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Applied Mathematics and Mechanics (English Edition, Vol.4, No.l, Jan.

1983)

Published by HUST Press, Wuhan, China

A STUDY

ON S~IP VIBRATION USING FINITE ELEMENT M~THOD


Zhong Wan-xic( ~ )
(Dalian Institute of Technology)

He Qiong(~ ~
(Shanghai

University of Technology)

XueHui-yu(~,~ ),
(Received Feb.

Young Po(~ ~ )
27, 1982)

(The Chinese Ship Scientific Research Center)

Abstract

The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In #BSTRACT general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock ~ e n the beam theory was used to calculate ship hull vibrabehavior of tion, greatershock in the explosive products, and applying the small calthe reflection discrepancies were found between theoretical parameter purterbation method, an analytic, first-order approximateespecially obtained for the problem of flying solution is at highermodes. Thus culations and actual measurements plate driven the various model explosives be considered indicespractical one forhigher- to three. by beam high cannot with polytropic as a other than but nearly equal mode Final velocities ofcalculations. This agree very well withthe application by computers. Thus flying plate obtained paper presents numerical results of twoan analytic dimensional two parameters of modelexplosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic formula with finite element high for the calculation o f ~ i I, vertical vibration. Using the multi-element structural dynamic aindex) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established. nalysis program DDJ(DL) developed by ourselves, the hull vibration analysis of two ships (vessel A and vessel B ) was carried out on the Model-709 Computer made in the People's Republic of 1. Introduction China. The results of the calculation, when compared with actual Explosive driven flying-plate that the two-dimensional modelin is much more behavior of measurements, show technique ffmds its important use the study of efficient than the traditional synthesis of The agreement bematerials under intense impulsive loading, shock beam model.diamonds, and explosive welding and tween cladding of metals. the method of estimationmeasurements has beenway of raising it are questions The calculations and of flyor velocity and the inTrovedgreatly, and this discrepancy at the 4th. and 5th-modes has decreased to of common interest. 5Z as compared to that of more than 20% in the tradi~onal within Undermodel. Furthermore, the model planerelatively and rigid the cost and normal the assumptions of one-dimensional is detonation simple, flying plate, the approach oftime required for themotion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations solving the problem of computation is comparatively lower and shorter, of the calculation can be carried out governing the flow field and detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):on a medium--siezed computer. Therefore, this model is especially appropriate for analyzing the dynamic characteristics of ships at early design stages. --ff =o,

ap +u_~_xp+ au au

au

I.

Introauction people have continuously

1 y

=0,
in the computation

ship hull vibration. in this method

The beam theory was widely used for sometime a--T =o,

aS

searched

as

for better methods

(i.0 of

in the past:

a ship was simplified

as =p(p, s),

a variable

section heam with variable the Timoshenko beam e-

mass and stiffness

along the ship length,

and by solving

where p, p, whichare pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products quation S, u also took the effect of shear and rotary inertia into account, the respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the natural frequencies and vibration modes of the ship were calculated. With restrajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state parapect to are approximate numerical I of central rarefaction wave behind equation,various meters on itthe governed by the flow field solution of this differential the detonation wave D methods, such as of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products and by initial stage the energy method, the finite difference method, the integral
equation method, the transfer matrix method ..., etc. were used [I]-[41 .The tran 293

42
sfer m a t r i x was w i d e l v theory tical hull was

Zhong Wan-xie, He Oiong, Xue Hui-yu and Youno Po


method used used was c o n s i d e r e d as the best and d e s i a n of the above, m e n t i o n e d However, when methods the beam theore and

in ship b u i l d i n a to c a l c u l a t e and actual

offices.

ship vibration, measurements in h i g h e r reach

the d i s c r e p a n c i e s small in the

between

calculation modes, but

were

regime

of the lower and 5th-. be

it b e c a m e

large might one

modes,

expecially Thus

at the 4 t h

modes,

the d i s c r e p a n c i e s as a p r a c t i c a l

20, or more. mode

the b e a m model

cannot of

considered measured

for higher

calculations. vibration with

The c o m p a r i s o n the c a l c u l a t e d

natural

freauencies theory

of ship v e r t i c a l in Fig.l [5]

va-

lues by the b e a m

is shown

cal. value meas .value

Abstract

The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In -Ships at abroad general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock .... Vessel A behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter purterbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying plate driven by variousl.O high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three. Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very b e r with numerical results by computers. Thus n o d e n u m well an analytic formula with two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic 0.B index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established.
Fig. 1 Comparison of measured natural frequencies of ship vertical vibration 1. with the calculated values from the beam Introduction theory

Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of Recently, the p r o p e l l e r s w i t h g r e a t e r o u t p u t p o w e r and s]ower r o t a t i o n a l materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and speed cladding have been The u a l l y used in ship, and the e x c i t a t the way u s eraising it are pquestionsr of metals. u s method of estimation of flyor velocity and i o n c a of d by the r o p e l l e with b l a e f r e q of commondinterest. u e n c i e s m a y o f t e n fall into the regime of h i g h e r - m o d e s of hull Under so it is an i one-dimensional plane study the m e rigid of c plate, t i n of vibration,the assumptions ofm p o r t a n t subject to detonation and t h o d flying o m p u t atheo normal approach- m o d e v i b r the oproblem to motion ofthe a cisu r a csolve the following system of equations of solving a t i n and of improve flyor c to y of the calculation. higher governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):
The g r e a t e r sonably tance beam modes tion. In recent element method years, assumed discrepancies ship m o d e l at higher When mode are fundamentally due to the unreathe disslender used.

