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GENTOO PENGUIN

ORDER
Sphenisciformes
FAMILY
Spheniscidae
GROUP 2: BIRDS
GENUS & SPECIES
Pygoscelis papua
The gentoo penguin breeds on islands around the Antarctic and
spends part of each year at sea. Like other penguins, it is an
excellent swimmer and is well suited for a life in the water.
KEY FACTS
SIZES
Length: 11/ 2-2 ft.
Weight: 10-20 lb.
BREEDING
Sexual maturity: 3-4 years.
No. of broods: 1 .
Breeding season: Late spring.
Eggs: 2.
Incubation period: 36 days.
LIFESTYLE
Habit: Rather timid, breeds in small
colonies.
Diet: Krill, small fish, crabs, and
squid.
Lifespan: Up to 18 years.
RELATED SPECIES
Closely related to the adelie
penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae, and the
chinstrap penguin, P. antarctica.
Range of the gentoo penguin.
DISTRIBUTION
Sub-Antarctic islands of the southern Atlantic and Indian
oceans, including the Falklands and islands off Cape Horn. It
also breeds on the edge of the Antarctic Peninsula.
CONSERVATION
Until the twentieth century, penguins were hunted for their
oil by both whalers and seal hunters. Today, mari ne pollution
is the main threat to their survival.
FEATURES OF THE GENTOO PENGUIN
Body: Long and
large, protected
from the cold
weather by fat
beneath the skin.
MCMXCI IMP BV/IMP INC WILDLIFE FACT FILpM PRINTED IN U.S.A. 0160200251 PACKET 25
The gentoo penguin looks like a typical
black and white IIdinner suited II penguin
with a white band across its head. It has become
so well adapted for living at sea that it can only
waddle awkwardly on land.
The gentoo penguin swims tina, Tasmania, and New
fast, using its tail and flippers Zealand. Birds in the southern
to steer. At high speeds it nesting colonies are thought
dives up and down through to travel far distances.
the water (called porpoising) so Less sociable than other
it can breathe at regular penguin species, the gentoo
intervals without slowing penguin congregates in small,
down. It can stay underwater slightly inland breeding
from 30 seconds to two colonies called rookeries.
minutes and can reach depths After the chicks leave the
of 230 feet. nest, the adult molts (sheds its
The penguin stays at sea feathers) and replaces its dirty
three to five months a year, brown plumage with black
feeding to build up fat and white feathers. It then
reserves. Penguins have been leaves the colony and returns
seen off the coast of Argen- to the sea to feed .
~ FOOD & FEEDINC
The gentoo penguin mainly
eats krill (tiny shrimplike crus-
taceans) and a few small fish .
It catches the krill on short,
shallow dives.
The well-oxygenated
Antarctic seawater is rich; it
Above: Adult
males call to
other penguins
as part of a
territorial
ritual.
Right: An adult
opens its beak
to feed a chick
regurgitated
food.
Far right: A
penguin
launches
itself into the
icy water.
usually supports vast quanti-
t ies of krill. But high levels of
pollution have decreased the
krill supply. The overfishing
of krill around the world has
also diminished this food
supply.
~ - BR- E-E-D-IN- C---
The gentoo penguin mates in
late September or October
when the snow and ice melt.
The male mates after estab-
lishing a territory, usually on
an old nest site on a flat area
close to the beach. He and
his mate then build a nest of
grass.
The female lays two white
eggs and the pair takes turns
incubating them. The chicks
hatch about 36 days later,
spending the first few days
sheltered under their parents.
The adults take turns collect-
ing food and guarding the
chicks from predators.
After three or four weeks
the chicks leave the nest and
gather in groups called
creches. At feeding times
adults lead the young to the
beach and encourage them
to find their way back to the
nest. This behavior helps
chicks to quickly become
DID YOU KNOW?
There are records of albino
gentoo penguins that have
white feathers over most of
their body.
The three subspecies of
gentoo penguins differ
Above: A female greets a male
returning to the nest.
independent. After seven to
eight weeks the young leave
the nest for the sea.
mainly in bill, flipper, and
foot measurements.
The male performs its
elaborate trumpeting display
to attract unmated females
and warn off other males.
"'" CARD 82
MACARONI PENGUIN
~ ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - ~
ORDER
Sphenisciformes
.. FAMILY
"IIIIIIII Spheniscidae
GENUS & SPECIES
Eudyptes chrysolophus
The flightless macaroni penguin is an excellent swimmer.
It is well-adapted for spending long periods of time in the
water without being affected by the cold.
KEY FACTS ____________________________ ~
SIZES
Height: 2 ft. Male, slightly larger,
with stronger bill.
Weight: Up to 1 3 lb .
BREEDING
Sexual maturity: 6 years or older.
No. of broods: 1 .
Breeding season: Late spring.
Eggs: 2.
Incubation period: 31-37 days.
LIFESTYLE
Habit: Sociable; breeds in groups
or large colonies and seeks out
feeding grounds in large flocks.
Diet: Krill (shrimplike marine
crustaceans), small fish, crabs, and
squid.
Lifespan: Up to 10 years.
RELATED SPECIES
Closely related to other species of
crested penguin including the
rockhopper penguin, Eudyptes
crestatus, and the erect-crested
penguin, Eudyptes atratus.
Range of the macaroni penguin.
DISTRIBUTION
Sub-Antarctic islands of the southern Atlantic and Indian
oceans, including the Falklands and islands off Cape Horn.
CONSERVATION
Seal hunters were a threat in the early 20th century; now oil
spillages can be fatal. Many species of penguin are increas-
ing, probably due to the dwindling numbers of whales which
compete with them for food.
FEATURES OF THE MACARONI PENGUIN
Feathers: Back
and beUy
feat hers are
sli ghtl y bent,
overlapping to
form a water-
proof layer. Thick
down at the base
of each feather
conserves body
heat by trapping
a layer of air
around the
penguin's body.
Tail: Triangular-
shaped, used as
a rudder in the
water.
MCMXCI IMP BV/ IMP INC WILDLIFE FACT FILpM
~ Body: Long and
egg-shaped.
Thick deposits of
fat under the skin
protect it from
the cold.
'- -"----- Flippers: Stiff,
flightless wings,
adapted for
swimming.
PRINTED IN U.S.A.
Macaroni penguin
Rockhopper penguin
The two penguins of the genus
Eudyptes (crested) are distin-
guished by the striking yellow
crests on their heads.
