward and reverse whirls of the NOR speed 60 mode-1 resonance were within +20% NOR limit -20% NOR Limit 40 20% of the MCR speed of 94rev/min. Predicted critical speeds 20 at the 50 to 100tonne/mm point of 0 contact lateral stiffness were similar 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Rigid for the D/2 and the two support Sterntube stiffness (tonne/mm) point models, but at higher point of contact lateral stiffnesses, above 150tonne/mm, the two support point Shaft Whirling Container Ship, Sys.2 2PoS model, 6.0 order model predicted a higher critical 160 speed relative to the D/2 model. Similarly, Figs 14 and 15 show 140 the sensitivity of the lateral vibration 120 critical speeds at twice blade rate to 6.0 order, mode 1 variations in the stern tube bearing 100 -0.6 order, mode 1 point of support lateral stiffness for 6.0 order, mode 2 80 models with a single and two points -6.0 order, mode2 NOR Speed 60 of support respectively. Again these NOR Speed +20% figures show that at twice blade rate, NOR Speed -20% 40 12th order, critical speeds of the for20 ward and reverse whirls of mode-4 to mode-6 resonances were within 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Rigid the 20% of the MCR speed of 94rev/min at a stern tube bearing Sterntube stiffness (tonne/mm) point of support lateral stiffness of Fig 13: Lateral vibration blade rate critical speeds 2PoS model 50tonne/mm and above.
Critical speed (rpm) Critical speed (rpm)

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The propulsion of a 12 500TEU container ship


Shaft Whirling Container Ship, Sys.2 D2 model, 12.0 order
300 250 NOR Speed NOR Speed +20% NOR Speed -20% 12.0 order, mode 3 -12.0 order, mode 3 12.0 order, mode 4 -12.0 order, mode 4 12.0 order, mode 5 -12.0 order, mode 5 12.0 order, mode 6 -12.0 order, mode 6 12.0 order, mode 7 -12.0 order, mode 7

Fig 14: Lateral vibration twice blade rate critical speeds D/2 model

Critical speed (rpm)

200

150 100 50 0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

Rigid

Sterntube stiffness (tonne/mm) Shaft Whirling Container Ship, Sys.2 2PoS model, 12.0 order
300 NOR Speed NOR Speed +20% NOR Speed -20% 12.0 order, mode 3 -12.0 order, mode 3 12.0 order, mode 4 -12.0 order, mode 4 12.0 order, mode 5 -12.0 order, mode 5 12.0 order, mode 6 -12.0 order, mode 6 12.0 order, mode 7 -12.0 order, mode 7

250

Critical speed (rpm)

200

150 100

50

Fig 15: Lateral vibration twice blade rate critical speeds 2PoS model

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

Rigid 1000

Sterntube stiffness (tonne/mm)

Bearings
Fwd stern tube Plummer bearing Plummer bearing Plummer bearing Plummer bearing Plummer bearing Engine bearing 1 1 2 3 4 5

Location (m)
9.9 19.7 30.2 40.2 50.6 60.4 70.8

9.8 10.52 9.9 10.4 9.8 10.4

L (m)

Table 10: Bearing arrangement - locations from aft end of shafting system Whether these lateral vibration modes could be significantly excited by the propeller was examined by a finite element model using the two point of support model for the aft stern tube bearing with a point of support lateral stiffness of 100tonne/mm. The propeller was modelled as a disc with an equivalent total wet polar moment of inertia of the propeller. Vorus and Parsons method7 was used to predict the added mass and damping coefficients due to the propeller entrained water. The propeller entrained water damping coefficients and the gyroscopic damping are functions of shaft speed and the forced damped response analyses were analysed with these coefficients at the MCR shaft speed since the primary range of interest was MCR shaft speed 20%.

