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Archaeology in Anatolia Author(s): Machteld J. Mellink Reviewed work(s): Source: American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 92, No. 1 (Jan.

, 1988), pp. 101-131 Published by: Archaeological Institute of America Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/505873 . Accessed: 14/12/2012 18:08
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Archaeologyin Anatolia
MACHTELD J. MELLINK
Excavations in 1986 ranged widely in the territory of modern Turkey, from the Thracian shores in Europe to the east shoreof Lake Van, fromthe Black Sea coast to the Aegean and Mediterranean,on land and under water, in some of the old historicalmounds on the plateau and in a string of sites alongthe Euphrates where the threat of inundation has been postponed temporarilysouth of the Taurus mountainbarrier. At the annual archaeologicalsymposiumin Ankara over 60 excavationreportswere presented,and nearly as many summaries of surveys and work in archaeometry. It is impossible to give a completelisting of all the activities, for which the impressive annual symposium reportsof the DirectorateGeneral of Antiquities and Museums must be consulted (see the bibliography, below). Basic progress in Palaeolithicresearchis promised at the site of the Yarimburgazcave west of Istanbul,of equal interest to European, Aegean, and Anatolian prehistorians.In the southwest,work continuesin the Karain cave near Antalya, and systematicexploration began in the Gaziantep area where various finds had been reportedbefore. The transition from Epipalaeolithicto the stage of aceramic Neolithic settlements remains to be investigated. The advanced architecture of Qay6nti and Nevalla Qori is being studied stratigraphicallyand structurally. Degirmentepe,ca. 24 km. northeastof Malatya, has yielded the best evidencefor the Ubaid period with its articulatehouse plans, workshops,and commercialactivities attested by seal impressions. The Late Uruk colony phase now has a respectablerepresentativein Hassek across the Euphrates, a well-planned compound with several buildings, containing Late Uruk and glypticmaterial,mosaicwall decoration, evena figural wall relief in terracotta.Arslantepe-Malatyacontinues to add details to its regionalpalatial building of this period (VI A), some storeroomsof which have representationalwall painting. The tradition of wall painting dates back at least to the Ubaid periodin this area, as attestedat Degirmentepe. For the Early Bronze Age, the most rewardingexpansion of our horizon is offered by Ikiztepe, where the excavationof the large EB III cemeteryon mound
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American Journal of Archaeology 92 (1988)

I is now being completed,yielding majorevidencefor Pontic burial customs,physicalsubstanceof the population, and metallurgy.The tombs are well equipped with artifactsof copperor arsenicalcopper. The connections of this site with Europe and with central Anatolia are comingto light as well as a strongPontic cultural autonomy. The second millennium takes us increasinglyinto historical or near-historical context. The well-built town on Lidar's mound, across the Euphrates a bit upstream from Samsat, went under in level 8, burnt down presumablyduring the campaignsof Hattushili I or Murshili I; the precedinglevel 9 is beginning to yield some cuneiformtablets. Contact with the plateau in the Old Hittite period continuedto be evident at Imikugagiin levels 10-11, both in pottery and in seal types. This site acrossthe Euphrates seems to suffer Old Hittite interferenceat the end of level 12. The exploits of the Hittites of the Empire period are spelled out in the recordsof the capital. The most impressive new document is the large bronze tablet found near the Sphinx Gate, containingone versionof the treaty of Tuthaliya IV with Kuruntaof Tarhunta''a, the lower country.This detailedrecordof diplomacy and geography throws new light on the status and extent of Hittite and allied authorityin lands later known as Rough Cilicia and Pamphylia,and suggests that strongholdsof the Hittite Empire period existed in sites hitherto not exploredin depth (e.g., the acropolis of Perge, or that of Aspendos). Written documents and inscriptionswill continue to guide the archaeologistas well as the historian. In the underwater excavation of the shipwreck at Ulu Burun near Kay,a wooden foldingtablet was foundof the kind Bellerophonmust have carriedto Lycia;wax and signs are lost, but the challenging questions of script and languageremain.A gold scarabof Nefertiti is a historicallink addedto the networkof cosmopolitan connections the merchantship, the home port of of which remainsdebatable.The ship and its cargo (copper, tin, glass ingots) were headingwest along the Lycian coast with its harbors,en route to the Aegean. The Mycenaean connectionsof West Anatolia in the Late BronzeAge are being furtherexploredin Pa-

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MACHTELD J. MELLINK

[AJA 92

IKIZTEPTEM

PERINTH OSR P ARA

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naztepe south of Phocaea, the site of a cemetery of mixed Anatolian-Aegeanaffinities, and also of a settlement to be probed in future campaigns. It is clear that many West Anatoliansites of the Ahhiyawa period are not readily identifiableby general prospecting; intensivesurvey and patiencewill yield results, as will the consultationwith villagers and land owners. Geomorphologistsmust come to the aid of the archaeologists to reconstructthe changesin land and sea formation. Inland sites like Gavurtepenear Alagehir-Philadelphia may contain an accessiblerecordof LB West Anatolianhabitationin contactwith Aegean as well as Hittite neighbors. Iron Age sites of note are Sardis in the west, as its Lydian monumental architecture and stratification are emerging;Tille in the east, a fortresson the Euphrates with some elegance (a large court with a checkerboardpebble mosaic) in the eighth century B.C., perhaps destroyedby Sargon but rebuilt subsequently. In the lower countryof the Hittites, Meydancik near Giilnar was selected for excavation for its promise of Hittite connections.An Aramaic inscription identifies the site as Kirshu and thus reveals its importancein Iron Age historyalso. In the many Classical sites, endeavorsof conservation and restorationof majorbuildingsare in progress in the Troas, Aeolis, Ionia, Lydia, Caria, Lycia, Pamphylia, and Phrygia. The Hellenistic palace on the mound at Samsat on the Euphrateswould have made a great open-air museum;it will insteadbe salvagedin samples of painting, mosaic, architecture,and sculpture as the enormoussite itself will be engulfed in the lake behind the Atatirk Dam. There is still some respite for the venerable history and prehistoryof Samsat-Samosata.

Bibliography. The reportsof the 1986 symposium organized by the Directorate General of Antiquities and Museums in Ankara now have appearedin four
substantial volumes: VIII. Kazz Sonuqlarz Toplantizs

1 and 2, referred to below as Symposium8:1 and 2

um 2 (1986). Other current reports have appearedin AnatSt 36 (1986) 173-218, and helpful articlesin Eski Eserlerve
Miizeler Biilteni 4-8 (1985 and 1986). The Newsletter for Anatolian Studies appears regularly and is now

(1986); IV. Araltzrma Sonuqlarz Toplantisz, referred to as Research Symposium 4 (1986); and II. Arkeometri Sonuqlarz Toplantizs, here Archaeometry Symposi-

in its third year (1987, Yale University). A general volume is the revised edition of J.G. Macqueen, The
Hittites and Their Contemporaries in Asia Minor

(London 1986). Maurits N. Van Loon,Anatoliain the


Second Millennium B.C. (Iconography of Religions

XV. 12, Leiden 1985) is an iconographical study. Progress of Anatolian research is documentedin several festschriftenand memorialvolumes.KaniSluwar. A Tribute to Hans G. Giiterbock, edited by H.A.

Hoffner, Jr., and G.M. Beckman (Chicago 1986) contains a series of Hittite studies;Studi di paletnologia in onore di Salvatore M. Puglisi, edited by M. Li-

verani, Alba Palmieri, and R. Peroni (Rome 1985), abbreviatedStudi Puglisi in the text below, has methodological and Near Eastern studies with a strong
bearing on Anatolia. Ancient Anatolia. Aspects of Change and Cultural Development. Essays in Honor of Machteld J. Mellink, edited by J.V Canby, E. Po-

rada, B.S. Ridgway, and T. Stech (Madison 1986) ranges from Qay6nii to Hartapus of Kizildag;abbreviation below: Ancient Anatolia. Several Anatolian contributions can also be found in Insight through

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1988]

ARCHAEOLOGY ANATOLIA IN

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Images. Studies in Honor of Edith Porada, edited by

M. Kelly-Buccellati,P. Matthiae, and M. Van Loon (Malibu 1986; hereafter Studies Porada); and in
Monsters and Demons in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds. Papers Presented in Honor of Edith Porada,

edited by A.E. Farkas, P.O. Harper, and E.B. Harrison (Mainz 1987; hereafterPapers Porada). The present installment of news is again the result of the generosity with which excavatorsand authorities have made their information and illustrations available. The symposiumin Ankara is by now a traditional source of enlightenment and discussion. For all the help and advice I am most grateful to my colleagues in the expanding world of Anatolian studies and especiallyto the directorsand membersof the Departmentof Antiquities and Museums in Turkey.
PALAEOLITHIC, NEOLITHIC, CHALCOLITHIC

Karain. Dr. Igln Yalginkaya in 1986 conducted work in cave area E. Square Al yielded nine archaeological strata, the upper five disturbedby a pit with Chalcolithic pottery. Otherwise all three excavated squares yielded Middle Palaeolithic tools in every stratum. Two pierced limestone pendants from stratum 8 are potentiallyimportantbut may still be intrusive. Human teeth and animal bones are being studied. A new topographicalplan has been made of the site. Symposium 8:1 (1986) 21-37; AnatSt 36 (1986) 201-202. The Chalcolithic pottery found in area B in 1985 was studied by JuiirgenSeeher, who differentiated three phases, the lowest (1) characterizedby polished reddishwares and very few paintedsherds;phase 2 by gray and coarse wares, represented,for example, in large bowls with flattenedrims;phase 3 by buff coarse wares. This material can be correlatedwith the West Anatolian and Aegean sequence. Kocapinar. Elmali Plain. Angela Minzoni-D&roche reportson the discoveryof an open-air site with flint tools of Mousterian type at Kocapinareast of Elmall. Research Symposium 4 (1986) 359-68.

overlie the long prehistoricsequence down to Lower Palaeolithic. Layers 2-3 have Chalcolithic pottery resemblingBalkan wares (KaranovoIII-early Vinpa, Paradimi);level 4 has a differentclass of incisedware; level 5 is Neolithic with impressedwares resembling Fikirtepeand Vorsesklo;level 6 is aceramic,with some flint nodules and flakes (end of Palaeolithic?);level 7 also has Upper Palaeolithicflint tools; 8-10 are welldefinedgeologicalstrata;11 has a 2 m. thick waterlaid sand deposit overlying breccia formations of 12-13, correspondingto layer 3 of the lower cave, which yielded numerousflint tools in Clactoniantechnique, some pebble tools, and bones. Coarse flakes, pebble tools, and animal bones were characteristicof upper cave 14 and lower cave 4-5. The lower cave was explored down to layer 12 which still had a heap of animal bones, and pebblesthat may have been used as tools. These levels seemto belongto Early Palaeolithic. For a preliminaryreportsee Mehmet Ozdoganand Alpaslan Koyunluin Arkeolojive Sanat 32-33 (1986) 4-17. In Studi Puglisi (1985) 177-89, Ozdogan discusses some of the Chalcolithic pottery from earlier soundings. Gaziantep Region. A team of archaeologistsand undertooka prehistoricexploration geomorphologists of two areasto the northwestand southeastof Gaziantep in the fall of 1986. The preliminary results are published in a monographedited by A. Minzoni-D&roche, Le Paldolithique du basin de Nizip (Gazian-