The macaroni penguin is a member
of the crested penguin family whose members all
have plumes of golden yellow feathers over
their eyes. Unlike other penguin species
that waddle clumsily, the macaroni
penguin hops along on both feet.
~ H A B I T S
The macaroni penguin is more
at home in the water than on
land. After it breeds and molts
(sheds its feathers), it returns
to the sea, at which point sci-
entists believe that it migrates
r:1Orthward to warmer waters,
although this has not been
proven.
The macaroni penguin is an
extremely sociable animal. It
spends much of its life in the
company of other penguins. It
breeds and molts in large col-
onies on shore and gathers in
large groups to feed at sea.
The macaroni penguin
swims on or just below the
surface of the water, using its
tail and flippers to change
direction. When moving at
fast speeds, it rises to the
surface of the water at regu-
lar intervals to breathe, much
like a dolphin does, so that it
does not have to slow down.
The penguin rarely dives
for longer than two to three
minutes; the heat-conserving
air trapped beneath its feath-
~ BREEDING
The macaroni penguin mates
in spring, usually at the same
site and with the same partner
as the previous year. The male
establishes the pair's breeding
territory, and the female soon
joins him.
The female lays two eggs of
different sizes. The first is small
and the second egg may be
70 percent larger. It is rare for
more than one egg to survive.
Both parents incubate the
surviving egg and take turns
leaving the nest every few days
to feed. For the first few days
after hatching, the chick is
sheltered under the body of
one parent while the other
forages for food.
DID YOU KNOW?
The macaroni penguin's
family name comes from the
Greek word spheniskos,
meaning "small wedge." It
refers to the shape of the bird's
flipperlike wings.
It was once thought that
ers makes it too buoyant to
stay submerged for a longer
period of time.
As soon as its chicks become
independent, the macaroni
penguin begins its annual
molt. The bird's old, dirty
feathers are gradually replaced
during a several-week period.
New feathers grow beneath
the old ones, gradually push-
ing them out of the skin. The
old feathers fall out only when
the penguin is fully covered
with new feathers.
The chick is born with a
covering of thick down, which
is soon replaced by feathers. It
soon heads out to sea with
the colony. Although it grows
adult feathers at the end of its
first year, the chick does not
breed until it is at least six
years old.
penguins lived only in the
cold Antarctic waters. They
actually inhabit waters that
have a wide range of tem-
peratures and are found as
far north as the Galapagos
Islands.
Right: A
parent feeds
its chick.
Below: Adults
are aggressive
to intruders.
Below right:
Parents take
turns incubat-
ing the eggs.
~ FOOD &: FEEDING
The macaroni penguin feeds
mainly on krill (small, shrimp-
like crustaceans). It also eats
small fish and squid.
Large amounts of krill are
fOund throughout the Antarc-
tic because they thrive in the
well-oxygenated water. Krill
are most plentiful on the
surface of the ocean at night,
and large groups of macaroni
penguins travel between their
colonies and feeding grounds.
During the day, the penguin
dives underwater to catch
small fish and squid.
Top left: A
colony of
50,000 nest-
ing pairs uses
all available
space to rear
the young.
Left: Colonies
resound to
the sounds of
courting. This
soon leads to
a period of
frenzied nest
building.
NIGHTINGALE
ORDER
Passeriformes
FAMILY
Turdidae
GENUS & SPECIES
Luscinia megarhynchos
The nightingale is famous for its melodious song, which is often
heard at night when other birds are silent. It usually sings
from dense cover, so it can be difficult to spot.
KEY FACTS
SIZES
Length: 6
1
/2-6
3
/4 in.
Wingspan: 9-10 in.
Weight: 1/2-1 oz.
BREEDING
Sexual maturity: 1 year.
Breeding season: May to June.
No. of broods: 1, sometimes 2.
Eggs: 4-5, dull olive, speckled.
Incubation: 13-14 days.
Fledging period: 11-12 days,
independent at 4 weeks.
LIFESTYLE
Habit: Pairs only when breeding.
Diet: Worms, spiders, insects,
larvae, fruits, and berries.
Lifespan: Oldest known, 7 years,
11 months.
RELATED SPECIES
The rare thrush nightingale,
Luscinia /uscinia, looks similar to
the nightingale but is darker
above with a gray-mottled breast.
FEATURES OF
THE NIGHTINGALE
Range of the nightingale.
DISTRIBUTION
Breeds in southeast England, throughout southern Europe,
and across into central Asia. Winters in Africa.
CONSERVATION
The nightingale population has declined in many parts of
Europe because of habitat loss, but it now appears to be
stable.
Nest location: In
deciduous wood-
land thickets close
to or on
the ground.
0160200301 PACKET 30
The nightingale's song is most often
heard from April to June. The male calls
out during the daytime to defend his territory
against rival males, but his call is more often
heard during warm evenings when he sings
melodiously to attract a female.
~ HABITAT
Migrating nightingales arrive
in Central Asia, Europe, and
Great Britain from West Africa
in mid-April. Flying mainly at
night, the males precede the
females by a few days.
The nightingales blend into
the dense cover of tangled
thickets and other deciduous
woodlands. They also live in
overgrown parks and gar-
dens, tall and overgrown
hedges, and dense under-
growth. Nearby rivers or
ponds provide insects to eat.
In Great Britain the nightin-
gale popUlation has de-
creased because of a loss of
habitat, but large numbers
still live in southeast England.
The thrush nightingale, a re-
lated species, is more com-
mon in northeastern Europe.
BI-RDWATCH
The nightingale is most likely
to be found in the southeast
of England. Seldom seen,
t his brown, thrush-sized bird
has a light buff breast, poi nt -
ed beak, and chestnut-
brown tai l.
The nightingale's song is
heard from mid- to late
spri ng. The male sings
during warm evenings t o
attract females returning
from Afri can wi ntering
grounds. Duri ng the day his
calls warn ri val s away from
his territory.
The song has warbling
tri lls, high whistles, rich
melodies, and some harsh
sounds. It has a wide range
of repeated notes ending
with a loud burst of song.
DID YOU KNOW?
A nightingale often re-
turns to the same area to
nest each season, but rarely
with the same mate. They
may, however, nest nearby.
The male and female
nightingale clean their nest
by removing or swallowing
the chicks' feces.
When the fledglings leave
the nest to learn how to fly,
each parent takes responsi-
bility for part of the brood
until the family regroups
later.