The bearing arrangement for the lateral vibration computation is presented in Table 10 where the bearing location represents the distance from aft end of the shafting system to the point of support at the named bearing. L is the distance between adjacent bearings. Table 11 indicates the lateral vibration critical speeds at blade and twice blade rate derived from Campbell diagrams specific to the 1080mm and 960mm bore engine shaft systems. Clearly, there is a strong similarity between the critical speeds as might be expected. Fig 16 shows the resultant lateral displacement response of a shafting system at the propeller station under propeller blade rate excitation. The most significant lateral displacements were at blade rate and located at the propeller for all systems at approximately 3.2mm. All other responses at blade rate were below 1mm. For the twice blade rate frequency at the mid-span of intermediate shaft 1, some systems attained lateral displacements of up to 1.7mm: this was the resonance of vibratory modes 5 and 6. All other responses at twice blade rate were below 1mm. The lateral vibration analysis showed that the propeller span mode gives the largest response and although lateral vibration natural frequencies occur within the 20% MCR speed range, it is considered unlikely that these critical speeds in a detailed

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Critical speeds (rev/min) 1080mm 960mm 68.1 77.1 34.1 38.5 82.6 82.6 85.8 85.8 91.6 92.9 94.8 98.4 103.9 105.7 172.5 73.8 82.6 36.9 41.3 76.8 76.8 85.1 85.1 92.0 92.0 94.2 99.7 100.0 102.0 120.1

In addition to the engine builders requirements, the alignment characteristics of the shafting systems were based on the empirical criterion of the maximum relative slope between the aft stern tube bearing and the shaft being less than 0.0003rad. As previously, in each of the systems two shafting system models were considered: one with a single point of support and the other with a two point of support model. In the case of the forward stern tube bearing the bearing was assumed to be supported at its mid position. The prescribed alignment, Fig 17, was defined for the hot static condition. The propeller was assumed to be fully immersed and typical thermal rises ranged from 0.29 and Table 11: Lateral vibration critical speeds of shafting systems 0.39mm depending upon the choice of prime mover. The vertiwith stiffness of 100tonne/mm cal shaft deflections shown here for one of the prescribed alignments of the set of shafting systems may be considered as representative 4.00E-03 with only small but, nevertheless, 3.50E-03 important differences occurring between them. 3.00E-03 Fig 18 shows the equivalent 2.50E-03 bearing loads for the system to Sys2a Sys2b which Fig 17 refers. All bearing 2.00E-03 MCR 94rpm +/-20% load limits were satisfied: the Sys3 1.50E-03 MCR 102rpm +/-20% plummer bearing maximum specific loads were 10bar, as specified 1.00E-03 by the manufacturer, and the stern 5.00E-04 tube maximum specific load was at 8bar for, in this case, a white 0.00E+00 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 metal bearing. Alternatively, a sysShaft speed (rpm) tem could be configured for a nonFig 16: Lateral displacement at the propeller station and blade rate order metallic stern bearing arrangement. The data in this case, Figs 17 and 18, is presented for the hot System 3 and cold static cases where the for2 mer is presented for the D/2 and the two point of support aft stern 0 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 90000 tube model. All systems required slope boring of the aft stern tube -2 with the magnitude of the shaft Sys3 -4 angular deflection under static Bearings conditions lying in the range -6 0.000388 < < 0.000431rad, depending upon the particular sys-8 tem. In the case of the main engines -10 the load limits were specified by the Shaft length (mm) engine manufacturers. The limits of Fig 17: A typical hot static prescribed alignment condition engine flange shear force and bending moment for either the hot and cold static conditions or, alternatively, the minimum and design would cause a problem. Moreover, additional minor maximum load on the aft engine bearings 1 to 3 were satisfied. rearrangement of the bearing locations would most likely further Nevertheless, since these are very long engines care needs to be attenuate the lateral response in the shafting spans. exercised in the set up of the engine and to ensure that the foundations provide adequate support throughout the range of the Axial vibration ships operating conditions. None of the propulsion systems exhibited any untoward globConsequently, the static alignment analysis shows that al axial vibration characteristics. However, in a detailed adequate alignment margins can be achieved for a ship of this
Vertical deflection (mm) Displacement (m)

Engine Bore Blade rate Mode-1 Mode-2 Twice blade rate Mode-1 Mode-2 Mode-3 Mode-4 Mode-5 Mode-6 Mode-7 Mode-8 Mode-9 Mode-10 Mode-11 Mode-12 Mode-13

design some localised problems may be encountered and these will need to be dealt with as appropriate.