Yarimburgaz. The cave of Yarimburgaz is near the north edge of the Kil~ik Qekmecelagoon, ca. 20 km. west of Istanbul. Earlier probeswere made in this
cave in 1964-1965 (Kansu, VII. Tirk Tarih Kongresi

1 [1972] 22-32). In 1986, Dr. Mehmet Ozdogan undertooksoundings in the cave with a team of studentsfrom Istanbul University.There are two chambers,a largeupperone
(some 50 x 15 m., with a ceiling height of 10 m.) and a

narrower lower one. The upper cave was extensively remodeledin the Byzantine era, the remainsof which

tep) (Istanbul 1987). The stratifiedartifactsare from a late Acheuleancontext. No Upper Palaeolithictools were found. Aceramic Neolithic: Cay6nii. In the 11th season of excavation,Dr. Mehmet Ozdogan reports, soundings were made over a 40 m.2 area down to virgin soil. Below the grill buildings, oval structures had been built on virgin soil; these are simple wattle-and-daub huts without stone foundations. There are at least four subphasesof this earliestperiod.On the west side of the site, excavation went down to the upper grill plan level. In the level transitional to the cell buildings, a workshopwas found where native copperand malachitewere worked. The large building in which some 70 skulls had been discovered previousseasonsturnedout to have in had three phases. The second level had a slightly smaller version of the building, and contained fragments of human bones under the skull compartment, but no skulls. The third level down had a pavement made of large stones, with some upright stones set in it. Below the pavement lay compartmentsmade of large slabs, one of which contained many human

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[AJA92

Fig. 1. NevallaQori.Houses2 and4, level2. bones. An earlier level below this rests on virgin soil; here too human bones were found along with large animal horns. Reports appeared in Symposium 8:1 (1986) 51-66; AnatSt 36 (1986) 187-88. Metin Ozbek in Archaeometry Symposium 2 (1986) 19-39 pre-

sents an analysis of burnt skulls from the skull building. Most of these skulls belongedto male and female adults, 10 examples to young children (age 3-5, one 10). Detectivework is in progressto distinguishtraces of human, bovine, and ovine blood on floorsand stone slabs of Qay6nii buildings through hemoglobincrystallization analysis. Archaeometry Symposium 2

(1986) 129-30. Nevalla Clori. This aceramicNeolithic site east of the Euphratesnear the Kantarariver was furtherinvestigatedby Director Adnan Misir of the Urfa Museum and Prof. Harald Hauptmann,who reportsthat the last occupationof the site is of the EB I period. The Halaf period is represented,as at Qavi Tarlasi and at Kurban Hiiytik, by remains of tholos architecture. The stone foundationsof the round part at Nevalla Qori were preserved to 0.60 m. height in six courses. The pottery in the tholos was monochrome with an admixture of painted Halaf ware. Pits contained dark-facedburnishedware of Amuq A type. "The aceramicsettlementhas at least three building levels. The upper layer has parts of a house of 10 x 6 m.; four roomsof equal size on a grid plan with one room at right angles to the west. Of level 2, two

houses have been completely and one partially exposed (fig. 1). House 2, partly dug before, measures 16 x 6 m., larger than comparablehouses at Qay6nui. At a distanceof 0.70 m. standshouse 4, 8 m. wide and with a preservedlength of 12 m. These houseshave 10 and seven rooms, respectively, separated by crosswalls. Interior doors are attested, but no entrances from the outside. Floors are of clay on a bedding of limestone chips. House 2 has seven cross-channels; house 3 has channelswith flat stone covers. "Of level 3, two houses have been partially excavated (fig. 2); as those of 2, they resemblethe cell plans of Qay6inu. House 2 has skull burials,anotherpoint of comparisonwith Qay6ani. "The chipped-stoneindustryuses flint exclusively, in contrastto Gritille on the west bankof the Euphrates. Comparisons the flint tools and weaponsare in for the PPNB of Mureybet IV and Byblos. Stone beads, bracelets,figurinesof limestone,and unfiredclay belong to the inventory.A limestonebowl fragmenthas a relief decorationof two dancing human figures in frontalpose with armsraised,flankingwhat lookslike a turtle." Cafer Hiiyiik. In 1986, the east trenchof this aceramic site was taken down to virgin soil in a small with the largerwest trenchby soundingand connected a narrowcutting.The materialimmediatelyoverlying virgin soil was somewhatdifferentin tool assemblage, with flint predominantrather than obsidian. Interim

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reportsappearedin Symposium8:1 (1986) 39-49 and AnatSt 36 (1986) 182-85. Extensive reports for the years 1979-1983 were published in Cahiersde 1'Euphrate 4 (1985) 1-173. Ceramic Neolithic: KO6k Huiyk-Nigde. Dr. Ugur Silistreli reports on his 1985 campaign with some illustrationsof the potteryfrom this remarkable site in Symposium8:1 (1986) 173-79; briefly also in AnatSt 36 (1986) 203-204. There was no campaign in 1986. Kurugay. In 1986, Prof. Refik Duru investigated levels 8-11. The oldest structure found at the site is the Late Neolithic enclosure wall with semicircular towers. The settlementof this period was largely carried off by torrentswidening the adjoiningstreambed, but there is some typical pottery in reddishware with occasionalrelief decoration(bucrania).Paintedsherds are very rare. The Early Chalcolithic levels yield monochrome reddish ware and painted pottery with imaginative patterns not always paralleled at nearby Hacilar. In Late Chalcolithiclevel 6A, an outer row of rectangular houses forms the edge of the site. Soundings to the east and south of the settlement failed to locate the cemetery. For interim reports see Symposium8:1 (1986) 75-80; AnatSt36 (1986) 204205 and Belleten 196 (1986) 247-59. Chalcolithic: Hacilar. Prof. Refik Duru made soundingsaroundthe excavatedarea of the settlement of Hacilar in 1985 and 1986 without encountering any traces of the cemeteryallegedly locatedby looters in the 1960s. ResearchSymposium4 (1986) 335-38. Can Hasan. KathrynA. Ataman reportson a study of obsidian projectilepoints with scratchedmarkings from Can Hasan III. Research Symposium4 (1986) 339-46.

Fig. 2. NevallaQori.Cellplanhouse7, level3.

Kiiltepe. Prof. Tahsin Ozgui?reports that in the Karum, the area northeastof the city mound was extended along the east-west street partly dug in 1985 (continuing in STU/14-16). Buildings and tombs of the Ib period were investigated. One Ib tomb contained a bronze cauldron and a swivel-handleddipper. In the cauldron lay a drinking-tubeas well as weapons. Level II yieldedfurtherarchives.One of the envelopeshad anotherimpressionof the seal once belonging to Ibbi-Sin. An Old Syrian impressionshows a sceneof worshipwith music.The level II houseshad suffereddamage from the tomb digging during the Ib period, but some of the regular architecturaldetails (horseshoe-shapedhearths, one with a portable andiron nearby)were well preserved. Work was also resumedon the city mound. In the area southwestof the palaces, housesof the later part of the Early Bronze Age were excavated.Alipar III ware was typical of post-Akkadianhouses. An interim report appeared in Symposium 8:1 (1986) 231. In AncientAnatolia31-47, Tahsin Ozgiia analyzes the North Syrian relationshipsof KiiltepeKanesh in the levels belonging to the EB II and III periods. Nimet Ozgaii, in the same volume, 48-53, points out that impressions of an identical cylinder seal occur on bullae from Acemh6yik and on an envelope from Kiltepe. She also notes instancesof extant cylinderseals (now in the Moore collection)having been used anciently for impressionson envelopes found at Kiiltepe. In Studies Porada 197-98, Nimet Ozgtii gives two rare examples of cylinder seal impressions on tablets rather than envelopes from Karum level II; Tahsin Ozguig, the same volume,201in a remarkableseries of faience objects 208, presents from Karumlevels Ib and Ia. In Kanisluwar(Chicago 1986) 173-78 he discussesseveralunusual items from Ktiltepe, especially a small bronze pronged object with the relief of a nude goddessfrom level Ib. Bo'azk6y. Dr. Peter Neve continuesthe reporton his epoch-makingexcavationsin the upper city. in "In 1986, investigations the southerntemplearea were completed.Temples 27 and 28 (grid K-N/6-8) were discovered,both rather suffering from erosion and later construction. with up"The later building period,contemporary per city 2, had up to five phases of activities. Workshops for the productionof pottery and metal were represented by kilns, smelting furnaces, charcoal kilns, misfiredpottery,castingmolds,and castingresidue. A large water basin of at least 20 x 25 x 2 m. existed at the southernmosthighest point, surely pro-

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the west fortificationwall was also restored.Consolidation was undertaken of several structures in the temple area, with clear demarcationof old and new masonry,and in temple III." Reports on the 1985 campaign appeared in AA 1986, 365-406 and in Symposium8:1 (1986) 233-51. Prof. H. Otten reported on the bronze tablet at the symposiumin April 1987. A publicationwill appear early in 1988. The populationof the Byzantineperiod in the upper city is studied by U. Wittwer-Backofenand others. Research Symposium 4 (1986) 381-99; for pa-

laeopathology,see 401-409. Hittites and Egypt. In Kanisuwar (Chicago 1986) 39-48, K. Bittel discussesEgyptianrenderings of Hattushili III.