~ FOOD & FEEDING
Like other birds in the thrush
family, the nightingale
mainly feeds on insects and
worms on the ground or in
vegetation under bushes or
trees. It also catches its insect
prey in flight.
In fall the nightingale
migrates to West Africa
where food is plentiful. It
fills up on fruits and berries
before it leaves.
Left: A
nightingale
bathes in the
water source
that also
supplies it
with insects.
Right:
Nestlings are
safely hidden
in a dense
thicket. The
male collects
insects,
worms, and
other inverte-
brates for
them.
BREEDING
The nightingale's pairing dis-
play takes place under dense
cover. The male nightingale
droops and flutters his wings,
fanning out his red-brown tail
while giving his call.
The pair chooses a nest site
hidden by thick undergrowth
such as nettles, ivy, or grass.
The female builds a nest base
of dead leaves and lines it with
grass and hair.
The female incubates the
well-camouflaged eggs, but
her mate stays close by, calling
Center: The
female makes
the nest base
with dead
leaves and lines
it with grass
and hair.
Right: Insects
picked off the
ground are a
favorite food.
her to join him in feeding.
The eggs hatch 1 3 to 14
days later. The male initially
collects spiders, beetles, ants,
and other insects for the
female to feed to the young.
The nestlings open their
eyes at five days. They take
to their wings 11 to 12 days
later, but are shaky in flight
for a few days.
In late August or early
September the pair separates
and each bird migrates to
West Africa for the winter.
GREAT NORTHERN DIVER
... ORDER
~ Caviiformes
FAMILY
Caviidae
GROUP 2: BIRDS
GENUS & SPECIES
Cavia immer
The great northern diver has a haunting call that sounds like
a mournful wail. According to Norse legend, if a flock flew
overhead calling, they were following souls to heaven.
KEY FACTS
SIZES
Length: 2-3 ft.
Weight: 8-10 lb .
Wingspan: 4
3
/ 4-5 ft.
BREEDING
Sexual maturity: 2 years.
Breeding season: June to
September.
No. of broods: 1 .
Eggs: 2, brown.
Incubation: 25 days.
LIFESTYLE
Habit: Pairs for life.
Diet: Mainly fish.
Call: Mournful wail.
RELATED SPECIES
There are 4 other species of diver:
red-throated, Cavia stellato,
black-throated, C. arctica, white-
billed, C. adamsii, and Pacific,
C. pacifica.
Range of the great northern diver Winter range
-----==--==
DISTRIBUTION
North America and southern coasts of Greenland and
Iceland. Migrates sout h in winter, often stopping along
northern European coasts.
CONSERVATION
The great northern diver has a stable population throughout
its range, but increasing water pollution and habitat
disturbance may decrease its numbers.
FEATURES OF THE GREAT NORTHERN DIVER
Flight: Once airborne, the diver fli es fast,
revealing its underside, which is white
year-round.
Summer plumage: Both sexes have a
black neck and greeni sh black head
with a white collar. The
upper parts are
boldly patterned
in black and
white.
DMCMXCIIMP BV/ IMP INC WILDLIFE FACT FILETM
Bill: Heavy and
pointed. LarQer than
those of other related
Nest: A shallow hole or a gathered
mound of vegetation near the
water's edge.
Slipway: Flatt ned, smoothed path
to the water that gives the diver a
Quick escape route when alarmed.
Eggs: Two,
light or dark
brown with
dark brown
spots.
PRINTED IN U.S.A. 0160200301 PACKET 30
Although awkward on land, the great
northern diver is a powerful swimmer that mainly
lives in water, feeding on fish it retrieves from the depths
of lakes. It inhabits the higher latitudes of the northern
hemisphere, but can sometimes be seen off
more southerly coasts in winter.

The great northern diver
sleeps, feeds, and courts on
the water. It comes ashore
only to breed. With its strong
legs set back on its large,
streamlined body, it walks
awkwardly on land.
It flies well and at high
speeds but needs a long take-
off area in the water. To
land, the diver circles on
swiftly beating wings and
then glides down at a steep
angle. At the last moment,
the great northern diver
lowers its feet and slides into
the water, throwing up a
great sheet of spray.
Right: Each
breeding pair
defends a
small territory
on ci lake. The
birds spend
almost all
their life on
the water,
diving deep
to catch fish.
FOOD &: FEEDING
The great northern diver feeds
mainly on fish, although it may
also eat crustaceans, mollusks,
sea worms, water insects, and
vegetation. When it eats, the
diver dips its bill and forehead
underwater and then dives for
up to one minute, using its
feet and wings to force its
body deeper into the water.
Some fishermen complain
that the diver interferes with
their fishing, though this is un-
likely. Sometimes divers may
get tangled in lines or nets .
DID YOU KNOW?
The wail of the great
northern diver is often
mistaken for a wolf's cry.
With the exception of
penguins, the great north-
ern diver holds the record
for deep dives: one was
snared in a net at 230 feet .
Left: The great
northern diver
is recognizable
during the
summer by its
black-and-
white
plumage.
Right: In
winter the
diver's
plumage turns
a dull gray-
brown. At this
time of year it
may be seen
off North
Atlantic coasts.
Also known as the com-
mon loon, the diver's ghost-
ly cry and shambling walk
inspired the word "loony."
The diver descended from
a seven-foot-Iong fishing
bird that lived 100 million
years ago.
PREDATORS
The adult diver has no serious
predators, but its eggs are eat-
en by foxes, minks, otters, and
thieving birds such as herring
gulls, crows, and skuas.
When disturbed on the nest,
the diver freezes, stretching its
neck low to hide. If necessary
the diver slips into the water,
BREEDING
The great northern diver pairs
for life after a courting ritual
of chasing, either half-flying
across the water or swimming
with the body partially sub-
merged and the neck held out
stiffly. The pair mates on the
nest or in water.
Clumsy on land, the diver
builds its nest near water with
a flattened slipway for easy es-
cape in an emergency. It
makes a shallow hole on the
shoreline, or sometimes uses
decaying vegetation for a nest.
Between June and August
Left: The nest is built close to the
water, enabling the chicks to swim
soon after hatching.
swimming below the surface
until it is safely away from
danger. But once her eggs
hatch the female rarely
leaves the nest.