Shaft alignment

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Bearing Loads Sys3
250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 Hot Static 2PoS Hot Static D2 Cold Staic D2 Max. Load Min. Load

Shaft distance (mm)

Fig 18:Typical prescribed alignment static bearing loads

boss and also in controlling cavitation development in the root region. In the alternative case of carbon fibre blades, such blades would be constructed from a predetermined sequence of linear and bi-directional weaves based on the nature of the blade chordal and radial loading distributions in order to achieve the required strength and radial and torsional flexibility. With this type of blade there is also the added potential ability to utilise the blade flexure so as to achieve an added control over the cavitation performance over the blades. It would be reasonable to expect the dry propeller weight for such a design to reduce by some 50% and clearly this would ease the stern tube alignment problem. However, this technology, which has been relatively successful in small ship applications, would represent a significant extrapolation of current service experience.

Bearing load (kg)

Shaft dynamic behaviour


The operation of ships in a seaway or when undertaking turning or changes of speed manoeuvres causes a series of spatial and temporal changes to occur in the velocity field presented to the propeller. These changes occur in varying degrees to the flow velocities in each of the three Cartesian directions of flow and generate additional components of loading over the blades. These loadings, in-turn, have to be reacted by the bearings through the influence of the lubricant films. In the case of accelerating manoeuvres in calm water, in this case for a nominal 4000TEU ship, the measured loci of the shaft disFig 19: Loci of shaft displacement during an accelerating manoeuvre placement measured just aft of the oil seal are shown in Fig 19. From this figure it can be seen that size for all of the systems examined. the movement of the shaft increases both in its orbit size as Given that the propeller will be of the keyless type and that well as eccentricity during an increase in speed from it will have a shaft taper sufficient to enable an acceptable fit46.9rev/min to 87rev/min. The primary reason for the eccenting procedure to be formulated which will allow the designed tricity in the higher speed ranges is due to the in-plane wake contact stresses to be achieved, then the propeller dry weight for field components. the 12 500TEU ship will be of the order of 128t. Such a finished In the alternative case of turning manoeuvres then a more propeller weight will be within the casting capabilities of the extreme set of shaft orbit excursions can be anticipated. Fig 20 principal large propeller manufacturers. Nevertheless, the proshows, again for a smaller container ship, a series of port and peller weight is significant when considered against contempostarboard 10deg rudder angle turning manoeuvres undertaken rary propellers although not necessarily by the standards considwhen at full speed with a clockwise rotating shaft. The figure ered some years ago when contemplating the propulsion of a one million tonne tanker. shows the envelopes of a set of instantaneous positions of the Options to lighten the propeller or components of it are potenshaft, measured outboard of the stern seal and recorded over a tially possible either through the use of the built-up concept or by period of two minutes during the turning manoeuvres. It is the use of carbon fibre laid-up blades. In the former case some clearly seen that for the turns to port the propeller shaft is forced difficulty may be experienced with the propeller boss design: parupwards and towards the 11 oclock position, when looking forticularly in relation to fitting a high number of blades on to the ward, at the start of the manoeuvre. Then as the manoeuvre

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The propulsion of a 12 500TEU container ship