Fig. 3. Bogazk6y. SphinxfromtempleIII. Height30 cm. viding the water supply for the templesand the industrial area. "The numeroussmall finds are principallyof metal (bronzearrowheads,spearheads,daggers),terracotta, and stone. Seals and seal impressionsgive Hittite hieroglyphic names of persons once employed in this area. "Temple III in the upper city, partially clearedby Puchsteinin 1907, was newly investigated.This temple had two building periods, each ending in conflagration. In the upper level, more fragments were found of two over-lifesize gate lions discovered by Puchstein,and from the inner courtcame the heads of two over-lifesizesphinxes wearing pointedhelmets of divine rank (fig. 3). From the northeastroom 8 came large bullae with impressions of two Great Kings. One, in the shape of a Maltese cross,has the namesof Shuppiluliuma II and eight of his ancestors as far back as Tuthaliya I or II. The other, a single stamp, probablycarriesthe name of Kuruntaas Great King. "A large bronzetablet was found behindthe fortification wall near the Sphinx Gate (fig. 4). This tablet, written in two columns on front and back, contains a copy of the treatybetween Tuthaliya IV and Kurunta of Tarhunta''a, fixing the bordersof the Hittite Empire and the allied lower country. Kurunta was apparently a son of Muwatalli II, the king who once movedthe capital from Hattula to TarhuntaSSa. of "Restoration the line of the fortificationwall east and west of the Sphinx Gate took place over 70 m. in either direction.The paved road along the interior of

of tabletwithtreaty Tarhuntalsa. Bronze Fig.4. Bogazk6y.

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Ferzant. Pottery from the plunderedHittite cemeteries at Ferzant-Biiget,35 km. northeastof Qorum,is published by Tahsin Ozgti? in Belleten 197 (1986) 383-402. The cemeteries are of the Karum Ia-Old Hittite period. Ikiztepe. Dr. Onder Bilgi excavated22 additional EB III tombs in the cemetery levels of Ikiztepe mound I and continued the analysis of the burials in general. These are mostly dorsal inhumations. Some of the tombs had double burials;a triple female burial also occurs. So far, 566 skeletonshave been examined anthropologically.Among the pottery are bowls with knobbedhandles; children were given rattles. Terracotta female figurinesalso were found with child burials. Stone and frit beads and some carnelian are included in the jewelry for women and children. Metal tomb gifts are the most prominent,principallyof copper and arsenical copper; there are some items of lead, silver, and gold. Weapons appear with men and women. The EB II habitationlevel below the cemeteryhad rectangular wooden houses which can be identified from burnt remains and soil impressions. In a large house two ovens were also preserved.The inventory consists of pottery, brush handles, flint blades, flat copper axes, a stone macehead,grinding stones, spindle whorls, loomweights, and bone and metal tools. An interim report appearedin Symposium8:1 (1986) 149-56. In IX. TUrkTarihKongresi1 (Ankara 1986) 133-34, Dr. Bilgi discusses terracottafigurines from Ikiztepe; a special figurine is noted in Studi Puglisi,
273-75.

chenden Archdologie6 (1984), Dr. Bilgi presents the first installmentof a corpusof metal objectsfrom Ikiztepe 1974-1982, in the form of a typological catalogue. This is an important source of comparative study in the context of Anatolian metallurgy. A progress report on analyses of metal artifacts by ?eref Kun? appearedin AnatSt 36 (1986) 99-101. Half the items tested were of arsenical "bronze." The volume on the 1981 congress,IX. Tirk Tarih Kongresi(Ankara 1986), also has studies of the stratigraphy and metal artifactsby the late Handan Alkim (119-32) and of timberarchitecturein the Samsunregion by H.H. GuinhanDanmeman (135-44). Acemh6yik. At the Tenth Turkish History Congress in 1986, Dr. Aliye Ozten presentedthe evidence for workshops producing obsidian and rock crystal vessels in the palaces of Acemh6yik. The vessels display local shapes and traits;one fragmentbelongsto a stylized bull's-head cup in obsidian. Rock crystal is also carvedto make small figurinesand scepterheads.

In Beitriige zur allgemeinen und verglei-

Dr. Ozten made comparisonswith Egyptian and Minoan workshops. In AJA 90 (1986) 395-98, M.A. Littauerand J.H. Crouwel publishedthe bronzetrolleywith fourspoked wheels fromthe Sarikayapalace at Acemhyuiik. Kaman-Kaleh6yik. A Japanese team under the directionof Prof. Tsugio Mikami started excavations at this mound 3 km. east of Kaman,just east of the Halys along the road to Kirgehir.Six trenches were opened in the north part of the mound. The second level yielded late Phrygianmaterial.Noteworthyis an ivory stamp seal of a type known from Bogazk6yand Gordion. It has a lion handle and cylindrical body profiled with two discs and scotia; the design is a winged lion eating its prey. The first reportappeared in ResearchSymposium4 (1986) 227-37. Domuztepe. The twin neo-Hittite citadels of Karatepeand Domuztepe will remain above the lake of the Arslantagdam built in the Ceyhan (Pyramos) river. Domuztepe had a long prehistory as a settlement from the Neolithic period to the Iron Age and was fortifiedin the third and secondmillennia B.C. A newly found fragment of the hand of a basalt statue may belong to the statue originally set on the doublebull base near which it was discovered.Prof. Halet Qambel is continuingher work to conservethe sites as open-air museums.Symposium8:1 (1986) 329-43. Demircihiiyk. The final publication is making progress with the appearanceof JUrgen Seeher, DemircihiiyiikIII, 1: Die Keramik1, A. Die neolithische und chalkolithischeKeramik, B. Die friihbronzezeitliche Keramik der iilteren Phasen (bis Phase g) (Mainz 1987). Brigitte Kull in Germania 64 (1986) 363-90 discusses flint blade tools from MB contextsin Demircihuiyiik.They were used as sickles and have parallels in West Anatolia and the Aegean. Beycesultan. Ann Murray studied the small finds from second-millenniumlevels at Beycesultan:bone ornaments and mounts, stone pommels, whetstones, and seals (an ivory hammerheadseal from level Ib). ResearchSymposium4 (1986) 347-57. West Anatolian Pottery. Turan Efe in Anatolica 13 (1986) 1-17 studies the chronologyand distribution of patternedreserveslip decorationin EB pottery of western Anatolia. KarataS-Semayuik.In Ancient Anatolia 12-30, J. Lawrence Angel and Sara C. Bisel discuss health and stress in the EB population known from the KarataS cemetery.This is the one of the last publishedstudies by Angel, whose death on 3 November 1986 deprived Anatolian and Aegean archaeologyof a great scholar and a great friend. Angel worked on many problems

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of Anatolian prehistory from Troy to Byzantium, Gordion, and Qatalhiiytik, and brought immense learning and constructiveimaginationto these assignments. The publication of the anthropological evidence from Karata?will be completedby Bisel. Aphrodisias. The resultsof the 1966-1974 excavations in the prehistoric mounds of Aphrodisias have been analyzedand presentedin a majorpublicationby
Martha Sharp Joukowsky, Prehistoric Aphrodisias I-II (Archaeologica Transatlantica 3, Louvain 1986).

These two volumes, amply illustrated and provided with tabulations and analyses, present the record of the first excavationsof a major prehistoricmound in inner Caria, with habitation levels attested from the Late Neolithic, Late Chalcolithic, Early Bronze, Middle Bronze, and Late Bronze Ages. The material is invaluable in Anatolian and Aegean prehistoric context;it also providesclear evidencethat Aphrodisias with further excavation will become a key site in West Anatolian prehistory. Karahisar-Tavaz. A mound at Karahisar, ca. 25 km. southeast of Aphrodisias,was investigatedby the staff of the AphrodisiasMuseum, Eski Eserlerve Miizeler Biilteni 8 (1986) 27-28. The upper part of the mound had been ploughed away in the last two decades, but the site was occupiedin Late Neolithic, Late Chalcolithic,EB, and MB, as attestedby Dr. Joukowsky. Pithos tombs have pottery and bronze bracelets. Stone idols are of the Kusura and Karata?type. West Anatolian EB. In a volume dedicatedto the
memory of J.L. Caskey, The End of the Early Bronze Age in the Aegean, edited by G. Cadogan (Leiden

1986) 139-52, M.J. Mellink discussesthe West Anatolian relationshipto the Aegean in EB II-III. Izmir. Dr. Recep Meri? draws attentionto prehistoric surface material from KUiUkYamanlar in Karliyakawhich ranges from Chalcolithic (Kumtepe Ib) to EB and MB-LB; earlierobservationswere made in 1971 (AJA 77 [1973] 174). Other prehistoricsites are the hill of the Anadolu Lisesi in Bornova,which had habitation from EB to the Hellenistic period, and Pinarba~lHtiyiik with Late Chalcolithicto Late Roman material. In his survey of 1985, Dr. Meri? also noted prehistoric mounds near Bulgurca and Develi; a building site in Torball yielded second millennium sherds. ResearchSymposium4 (1986) 301-10. Akbtik Bay. Dr. W. Voigtlinder's discoveries of the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age remains on Komiradasl and Saplladasl in the bay east of Didyma are published in AA 1986, 614-67. Begiktepe. Prof. Manfred Korfmannreports:"On

Yassitepe, the Troy I habitation was investigated through seven phases. The earliest houses were built in wattle-and-daubtechnique;from phase 4 to 7, solid stone foundationssupportedthe walls. The plan consists of two rows of long houses each 5-6 m. wide and at least 14 m. long (AA 1986, 307, fig. 3). The northern row faces a road of 3 m. width, south of which stands the second row, probably mostly serving storage purposes. The houses have stone and mudbrick benches;in one house a series of round hearths could be traced.The sequencebelongs to the early stages of Troy I. "Below the three stages of the Hellenistic fortifications, Archaic pottery came to light in a level associated with the lower courseof a fortificationwall. Little was preservedof the structuresbehind this. These Archaic remains may belong to the site of Achilleion which was founded in the sixth century by Lesbos (J.M. Cook, The Troad[Oxford 1973] 178). studies of the bay were contin"Geomorphological ued by Drs. Ilhan Kayan and Oguz Erol." A detailed report on the 1984 campaign appeared in AA 1986, 303-63; for 1985, see Symposium 8:1 (1986) 263-71, and AnatSt 36 (1986) 181-82. Iznik Area. In 1985-1986 Drs. J.J. Roodenberg and Ilhan Kayan surveyed prehistoric sites south of the Propontis and in the regions of Iznik-Yenigehir with special regard to Neolithic and Chalcolithicsettlements. The geomorphologyof the early sites was studied in correlation with the levels of the Iznik Lake. Excavationis plannedfor 1987. Arslantepe-Malatya. Dr. Alba Palmieri and her team reportthat work in the palatial buildingsof level VIA (Late Uruk) was extended to three parallel rooms east of the main entrance corridor.Only the central one has an entrance from the corridor;the flankingroomsare enteredby side doorsfromthe central one. The rear wall of the centralroom has a niche which had wall paintings in red and black on white plaster.They were coveredover with severaladditional layers of white plaster and have now been partially cleaned. Black branch-likeelementsdescendwith red fringes, some ending in spirals. Below a central set of chevrons is a stylized triangular face with eyes; the body of this figure remains to be cleaned. The adjoining south storeroom had three pithoi, some jars and cookingpots, over 50 wheelmadeplain bowls and a series of clay bullae with stamp- and cylinder-seal impressions. The north storeroom had three pithoi, manyjars includingfive with reserveslip finish, fruitstandswith slit pedestals,and spoutedbot-

