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AIMS ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES (AO) USE OF GRAPHIC CALCULATOR (GC) LIST OF FORMULAE INTEGRATIONS AND APPLICATIONS SCHEME OF EXAMINATION PAPER CONTENT OUTLINE MATHEMATICAL NOTATION

1 2 2 2 2 2 3 7

AIMS

The syllabus provides a foundation in mathematics for students who intend to enrol in university courses such as business, economics and social sciences. It covers Functions and Graphs, Calculus, and Statistics. The main focus of the syllabus will be the understanding and application of basic concepts and techniques of statistics. This will equip students with the skills to analyse and interpret data, and to make informed decisions. The general aims of the syllabus are to enable students to: acquire the necessary mathematical concepts and skills for everyday life, and for continuous learning in mathematics and related disciplines develop the necessary process skills for the acquisition and application of mathematical concepts and skills develop the mathematical thinking and problem solving skills and apply these skills to formulate and solve problems recognise and use connections among mathematical ideas, and between mathematics and other disciplines develop positive attitudes towards mathematics make effective use of a variety of mathematical tools (including information and communication technology tools) in the learning and application of mathematics produce imaginative and creative work arising from mathematical ideas develop the abilities to reason logically, to communicate mathematically, and to learn cooperatively and independently

There are three levels of assessment objectives for the examination. The assessment will test candidates' abilities to: AO1 understand and apply mathematical concepts and skills in a variety of contexts, including the manipulation of mathematical expressions and use of graphic calculators reason and communicate mathematically through writing mathematical explanation, arguments and proofs, and inferences solve unfamiliar problems; translate common realistic contexts into mathematics; interpret and evaluate mathematical results, and use the results to make predictions or comment on the context

AO2

AO3

The use of GC, without computer algebra system, will be expected. The examination paper will be set with the assumption that candidates will have access to a GC. As a general rule, unsupported answers obtained from a GC are allowed unless the question specifically states otherwise. Where unsupported answers from GC are not allowed, candidates are required to present the mathematical steps using mathematical notations and not calculator commands. For questions where graphs are used to find a solution, candidates should sketch these graphs as part of their answers. Incorrect answers without working will receive no marks. However, if there is written evidence of using GC correctly, method marks may be awarded. Students should be aware that there are limitations inherent in GC. For example, answers obtained by tracing along a graph to find roots of an equation may not produce the required accuracy.

LIST OF FORMULAE

Candidates will be provided in the examination with a list of formulae.

Notwithstanding the presentation of the topics in the syllabus, it is envisaged that some examination questions may integrate ideas from more than one topic, and that topics may be tested in the contexts of solving problems and in applications of mathematics.

For the examination in H1 Mathematics, there will be one 3-hour paper marked out of 95 as follows: Section A (Pure Mathematics 35 marks) will consist of about 5 questions of different lengths and marks based on the Pure Mathematics section of the syllabus. Section B (Statistics 60 marks) will consist of 6 8 questions of different lengths and marks based on the Statistics section of the syllabus. Candidates will be expected to answer all questions.

CONTENT OUTLINE

Knowledge of the content of the O Level Mathematics syllabus is assumed in the syllabus below and will not be tested directly, but it may be required indirectly in response to questions on other topics.

1 1.1 Functions and graphs Exponential and logarithmic functions and Graphing techniques

Content

functions e x and ln x and their graphs laws of logarithms equivalence of y = e x and x = ln y use of a graphic calculator to graph a given function characteristics of graphs such as symmetry, intersections with the axes, turning points and asymptotes

1.2

Include: solving simultaneous equations, one linear and one quadratic, by substitution conditions for a quadratic equation to have real or equal roots solving quadratic inequalities conditions for ax 2 + bx + c to be always positive (or always negative) solving inequalities by graphical methods formulating an equation from a problem situation finding the numerical solution of an equation using a graphic calculator