The diver is not threat-
ened, but increasing pollu-
tion of its habitat may de-
plete the population.
the female lays two eggs,
light or dark brown with dark
brown spots. Both parents
take turns incubating, and the
chicks hatch in 25 days.
When their dark, fluffy
down dries, the young take
to the water. They dive at
two days old, but they tire
easily. For the first three
weeks they rest on their
parents' strong backs.
The chicks first feed on
aquatic invertebrates, pro-
gressing later to fish. The
parents feed the quickly
growing chicks for seven
weeks, and they are able
to fly at 1 0 weeks.
NORTHERN SHOVELER
,. ORDER
~ Anseriformes
FAMILY
Anatidae
The northern shoveler is the only shoveler duck found in the
Northern Hemisphere. It is named for its huge bill, which it uses to
filter food from inland seas, lakes, and marshes.
KEY FACTS
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~
SIZES
Length: 1 Z1 ft. Male larger.
Wingspan: 2Z1-2% ft.
Weight: About 1 ~ lb.
BREEDING
Sexual maturity: 1 year.
Breeding season: April to May.
No. of eggs: 9-11, buff-colored.
Incubation period: 22-23 days.
Fledging period: 40-45 days.
LIFESTYLE
Habit: Migratory, freshwater,
dabbling duck.
Diet: Crustaceans, mollusks,
aquatic plant seeds and leaves.
lifespan: 2-3 years. Oldest known
bird, 20 years 5 months.
RELATED SPECIES
There are 3 other shoveler species:
the South American red shoveler,
Anas plata lea; the African Cape
shoveler, A. smithii; and the Austral-
asian shoveler, A. rhynchotis.
Range of the northern shoveler. Winter range.
=============:::::1
DISTRIBUTION
Common and widespread throughout the Northern
Hemisphere. Breeds from Alaska to eastern Russia. Win-
ters in southern United States, Mexico, southern Europe,
Africa, India, and Southeast Asia.
CONSERVATION
Some populations have declined due to loss of their
habitat, but numbers are generally stable or increasing.
FEATURES OF THE NORTHERN SHOVELER
Flight: The shoveler takes to the
air easily and flies with strong
wing strokes.
Plumage: The male has a glossy
green head, chestnut belly, and white
chest in contrast to the dull-colored
femal e.
MCMXCI IMP BV/IMP INC WILDLIFE FACT FILpM PRINTED IN U.S.A.
Eggs: 9 to 11 eggs are laid and
incubated for 3Y.1 weeks.
Bill : Very distinctive,
wide, and spatulalike.
0160200351 PACKET 35
The northern shoveler is one of four species
of shoveler duck. It is found throughout North America
and Eurasia, while its three relatives
live separately on the continents of Africa,
South America, and Australia.
~ H A B I T S
The northern shoveler is usual-
ly found in the shallow areas
of freshwater lakes, ponds, or
marshes, especially lowland
sites with dense reeds or grass.
Large flocks of birds may dab-
ble around the muddy edges
of the water, but they avoid
deeper areas. Shovelers will
alight on surprisingly small
stretches of water, provided
there is a rich aquatic life.
These birds take to the air
easily and fly strongly, so they
are able to move freely from
site to site.
Shovelers are most often
seen in pairs or small parties
containing up to 20 ducks.
Large flocks may gather dur-
ing the fall and spring migra-
tions, especially at stopover
points between the northern
breeding grounds and the
southern winter quarters.
Not all northern shovelers
migrate. Some live in central,
temperate regions through-
out the year. In the fall they
are frequently joined by large
numbers of migrants from
the north.
~ FOOD &: FEEDING
The shoveler feeds by filtering
water through its large spat-
ulalike bill. Usually it feeds in
the shallows, either alone or
in groups of two or three. It
swims in circles, sweeping its
partly open bill from side to
side through the water. After
drawing in a beakful of water,
the shoveler closes its bill so
that the hairlike jagged edges
in its mandibles (jaws) inter-
mesh to form a filter. When
the water drains, particles of
food remain in the duck's bill.
The mesh is so fine it even
traps microscopic plankton.
The shoveler swims with its
head and neck submerged,
occasionally upending itself
to reach food beneath the
surface. It consumes crus-
taceans, mollusks, insects,
larvae, and the leaves and
seeds of a variety of water
plants. Although the shoveler
feeds mainly by day, in areas
where it is hunted or other-
wise disturbed it also feeds
at night.
DID YOU KNOW?
The northern or com-
mon shoveler is popularly
known as the spoonbill
duck and the "smiling
mallard."
When the shoveler
takes to the air, its wings
produce a buzzing noise
that is believed to be a
territorial warning.
When feeding alone,
the shoveler often swims
in tight circles to create
a whirlpool that stirs up
food from the bed of the
lake or pond.
The northern shoveler begins
to search for a mate in mid-
winter. Groups of up to 12
males may court a single
female. They swim alongside
her with their beaks in the air
and make short "follow me"
flights in front. They may also
circle quickly in the air above
the water, calling repeatedly
Top left: As with most ducks, the
male shoveler's plumage is much
more colorful than the female's.
~ I BIRDWATCH
The northern shoveler breeds
primarily in western North
America. During the fall mi-
gration, it flies southward
and eastward, and it can be
seen in eastern areas during
the wi nter months.
The northern shoveler is
left: Shoveler
ducks mate to-
ward the end
of winter.
Right: Over a
period of two
weeks, the fe-
male lays up
to 11 pale
green eggs.
to the female. To make her
selection, the female swims
close to one male and dis-
courages the others.
At the breeding grounds
the pair searches for a nest
site. The nest is usually built
on the ground, but close to
the water.
The female duck presses her
breast against the ground to
make a cup-shaped hollow,
which she then lines with
usually found in f reshwater
marshes. In wi nter it may
also visit saltwater areas.
From close up, you can
easily identify the northern
shoveler by its large bill. Two
other distinguishing features
are its pale blue forewing
left: The
female duck
is highly pro-
tective of her
ducklings. She
raises only
one brood
each year.
grass, leaves, and down. Al-
though the female cares for
the eggs, the male is usually
on guard nearby.
The female takes about two
weeks to lay 9 to 11 eggs. In-
cubation begins after the last
egg is laid, so all the young
hatch together. The ducklings
can feed themselves shortly
after hatching, but their
mother continues to guard
them from predators.
and green rear patch. The
male's bottle-green head,
white breast, and chestnut
belly are also unmistakable.