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Fig. 5. Lidar.MB II buildings. tles. The next room to the north has a special ground plan with elaborateniching;the walls are white plastered. This room has been only partiallyexcavated. After the destructionof level VIA, a changeto wattle-and-daub houses with wooden posts is evident in VIB1, which is characterized by black pottery of Transcaucasiantype. The next level, VIB2, contains a well-planned village of mudbrickhouses and an inventory of wheelmade and reserve slip pottery. The vicissitudesof the site on the frontierbetweenthe middle Euphrates region and East Anatolia are particularly vivid. In StudiPuglisi, Alba Palmieri (191-228) discusses the changing relations between East Anatolia and its Mesopotamian neighbors; D. Siirenhagen (229-36) commentson ceramic,glyptic, and architecturalparallels in the Late Uruk, VIA period;a study by Mario Chighine, Piera Ferioli, and Enrica Fiandra (237-48) evidenceto bear on the inbrings ethnoarchaeological of door-sealingsfrom Arslantepe. terpretation Girnavaz. The mound of Girnavaz, in the Qaggag valley south of Nusaybin, is being excavatedby a team from Ankara University under the direction of Dr. Hayat Erkanal.The ancientname of the site is Nabula, locatedon importantroadsin the Assyrianand Roman periods. Three Neo-Assyrian buildings have been distinguishedin the main trench on the mound. There are large halls with pavedfloorsand tile-paved doorways;traces of paint remain on the walls. The local ceramic tradition is being studied. There is an ample inventory of kitchen wares and finer buff wares, including button-based "palace ware." One vase is shapedwith its pedestalin the formof a female figure with modeled details for the face, breasts, and belt. Other large bowls stand on open-workpedestals with bucrania, faces, or architectural ornament. quadrupeds,iron Amongthe small findsare terracotta sickles and spearheads,bronzetogglepinsand fibulae, Neo-Assyrian cylinder seals with hunting scenes of archersand animals,and bullae. A Neo-Assyriantablet was a stray find from the upper level. A metal workshopawaits special study. For an interimreport, see Symposium7 (1985) 201-10. Cudi Dag. Neo-Assyrianrock reliefs have recently been reexaminedand new discoverieshave been made of at this site 25 km. east-northeast Cizre on the Tigris in eastern Turkey. One report is by Marc Nogaret, RAssyr79 (1985) 64-66. Harran. In 1986 the excavationsof the habitation areas on the moundcontinuedin two trenches,adding architecturalevidence and inventoryof the 12th and 13th century of our era, Dr. Nurettin Yardimci reports. The study, measuring, and excavation of the Great Mosque also progressed.A new topographical plan of the walled site of Harran was completedto a scale of 1:1000. For reports, see Symposium 8:1

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(1986) 273-96, AnatSt 36 (1986) 194-95 and Eski


Eserler ve Miizeler Bilteni 7 (1986) 13-19.
EUPHRATES AREA, SALVAGE EXCAVATIONS

(1986) 297-304; the walls of the lower city at Samsat


are studied by Ahmet Tirpan, Research Symposium 4

Samsat. Prof. Nimet OzgtiCreports that a new southwest trench allowed further exploration of the palace of Mithradates. Panels of wall painting, both representational and architectural, are being lifted and conserved.The southwesttrench provideda good sequence down to level 18 of the Early Bronze Age. Levels 7-10 belong to the Iron Age; they yielded stamp seals of Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian type and a fine cylinderseal with a sceneof worshipof the moon god in a boat. Levels 11-15 date to the second millennium B.C., with a large building in level 14. Gobletsof Amuq J type characterizelevel 16, metallic gray goblets,level 17. The deeperEB levels have been reachedin the east trenchdown to the Late Uruk period, levels 21-24. Here were found reserve slip jars, large numbers of upside-down beveled-rim bowls, a stone goblet, a red polished luggedjar, and a terracottacylinderseal of squat type. Ubaid and Halaf stratahave been probedon the east side, where further work is planned in 1987. An interim report appeared in Symposium 8:1

(1986) 183-201. Gritille. G. Stein discusses hunting and herding habits at Neolithic Gritille in Expedition 28:2 (1986) 35-42. The Mediaeval period is reportedon by Scott Redfordin AnatSt36 (1986) 103-36. Lidar. Prof. Harald Hauptmann investigatedthe MB occupation of the mound in 1986 and reports: "Level 8, MB II, was excavatedover 1,600 m.2 with seven building units. In the south area (Q-S/44-45) three rows were separatedby two streets (fig. 5). The buildingsrise in terracesfrom the southeastto center. Complex 1, measuring ca. 20 x 11.50 m., has two units with a total of 11 rooms. Each unit has a large centralroom with two ovens on a platform,surrounded by smallerresidentialor storagerooms.Complexes 4 and 6 have their representationalquarters clearly separated from living and work rooms. This basic house type, with a central room of max. 13 x 6.70 m. and two anteroomsset side by side or in an L-shaped arrangement,is known also from Ebla IIIB. "The pottery of level 8, including some Habur ware, is paralleled at Hamman et-Turkman, Hama H and Ebla IIIB (fig. 6). Cylinderseals and impres-

room309. Fig. 6. Lidar.MB II pottery,

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excavationsof this Halaf periodsite in Eski Eserlerve


Miizeler Biilteni 2 (1985) 19-22. The terracottafigu-

bonestrips. Fig. 7. Lidar.MB II carved sions are of the local Mitannian style (Alalah IV, 1 Ugarit r&cent and early 2) or still Old Babylonian. Carvedbone strips are again represented(fig. 7), as at Megiddo XII. "The final MB level was violently destroyed and burnt down. Skeletons of victims were found in distorted positions.Arrowheadsof Syro-Palestinianand central Anatolian type also give evidence of the violence, which may be attributed(as in Ebla IIIB) to the Hittite campaigns in North Syria of Hattushili I or Murshili I. "Level 9 has been investigated in the east area (fig. 8) and partially in the south. The rooms seem to have been cleared and carefully packed with broken mudbrick and layers of potsherds to make a solid foundationfor the next level. The orientationis uniform and similar in separationof business and representational quarters. A southwest entrance with a stone staircasegave accessto the site. Here a fragment of a cuneiformletter was found. "Level 10 was reachedonly in the south trench. A mudbrick fortification wall of 3 m. thickness was tracedover 20 m. (fig. 9), with bastionsof 2 m. width along the exterior. This same wall was identified along the north slope in 1984-1985." Hassek. Dr. M.R. Behm-Blancke completed the last season in 1986. The Late Uruk complex was reported in Symposium8:1 (1986) 139-49. The EB I occupationof the site was larger than that of the Late Uruk enclosure, and had its own fortificationsystem parallel to the earlier walls. The entrancewas on the northwest side. The pottery of the EB I early phase includes some painted ware with red-on-buff crosshatched triangles. Footed vessels of EB I painted ware, comparableto examples from Ninevite V, occur in the cemeteryat Hassek. 1avi Tarlasi. Director Adnan Misir of the Urfa Museum published an illustrated report on the 1984

rines from this site are numerous and of seated and standingtypes. Tille. Dr. David French reportsthat in 1986 two phases of Iron Age buildings were excavatedin this fortress west of a Euphrates crossing. The lower phase is more substantialand suffereddestructionby conflagration,perhaps by Sargon in 706 B.C. The buildings of this phase, set on a terrace,had a regular layout with rooms grouped around a court with the geometric pebble mosaic pavementexposed in 1985. Part of the mosaicwas liftedfor later museumdisplay. Pottery, iron tools and weapons, bone tools, and a stamp seal with a worship scene of a seateddeity are amongthe inventory.A Late BronzeAge burntlevel is awaiting excavationin the next campaign.Interimreports appearedin AnatSt 36 (1986) 5-6; Symposium 8:2 (1986) 205-12. Imamoglu. In the 1986 season, Director Edibe Uzunoglu expandedthe excavationof the large EB III building with the mudbrick staircase and flanking wall painting (fig. 10). This building had been de-

Fig. 8. Lidar.MB II, level9, eastsideof mound.

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designs are symmetrical,stylized plants, eagles, and human figures.Metallurgyis in evidencein the workshops. The site is an active center of agriculture,industry and trade. A long interim report appearedin Symposium8:1 (1986) 95-137; small finds, especially seals, are discussed by Prof. Esin in Studi Puglisi 253-63. Metin
Ozbek in Archaeometry Symposium 1 (1985) 107-30

reports on the human skeletal material from Degirmentepe. Skull deformation of the type attested at Khirokitiaand Byblos is noted on children'sskulls of the Chalcolithicperiod at Degirmentepe. Slag analyses are presented in Archaeometry Symposium 2

on Fig. 9. Lidar.MB II, level10. Fortification southside. stroyed by conflagration;to the south side, round structureswere built over and into it. These resemble similar units at Arslantepe-Malatya. At Imamoglu they occur in several phases and continue apparently into the early Middle BronzeAge. One was completely excavated. It had a door on the south side and a niche in the oppositewall. A mud-plasteredbenchran along the walls; in the centerwas a cylindricalbase. The mound is not yet floodedand the stratification will be investigatedfurther. Habitation startedin EB I and lasted into the Romanperiod.A reportappeared in Symposium8:2 (1986) 213-29. Degirmentepe. Prof. Ufuk Esin extended the excavationof the Ubaid period settlementof levels 6-8 and earlier Chalcolithiclevels 9-11 to the south and west. A mudbrickfortificationwall with bastionsand recessescame to light here. Rectangularbeamholesin the wall belong to the superstructure.The houses have a large central room with a hearthplate in the center, one end of which is squared off, the other rounded. The short sides of these large rooms have wall paintings with radiatingsun and dot patternsin red on white. Amongthe small findsare schematicfigurines, ground and chipped stone and bone tools, and stone stamp seals with impressionson clay. The seal