between

nodes

is close

--ff +u_~_xp+ au =o, ap to the t r a n s v e r s e size


y =0,
to b u i l d more

ship v i b r a t e s

in h i g h e r - m o d e s , of the ship,

and the

assumption

is no longer

au valid.

au o r d e r to increase the a c c u r a c y in higher1 In


reasonable models for computa-

calculation,

it is n e c e s s a r y

(i.0

extensive

have been

a--T =o, s t u d i e s on p =p(p, s), p e r f o r m e d abroad.

aS

as

ship hull Various

vibration types

using

the

finite mo-

of finite

element

dels, p, S, as the t w o - density, a l model, the t particle e n s i o n a of model and the hywhere p, such u are pressure,d i m e n s i o nspecific entropy andh r e e - d i m velocity l detonation products

respectively,lwith theo m b i n i n g a mof b r a n e - b a r m o d e l detonation -wave n s iasna lboundary and the brid m o d e (by c trajectory R e m reflected shock of or t h r e e d i m e D o a m o d e l for the trajectory a r t of the ship w i t h a b e a m Both eare of the f othe r d part), R and the state paraF of flyor as another boundary. m o d l unknown; r w a position of etc. have been after p meters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave ( Demployedinitial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products and by [0]''[9] "
Our aim here is to f o r m u l a t e ease a computation design model stage which can not only be uti--

293

lized w i t h

sufficient

in the early

but can also p r e d i c t

with

A Study on Ship Vibration Using F i n i t e Element Method


definite in the degree of c o n f i d e n c e range the dynamic characteristics blade-passage

43

of a ship structure frequency. Using the

frequency

up to the propeller

two-dimensional dynamic

and t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l analysis

finite

element models calculation dynamic

we carry out the

characteristics B] with

and response

for two ships(vessel analysis program of

A and vessel DDJ(DL)

the m u l t i - e l e m e n t s

structural

developed

by o u r s e l v e s

on the C h i n a - m a d e

709-computer.

The result

the c a l c u l a t i o n

is very

satisfactory. and three dimensional selection response mentioned. finite element ap-

In this paper proach meters

the t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l

for ship hull v i b r a t i o n are p r e s e n t e d composite

and the relevant

of calculation calculation Finally,

para-

in some detail. structures

Abstract

The d y n a m i c

for m u ] through

ti-elements

is also briefly

plate under explosive attack the The one-dimensionalr i s t i c s andthe motion of a rigid flyingof a ship (vessel A), as has dynamic c h a r a c t e problem of response calculation anananalytic solution c o m p a r i n g the polytropic index of with actual measurements, three. In only when the p r e d i c t e d values detonation products equals to some example, and general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock p r o b l e s in behavior mof the hull v i b r a t i o n in atheu l a t i o n using finite element model are discussed. reflection shock c l c explosive products, and applying the small parameter purterbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying plate driven by i n i t e high mexplosives pwithc polytropic h i p }full Vthana but n I!. T h e F various E ] e e n t Ap roa h t o S indices other i b r t i o nearly aequal a t ithree. C l c u l to o n Final velocities of structure is a kindagree very well with numerical structure computers. Thus flying plate obtained of box-type shell beam results by composed of The ship an analytic formula with two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic plates, shells index) for estimationand the velocity of i b r a t eplate is established. of bars. It v flying s under the excitation of waves, propellers
and main p r o p u l s i o n of most concern machineries. Generally, the vertical Since vibration internal about of a ship is to ship d e s i g n e r s

1.

and operators.

Introduction

the

structures

and masses

of a ship are,

strictly

speaking,

not symmetrical

the vertical

Explosive the m flying-plate technique ffmds vertical exciting force on this axis p l a n e a l o n g driven a j o r axis of the ship, a its important use in the study of behavior of materialsp rundere intenses vimpulsive bloading, shock synthesisto the vertical explosive welding and of diamonds, and as well as forewill oduc t r a n e r s e v i r a t i o n in addition cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions a n d - a f t vibrations. However, it has been found from a series of full-scale vi-of common interest. b r a t i o n m the u r e m e n t s , that coupling theplane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal e a s assumptions of one-dimensional transverse direction with a vertical exUnder approach of solving the problem tof motion of flyorr o x i m asolve the following system two-dimen: c i t i n g force can be n e g l e c e d to first a p p is to t i o n and therefore a of equations governing the flowis c oof i d e r e d to productsibehind r y flyor vertical v i b r a t i o n w i t h i n the sional model field n s detonation be s a t s f a c t o the for (Fig. I):
frequency membrane nal axis to have range considered. and bar elements and it vibrates uniform thickness materials, In this model, the ship is compressed into a set of longitudi-

=o, along a+u_~_xp + vertical single ap au


vertically.