After breeding, the male's
plumage becomes duller,
but it is still more col orful
than the female's.
MAGNIFICENT FRIGATEBIRD
ORDER
Pelecaniformes
FAMILY
Fregatidae
GROUP 2: BI RDS
GENUS &: SPECIES
Fregata magnificens
The magnificent frigatebird is a master of aerial acrobatics.
With its falconlike speed and split-second timing, it can
accurately pluck flying fish from the sea.
KEY FACTS
SIZES
Length: 3-3'/2ft.
Weight: Up to 3 lb.
BREEDING
Breeding season: Once every
two years; at any time of year.
No. of broods: 1 .
Eggs: 1; white.
Incubation: 40-50 days.
Fledging period: 5-6 months.
LIFESTYLE
Habit: Sociable.
Diet: Flying fish, surface-
swimming sea creatures, and
food stolen from other birds.
RELATED SPECIES
There are 5 species of frigatebird
in a single genus. They are
sometimes called man-o' -war
birds.
Range of the frigatebird.
DISTRIBUTION
Galapagos and Cape Verde islands, the Caribbean, eastern
Cent ral America, and the South American coast.
CONSERVATION
The magnificent frigatebird has few predators. On the
Galapagos Islands short-eared owls prey on chicks, and other
frigatebirds sometimes take t he young.
FEATURES OF THE MAGNIFICENT FRIGATEBIRD
Adaptations: The frigatebird's large wingspan makes
its aerial acrobatics possible. But the weight of its
wings makes landing difficult. The frigatebird does not
have waterproof plumage so it avoids water.
MCMXCI IMP BV/ IMP INC WILDLIFE FACT FILETM PRINTED IN U.S.A.
Female: Larger,
with a white
streak across
the breast.
Young: Helpless and featherless
when hatched, it relies on its
parents for up to six months.
0160200281 PACKET 28
The magnificent frigatebird is the
largest of the five species of frigatebird. Its long,
pointed wings, spanning seven feet, carry its light
body. The breast muscle supports the wings and
feathers and makes up half its weight.
HABITS
The frigatebird lives and
breeds on islands. It builds its
nest with sticks, feathers
l
and
bones in low shrubs and
Below: The male is easy to
identify by his red throat sac and
iridescent plumage.
trees. The frigatebird nests
close to other birds such as
boobies and gannets. The
frigatebird steals their catches,
carrying them off in a sharply
hooked beak made for hold-
ing slippery prey.
FOOD &: HUNTING
During breeding season the
frigatebird steals food from
other birds' nests to feed its
young. Sometimes a group of
frigatebirds surrounds another
bird while flying, pecking at its
feathers until it drops its food.
The frigatebird catches it
before it hits the sea. Outside
DID YOU KNOW?
The sight of a frigatebird is
a sign to sailors that land is
near.
Like carrier pigeons,
frigatebirds were used by
islanders to carry messages.
The frigatebird's egg
breeding season the
frigatebird feeds on flying
fish. It accurately snaps up
fish breaking the water
surface.
It preys on jellyfish, squid,
and other surface-swimming
creatures. The frigatebird also
eats young turtle hatchlings.
weighs six percent of the
mother's body weight.
The frigatebird can tell if
another bird is carrying
food back to the nest by
the cri es it makes when
approached.
[-:- SPECIAL ADAPTATIONS
Wi th a larger wi ngspan-to-
weight ratio than any other
bird, t he frigatebird can fly
for many hours.
Its long beak lets the bi rd
dip into t he water without
wetting its feathers, which
are lightly oiled but not
waterproof. '
The fri gatebi rd uses its V-
shaped, poi nted tai l feat hers
as rudders.

During breeding season, the
male frigatebird develops a
large red throat sac to attract
the female. Unlike other birds,
the males do not show aggres-
sion; they sit together to at-
tract females flying overhead.
The male rattles his feathers
and beak to persuade the
female to choose him as a
partner. The pair builds a nest
where the female will lay one
white egg that they both take
turns incubating.
Left: The male gathers materials
for the female to build the nest.
The parents feed the help-
less and featherless chick for
four to five months while it
fledges (grows its feathers).
Then the young frigatebird
leaves the nest to join a
group of nestlings learning
how to fly.
The mother still feeds the
young for another five to six
months. This unusually long
period of care limits the
female to breeding only
every other year.
Below: Young frigatebirds form
groups to learn to fly.
OSPREY
ORDER
Falconiformes
FAMILY
Pandionidae
GROUP 2: BIRDS
GENUS &: SPECIES
Pandion haliaetus
The osprey is known for both its beauty and its impressive
hunting technique. A fish-eater, it plunges down to the
water surface to snatch unwary prey in its strong claws.
KEY FACTS
SIZES
Length: 2 ft.
Wingspan: 4' /2-5' /2 ft.
Weight: 2-4 lb.
BREEDING
Sexual maturity: 3 years.
Breeding season: Varies according
to region.
Eggs: 2-4, usually 3.
Incubation: About 38 days.
Fledging period: About 50 days.
LIFESTYLE
Habit: Migratory. Found both
alone and in loose groups.
Diet: Fish. Occasionally small
mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibi-
ans, and invertebrates.
Lifespan: Can be 15-20 years.
Oldest recorded 32 years.
RELATED SPECIES
The osprey, the only member of its
family, is related to the hawk,
eagle, vulture, and falcon.
IDENTIFYING THE OSPREY
Winter range Breeding range
DISTRIBUTION
Worldwide along coasts and near inland waters. This map
shows breeding, wint eri ng, and resident areas. The bird is
found elsewhere during winter migration.
CONSERVATION
Shooting and pesticide poisoning threaten the rare and
endangered osprey in many areas of its range. Strictly
protected in some regions.
Identification:
Eggs: Two or three creamy
white eggs, blotched with
reddish brown.
Brown plumage
with white
head feathers.
PLUNGE-DIVING FOR PREY
Nest site: High
in treetops,
at tops of
rocky
columns,
or on ground
if safe.
lPlMr.M)(r.1 IMP RV/IMP INr. WII n l IFF FAr.T FILETM
Male and
female
. similar.
Flies with
wings
forming
"M" shape.
Chick:
Fed by the
female. Flies
after 50 days.
PRINTED IN U.S.A.
Divi as hrgh as1 00 feet ,
the osprey thrusts its feet for-
ward just before reaching the
water and grabs the prey with its
talons.