(1986) 61-67. Imikupagi.This moundon the east bankof the Euphrates,heavily erodedby the river,continuesto yield good evidencefor connectionswith the Anatoliancenters of the plateau. In 1986, Dr. Veli Sevim reports, the levels of the LB I and MB II periods (strata wall 2.35 m. 10-13) were investigated.A fortification wide of mudbrickon stone foundationswas used in levels 12-10. Levels 11-10 are transitionalfrom MB II to LB I. The potteryis of KarumIb to Old Hittite type, e.g., a red polishedjar with red painted zigzags and bands on the neck (fig. 11, level 10, height
0.67 m.), vase with signe-royal impressions, frag-

ments of bathtubs,and a painted fruitstand.A stamp seal of hammerhead type is also fromlevel 10 (fig. 12). of vessels with relief decorationdiffer in Fragments style from those found at Old Hittite sites. Level 12, MB II, has a large tower with two compartmentsat the south gate. This was abandonedafter a conflagrationand heavy destruction.The potteryof level 12 is more strongly affiliatedwith Habur ware (e.g., fig. 13, a bandedjar), but also has indicationsof Karum Ib contacts.After the destructionof level 12

withstaircase. EB Fig. 10. Imamoglu. III room

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Stonestamp seal,level10. Fig. 12.Imikugagi. mentepe (61-68) and Tepecik and Ttilintepe in the Kebanarea (69-79). A general study of the metals trade in southwest Asia, with detailed referencesto Anatolia, was published by Tamara Stech and Vincent C. Pigott in Iraq 48 (1986) 39-64. Kayseri. Director Hamdi Kodan of the Kayseri Museum will publish an EB metal hoardfound withIt out contextin a sandpit near Qukurbugagi. consists of 29 objects: halberdslike those from Mahmatmany lar, three shaft-hole axes, 13 castanets, and a lobed to scepterhead, as communicated the Tenth Turkish 1986 (Bildiri Ozetleri 19-20). History Congress, Hiuseyin Kocaba? Collection. This collection is now on display in the V.K.V. SadberkHanim Museum in Istanbul, whose directorQetin Anlagan draws attentionto the remarkablevarietyof metal weapons, tools, castanets, seals, and vessels in the collection. Tenth Turkish History Congress,1986 (Bildiri Ozetleri 2-3).

Old Fig. 11. Imikugagl. Hittite of level10. jar the centralAnatolianinfluencebecomesstrong.Level 13 had a large building on high stone foundations. This level still had bandedHaburjars and large numbers of terracottafemale figures of North Mesopotamian type. Reports appeared in Symposium 8:1 (1986) and AnatSt36 (1986) 197-98. Sempiyetepe. Prof. Muhibbe Darga reports that this mound in the Karakaya flood zone on the left bank of the Euphrates again produced evidence of habitationin EB II and III. Rectangularhouses with of large elaboratehearthsand ovens are characteristic this area. The painted EB III ware has occasional local variants in its linear designs. A report appeared in Symposium8:1 (1986) 157-71.
METALLURGY

During the archaeometrysessions of the annual symposiumin Ankaraseveralreportsof analyseswere presented.Preliminaryresults are available for Ikiztepe, reported by Prof. $eref Kung in AnatSt 36 (1986) 99-101. The samples from Chalcolithiclevels of Ikiztepe II are mostly copper;those from the EB cemeteryof Ikiztepe are increasinglymade of arsenical copper. In ArchaeometrySymposium 2 (1986), brief reports appear on metal and slag analyses from Degir-

Haburware level11. Fig. 13. Imikuagli. jar,

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Letoon. area. Fig. 14. Xanthos. Propylon


MINOAN AND MYCENAEAN SITES AND FINDS

Lycia. Ka?-Ulu Burun. The 1986 campaign, Prof.

George Bass and Cemal Pulak report, exposed more of the cargo of copper ingots "stacked 11 deep in places, restingdirectlyon large, unidentifiedship timbers." Among the pottery was a group of Cypriot wares, perhaps from the pithos KW 251 lifted in 1984, including "a white shavedjuglet, a base-ring II bowl, a fragmentarywhite-slip bowl, a saucer-shaped lamp and a pitcherwith trefoil mouth. From the same general area came pilgrim flasks in at least three sizes, wall brackets, and a stirrup jar"; elsewhere coarse ware stirrupjars and a beakedjug of LH IIIA:2 type were recovered. Among the Syrian finds were a gold pendant of Ugarit type with a nude frontal woman holding gazelles and a gold roundelwith rayed solar emblem.A hematitecylinderseal is Old Babylonian,recut;a rock crystal cylinder seal has a procession of angular bearded figures facing a standing male figure. The most spectacularseal is a solid gold scarabof Nefertiti 1.4 cm. long, and the most tantalizingfind is a wooden folding tablet recoveredfrom pithos KW 252. The sunken panels had crosshatchingto retain the (lost) wax, like the ivory writing boardsfrom Nimrud. Bass refers to the orpiment identified as an admixture to the beeswax of the Nimrud tablets. If the orpiment from amphora KW 48 (AJA 90 [1986] 278) was at least partly for the preparationof wax for tablets, we

have a potential indicatorof literacy in the realm of these seagoingmerchants. A preliminary notice appeared in AJA 91 (1987) 321.
Menemen-Panaztepe. Work at this site 13 km. to

the southwestof Menemen, near Kesik K6yti,continued underthe directionof Dr. ArmaganErkanal.Several periods of habitationand burial were identified. A kiln and remnantsof workshopsbelong to the second quarter of the second millennium B.C. Partly overlyingthis materialis the cemeteryof the 14th century B.C. with six tholoi, several cist-graves,and numerous pithos-burials.This cemeteryis on the south slope of Panaztepe.The tombsare orientedwith their rims (pithoi) or dromoi (tholoi) to the southwest. Some of the pithoi have a rectangularstone setting. Small cremation jars were found near one of the pithoi. From the inventoryrecoveredin 1985, 52 vessels could be restored,eight of which date to Mycenaean IIIA-B. A LB pithosgravehad a bronzebraceletwith a convex seal attached to it; the incised decorationin the outer frieze consists of braids and simple floral patThis type of seal terns, the centralboss is undecorated. is known in the Hittite world, but the Panaztepeseal is a local variant. Among the precious inventory of tombs dug in 1985 was some gold jewelry and two small tubular attachmentsalso known from Magat and Cyprus (Kalavasos-AyiosDimitrios).

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In 1986, a roadleadingfromthe south area near the cemetery to the settlement on the hill of Panaztepe was identified.This road was flanked by cemeteries. The site was occupiedfrom the Archaicthrough Roman periods. Tombs of the Islamic and Roman periods were recorded. For reports see Symposium 8:1 (1986) 253-61; AnatSt 36 (1986) 207. Akbiik-Miletus. Minoan and Mycenaean contacts of the material from Kimtiradasi and Saphadasi are now documented by W. Voigtlainderin AA 1986, 642-51. Iasos. In Studi su lasos di Caria. Venticinqueanni di scavi della Missione ArcheologicaItaliana (BdA Suppl. to 31-32, 1987) 29-34, Mario Benzi reviews the Minoan and Mycenaean evidence from lasos, with referenceto the pottery groups still in the lasos storerooms.He assumesa fairly large Mycenaeansettlement at the site, the necropolisof which remainsto be identified. In 1985, work in the Agora brought

near Fig. 16. Xanthos.Letoon.Late Archaicpavement of temple Leto. more Bronze Age material to light north of structure F, where a similar building with schist flooring and heavy walls was noted. Gavurtepe-Alagehir (Philadelphia). Dr. Recep Meri?, who is excavatingin the theater of Alagehir, has also made a map of the prehistoricmound of Gavurtepe,800 m. to the southeastof the theater.This is a mound with third- and second-millennium occupation, abandonedca. 1200 B.C. On the surface of the southeastpart, overlookingthe Sarkiz streambed,are the remnantsof a large megaroid(?)building measuring ca. 10 x 30 m. with a wall thickness of 2.60 m. Other substantial walls may belong to an enclosure system. The latest datable pottery from the mound is of the LB era, with a few Mycenaeansherds.Dr. Meri? emphasizesthat the site is endangeredby erosion and encroachment.Symposium 8:2 (1986) 261-65. For other prehistoricsites in the area, see Research Symposium4 (1986) 303-304. Ahhiyawa. P.H.J. Houwink ten Cate made a indirectlyrelevantto study of Hittite correspondence the Ahhiyawa question, Ex Oriente Lux 28 (1983adds a new volume to 1984) 33-79. F. Schachermeyr his series of studies of the problem in historicalperspective, Mykene und das Hethiterreich (SBWien 1986, 472). Black Sea Navigation. Pierre Leveque in RA 1986, 399-400 confidently lists some indications of Aegean-Pontic contacts. One is the silver "Vaphio

head. Letoon. LateHellenistic portrait Fig. 15. Xanthos.

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cup"from Kirovakanin SovietArmenia,excavatedby B.B. Piotrowskiiin 1948. It dates to the 15th or 16th centuryB.C. and is a largetwo-handledvessel;but the Vaphio-type spool handlesare small and serve for the attachmentof a basket handle. The other referenceis to the ingot found near Cape Kaliakra, and several anchors of East Mediterraneantype. This site is on the Bulgarian coast northeastof Varna. H.G. Buchholz, in A.G. Poulter ed., Ancient Bulgaria (Nottingham 1983) 54 and 128, also bases his reconstruction of early Black Sea tradeon these and other finds.
URARTU

Van-Dilkaya Hiiytik. Dr. Altan Qilingirogluexcavated on the mound and in the necropolis to the north. Part of an EB mudbrickfortification wall came to light. Round houses with hearths of Transcaucasian type were found in an EB level precedingrectangular structures.In all trenchesthere is a gap between the Early Bronze and the Iron Age. Tombs of the Urartian periodwere excavatedin a partly plundered area. Both inhumations and cremationsoccur. Symposium 8:1 (1986) 81-94. Urartian Seals. Dr. Cengiz Iplk in JdI 101 (1986) 1-22 studies cult scenes on Urartian cylinderstampseals, especially open-air scenes in front of cult symbols and stelae. Rockcut tunnels. Nezih Ba~gelenpublishes several tunnels belonging to Urartian fortresses and two Urartian inscriptions in Arkeoloji ve Sanat 28-31 (1985) 15-18. Furniture. Cengiz Iplkdiscussesexcavatedand unprovenancedUrartian tables and illustrations of tables. Genuine furniturecomesfrom chambertombsin Adilcevaz and Altintepe, the formerdiscussedand illustratedin detail. Belleten 197 (1986) 383-445. Cavuqtepe. Prof. Afif Erzen in 1986 clearedmore of the north fortificationwall and the temple of the upper citadel. In the lower citadel work continuedon the secondsoutherncircuitwall with its mudbricksuperstructure.Symposium8:1 (1986) 305-27; AnatSt 36 (1986) 185-87.
NEO-HITTITE AND PHRYGIAN SITES

Tyana. Dr. AykutQinaroglucontinueshis exploration of the mound of Tyana-Tuwana, which extends over a 1050 x 1100 m. area as old air photographs demonstrate.The site is completelybuilt over by Kemerhisar. The separate, smaller hill of Ambartepe, clear of modernbuilding,has been exploredin soundings. The upper levels are Byzantineand Roman. The recently discoveredOld Phrygian inscription of Tyana (Corpus T-03) is examinedby A. Heubeck in Kadmos25 (1986) 75-78. The text yields some familiar forms but little sense can be extracted at this stage. Phrygian Language. A book by I.M. Diakonoff

Carchemish-Yunus Cemetery. The Hittite affinities of a groupof haematitescarabsand scaraboids a of type representedin Yunus grave YC 58 are stressedin a studyby J. Boardmanand R. Moorey,StudiesPorada 35-48. Kzildag. The topographyof the site and the monuments of Hartapus are reexamined by K. Bittel in AncientAnatolia 103-11.