--ff
au

plane on the ship's

au Each element used in the model is assumed 1

or c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l

area

=0, and

to be of e l a s t i c , i s o t r o l d c

(i.0

and h o m o g e n e o u s The 2-noded and which

and any na s - l i n e a r i t i e s on aS

in the structure

are ignored.

bar e l e m e n t

is merely

strength element

it is g e n e r a l l y has both

a--T an axial l o a d - b e a r i n g member; it has no bendin, =o, p =p(p, s), placed along an edge (i.e., a side) of a m e m b r a n e
and s h e a r - l o a d - b e a r i n g capabilities.

axial- load--bearing

where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products The b o t t o m or deck p l a t i n g of the ship in vertical v i b r a t i o n m a i n l y bears respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the axial load flyor can another nboundary. as a bar unknown; the position itsR actual state paratrajectory F of and as be c o s i d e r e d Both are element placed on of and the location. meters c r o its aree c t i o n a l by the of the bar of central rarefaction sum of the the s s - s e c t i o nwave The on s - s governed area flow field I is taken as the wave behind c r o detonation a l D areas of the stage tofm motion of flyor i n g as well as of F and nthenstate parameters of products and by initial b o t o or deck p l a t also; the position its c o t i u o u s longitudinal areas
of the b o t t o m or d e c k p l a t i n g as w e l l as c o n t i n u o u s longitudinal

29 stiffeners.The 3

44
thickness

Zhong Wan-xie, He @iong, Xue Hui-yuand Young Po


of a m e m b r a n e element is the sum of the t h i c k n e s s e s steel work. with any In general, longitudinal across the ship of correspond In the case as ef-

all the c o n t i n u o u s to the v e r t i c a l of sloping fective dinal

shear-carrying shell

this will bulkheads.

side

together only

plating,

however, shear.

a proportion

of the t h i c k n e s s to c a r r y

is taken only

in v e r t i c a l loads bars.

The r e m a i n d e r

is c o n s i d e r e d

longitu-

axial

and is t h e r e f o r e

included

in the c r o s s s e c t i o n a l

area of the

longitudi!~al In c r d e r moment

to check

the a c c u r a c y

of the m e m b r a n e - b a r with that of

idealization,

the

second

of area of the model sections.

is c o m p a r e d

full-scaled smaller

ship at selected than the until latthe

longitudinal ter.

Generally,

the former Abstract

is slightly

T h i s m u s t be m o d i f i e d ' b y

adjusting

the area of the bar e l e m e n t

The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n both the m o d e l and the actual ship is achieved, and the neutral an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In axis a both should also required. In this general, of numerical analysis is be very close. paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock behaviorThe ther e e - d i m e n s i o n a l in othel explosive products, and applyingr e p r esmall parameter purof t h reflection shock m d e of the complete ship can the s e n t more reasonterbation method,a t i oanalytic,r m a t i o n ofapproximate solution p r o d u c e more the problem results. ably the v i b r an n d e f o first-order a ship hull and is obtained for accurate of flying plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three. Using this kind of m o d e l we have c a r r i e d out v i b r a t i o n analysis for vessel B. A Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus ant h r e e - d i mformulaa l finiteparameters m o dhigh of the c o m p l e t e ship structure upolytropic analytic e n s i o n with two element of e l explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and s u a l l y c o n s for estimation of the elements, and plate is established. index) i s t s of m e m b r a n e velocity of flying involves bar and b e a m elements. The ship side,
longitudinal membrane and t r a n s v e r s e bulkheads and d o u b l e - b o t t o m were were m o d e l l e d by means ship of side elements. i.e., Furthermore,1. truss elements Introduction to r e p r e s e n t secondary introduced structures, in deck,

and bottom,

longitudinal

such as d o u b l e -

Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of b o t t o m girders, w h i c h are not included in the m e m b r a n e elements. The smaller materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and stiffeners were added into the m e m b a n cladding of metals. The method of estimationr of e elements and the way m b rraising it are questions conflyor velocity and the m e of a n e elements are i d e r e d as o r t h of scommon interest. o t r o p i c . As we are solely i n t e r e s t e d in s y m m e t r i c a l v i b r a t i o n s , n e Under t r n s v e r s a l and torsional modes, detonation and of the ship is b e normal g l e c t i n g thea assumptions of one-dimensional planeonly one half rigid flying plate, the i n g c o n approach of solving p r o p problemb o u nmotionc o n d i t i o n s to solve thenfollowing system of equations the r i a t e of d a r y of flyor is in the c e t e r l i n e taken into account. sidered, and a p governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):
For the a f t e r - p a r t used roarser of the ship finer meshes were used and for the forward-part we meshes.

A lumped mass diction corresponds

+u_~_xp e f o r m u l a t i o nap is a d o p t+ d

--ff

au this paper. in
the =0,

=o,

The a c c u r a c y

in the preand in

au to that o b t a i n e d au h e n 1 using w

distributed

mass model,

some cases When mersed ship.

lumped mass m o d e l s a ship is v i b r a t i n g

give

even b e t t e r the

results [10]'[12]
pressure acting

(i.0
on the imof the adopted. In

a--T =o, hull surface has s i g n i f i c a n t effect p =p(p, s), In the p r e s e n t work, a c o n v e n { i o n a l

aS in

as water,

fluctuating

on the dynamic strip theory

characteristics has been

method

this where p, approach, pressure, density, rspecific entropy and particlen evelocity of detonationa n e section p, S, u are a basic two p a a m e t e r Lewis form d e f i d by the w a t e r - p l products beam, depth respectively, withand area is aRs u m ereflectedthe ship detonationtogether aswith a t h r eand ithen the trajectory s of d for shock of section wave D a boundary e - d m e trajectory Fc o r rflyoroas another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state paraof e c t i n factor_ sional meters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave The structure d a m p i n g is one i m p o r t a n t p a r a m e t e r d i f f i c u l t to d e t e r m i n e in D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products dynamic response calculation. At p r e s e n t velocity. it is a p p r o x i m a t e d When only the first by the viscous few modes damping

293
proportional to the v i b r a t i o n of structure

A Study on Ship Vibration Using Finite Element Method


are investigated,

45

especially for structures composed mainly of plates and beams,

it is u s u a l l y considered that the damping coefficient matrix is proportional to the stiffness matrix {z,~ ,i.e., [C]=~[f] 9 In this paper, based on the measured

results of the first few modes of three ships of similar type, and considering the membrane bar model, the p r o p o r t i o n a l i t y constant ~ was found to be 0.0018.