Topic / Sub-topics

2 2.1 Calculus Differentiation

Content

Include: derivative of f(x ) as the gradient of the tangent to the graph of y = f(x ) at a point use of standard notations f ( x ) and

dy dx

derivatives of x n for any rational n, e x , ln x, together with constant multiples, sums and differences use of chain rule graphical interpretation of f ( x ) > 0 , f ( x ) = 0 and f ( x ) < 0 stationary points (local maximum and minimum points and points of inflexion) finding the numerical value of a derivative at a given point using a graphic calculator finding equations of tangents and normals to curves solving practical problems involving differentiation

Exclude: differentiation from first principles derivatives of products and quotients of functions dy 1 = use of dx dx dy differentiation of functions defined implicitly or parametrically finding non-stationary points of inflexion problems involving small increments and approximation relating the graph of y = f ( x ) to the graph of y = f(x )

2.2

Integration

Include: integration as the reverse of differentiation integration of x n , for any rational n, and e x , together with constant multiples, sums and differences integration of (ax + b )n , for any rational n, and e( ax + b ) definite integral as the area under a curve evaluation of definite integrals finding the area of a region bounded by a curve and lines parallel to the coordinate axes, between a curve and a line, or between two curves finding the numerical value of a definite integral using a graphic calculator Exclude: definite integral as a limit of sum approximation of area under a curve using the trapezium rule area below the x-axis

3 3.1 Probability Probability

Content

Include: addition and multiplication of probabilities mutually exclusive events and independent events use of tables of outcomes, Venn diagrams, and tree diagrams to calculate probabilities calculation of conditional probabilities in simple cases use of P ( A ) = 1 P ( A )

P(A B ) = P(A) + P(B ) P(A B )

P(A B ) =

P(A B ) P(B )

4 4.1

Binomial and normal distributions Binomial distribution Include: knowledge of the binomial expansion of (a + b )n for positive integer n n use of the notations n ! and r

concept of binomial distribution B(n, p ) and use of B(n, p ) as a probability model use of mean and variance of a binomial distribution (without proof) solving problems involving binomial variables

4.2

Normal distribution

Exclude calculation of mean and variance for other probability distributions Include: concept of a normal distribution and its mean and variance; use of N( , 2 ) as a probability model standard normal distribution finding the value of P( X < x1 ) given the values of x1 , , use of the symmetry of the normal distribution finding a relationship between x1 , , given the value of

P( X < x1 ) solving problems involving normal variables solving problems involving the use of E(aX + b ) and Var(aX + b ) solving problems involving the use of E(aX + bY ) and Var(aX + bY ) , where X and Y are independent normal approximation to binomial

Exclude: finding probability density functions and distribution functions calculation of E( X ) and Var( X ) from other probability density functions

Topic / Sub-topics

5 5.1 Sampling and hypothesis testing Sampling

Content

Include: concepts of population and sample random, stratified, systematic and quota samples advantages and disadvantages of the various sampling methods distribution of sample means from a normal population use of the Central Limit Theorem to treat sample means as having normal distribution when the sample size is sufficiently large calculation of unbiased estimates of the population mean and variance from a sample solving problems involving the sampling distribution Include: concepts of null and alternative hypotheses, test statistic, level of significance and p-value tests for a population mean based on: a sample from a normal population of known variance a large sample from any population 1-tail and 2-tail tests Exclude testing the difference between two population means

5.2

Hypothesis testing

6 6.1

Correlation and Regression Correlation coefficient and linear regression Include: concepts of scatter diagram, correlation coefficient and linear regression calculation and interpretation of the product moment correlation coefficient and of the equation of the least squares regression line concepts of interpolation and extrapolation

Exclude: derivation of formulae hypothesis tests use of a square, reciprocal or logarithmic transformation to achieve linearity

MATHEMATICAL NOTATION

The list which follows summarises the notation used in Cambridges Mathematics examinations. Although primarily directed towards A Level, the list also applies, where relevant, to examinations at all other levels.