Letoon. Votive Fig. 17.Xanthos. deposit, withkausia. boy

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Podium Ptolemaion. of Fig. 18. Limyra. and V.P. Neroznak, Phrygian (New York 1985) was basically written in 1977-1981 and antedated the
publication of the Corpus des inscriptions paliophry-

iron-bronzehalberd, a bronze snaffle-bitand arrowheads;from the second,250 bronzearrowheads.


CLASSICAL, HELLENISTIC, AND ROMAN SITES

giennes (1984) by C. Brixhe and M. Lejeune. It is refreshinglychallengingin its approachto historyand language, and deals with Neo-Phrygian texts also. Brixhe and Giinter Neumann discuss Neo-Phrygian inscriptions in Kadmos 24 (1985) 161-84 and 25 (1986) 79-84. Scythians? Imirler-Amasya. Objects from two plunderedtombsof Iron Age horsemen,found in 1971 and 1978, are in the Amasya Museum. Vuslat Ulnal presentssuch evidenceas could be rescuedin Beitriige
zur allgemeinen und vergleichenden Archiiologie 4

PAMPHYLIA, PISIDIA

(1982) 65-81. From the stone-lined round pit of the first tomb the survivingobjectsare an iron sword, an

Perge. The main effort in 1986 was in the theater, where the 14 m.-high pile of earthquakedebris still overlay the center of the stage building. This is being systematicallycleared in steps as large architectural blocksare loweredmechanicallyand takento the study area in the stadium. The level reachedis still about 7 m. above the stage. The drawing of the architectural membersand profiles continues.The most important sculptural discoveryof 1985 was that of a 4 m.-long sacrificialfrieze from the clearingof the orchestra.In the center Tyche appears enthronedholding the ar-

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Friezeof tholos: charioteer. Fig. 19. Limyra. chaic symbol of Artemis Pergaia; from the sides processionswith bulls approachher. The date is late second century A.C. Of the frieze of the stage building, the left (north)side has the sequence:Kestrosriverand nymph, birth of Dionysos, Hermes taking the infant Dionysos to the nymphs, bath of Dionysos, Kouretes and Dionysos, Dionysos and nymph(?), Ariadne, Satyr, Pan(?), Pentheus(?) and Maenads, triumph of Dionysos. There are also fragmentsof friezesof a centauromachy,gigantomachy,and lion hunt. Excavationstartedin basilica G on the south side of the agora which is preservedto considerableheight. For an illustrated report of the 1985 season, see Symposium8:2 (1986) 137-75. The restorationof a statue of a dancingwoman (found in 1981) out of 117 fragmentsof white and black marble is describedby Htiseyin Akilli in Arkeoloji ve Sanat 28-31 (1985) 19-21. Side. The study and restorationof the theater is progressingunder the directionof Dr. U1lkiiIzmirli-

Bust of man carryingstatuetteof Fig. 21. Aphrodisias. Aphrodite. gil, Symposium8:1 (1986) 127-35. The elements of the stage building, which had three stories, are being assembledfor restoration. Cremna, Sagalassos. Dr. Stephen Mitchell began a new survey of Cremna in 1985-1986. An overall plan is being drawn at 1:1000; individual buildings are being studied and recorded.In 1986 considerable historicalevidenceemergedfrom the discoveryof fortificationsand a siege moundbuilt in A.D. 278 during the reign of the EmperorProbus. Sagalassoswill also be newly recordedon a general plan. A beginning was made with the study of the Hellenistic buildings. AnatSt 36 (1986) 8-10; Research Symposium 4 (1986) 167-70.

block tholos. of Cornice Fig. 20. Limyra.

black-figure fragment. Fig.22. Miletus.Kalabaktepe:

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1988]
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LYCIA

Xanthos-Letoon. At Xanthos, Prof. Christian LeRoy reports, restorationof the mosaics in the Byzantine basilica led to the discoveryof guidelines for the installation of an earlier mosaic. The baptisterium proved to be built over a Roman cistern, filled with pottery;this is being excavated. In the Letoon, excavation in the entrance area revealed the pre-Hellenistic foundationof a simple wall with a propylon (fig. 14). "In the Hellenistic period, the peribolos wall was moved some meters out to the west, and a Doric porticowas installed along the interior. The "sacredlaw" of the Letoon, inscribedvery early in the secondcenturyB.C., refersto this portico, which must have been built in the periodof Ptolemaic rule over Lycia. A conflagrationin the first half of the first centuryA.C. destroyedthe lower part of the sanc-

tuary, after which the peribolos wall was rebuilt. Niches on either side of the propylaeumpreservethe names of the euergetaion this occasion:L. Domitius Apollinaris, governorof Lycia-Pamphylia A.D. 9396, and membersof his family (known also from inscribedbases publishedin Xanthos 7, 103-20). In the first or second century A.C., a portico with four columns was added along the outside of the propylon. From this area came a fragmentary portrait head (fig. 15) and a headingof a decreeof Ptolemy Euergetes, year 8 (239 B.C.). "In front of the Hellenistic temple of Leto, directly to the south, at a level 4 m. below that of the stylobate of the temple, a pavementof large slabs came to light (fig. 16), with an offset borderto the south. This pavement underliesthe foundationof the entrancerampof the temple. On the east it has a rock-cutedge, in front

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[AJA92

Studies of the Letoon and its history are published by H. Metzger in IX. Tiirk Tarih Kongresi (1986) 353-64; also J. Bousquet, REG 99 (1986) 22-32; Chr. LeRoy, RA 1986, 279-300 and Actes du Colloque de Strasbourg 1985, 41-47; Symposium 8:2

Archaic terrace wall,topcourses Fig. 24. Sardis. only,east sideof ByzFort spur. of which lay terracottafigurines of various dates and types: sixth century B.C. (Milesian kore) to the first century B.C., draped women, youth wearing kausia All (fig. 17), boy on horseback,kourotrophos. this suggests a votive deposit for the cult of Leto and the Nymphs of the spring. "The foundationof a staircaseshows the connection with the terrace of the first temples. During the constructionof the Hellenistic Leto temple, ca. 150 B.C., the paving was curtailed by the enlargement of the temple terrace and the building of its ramp. In the courseof the firstcenturyA.C. the area was filled in to euthynterialevel of the Leto temple.A large base honoring Trajan erectedA.D. 98-102 gives an ante quem date for the remodelingof this area."

(1986) 187-91; a new trilingualRA 1986, 101-106. Limyra. Prof. JiurgenBorchhardtreportsthat the is "Ptolemaion" now known in betterstructuraldetail. "The square podium,with a length of 14.66 m. on the sides, must have had a height of ca. 9 m., includingthe frieze and three-steppedbase and the metope-triglyph cornice. The podium (fig. 18) supporteda peripteral tholos on a three-steppedbase of ca. 12 m. diameter. Of the colonnade, an Attic base, several column drums, and a second Ionic capital came to light. A frieze with a chariot race was set between the architrave and the dentils (figs. 19 and 20). Three frieze blocks have been retrieved.The baroque style correof spondsto that of the centauromachy the north metopes of the podium,AJA 89 (1985) pl. 65.21. The roof was conicaland imbricated. "The interpretationof this monumentas serving a Hellenistic ruler cult is maintained,although no further fragmentsof the two colossalmarblestatueshave come to light. "Workon the 4 x 16 m. frieze decoratingthe socle of the cenotaph of Gaius Caesar continued. Eightytwo fragmentshave been catalogued;part of a horse's head was addedin 1986. New excavationwas undertaken in the Byzantinemonasterynortheastof the heroon on the acropolis."Reports appeared in Symposium 8:2 (1986) 101-25 and AnatSt 36 (1986) 205-

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IN ARCHAEOLOGY ANATOLIA

121

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view southwest. looking Fig.26. Sardis. Perspective of Lydian rampart, 206. In OJhBeibl 56 (1986) 49-106, the rock-cut tomb commissionedby Xuwata in the necropolis of Limyra is studiedin detail. Bayindir Tumulus. In 1986, one of the tumuli belonging to the necropolisof the Bayindir area northeast of Elmall was excavatedby a team from the Antalya Museum led by Harun Tagkiranand Edip Ozgiir. These tumuli are built as rockpilesover the burial pits and never had a soil cover. The tumulus selected is about 40 m. in diameterand 4-5 m. in preserved height. It containedthe remnantsof a cremation in a pit cut in bedrock.In the burnt fill were iron tripods, cauldrons, omphalos bowls, weapons, and somejewelry. Arycanda. Prof. Cevdet Bayburtluoglucontinues of the systematicclearanceand partial reconstruction monumentaltomb structureswith their architectural decorationand sarcophagi.Houses in the southwest part of the town provideevidence for wine and olive industry.A stone athlete'sweight has two Lycian letters on it, the first time this scripthas come to light at in Arycanda.The city name occurred a Greekinscription the letters of which are coloredred and black in alternatinglines. Symposium8:2 (1986) 93-99. Sarcophagi. A typological study and catalogue of Lycian sarcophagihas been publishedby Vedat Idil, Likya Lahitleri (Ankara 1985). Balboura. In 1985-1986, Dr. J.J. Coultonbegan a survey of this north Lycian city in preparation for making a completeplan and historicalanalysis of the

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[AJA 92

tian Jeppesen and Anthony Luttrell, The Maussolleion at Halikarnassos 2: The Written Sources and Their Archaeological Background 1-2 (Aarhus 1986). Aphrodisias. Prof. Kenan Erim reports on the main areas of excavation: "Tetrapylon. Excavations were made southward to

reveal moreof the north-southroad. Close to 25 m. of


this street came to light, along with portions of porti-

coes and sidewalks. At least two drainage channels ran underthe paving blocks.Fragmentsof figuralCorinthian marble revetmentcapitals, featuring Erotes,
were recorded along the east colonnade. Two large non-figural capitals may be connected with the upper story. Fresco and mosaic fragments should also be associated with an upper floor or the back wall of the portico. Major repairs were made in the fifth century, probably after the disastrous earthquake of the late fourth century. This major street in its southward course passed in front of the propylon of the Sebasteion. A sounding beyond the Sebasteion, east of the Agora Gate complex, revealed that the street was rising gently in the direction of the theater. Ionic capitals of the east portico here were of fifth- or early sixthcentury date. "Sebasteion Area. In search of a storage area for large blocks, a field near the north portico of the Sebasteion was cleared. It revealed column drums in situ placed at diagonal corners of an atrium of the first century, transformed into a fountain complex after the late fourth-century earthquake. The east portico of the atrium was joined to a hall, the entrance on that side with two spirally fluted blue marble Corinthian columns. The atrium had well-preserved mosaic pavements and rooms on all sides. The complex was part of an opulent residence with upper storys with a