Fig 20: Envelopes of shaft positions during turning manoeuvres develops the shaft then starts to fall back towards a more central location. In contrast, during the starboard manoeuvre the shaft is forced to between a 3 oclock and 6 oclock position; starting close to the former location and as the manoeuvre progresses moving towards the latter position. For larger rudder angles at high speed these tendencies became more pronounced: when undertaking port turns the shaft endeavoured to take up more extreme positions while for starboard turns the position in the bearing can traverse the whole of the region from 3 oclock to 9 oclock. It is also noticeable that greater levels of positional instability were seen at very high rudder angles. Consequently, this behaviour has profound implications for the positioning of the lubricant wash-ways in the bearings since if the shaft lands on the edge of a wash-way during such a manoeuvre the oil film is likely to be broken and the lubrication condition compromised. These shafting behaviours are characteristic of single screw ships and a similar behaviour in terms of the qualitative characteristics of the shaft motion might be expected for a 12 500TEU ship. In quantitative terms, the absolute magnitudes of the shaft motions will vary depending upon the weights of the shaft and propeller, the forces and moments developed from the propeller working in the actual wake field and the design of the ships stern aperture in relation to the restrictions it places on the development of the transient aspects of the wake field.

RUDDER HYDRODYNAMICS
When high power and speed are required careful attention to the rudder design is essential if a continuing series of cavitation erosion problems are to be avoided.

Furthermore, cavitation erosion also facilitates several forms of corrosion attack which, in addition to the erosion, tends to compound the operational maintenance problems. In the case of large container ships attention to the rudder profile and detail of the design is paramount. Because the rudder operates in a combination of the helicoidal flow field produced by the propeller and the ships boundary layer, the incident flow presented to the rudder has a strong rotational component as evidenced by the behaviour of the propeller blade tip vortices. Additionally, the rudder tends to distort the flow field such that the slipstream generated by the propeller often expands up the leading edge of the rudder by a small amount. While the presence of cavitation does not necessarily imply erosion, it is true that many rudders fitted to large container ships experience erosion. Frequently, attempts have been made to attenuate these erosive effects of cavitation by the fitting of stainless steel or stellite armour to the rudder and horn: particularly, in the leading edge regions but also on other parts of the rudder. Such attempts, however, have often met with only partial success and have required continuous maintenance during the service life of the ship. There is, nevertheless, some evidence to suggest that more compliant materials may be able to withstand the micro-jet impingement of cavitation attack, at least in the more mild cases of erosion attack. Figs 21 to 23 show the local cavitation number over the surface of a large container ship rudder for a range of rudder angles that would normally be associated with an auto-pilot range of movement. In this context the local cavitation number () is defined as being the ratio of the local static pressure head divided by 1/2 v2, where is the density of sea water and v is the velocity close to the rudder surface. These results were derived from a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics study in which the propeller inflow was modelled for the continuous service rating. These results, through the small but extremely important changes in local cavitation number and their consequences for erosion, underline the importance of studying at the rudder design stage the range of likely auto-pilot angles that will be encountered in service. Such a study can either be done in a large scale cavitation tunnel or with the aid of computational fluid dynamics studies such as these. To achieve an acceptable solution for high powered ships a careful design strategy comprising elements of computation and model testing requires implementation. Such a strategy might involve the measurement of the rudder incident flow field generated by the propeller and the ships boundary layer, recognising that this latter flow field component will require some modification from model scale values due to the significant scale effects present on a large container ship. Having defined this inflow field a first iteration for the rudder geometry design can then be produced which may suggest the desirability of a contoured leading edge, in contrast to the normal straight line leading edge, in order to permit the greatest cavitation free incidence ranges to be obtained for the components of the rudder. Following this defini-

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Fig 21: Local cavitation number over the surface of a semibalanced large container ship rudder at 0deg helm

Fig 22: Local cavitation number over the surface of a semibalanced large container ship rudder at 5deg port helm

tion, large scale model cavitation tests should then be carried out to estimate the full scale characteristics of the design, both in overall terms as well as in the detailed behaviour of the design around the pintle housings and the interfaces between the rudder and horn. Within this testing phase it is important to carefully evaluate the influence that the normal range of auto-pilot rudder angles has on the cavitation dynamics since these angular variations, for the larger container ship and other high speed ship designs, will strongly influence the erosion potential of the design. Furthermore, in order to further assess this potential a paint erosion technique might form an integral part of the testing programme; nevertheless, the reliability of this technique for rudder erosion prediction is not yet as good as similar procedures for propeller blades.8 Following a model testing phase a second iteration of the design can be made in which detailed geometric changes can be introduced in the knowledge of the individual cavitation bucket assessments of the horn, pintle and blade regions of the rudder. Depending on the extent of the changes required a further model test may also be desirable.