1. Set Notation is an element of is not an element of the set with elements x 1 , x 2 , the set of all x such that the number of elements in set A the empty set universal set the complement of the set A the set of integers, {0, 1, 2, 3, }

+

{x 1 , x 2 , } {x: } n(A)

A

+

+ 0

n

the set of positive integers, {1, 2, 3, } the set of rational numbers the set of positive rational numbers, { x : x > 0} the set of positive rational numbers and zero, { x : x 0} the set of real numbers the set of positive real numbers, { x : x > 0} the set of positive real numbers and zero, { x : x 0} the real n tuples the set of complex numbers is a subset of is a proper subset of is not a subset of is not a proper subset of

+

+ 0

`=

2. Miscellaneous Symbols = < Y; > [; is equal to is not equal to is identical to or is congruent to is approximately equal to is proportional to is less than is less than or equal to; is not greater than is greater than is greater than or equal to; is not less than infinity

3. Operations

a b

the ratio of a to b

, a/b

a

i =1

a 1 + a 2 + ... + a n

the positive square root of the real number a the modulus of the real number a

a

a

n!

the binomial coefficient

n r

n! , for n , r + U {0}, 0 Y r Y n r! (n r )!

4. Functions

f f(x) f: A B f: x y f 1 g o f, gf

the function f maps the element x to the element y the inverse of the function f the composite function of f and g which is defined by (g o f)(x) or gf(x) = g(f(x)) the limit of f(x) as x tends to a an increment of x the derivative of y with respect to

lim f(x)

x a

x ; x

dy dx dn y dx n

x x

the first, second, n th derivatives of f(x) with respect to x indefinite integral of y with respect to x the definite integral of y with respect to x for values of x between a and b the first, second, derivatives of x with respect to time

ydx ydx

b a

& x x , && ,

e e , exp x log a x ln x lg x

x

base of natural logarithms exponential function of x logarithm to the base a of x natural logarithm of x logarithm of x to base 10

sin, cos, tan, cosec, sec, cot sin 1 , cos 1 , tan 1 cosec 1 , sec 1 , cot 1

7. Complex Numbers

i z

z = x + iy

+ = r(cos + i sin ), r 0

= re i , r 0 Re z Im z z arg z z*

the real part of z, Re (x + iy) = x the imaginary part of z, Im (x + iy) = y

the modulus of z, x + iy = (x 2 + y 2 ), r (cos + i sin ) = r the argument of z, arg(r(cos + i sin )) = , < the complex conjugate of z, (x + iy)* = x iy

8. Matrices

M M M

1 T

a matrix M the inverse of the square matrix M the transpose of the matrix M the determinant of the square matrix M

det M

9. Vectors

a

AB

the vector a the vector represented in magnitude and direction by the directed line segment AB a unit vector in the direction of the vector a unit vectors in the directions of the cartesian coordinate axes the magnitude of a the magnitude of AB the scalar product of a and b the vector product of a and b

i, j, k

a

AB

a.b aPb

events union of events A and B intersection of the events A and B probability of the event A complement of the event A , the event not A probability of the event A given the event B random variables

10

x, y, r, etc .

f1 , f 2 ,

x1 , x 2 ,

value of the random variables X, Y, R, etc. observations frequencies with which the observations,

x 1 , x 2 occur

p(x)

p1 , p 2

the value of the probability function P(X = x) of the discrete random variable X probabilities of the values

f(x), g(x) F(x), G(x) E(X) E[g(X)] Var(X) B(n, p) Po() N(, 2 ) x s2

2

the value of the probability density function of the continuous random variable X the value of the (cumulative) distribution function P(X x) of the random variable X expectation of the random variable X expectation of g(X) variance of the random variable X binominal distribution, parameters n and p Poisson distribution, mean normal distribution, mean and variance population mean population variance population standard deviation sample mean unbiased estimate of population variance from a sample ,

2

s2 =

1 2 ( x x ) n 1

N (0, 1)

corresponding cumulative distribution function linear product-moment correlation coefficient for a population linear product-moment correlation coefficient for a sample

11

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