Fig. 27. Sardis. Duck vase from Lydian domesticarea. development of the city. A Hellenistic fortification wall was discovered. AnatSt 36 (1986) 7-8; Research Symposium 4 (1986) 171-78. Oinoanda. J.J. Coulton and E.C. Stenton in AnatSt 36 (1986) 15-90 publish results of their topographical and architectural studies at Oinoanda in essays on the water supply, aqueduct, and the agora. Termessos. Prof. Haluk Abbasoglu has started new topographical studies of the site. He examined the gymnasium (building H) in particular and took old and new inscriptions under protection. CARIA lasos. Dr. Fede Berti continued her investigation of the basilica in the agora, where Hellenistic and Bronze Age levels were reached in soundings. The sanctuary discovered in 1985 outside the south aisle of the basilica is in a nearly square area bordered by schist and limestone blocks. In 1986 more lead votive models of double axes and roundels were found here. The cult would seem to be of Zeus Labrandeus. The handsome supplement to BdA 31-32 (1987), Studi su lasos di Caria, is a series of studies of material excavated until 1984, with illustrations also in color and a full bibliography. A practical guide to lasos is Doro Levi, Jasos Kazzlari (Ankara 1986).

Stratonikeia. Prof. Yusuf Boysal continues his clearance of the city gate, theater, bouleuterion and gymnasium, and podium temple. The necropolis is along the roadto the city gate. The oldesttombsare of the seventh century B.C. as attested by a Late Geometricoinochoeand paneled skyphoi. Ramazan Ozgen and D. Stutzinger publish two
late Roman portraits from Stratonikeia in IstMitt 35 (1985) 237-74. Halikarnassos. Publication continued with KrisFig. 28. Sardis.Boat-shapedvase fromrockpilein domestic area.

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long history. One of the rooms to the northwesthad a pair of dark blue marble small altars, garland-decorated. A headlessover-lifesizedraped male bust holding an (equally headless) statuetteof the Aphroditeof Aphrodisiasin his left hand (fig. 21) shows a personage in the guise of a priest of the city goddess.Figures holding out cult images are frequent among Imperial coin types. A headlessfull statue at Iasos of this type is being prepared for publication by Prof. Sebastiana Lagona."(A splendid instance on the highest level is Tyche of Perge holding the Archaic image of Artemis Pergaia on a relief from the theaterthere, Symposium 8:2 [1986] 159, fig. 22.) "Agora.Large-scale operations removedearth and debris fallen from the acropolison the south flank of the Portico of Tiberius. Close to 35 m. of the south colonnade were cleared and more than 18 columns were reerected partially. Much of the destruction must be blamed on earthquakes, especially the catastrophic one dating to the reign of Heraclius (610641). Large chunks of mortaredwalls belong to the upper sections of the back wall of the portico;barrelvaulted chambers are visible along the north flank of the acropolis.The vomitoriumstairs of the theaterremained accessibleuntil the acropoliswas transformed into a citadel following the earthquakeof the seventh century.
"North Byzantine House. This house near the

northeasterncity wall had an intricatesystemof water channels, pipes, and underground vaulted drains to the west. In front of two arcaded niches lay many lamps, small pitchers, and fragments of highly polished marble statuettes. The upper torso of a seated female figure has traces of gold paint on her diadem and veil. This and a male figure are of fifth-century date and show the survivalof pagan cults at Aphrodisias. The statuettes stood on an oval marble base incised with sun, moon and other symbols." For reports, see Symposium 8:1 (1986) 349-79; AnatSt 36 (1986) 176-81. A review of 25 years of excavation is Kenan Erim's Aphrodisias. City of Venus-

bothros with eighth-century B.C. pottery, e.g., Late Geometric paneled skyphoi, below the Perserschutt. On Kalabaktepetwo wells were partly excavatedbehind a polygonal terrace wall. Among the pottery from the wells was much Fikellura ware and fine black-figure,e.g., a fragment:withan ithyphallic Satyr and a panther (fig. 22); there also were Archaic terracottas,spearheads,and arrowheads. Studies for publicationwere concernedwith material from Kalabaktepe, Roman sculptures, and inscriptions. For previous campaigns, see IstMitt 35 (1985) 13-138 and Symposium8:2 (1986) 199-207. Didyma. Prof. Klaus Tuchelt reports:"The temenos along the sacred way from Miletus to Didyma (fig. 23) apparently had an open area in its western extension; the entrancefrom the sacred way was between this and the sphinx terrace.The anta-building on the highest point had its own terracein front. The terracottaroof of the east oikos is the first of the Ionic system to appear in such good preservation. Casts were made of the four best-preservedsphinxes; they will be put on the terrace wall. The temenos must have belongedto a noble Milesian family. Its destruction may be connectedwith local conflictsin Miletus by 450 B.C. "A large area was purchasedto allow clearanceon both sides of the sacredway to the northwestand between the Artemis sanctuaryand the Apollo temple. The pavementof the sacred way was traced over an additional21.50 m. to the northedge of the main road. The end of the sacred way and the approach to the temple precinctmust be fartherto the west than hitherto presumed." Reportsappearedin Symposium8:2 (1986) 39-45; AnatSt 36 (1986) 189; inscriptionsare published by W. Giinther in IstMitt 35 (1985) 181-93; animal bones by J. Boessneckand J. Schdiffer, 1986, 251AA 301; sculpturesfrom Didyma are discussedby K. Tuchelt and V. von Graeve in H. Kyrieleis ed., Archaische und klassische Plastik (Mainz 1986) 21-29

and 31-34. Akbiik-Teichioussa. Dr. W. Voigtlinder recorded several structureswhich are in danger of demolition by modern building activities: two buildings with courtson terracesto the northof the ancienttown, and three pre-Persian terraced substructuresof heroa(?) with corbel-vaulted rooms and corridors. "On the shore 6 km. west of the town is an eroded area with eighth-sixth century B.C. sherds;a tumulus and four plundered built tombs are visible from far. Precinct walls are 0.80 to 1.20 m. thick and to 200 m. in length.

Aphrodite (London and New York 1986). Joyce M.


Reynolds and R. Tannenbaum (Jews and Godfearers

at Aphrodisias [Cambridge Philological Society, Suppl. 12, 1987]) discuss Greek inscriptionspertaining to the Jewish communityat Aphrodisias.
IONIA

Miletus. In 1986, Prof. W. Mtiller-Wiener reports, study of Heroa I-III continued.A sounding in Heroon III, near the Thermae of Faustina, revealeda

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[AJA92

Habitation area,balloon Fig. 29. Pergamon. photo.

annexesseem to be tombsaddedin rows Irregular walls." alongbothsidesof theseprecinct on Ephesus.Prof.H. Vettersreports the workin 1986: "Artemisium. With the aid of the new pumpsthe north oftheKroisos side was at temple found a distance of 49.70m.tothenorth thesouthedgeof thealtar; of at 45.33 m. was the northwest cornerof the peristasis foundation. The width of the Kroisostemple was 71.74m.Among the 59.93,thatof theClassical temple finds weretinygoldandsilver seven electrum figurines, with coins,anda goldboukranion a lion'shead Lydian between horns. the appearing frontally is "Lower Agora.Here geometric pottery foundin fills. Level 1 is probably Neronian.The secondary oldestwalls are pre-Lysimachos, reusedin the Lysimachos period. The old processional way which crosses areawas againnotedin 1986. the "Reconstructionin preparation the southgate. is at In Hanghaus the largesouthroomwas completely 1 clearedwith an opus sectile floor and a cascading fountain was alongthesouthwall.Restoration continuedin Hanghaus 2." Extensive preliminary reportsfor 1984 and 1985 in AnzWien1986:5,75-161 and briefreappeared

ports in Symposium8:2 (1986) 67-68 and AnatSt 36 (1986) 193-94. An important155-line inscriptiondealing with tax collection was found in the Basilica of St. John in 1976. The contentsare brieflydiscussedby H. Engelmann and D. Knibbein EpigAnat 7 (1986) 19-32. Magnesia ad Maeandrum. Dr. Orhan Bing6l has been conductinginvestigationsin variousbuildingsof this site for the last three years. The theateris an unfinished structure. Clearing of the gymnasium has started.The general area is being surveyedfor architectural elements and inscriptions. Symposium 8:2 (1986) 59-65. Notion. Dr. Erol Atalay began new excavationin 1985. The Athena temple and the theater were cleaned.A cistern yielded a large quantity of Roman pottery. The necropoliswill be investigated.Symposium 8:2 (1986) 69-92. Bayrakh-Old Smyrna. Prof. Ekrem Akurgal and Dr. Tomris Bakir are studying the fourth-century houses of Old Smyrna, which have been drawn and also photographedfrom the air. The surfaces of the streetshave been consolidated.The main street is the "Athena Street" running east-west with smaller

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PERGAMON- STADTGRABUNG 1986


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Hellenistic level. Fig. 30. Pergamon. streets branching off it to north and south. To the north are insulae of three and seven houses with courtyardsand an averageof six to eight rooms.A 16room house may be of administrativerank. Some of the tumuli on the slope of Yamanlar Dag (Sipylos) belong to the fourth century B.C. and must be the gravesof the ruling class of Old Smyrna,Akurgal notes. Symposium8:2 (1986) 1-6. Klazomenai. There are now four areas known to have been used as cemeteries. In 1985 a new necropolis came to light when an irrigation channel was dug in the east part of the city. From the evidenceof the sarcophagiand ceramictomb gifts found here Dr. Tomris Bakir concludedthat the pottersof Klazomenai made sarcophagifrom the last quarter of the seventh century on. This leads to modificationsof the previouslyacceptedchronology. Erythrai. Sculptures (Archaic korai) from Erythrai are published by Ekrem Akurgal and Cevdet Bayburtluoglu in H. Kyrieleis ed., Archaischeund klassische Plastik (Mainz 1986) 1-14 and 193-98, respectively.