01 60200251 PACKET 25
The osprey's tendency to prey on fish
stocks makes it unpopular with fisheries.
Hunted almost to extinction in many areas,
it has also been a victim of chemical
pollution. With protection, its numbers
are growing in some areas.
~ BEHAVIOR
The only member of its family,
the osprey is a large bird with
long legs and powerful talons.
It holds its long, slender wings
in a shallow "M" shape while
flying around the lakes, rivers,
and coastal regions where it
catches fish.
The osprey has one of the
greatest ranges of any bird. It
BI RDWATCH
After a 50-year absence, the
osprey returned to Scotland
in the 1950s. Nesting sites
across the Highlands are
protected, and the Loch
Garten nesting site is a
favorite osprey viewi ng area
breeds in Europe, Asia, Africa,
Australia, and North America.
In winter it leaves northern
regions and heads south to
more temperate climates. Eu-
ropean birds fly to Africa, the
North American species mi-
grates to Central and South
America, and birds from
northern Asia go to India.
for European birdwatchers.
By 1990, over 50 pai rs
nested in Scotland, and that
number is rising. After breed-
ing season, the ospreys fly to
Africa, and can be seen at
several stops along the way.
~ FOOD &: HUNTING
The osprey feeds mainly on
fish caught in surface water. It
flies 65 to 100 feet above the
water until it sees a fish. The
pale plumage on the osprey's
underside makes it difficult for
fish to see it against the sky.
The osprey plunges down
with wings swept back. Before
reaching the water, it swings
Left: The osprey prefers to build
its nest in treetops or on crags.
DID YOU KNOW?
Although rare, the osprey
can catch two fish in one dive.
The osprey's large outer toe
can turn backward, improving
its grip on prey.
The osprey's feet are so well
adapted for gripping that
its feet forward, its legs
breaking the surface.
Curving talons and small
hooks in its toes help the
osprey catch fish and take
them to its perch to eat.
Still, larger birds such as the
sea eagle may chase the os-
prey and force it to drop its
catch.
Right: The osprey carries its
catch to a perch to eat.
some birds have been
dragged underwater and
drowned by large fish.
On Gardiner's Island near
New York, a single osprey
colony contained over 300
breeding pairs.
~ OSPREY &: MAN
The osprey has been hunted
for preying on fish stocks. It
was almost exterminated in
1900 but returned in 1950.
The osprey suffers from
pesticide poisoning in North
America. Chemicals such as
DDT (used to kill pests on
~ BREEDING
The male osprey performs
displays during the breeding
season to attract a mate or to
strengthen his bond with an
established mate. The male
rapidly fl'ies up 1,000 feet or
more, carrying a fish in his
talons. He then hovers briefly,
Left: Nests are used year after
year so they grow to large sizes.
farmland) seep into rivers and
lakes and build up in fish that the
osprey eats. The chemicals do
not usually kill adult birds, but
they thin the shells of their
eggs, making them fragile
and more likely to break. Few
of these young hatch.
displaying the fish to the
female before diving down
with his wings folded. This
may be repeated several times.
Breeding pairs build their
nests in t reetops or on rocky
heights-or on the ground
with no predators nearby.
The large nests, made of sticks
and debris, may be used and
added to each year.
The clutch contains three
creamy white eggs blotched
with red. The female, with
some help from the male, incu-
bates the eggs for 38 days. At
seven weeks, the young
ospreys fly and leave the nest.
Left: The osprey looks similar to
fellow birds of prey, the hawk
and eagle.
'" CARD 88
COMMON MYNAH
, , ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
~
ORDER
Posseriformes
FAMILY
Sturnidoe
GENUS & SPECIES
Acridotheres tristis
The common mynah is a sociable, but noisy and aggressive,
relative of the starling. Adjusting easily to man IS presence, it
gathers on open land and in gardens throughout its range.
KEY FACTS
SIZES
Length: 10 in.
Wingspan: About l' /2 ft.
Weight: 3-5 oz.
BREEDING
Breeding season: Variable.
No. of broods: Up to 3.
Eggs: 2-5; pale blue to turquoise.
Incubation: About 1 7 days.
Fledging: 22-24 days.
LIFESTYLE
Native range of the common mynah.
DISTRIBUTION
Habit: Forms small flocks during
the day; roosts in large flocks.
Diet: Mainly insects; also fruit,
grain, worms, and refuse scraps.
Call: Whistle or screech.
Lifespan: About 4 years in the
wild, more than 15 in captivity.
RELATED SPECIES
The 6 species of Acridotheres all
originate from Asia. The hill
mynah or Indian grackle, Graculo
religioso, is the most commonly
caged mynah.
Lowland areas of Asia from Afghanistan east to southwest
China. Introduced to Australia, New Zealand, South Africa,
and islands in the Pacific, Indian, and south Atl antic
oceans, including Hawaii .
CONSERVATION
Widespread throughout its range wherever man has settled.
This adaptable bird is not in any danger.
FEATURES OF THE COMMON MYNAH
In flight: Has white patches
on its wings.
Eggs: Two to five
per brood; pale
blue to bright
turquoise color.
Up to three
broods per year.
Head: Brown on juvenile, changing to
black on adult.
Body: Dark gray-brown. Underside
white from belly to rear.
Tail
feathers:
Black with
white tip.
MCMXCIIMP BV/ IMP INC WILDLIFE FACT FILETM
Eye flashes and
bill: Bright
yellow.
legs and
feet: Bright
yellow.
PRINTED IN U.S.A.
Nest: Often
the abandoned
tree hole of a
squirrel or bird.
0160200291 PACKET 29
The common mynah is native to southern Asia
from Afghanistan east to southwest China. Insects
form the bulk of its varied diet. It was introduced as
early as 1755 to the island of Mauritius to destroy a
plague of locusts. Because of the mynah's effectiveness
for insect control, it has been introduced
throughout much of the world.
HABITS
The common mynah is adapt-
able. Its natural habitat is
open lowland but it now also
lives wherever man has set-
tled throughout its range. A
noisy, sociable, and aggres-
sive bird, it screeches and flies
up into trees if disturbed. It
fights with its own kind,
though rarely inflicting injury.
Outside its breeding season
the mynah spends the day in
a family group of four or five
birds. In the evening it flies
into the trees to roost in a
large flock, often sharing the
site with other species. Even
at night the mynah is noisy,
chattering loudly at intervals
through the night.