In the case of the gap interfaces between the horn and blade, as seen in Figs 24 and 25, very careful attention to these details both at the design and rudder fabrication stages are necessary: the latter aspect to ensure that the design intent is achieved because design tolerances are small in these severe flow conditions. Such a consideration will normally result in a unique specification for the design for each ship and this may include the incorporation of scissor and deflector plates in order to afford protection from erosion in or near gap regions, the advised use of profile curvature and, on occasions, deployment of vortex generators. Within this context, large scale model cavitation tests, centring particularly on the mid-region of the rudder so as to minimise scale effects, have been found to be a particularly valuable aid to design. An alternative to the conventional rudder horn-blade configuration is the use of the variable geometry spade rudder concept. This design option allows, in a mean flow sense, for the rotational characteristic of the incident flow from the propeller. Furthermore, for these types of rudders computational fluid dynamic studies have shown good correlation between the predicted actuating torques

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The propulsion of a 12 500TEU container ship

Fig 24: Port pintle velocity distribution during a 5deg turn to starboard

Fig 23: Local cavitation number over the surface of a semibalanced large container ship rudder at 5deg starboard helm Fig 25: Starboard pintle velocity distribution during a 5deg turn to port

and bearing bending moments and side forces with the results of model tests.

CONCLUDING REMARKS
This concept study has shown that a 12 500TEU container ship, defined using high cube containers, propulsion at 25kts and with a 15% sea margin is possible using a single screw concept and currently available slow speed diesel engines. To extend the ship speed beyond 26kts towards 27kts, then the current range of diesel engines would need to be augmented by an electric motor and the propeller cavitation problems would be considerable. Indeed, for these higher speeds a twin screw variant of the design would probably need to be employed. It has been shown that a minimum of six blades, moderate skew and a judicious use of rake are essential for the single screw propulsion concept. With regard to the machinery selection it has been shown by a series of parametric studies that systems using existing technology and capabilities are able to be designed to provide the desired propulsion solution. The rudder design for these large ships needs to be

undertaken with care if poor results are to be avoided. Such a procedure would need to embrace significant model testing at the largest scale possible and over the normal auto-pilot range of angles as well as being supplemented by computational fluid dynamics studies. Sadly, at this time, erosion prediction methods for rudders are in their infancy.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author wishes to thank the Committee of Lloyds Register for permission to publish this paper. In addition grateful thanks are also due to Dr K Banisoleiman, Mr A Boorsma, Dr D Radosavljevic and Mr D Tozer for their valuable contributions and advice on various parts of the work.

REFERENCES
1. Tozer D and Penfold A. Ultra-Large Container Ships (ULCS): Designing to the limit of current and projected terminal infrastructure capabilities. Trans LRTA, Paper No.5, Session 2001-2002. 2. Carlton JS. The Propulsion of Large Container Ships:

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A Note on the Propulsion Options. 2001 Int. Colloquium on Nav. Arch. & Ocean Eng. Pusan National University, 2001. 3. Tozer D. Design Challenges of Large Container Ships. Boxship 2005, Sept. 2005, Hamburg. 4. Guldhammer and Harvald. Ship Resistance Effect of Form and Principal Dimensions. Akademisk Forlag, Copenhagen. 1974. 5. Carlton JS. Marine Propeller Blade Stresses. Trans.

I.Mar.E., 1984. 6. Report of the Propulsion Committee, 23rd ITTC, 2002. 7. Parsons MG and Vorus WS. Added Mass and Damping Estimates for Vibrating Propellers. Propellers 81 Symp. Trans. SNAME, 1981. 8. Guidelines for the Design of Propellers and Rudders with Respect to Cavitation Erosion. EROCAV Project GRD12000-25089.

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