In order to compare wxth the m e a s u r e d results of the exciting experiment, for vessel A, a sinusoidal exciting force applided at node number I having amplitude p r o p o r t i o n a l to the square of rotation speed is used to simulate the exciting force applied on the extreme stern of upper deck during the vibration test. This corresponds to the position in which the mechanical exciter was placed

Abstract

during vibration tests.

The one-dimensional problem of of vessel Aofis rigid flying Fig.2 underwhich 94 nodes, has a shown in plate in explosive attack The finite element model the motion an188 degrees of freedom, 75 the polytropic index 4-noded quadrilateral equals to three. In analytic solution only when bar elements, 63 of detonation products elements and 3 general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock 5-noded u a reflection shock employed. behavior of qthed r i l a t e r a l s are in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter pur~"~ne method e n t i o n e first-order approximate adapted, in principle, to predict the terbation method, an manalytic, d above can also be solution is obtained for the problem of flying plate driven by vibration, explosives with polytropic indices more factors to be equal to three. transverse various high in which case there will be other than but nearly considered Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus than in the case of vertical vibration. an analytic formula with two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established.
3 .7 t 9 4 46 1. 8 62 66 Introduction70 74 78 82. 86 ~'94

Fig. 2

Two-dimensional finite element model for vessel A

Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of materials Dunderi c A n a l y s i s o loading, oshock synthesis tof e III. y n a m intense impulsive f C o m p s i t e S t r u c u r diamonds, iand e i n F n i t explosivee welding and Flem nt cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions In computing the natural frequencies of the whole ship structure, the effect of common interest. of damping may be neglected. The equations of motion for the structural system Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal approach of solving as: problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations can be written the [ M]la} +[ products (3.1) governing the flow field of detonation K ] l u } = 0behind the flyor (Fig. I):
For harmonic motion, genvalue problem: let

{u}={x}sin~t,

which leads to the g e n e r a l i z e d ei-

--ff +u_~_xp+ ap
[K] ~x} = ~ = [ M ] Ix~

au

=o,
(3.2)

au

au

where

~*

is an eigenvalue solution.

=0,
(i.0

In order to reduce both the computing time and the computer storage requirements, we employ the transfer subspace iteration method in which subspace iteration is combined with the of M-orthonormality satisfied by is the number of eigenvalue required,

a--T =o, use p =p(p, s), of the property


O

aS

as

eigenvectors [14][15]

In the following,

where p,[x0] S, u the pressure, density, specific entropyWhen particle velocity of detonation products p, is are primary iteration matrix. and one iteration step is finished,we and respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the identify the number of eigenmodes (suppose the first Q modes) trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; theFposition of Rsatisfying the and the state paraaccuracy requirement of meters on it are governed by the8/10 field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave flow (where e is the required accuracy in the solution D of the initial stage ofproblem). flyorthe nextposition of F and the state parameters of products and by eigenvalue motion of In also; the iteration, we only let the iteration column vectors from

FQ+I

to O of the matrix

[x0] continue to be iterated.Before 293

46
continuing ponents

Zhong Wan-xie, He Qi0ng, Xue Hui-yu and Young P0


the iteration, we must clear the first F Q mode iteration vectors modes of eigenvector com-

from these

Q-FQ

by the M - o r t h o g o n a l i z a t i o n

property. Let the lowest eigenvectors Assuming values that after going through satisfied the accuracy columns in ix0] be expressed a certain iteration, asx,, x~, ...... 9v0~ ...... ~ ,x~, ......, x0. the first F Q mode eigen-column in

have

requirement

of e/10, an arbitrary 9~ 9

the remaining FQ modes

Q--FQ

is denoted by from 9,

In order to clear the first the new starting

eigenvector vector ~

components

, we may constitute

iteration

Y~----.{,--a,9,--a29~........ apqgro Abstract


The M-orthogonality of 9, with x,, x~, ...... ,-~P0 gives:

(3.3)

The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has 9] [M]9,= 0 ] an analytic solution only when[ Mthe , = 0 ~ equals 9 [ ] 9 polytropic index of detonation products (3.4) to three. In general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock ! behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter pur9~o[ M]9,= 0 terbatione method,x an analytic, first-orderh e e x a c t e i g solutionr s obtainedf y thee problem c y flying Becaus o f 9 , , ~ , 9..... ,gm0 b e i n g t approximate e n v e c t o is ( s a t i s for t h a c c u r a of r e plater e m e n t by f various ) ,high eexplosives gwithl i z a t i o n driven o e/10 polytropic indicesi ootherb than ebut tnearlymequal bto three.qui th M-ortho ona condit n etwe n hem ust e satis Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus anf i e d . analytic formula with two T [ M ] 9 , = 0 of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic parameters 9 (s~:t) (3.5) index) for estimation of the velocity of flying. . .plate is established. s,t----- l , 2 , . . . ,FQ
Putting (3.3) and (3.5) into (3.4) 1. it is not difficult Introduction to obtain the following

expression

for a,(i=l,2, ...... ,FQ)

Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of 9T[M]9, materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and a,= 97[M]9, 1 cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions 9~[M]9, of common interest. a:= 9T[M]gt (3.6) Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations 9~Q[M]9, governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):