In the city, breeding mynahs
build their nests under the
eaves of buildings. In the wild
they choose sites in the crowns
of palm trees or in empty tree
holes. The birds use the same
nest site year after year.
The nest itself is a jumble of
left: The mynah pecks at grass,
looking for insects.
FOOD &: FEEDING
The common mynah prefers to
eat insects. It strides about on
the ground in search of food,
turning over leaves and peck-
ing for grubs and worms. It
also eats berries, fruit, seeds,
earthworms, flowers, nectar,
and human refuse. It catches
mice, frogs, and lizards and
even eats other birds' eggs.
The mynah often perches on
grass and twigs, and some-
times scraps of paper, foil,
and string. Both adults build
the nest and rear the young.
Constant incubation is unnec-
essary in the warmer climates
of the mynah's habitats. The
eggs hatch after about 1 7
days. The young fly when just
over three weeks old.
a cow's back, feeding on the
insects disturbed by the
animal's hooves.
The mynah also circles in
flocks above the farmer's
ploW, watching for grubs and
insects in the freshly over-
turned soil.
Right: The mynah's calls range
- from harsh screeches to a me-
lodious whistle.
DID YOU KNOW?
The common mynah is
useful in alerting humans
to the presence of snakes.
When the birds discover a
snake they group nearby
and screech at it.
The oxpecker is a relative
of the mynah. It, too, often
perches on the backs of
cows and rhinos.
Competition for nesting
areas can be fierce. Male
and female mynahs from
several pairs often fight it
out for the best sites.
The hill mynah is the bird
kept for its talent in imitat-
ing human speech.
COMMON MYNAH &: MAN
Man introduced the mynah to
parts of the world where its
insect diet was considered
useful for protecting crops. As
often happens, the disadvan-
tages of introducing the bird
were later discovered. In some
left: The hill mynah is the most
skilled mimic in the family.
areas, the introduced mynahs
have competed too success-
fully and have reduced the
local birds' numbers. In
Hawaii, for example, the
common mynah is a major
predator of shearwater eggs.
Farmers in other areas com-
plain about damage to soft
fruit and grain harvests.
BROWN KIWI
ORDER
Apterygiformes
FAMILY
Apterygidae
GENUS &: SPECIES
Apteryx australis
The brown kiwi is a strange-looking creature that at first glance
barely resembles a bird. It has no visible wings. Instead, it has
short, thick legs and coarse feathers that look like fur.
KEY FACTS
SIZES
Length: 20 in.
Height: 14 in.
Weight: 5 Ibs. Female about 20
percent heavier than male.
BREEDING
Sexual maturity: Not known, but
probably at least 2 years.
Laying season: July to February.
Eggs: 1 or 2, white.
Incubation: About 80 days.
LIFESTYLE
Habit: Lives in pairs. Active mainly
at night.
Range of the brown kiwi.
Diet: Insects, worms, berries,
seeds. Some larger prey such as
reptiles and amphibians.
RELATED SPECIES
There are 2 other species of kiwi,
both in New Zealand: the great
spotted kiwi, Apteryx haastii, and
the little spotted kiwi, A. owenii.
DISTRIBUTION
Found in New Zealand, on South Island, Stewart Island, and
parts of North Island.
CONSERVATION
The brown kiwi is threatened by the destructi on of it s habitat
and by predatory and competit ive species. It still survives in
large numbers in some areas, especially in protected reserves.
RES OF THE BROWN KIWI
MCMXCI IMP BV/IMP INC WILDLIFE FACT FILpM
Eggs: One or two, white. They are hidden in a
hole among vegetation. The 11-week i
period is the of aoy bird.
Bill: Long, with
sensitive nostrils
at tip. It enables
the kiwi to root
for food and to
Daytime nest: A
PRINTED IN U.S.A.
hidden corner
among dense
vegetation or
logs, where the
kiwi sleeps UJltfi
dusk.
0160200341 PACKET 34
The brown kiwi is one of New Zealand's
most celebrated and unusual birds. It spends
the day fast asleep in a spot concealed
by undergrowth or logs. Unable to fly, it
probes and scrapes for its food at night among
the fallen leaves covering the forest floor.
~ H A B I T S
The peculiar habits and odd
appearance of the brown kiwi
owe much to the isolation of
New Zealand's North and
South islands. In most places
a flightless bird of the-kiwi's
size-about the size of a
hen-would be easy prey for
flesh-eating mammals. But
until settlers arrived with do-
mestic animals, land mam-
mals could not even reach
New Zealand.
In the absence of mammals,
some New Zealand birds
developed habits normally
associated with mammals.
The brown kiwi, for example,
cannot fly and feeds on
insects at night.
The kiwi's habitat is mainly
the forest, where it relies on
its strong legs to scurry
through thick undergrowth.
It generally lives in pairs,
calling to its mate to keep in
contact in the dense forest.
The pair occupies and de-
fends a territory, vigorously
chasing away intruding kiwis.
~ BREEDING
The female produces one or
two huge eggs, which may
weigh more than one-sixth of
her body weight. Each con-
tains a large, nutritious yolk
that lasts for the long incu-
bation and provides the
hatching chick with food.
The female lays her eggs in
a hole among dense vege-
tation, between tree roots, or
in a hollow log. Her mate
incubates them for 11 weeks
-the longest incubation
period of any bird. By
hatching time each chick is
open-eyed and fully feath-
ered. Within a week it can
leave the nest alone to gather
food for itself.
DID YOU KNOW?
Europeans did not believe
accounts of the kiwi until a
specimen's skin was brought
back in 1813.
Sensitive bristles at the
base of its bill help the kiwi
root for food.
The kiwi has such good
Left: Looking
for food, the
kiwi scrapes
and pecks at
the forest
floor. Its keen
sense of smell
helps it to
uncover
earthworms
and insects.
Right: Once
the female has
laid her eggs,
the male
guards them
until they
hatch. The
incubation
period is very
long.
eyesight that it can run
quickly in pitch darkness.
During breeding the
female's efforts in laying
eggs and the male's role in
incubation cause them to
lose about one-fifth of their
body weight.
~ BROWN KIWI &: MAN
Early Maori settlers of New
Zealand prized the feathers
of the kiwi for use in decora-
tive cloaks. They also hunted
the bird for its meat.
Today the kiwi is the coun-
try's national emblem, and
New Zealanders often refer
Left: The
brown kiwi is
an odd-looking
bird, with a
long beak and
bulky, wingless
body. During
the heat of the
day it sleeps in
a safe place.