......
of

After

these values

are obtained,

the expression

for 9~ can be formed

by eq.(3.3). In our computer column iteration

--ff +u_~_xp+ ap
program, au require we au be included. vectors

au 1 y

=o,

that in each iteration

Once the first

=0,

only the first 12 satisfying (i.0

EQ

eigenmodes

the accuracy

requirement

and the columns next 12 columns/

a--T modes in [x0] are complemented =o, following the F Q p practice shows that this procedure Our computing =p(p, s),

of e/J0 are a s detected, aS

they are removed

from the iteration, to make up the is quite effec-

tive. where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products Since the ship floats of water, shock of detonation wave respectively, with the trajectory R in reflected in addition to flexual Dvibration it and the as a boundary may also experience flyor trajectory F of rigid asbody movements, such as heaving and position of R Therefore, paraanother boundary. Both are unknown; the pitching. and the state the meters on it arestiffness by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave governed matrix is singular. We can eliminate this singularity be structural D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products shifting stiffness matrix. We rewrite the general eigenvalue ~'[g]{x}in the form of: problem [ K ] { x } = 293

A Study on Ship Vibration Using Finite Element Method

47

([K] + a i m ]){x} = (~=+a)[M] {x;


or

(3.7)

[K](x} = ~ [ g ]
where [ K ] is p o s i t i v e All m o d e s ginal yields general the of {x}

~x}

(s.8)

definite. calculated problem, ~z of the frequencies by this method and same are the e i g e n v e c t o r s a from of the ori-

eigenvalue

subtracting problem.

all of the A v a l u e s

eigenvalues, the n a t u r a l we can

After obtained, position

and v i b r a t i o n response

profiles of the

of v a r i o u s

modes

are

calculate

the d y n a m i c

ship by the m o d e s

super-

method.

Abstract

The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has an IV. C a l c u l a t i o nonlyR e s u l t s and D i s c uindex nof detonation products equals to three. In analytic solution when the polytropic s s i o s general, a numericalc hanalysisr i s trequired. the this m p u t e d however, by rutilizing the the f o l lshock The m a i n a r a c t e is i c s of In c o paper, ships are e s u m e d in "weak" o w i n g behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter purtable : terbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying TABLE plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic1 indices other than but nearly equal to three. Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus ip cha acte ist cs Vessel A an analyticS hformula rwith rtwo iparameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation V e s s e l and polytropic velocity B index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established.
Displacement Length Length 1500 D W T 5842.6 D W T 164,3 m 154.1m overall between

1.
perpendiculars

103.5 m Introduction 98 m

Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of materials underd t h B r e a intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and 10.8 m 22.88 m cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions D B.3 m 13.20 m of common e p t h interest. Underr the assumptions of one-dimensional planem detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal D aft S.I 2.5 m approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):
Using the a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d first 28 m o d e s A is 2-dimensional calculated model for v e s s e l A and e m p l o y i n g The finite model DDJ(DL), the

ment model parameters No. No. No. No. of

of v e s s e l are

--ff s h oap +u_~_xp + w n in Fig.2.


au
points

were

au

=o, Some of

on a 709 c o m p u t e r . the m o s t

elesize

important

summarized

au below:

1 y

=0,

structural of

nodal

94 188 66 75 28

(i.0

of d e g r e e s of m e m b r a n e of t r u s s

f r e e d o aS m

elements

elements

a--T =o, p =p(p, s),

as

No. where p, p, S, of are e q u e n c i e sdensity, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products u f r pressure, C o m p u t i n g t trajectory R(free and f oshock v i bdetonation analyses) a boundary and the respectively, with the i m e u s e d of reflected r c e d of r a t i o n s wave D as 120 mins. h trajectoryTF e ofc o m p u t i n ganotherl t s for v e Both are are shown the position 2, R and the state paraflyor as r e s u boundary. s s e l A unknown; in T a b l e of the first three mode: meters r e s e n tarer governedd y mthei o n s c o n s iIs t i ncentral rarefaction p i t c h behind the sdetonationof the on it wave rep i g i d b o by o t flow field of g of h e a v i n g , wave i n g and hifting D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products ship. The real elastic modes start from the 4th-mode on.

293

48
TABLE Mode Number 2

Zhon~ Wan-xie,
Calculated

He Qiong, Xue Hui-yu and Young Po


Frequencies for Vessel A

Natural

: 1 I 2

1 3 1 4

[ 5 ] 6 J T [ 8 I 9 .I 10 J 11

12

13

14

Mode Number

15

22 J 23
1~5~ 1.~

"I~'64

~requen~y ~C.~.M.)11"1~!I'0'11"0 1.0 I.~ I~001---- .~2 .I~


A comparison is shown Fig.3. in Table between 3. the computed results

101,
results in at

and the actually measured calculated

The first

12 elastic mode shapes between calculated

are shown

Fig.4

shows the comparison and Fig.5

modes

and measured modes curve

the first between

4 frequencies,

shows the Abstract

comparison

of the resonance

calculated

and measured

results

in forced vibration

test at node 94 of

the The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has bow. an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In By using 3-dimensional finite element model, the first 13 modes were calcugeneral, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock lated for vessel B. The in the explosive products, and applying of vessel B are shown behavior of the reflection shock 3-dimensional finite element model the small parameter purin Fig.6. Some analytic, first-order approximate size terbation method, an of the most important model solutionparameters for thesum/~arized flying is obtained are problem of below: plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three. TABLE Final velocities 3 Comparison obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus of flying plate between Calculation and Measurement of Hull Vibration of Vessel A an analytic formula with two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established. Vibration mode ,]21314~Iol7t,, ~ I,o;,, node number measured results(c.p.m.)

-~

]~ L =

1.

Introduction

1__~I__] "~ "~

beam model cal.value Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of (transfer (c.p.m.) materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and matrix cal. mea. cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions method) _-]-_-L_ I. _ L of two-dimencommon interest. cal.value of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal Under the assumptions sional (c.p.m.) E.L.model approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations (4-noded flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I): cal. governing the 1 02 1 05/ 1 04 1.12 __, !
1089
m _ _

conforming mea. element) two-dimencal. --ff +u_~_xp+ au =o, ap sional value 904-!9S5 108~ E.L. model L (c.p.m.) au au 1 (4- noded y =0, non-conforcal. (i.0 ming element mea. aS as two-dimena--T =o, sional E.L. cal. p =p(p, s), model (4value noded non(c.p.m.) i 1 I__ . J _ _ L I .... [ conforming where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products element respectively,con- cal. trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as la boundary and the with the i I sidering mea. trajectory cor- flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state paraF of shear meters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave rection)

,0!

,0.!

111,

D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products
293

A Study on Shi.p Vibration Using Finite Element Me,thod

49

mode 1 96.3 c.p.m.

mode 2 203.4 c.p.m. t-,, mode 3 320.4 c.p.m.


,....--"

Abstract

mode 4 431.1 c.p.m.

The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation mode 5 equals to three. In products general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock 488.7 c.p.m. behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter purterbation method, an analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying mode 6 plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three. 563.8 c.p.m. Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus an analytic formula with two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plateshapes of vessel A Fig.3(a) Calculated mode is established. 1. Introduction

mode 7 668.8 c.p.m.

Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the mode of c.p.m. it are questions way 8 raising 765.3 of common interest. Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal mode 9 approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations 826.4 c.p.m. governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):
A , I._ ~ .,

--ff +u_~_xp+ 71 ap
au au

i,au

=o,

mode i0 858.5 c.p.m.

1 y

,4 =0, m o d e Ii 936.8 c.p.m.

(i.0

a--T =o, p =p(p, s),

aS

as

mode 12 1014.2 c.p.m.

where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products respectively, with Fig.S(b) Calculated modeshock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the the trajectory R of reflected shapes of vessel A trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state parameters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products
mode 1

293

5_0

Zhong Wan-xie, He Qiong, xue Hui-j/u and Youno Po

mode

mode

Abstract mode 4
calc late result The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate uunderd explosivesattack has an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation aproductsr e s u l t s to three. In equals o me sured general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock behavior Fig. 4 reflections o n b e tine the c a l c u l a t eproducts, and applyinge d m o d e s parameter purof the C o m p a r i shock w e n explosive d m o d e s and m e a s u r the small of the terbation method,first 4 r e s o n a n c e frequencies solution is obtained for the problem of flying an analytic, first-order approximate plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three. a plitu e --M Final velocities of mflying dplate obtained agree very well with numericale a s u r e d by acomputers. Thus results v l u e (mm) 3.1 an analytic formula with two parameters of high explosive (i.e.. detonation lvelocity a l u e polytropic . . . C a l c u a t e d v and index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established. exciting 1.0 force Toh

1.

Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions of common interest. O, Under the assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations Fre. governing the 0.03 field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I): flow
50 I00 150 200 250 300 350 400 (r p. m)

Introduction

Fig. 5

C o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n c a l c u l a t e d and m e a s u r e d =o, (at node 94 of the bow) ap +u_~_xp+ au

--ff
au

resonance curves

au

No. No. No. Ne. No.

of

structural of

Nodal

Points

1 y

=0,

195 414 224 41 38

(i.0

of d e g r e e s of m e m b r a n e of t r u s s of b e a m

freedom.

elements

element elements

a--T =o, p =p(p, s),

aS

as

where p, No.S,of are epressure, sdensity, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products p, u f r q u e n c i e 13 respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the T ii0 min. trajectory i m e uflyor as anotheru t a t i o n F of s e d for c o m p boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state paraT e c o governed by l t s for v e s of B are s h o w n in T a b l 4. meters on hit are m p u t e d r e s u the flow field sIe l central rarefaction waveebehind the detonation wave D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products
293

A Study on Ship Vibration Using Finite Element Method


TABLE ~_~_o_de number F_requency (C.P.M) 4 Calculated Natural 3 Frequencies
4 1 5 6

51

for Vessel
I 7
352

B
.9 1 ,0
413 502

, ; 2 _ 0
11

r 0.15 i 1.2~i I [ 12 ! 13
/

109.8 199

358

Mode Number FFeoyency (C.P.M.)

572 '
i

r~09
I

Tit)

From

the comparison results

between

calculated A,

results that

and m e a s u r e d

for vessel using

it is shown

the c a l c u l a t e d element method

results agrees

two-dimensional Abstract

finite

quite well with

the measured

The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has values. When compared with the p r e d i c t e d values oban analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In tained numerical model, the required. In between the calby beam analysis is agreement this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock general, a behavior of the reflection shock rinm e n t sexplosive products, and applying the small parameter purculated results and m e a s u e the has been improved terbation method, an analytic, the 4th- approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying first-order and 5th-modes the greatly, especially at plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three. di crepanc has d e r e a s Final svelocitiesy of flyingc platee d to within very well with numerical results by computers. Thus obtained agree 5% as compared an with that of more than parameters oftraditional beam detonation velocity and polytropic analytic formula with two 20% in the high explosive (i.e. index) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established. model. Furthermore, the calculated mode shapes
coincide fairly well with the measured results. It is evident achieved that great