Then, at dark,
it strides off on
its large feet in
search of food.
to themselves as "Kiwis."
But now the kiwi's survival
is threatened by the clearing
of forest and by land mam-
mals introduced by modern
settlers. It has few defenses
against such egg-thieving
mammals as rats and ferrets.
~ FOOD &: FEEDING
The kiwi uses the pair of very
sensitive nostrils at the tip of
its bill to find food and locate
fellow birds. Its good senses
of hearing and touch also
help it secure food.
The kiwi's diet includes
insects, worms, berries, fruit,
and occasionally small rep-
tiles or amphibians. To find
food, it scratches through
dead leaves with its powerful
claws or probes the soil with
its bill to smell and feel for
invertebrate prey.
BALD EAGLE
,,-----------------------------------------------
~
ORDER
Falconiformes
FAMILY
Accipitridae
GENUS &: SPECIES
Haliaeetus leucocephalus
The bald eagle was adopted as the national emblem of
the United States in 1782. It now appears on every dollar bill.
Now rare, it is the country's most famous bird.
KEY FACTS
SIZES
Length: Male, about 21/2 ft.
Female, 3 ft.
Weight: Male, 10 lb. Female, 13 lb.
Wingspan: 6-8 ft.
BREEDING
Sexual maturity: 5 years.
Breeding season: November to
April depending on location.
No. of broods: 1 .
Eggs: 2; white to pale blue.
Incubation: 35 days.
Fledging: 10-11 weeks; usually
only 1 chick survives to maturity.
LIFESTYLE
Breeding range
of the bald eagle.
DISTRIBUTION
Permanent range.
Habit: Mainly solitary outside
breeding season.
Diet: Mainly fish; also rodents,
small mammals, and carrion.
The bald eagle's range is now thinly populated with
breeding areas rest rict ed to Florida, the Aleutian Islands in
the Bering Sea, Alaska, nort hern and east ern Canada, and
the northern United States.
RELATED SPECIES CONSERVATION
Related to other sea eagles such
as the African fish eagle, Hali-
aeetus vocifer.
An endangered species, the bald eagle is now full y protected
in the United States.
FEATURES OF THE BALD EAGLE
Flight: The bald
eagle has broad
wings with deeply
slotted tips. These
are ideal for
soaring and long-
distance flying.
Young: Fully fledged
after 10-11 weeks.
Survival of more than
one from each brood
is rare.
Talons: Long and
sharp for seizing
prey.
Aerie: Massive nesting platform
of sticks and twigs built in a tree
or on a cliff ledge. Weighs up to
two tons; is larger than any
other bird's
nest.
MCMXCI IMP BV/ IMP INC WILDLIFE FACT FILETM PRINTED IN U.S.A.
Head feathers:
Brown on
juvenile. The
eagle has full
adult plumage
after five years.
E: ggs: LJsually
.'two, white or
pale blue.
Hatch after
35 days.
0160200291 PACKET 29
The bald eagle was once a common sight
throughout the United States and most of
Canada, but now it is in grave danger. Pollutants
and pesticides ingested by its prey have worked
their way up the food chain and are
threatening the bald eagle.
~ HABITAT
The bald eagle makes its
home along coastal areas,
marshes, and riverbanks
where it has the best chance
of catching fish, its main diet.
The eagle is frequently
found in Florida's estuaries
DID YOU KNOW?
From a distance the bald
eagle's white head appears
to be completely featherless;
' hence its name.
A bald eagle's aerie built in
Ohio about 1890 was used
every year until storms
destroyed it in 1925.
and pine forests. Greater
numbers live in Alaska, its last
great stronghold.
Outside the breeding sea-
son, the bald eagle lives any-
where in North America
where there is water.
The adult eagle protects its
brood from stormy weather
by forming a shelter with its
outstretched wings.
The largest gathering of
bald eagles is on the Chilkat
River in Alaska. Up to 4,000
inhabit a 1 O-mile stretch.
~ FOOD & HUNTING
Watching motionless from its
high perch, the bald eagle
spots the silvery glimmer of
fish swimming close to the
water's surface. Soaring effort-
lessly, the eagle plucks the fish
from the water in its strong
talons and carries it off to eat.
Sometimes the eagle dives
underwater to catch fish. At
other times it collects dead
fish, such as salmon that have
died after spawning, or it feeds
on other carcasses.
Left: The bald eagle's keen
eyesight enables it to spot prey
moving far below it.
This adaptable hunter also
attacks wading birds, forcing
them to dive repeatedly until
they are too exhausted to get
away. The osprey, also a fish-
ing bird, will give up its catch
for the eagle to scoop up.
When fish are scarce, the
eagle eats anything it can find
or catch. It feeds on dead cat-
tle and sheep. It also hunts
live rodents and mammals,
including fox and young deer,
and even geese in flight.
Right: The eagle feeds mainly on
fish. When hungry, it kills or
scavenges whatever it can find.
~ BALD EAGLE & MAN
Humans are responsible for the
declining population of the
bald eagle. It was once widely
shot for its hunting habits.
Now its habitat is being
Left: After winter the bald eagle
makes the long flight to its
northern breeding grounds.
~ BREEDING
Breeding season lasts from
December to April, although it
begins earlier in Florida, the
warmest and most southerly
part of the bald eagle's range.
It is timed so that hatching
coincides with the most
abundant food supplies.
Bald eagles mate for life and
use the same nest each year.
They build a huge aerie (nest)
of sticks and twigs in a tree, or
farther north, on rocky cliffs.
The nest takes weeks to con-
struct and is increased yearly.
The female usually lays two
Left: The young eagles feed
regularly, but it is unlikely that
both will survive to adulthood.
drained for development.
More harmful are the effects
of toxic pollutants and pesti-
cides. Poison from contami-
nated prey builds up in the
bird's body, causing sterility.
This and its slow maturity rate
contribute to its decline.
eggs, taking turns with her
mate to incubate them over
the next 35 days. Both par-
ents feed the young: each
brings food in its talons and
tears it into smaller pieces
with its beak. Competition for
food is so great that usually
only one chick survives to
adulthood.
As the chicks grow they
learn to tear up their own
food and the parents leave
them for longer periods. The
chicks practice flying from the
aerie, but they return nightly.
This continues until their par-
ents force them to leave at
the end of summer.