1. Introduction improvement has been


calculation by o

in ship vertical

vibration

Explosive driven flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in the study of behavior of using the t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l model used here than by materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and o employing the beam model. However, the reduction cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor velocity and the way of raising it are questions of a three--dimensional ship to a two dimensional of common interest. Under the assumptions model clearly presents ofa one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal limitation on the range of approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve the following system of equations a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the model. If the value of the governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I): 4~
shear m o d u l u s count is suitably adjusted to take into acthe effect of transverse of the model istort ,t --ffd+u_~_xpi+o n sau h e range =o, ap can be extended espeo
i.n

of a p p l i c a b i l i t y

au 1 cially for the c o m p u t a t i o n ofau i b r a t i o n at higherv y =0,


modes in w h i c h the shear d i s t o r t i o n is d o m i n a n t , a n d more reason-.

(i.0

ql

the results able.

thus o b t a i n e d

B a s e d on the shear beam equation

Timoshenko d i e p, n l wheremp,n s i oS,a u

a--T =o, formula in p =p(p, s), d e d u c e d acoording to threecoefficient

aS will

then a s be

e pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products <o are l a s t i c i t y theory by Cowper[16], in respectively, e r a the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the < this p a p with reduction factor for the reduction of trajectory F of flyor as another boundary.oBoth eareiunknown; the position of R and the state paraa three--dimensional body to a t w - d i m n s o n a l one meters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave is introduced to D and by initial stage ofmake theofnecessary the position offorand the state parameters of ttproducts motion flyor also; adjustment F the shear modulus. From the computer results for

293

52.

Zhon9 Wan-xie, He qiong, XueHui-yu and YounN Po


taken into account, it is noted that the accuracy to some extent, showing

vessel A with this c o r r e c t i o n of the theoretical prediction

in higher--modes improves,

the effect of this correction. The t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l m o d e l can represent more reasonably the v i b r a t i o n However, a com-

d e f o r m a t i o n of a ship hull and produce more accurate results.

plex m o d e l with finer mesh requires a great deal of data p r e p a r a t i o n computer memory, and eventually costs more. For the 3-dimensional

and large

fi'nite e l e

ment model of vessel B, due to rough n e t w o r k of elements part of the model), sult to be expected.

(especially the foreis an accurate reimpor--

o n l y for the lower--mode hull v i b r a t i o n s

With this network shear lag and local vibration,

Abstract

rant for h i g h e r - m o d e vibrations,

are not taken into account.

In order to ac-

The one-dimensional problem h the r - m o d e hull vibrations, a finer network of quire an accurate result for of i g h emotion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has an analytic solution only when the polytropic index of detonation products equals to three. In elements must be used. general, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock behavior of the reflection shock in the explosive products, and applying the small parameter purterbation omethod,o n analytic, first-order approximate solution is obtained for the problem of flying V. C n c l u s i an plate driven The various ihighs i o n a l finite polytropicmodel is a reasonable model for three. a. by t w o - d m e n explosives with element indices other than but nearly equal to the Final velocities of flying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus a l c u l a t o n of anc analytic iformula ship two parametersl of high explosiveIn c o m p a r i n g with the andapolytropic with hull v e r t i c a vibration. (i.e. detonation velocity b e m model, it for estimation of r a l i s t i c a l flying plate t established. index)represents more thee velocity of l y the d i sis o r t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e s p e c i a l l y in
h i g h e r - m o d e vibrations. measurements Therefore the agreement b e t w e e n the c a l c u l a t i o n s and has been improved greatly, and the d i s c r e p a n c y at 4th- and 5th1. Introduction to within 5%. At the same time, the estimates of the res-

modes has d e c r e a s e d

Explosive driven v e r t i c a l v i b r a t i o agree fairly well in the study of r e d reponse of a ship inflying-plate technique nffmds its important use with the m e a s ubehavior of materials under intense impulsive loading, shock synthesis of diamonds, and explosive welding and sults in forced v b r a t i o cladding of metals. Thei methodnoftests using flyor c h a n i c a l exciter. of raising it are questions estimation of a m e velocity and the way b. interest. d with the t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l finite element model, the two-diCompare of common Under model is r e l of v e l y simple, plane detonation a t i rigid flying too the normal m e n s i o n a l the assumptions a t ione-dimensional the data p r e p a rand o n is not plate, tedious approach of solving the problem of motion of flyor is to solve cthe pfollowing systemmof r a t i v e l y and time consuming, the cost and time required for o m u t a t i o n is c o p a equations governing the flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I):
lower and shorter. The c a l c u l a t i o n can be t a r r i e d out by using only 32K words computer. of internal m e m o r y of a m e d i u m - s i z e d cially suitable sign stages. for

--ff analyzing ap +u_~_xp+ the dynamic


au au
subspace

au a r a c t e r i s t i c s of ghips at early dech

=o,

Therefore,

this model

is espe-

1 y

=0,
can be e x t r a c t e d in a shorter time having matrix

c. E m p l o y i n g the transfer

iteration m e t h o d t o calculate eigenva(i.0

a--T =o, with less internal storage space of the computer. On the other hand, p =p(p, s), c o n s i d e r e d the p a r t i c u l a r feature of the s i n g u l a r i t y of the stiffness

aS lues in d y n a m i c analysis, more e i g e na s l u e s va

caused where p, p,by u are pressure, density, specificb o u n d a r y and particle velocity of detonation pproducts S, floating ships having no entropy restraints, we can use the r o g r a m d i r e c t l y to respectively, withcalculate ship hull vibration. of detonation wave D as a boundary and the the trajectory R of reflected shock trajectory F The flyor uastanother boundary. Bothoarel unknown; the position of Rwhen the state paraand the limitad. of a d j s m e n t of the shear m d u u s is quite necessary meters on it are governed eby n t a tflow field aI of central m e n s i o n a l wave behind the detonationo wave the i o n of rarefaction ship by a two d i m e n s i n a l tion caused by r e p r s e three d i D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products moCel is considered. Using the results o b t a i n e d by Cowper, reasonable we introduce a sim-

293
ple m e t h o d to obtain a r e l a t i v e l y reduction factor which is especially

A Study on Ship Vibration Usino Finite Element ~iethod


suitable for use at the design stage.

53

References
Yan Shu-bang, Xue Hui-yu, Zhuang He--xun and Li Chang--long, Calculation methods for ship hull free vibration, Technical Report of C.S.S.R.C. Jan. (1977). (in Chinese) 2. Liu Xing- sen and Jin Xian-ding, The computer program of transfer matrix method and its application for ship hull vibration, Report of Shanghai Jiaotung University, July(1978). (in Chinese) 3. Ma Guang-zong, Prediction of ship hull vibration with Riccati transfer me-. thod, Report of Shanghai Ship Design Institute (1978).(in Chinese) 4. Xue Hui-yu and Wu Ze liang, Application of transfer matrix method to prediction of ship hull vibration response, Technical Report of C.S.R.C. Jan. Abstract (1979). (in Chinese) 5. Hylarides, Recent developments in hull and shaft vibration analysis, I.S.P. The one-dimensional problem of the motion of a rigid flying plate under explosive attack has vol. 17 No. 190(1970). 6. Norris, C. and when the Application of detonation products equals to three. an analytic solution only D. Catley,polytropic indexof two-dimensional finite elements In model to ship vertical vibration and comparison with ship mobility measuregeneral, a numerical analysis is required. In this paper, however, by utilizing the "weak" shock ments, Symposium on Propeller Induced Ship Vibration, Dec.(1979). behavior Kavlte, reflection shock in the explosive Prediction of applying the small parameter purof the Dag and Absjord, Halvand, products, and vibration in the afterbody 7. terbationof ship, an analytic, first-order approximate Vol.15 No.4, (1977).the problem of flying method, Norwegian Maritime Research, solution is obtained for plate driven by various high explosives with polytropic indices other than but nearly equal to three. 8. Armand, J. and P. Orsero, Dynamic analysis of the afterbody of a ship__ towards successful correlation between analysis and experiment results, Final velocities of aflying plate obtained agree very well with numerical results by computers. Thus SNAME Ship Vibration Symposium, New York(1978). an analytic formula with two parameters of high explosive (i.e. detonation velocity and polytropic 9. Volocy, G. C., M. Baudin and Morel, Integrated Treatment of Static and Viindex) for estimation of the velocity of flying plate is established. bratory Behaviour of Twin Screw 553000 dwt Tankers, RINA London (1978). 10. Clough, R.W., Analysis of structural vibrations and dynamic response,Recent Advances in Matrix Methods of Structural Analysis and Design(Papers Presente( 1. Introduction at the U.S.-- Japan Siminar), Tokyo, Japan(1969). 11. Wilson; E.L., A computer program for the dynamic analysis of underground structures, flying-plate technique ffmds its important use in University of CaliExplosive driven Report 68-i, Civil Engineering Department, the study of behavior of materials fornia, Jan. impulsive 681, N.T.I.S.), (1968). diamonds, and explosive welding and under intense (AD 832 loading, shock synthesis of 12. Clough, R.W. and C.A. Felippa, A refined quadrilateral element for analysis cladding of metals. The method of estimation of flyor Second and the way of raising it are questions of plate bending, Proceedings of the velocity Conference on Matrix Methods in of common interest. Mechanics, Oct. (AD 703 685, N.T.I.S.), (1968). Structural Under the J.L. and P.Orsero, Analytical identification of damping in ship vi--" 13. Armand,assumptions of one-dimensional plane detonation and rigid flying plate, the normal approachbration from full-scale motion of flyor RINA solve the following system of equations of solving the problem of measurement, is to Symposium of Propeller Induced governingShip flow field of detonation products behind the flyor (Fig. I): the Vibration, Dec. (1979). 14. Zhong Wan-xie, Lin Jia hao, Cheng Geng--dong and Tian Yu-shan, Study of characteristic value of vibrational mechanics and its application to dyna.mic calculation of frametype base, A Collection of Papers at the Symposium --ff +u_~_xp+ of =o, ap on Computational Structure Mechanics au Universities under the Auspices of the Ministry of ~Eduction,(1978) -(in Chinese) au au 1 15. Bathe, K,J. and E.L. wilson, Numerical Methods in Finite Elements Analysis, y =0, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, (1976). (i.0 16. Cowper, G.R., The shear aS coefficient in Timoshenko's beam theory, Journal of as Applied Mechanics, Voi.33, No.2,(1966). a--T =o, 17. Structural Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Technology, March, (1978).(in Chinese) 1.

=p(p, s),

where p, p, S, u are pressure, density, specific entropy and particle velocity of detonation products respectively, with the trajectory R of reflected shock of detonation wave D as a boundary and the trajectory F of flyor as another boundary. Both are unknown; the position of R and the state parameters on it are governed by the flow field I of central rarefaction wave behind the detonation wave D and by initial stage of motion of flyor also; the position of F and the state parameters of products
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