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126 LYDIA

MACHTELD J. MELLINK

[AJA 92

Sardis. Prof. CrawfordH. Greenewalt,jr., reports on the two sectors of Lydian excavation: "The flattopped spur on the north flank of the acropolis, ByzFort, has an impressive terrace wall faced with ashlar masonry in white limestone, built in the sixth century B.C. A masonry segment discoveredin 1986 (fig. 24) shows that the terrace wall enclosed much more than the outer edge of the spur. Excavationon the summit of the spur exposed dense Lydian occupation strata that contain foundationsof large buildings and architecturalterracottas,East Greek Orientalizing and Attic potteryand artifactsand chips of multicoloredchalcedony.Much disturbancewas caused by the foundationsof a Roman building of the first century A.C., a rectangular unit of two suites of three spaces flanking a central narrow space. Under one corner is a barrel-vaultedcrypt, which contained a stone tank and at least six terracottaoutlet conduits, and may have been a kind of urban districtcastellum aquae. "The Lydian rampartin sectorMMS was built ca. 625-600 B.C., partially destroyedca. 550 B.C., and rebuiltwith a stone wall on the truncatedstump of the old structure.Excavationin 1986 clarifiedthe earthwork on the west side that stands over 10 m. high and extendsover a width of 35 m. and a distanceof at least 20 m. to the west (figs. 25 and 26). This earthworkis constructed of sloping layers of clayey and sandy earth. Horizontal ashy lenses and crudewalls of stone and mudbrickshow that the layers were piled from the bottom up. Pottery fragments are consistentlyof Archaic type (they include part of a Lakonian II cup)."The nature of this earthwork(siege mound?)is still a matterof debate. "On the east side of the rampart, excavation revealed more of the Lydian habitationarea buried under a thick layer of destructiondebris of ca. 550 B.C.: two roomsand an intermediateopen space, altogether containing another 250 artifacts of pottery, metal (mostly iron), and other materials. A duck-shaped vessel with filling-spout and handle on the back (fig. 27), and an orientalizing painted boat-shaped vase with a horseheadfinial on the stern post, and dolphins on the lower part of the hull (fig. 28) representspecial pieces from floor and dump. "One of the rooms was evidently a kitchen with cookingand table wares, a benchwith grindstonesand two hearths, and two narrow windows. The other room, rifled after the destruction,had a stone bench and a mudbrickstepped counter.A few tools, including iron saw, tweezers, and more than 4 kg. of raw glass or cullet indicatethat this room had been an ate-

lier associatedwith the makingof glass. Finishedglass productsincludedtwo pear-shapedbeads,each ca. 1.7 cm. high and composedof separatewedges, each of a different color and made of yellow, white, or green (originally red?) glass. Skeletal remains in the open area betweenthe roomsrepresentthe firsthuman casualty yet encounteredin associationwith the violent architectural destruction (which it is tempting to equate with the historicalcapture of Sardis by Cyrus the Great of Persia)." Reports appeared in Symposium8:1 (1986) 38199; AnatSt 36 (1986) 210-12; and BASOR Suppl. 24 (1986) 1-30. A symposiumheld at the opening of the Sardis exhibition at Chicago is recordedin Eleanor Guralnick ed., Sardis. Twenty-seven-Years Discovof ery (Chicago 1987).
AEOLIS-MYSIA

Pergamon. Dr. Wolfgang Radt expandedexcavation in the city area by a 20 m. zone to the west, from the ancientmain streetto the northto the Hera terrace in the south. "The Late Byzantine level of the 13th centuryhad large, well-planned houses with courtyards. In the earlier periods (figs. 29 and 30) an alley descended from the main street in a southeasterndirection.This alley may antedatethe Hera sanctuaryto the east entrance of which it seems to lead. A rock-cutand built drainage channel runs under the alley, which was paved with blocks of andesite. The slope was negowith steps in the middle tiated by a ramp construction the width is 1.30 to 1.50 m. The conpart (fig. 31); structiondate is Hellenistic phase II, probablystill in the third century B.C. The alley remainedin use into late Imperialtimes.

Hellenistic Fig. 31. Pergamon. alley,fromsoutheast.

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Grabungsgrenze r(ab

10

15m

Roman level. Fig. 32. Pergamon.

"Of the Hellenistic level two houses were excavated. The house to the northeast had three rooms partly cut in the rock as basements along the north street. The entrance to the house must have been in the court along the alley. This house may have been an extension of the peristyle house to the east. Three cisterns await excavation.To the southwest one notes two phases different in layout, Hellenistic phase II and the main Hellenistic phase of the secondand first centuries B.C. The northern rooms were rock-cut along their north side and must have had upper floors.

"In the Roman Empire period, principally in the secondcentury,the Hellenistic houses continuedto be used in the same form but with practical alterations (fig. 32). The northeast house was clearly separated from the peristylehouse by a wall curtailingthe easternmost north room. An entrance room was built at the bend of the alley;the courtremainedin use, with a wide gate to the south. The northwestroom had considerable sections of wall painting in situ, painted in fresco technique on white plaster over a thick intonaco: thin red and black lines on white, red dots on

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fromsouthwest. Hestiaion repaired, Fig. 33. Pergamon. allows study of the exact positioningand conditionof the pieces. For the planned anastylosis,the lower column drums, stylobate,and orthostatsare poorly preserved, but copies are being cast out of carefully selected and conditionedcement with fine marble temper. The restorationof the south end of the east stoa was completedwith a floor of andesiterubble and installation of a marble pier and central base block of the triple east door (fig. 35)." Reportsappearedin AA 1986, 415-41; Symposium 8:2 (1986) 215-32. A lead-glazed relief vessel from Pergamon is published by W. Radt in IstMitt 35 (1985) 195-216. The first volume of the final reports of the city excavationsis M.N. Filgis and W. Radt, Die Stadtgrabung Das Heroon (AvP 15:1, 1986). I. Elaia. The wooden sarcophagussalvaged from a plunderedtumulus at Elaia, on the coast ca. 30 km. southwest of Pergamon, is published in IstMitt 35 (1985) 139-72. Smintheion-Troas. Dr. CogkunOzgiinel found a few additionalfragmentsof sculpturebelongingto the columnand temple friezesof the Smintheion.In 1986, the Roman bridge over the Tuzla Qay near Gilpinar This bridgeis also discussedby J.M. was investigated. Cook, The Troad(Oxford 1973) 225-26. The causeway and approachesto the bridge were cleared.The total length is 150 m. For the work in 1985 see Symposium 8:2 (1986) 47-57.

yellow ground for the socle (height 33 cm.). Fragments of polychrome floral designs had fallen from above.Some remodelingof the house was done in Late Antique times. "In the west house, three rooms had a simple mosaic floor of large white tesserae. One of these in its fourth-century stage contained the wine amphorae found in 1985 (AJA 91 [1987] 23 fig. 29). Room 212.79 containedlarge quantities of utility pottery of the Imperial period, as if fallen from shelves, perhaps as the result of an earthquakein the secondhalf of the third century. "A large oven to the south of the northeasthouse (F in fig. 32) with a diameter of 2 m. had a terracotta bread stamp or model next to it. This may belong to a commercialbakery. "The 1:1000 topographicalrecordingof the citadel continued with the entire middle zone between the acropolisand the gymnasiumand Demeter terraces. "The Roman building given the name of Hestiaion (AJA 91 [1987] 27) was restoredto its original floor level; its walls were partly repairedin distinctivetechnique. Ancient andesite columns have been put in place of what must have been marbleRoman columns

(fig.33). of The and "Trajaneum. drawings photographs the


temple blocks were largely completed.A tentative fitting of the northwestcornerof the pediment (fig. 34)

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corner pediment of assembled. Fig. 34. Pergamon. Trajaneum temple.Northwest


PROPONTIS, THRACE, BITHYNIA

Prokonnesos. In 1986, Dr. Nusin Asgari reports, severallarge blocksfrom eight differentquarrieswere taken to the open-air museum. Eleven unfinishedCorinthian capitals, architectural blocks with mason's marks, and tools for moving large blocks are among the new discoveries. Iznik-Nikaia. Excavationsin the theater area continue annually under the directionof Dr. Bedri Yalman. A statue base of Nemesis was found in 1985. Symposium8:2 (1986) 233-57; AnatSt36 (1986) 198200. The inscriptionsof Nikaia are being studied by Dr. SencerSahin.

Bithynia. The historical geography of Phrygia of Epiktetosand the identification the Gallos riverare discussedby Dr. Sencer Sahin in EpigAnat 7 (1986) 125-67, with reference to old Phrygian cultural elements. Herakleia Pontica. Ekrem Akurgal publishedthe Archaic head of a Persian, now in the Ankara Museum, in H. Kyrieleis ed., Archaischeund klassische Plastik (Mainz 1986) 1-14. Ainos-Enez. Prof. Afif Erzen annually continues his excavationsin the citadelof Ainos. The soundings reach Hellenistic and Classical levels. Thasian stampedamphorahandles are publishedin EpigAnat

Southendof restored stoa. east Fig. 35. Pergamon. Trajaneum.

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Theater1986. Fig. 36. Hierapolis. 7 (1986) 7-16, inscriptions 65-70. For the excavations see Symposium 8:2 (1986) 273-90; AnatSt 36 (1986) 190-93. Perinthos. Dr. Nuyin Asgari's report on the recording of the city plan, rescue excavation, and arrangement of an open-air museum appeared in IX. Tiirk TarihKongresi(1986) 451-58. In 1986, the stadium of Perinthos was discovered.Modern building activities annually bring more ancient walls and tombs to light. In IX. Tiirk Tarih Kongresi 549-52, Dr. Veli Sevin comments on a coastal survey of the Propontisarea.
PHRYGIA

the fifth to fourth centuries B.C. The peripteral Roman temple with its colonnadedcourt and theater on the west side is probablyTiberian;the cult may have shifted from Kybele to an imperial cult at that time; anotherSebasteion? Quarries. Continuingstudiesare reportedupon in
Research Symposium 4 (1986) 113-26 by M. Wael-

Aizanoi. The work in the stadium-theatercomplex undertakenin 1982-1984 by Adolf Hoffmann is reportedupon in AA 1986, 683-98. Claudia Naumann discussesthe Mediaeval castleof Aizanoi in IstMitt 35 (1985) 275-94. Pessinus. M. Waelkens presents an important clarificationof the building history of the sanctuary excavated at Pessinus from 1967-1973, EpigAnat 7 (1986) 37-73. Below the Imperialtemple are two earlier buildinglevels associatedwith Phrygianpotteryof

kens et al. and 127-32 on Dokimeion;see also colloquium abstracts,AJA 91 (1987) 313. is Midaion. The site of Midaion?-Karahiiyiik commented on by Giilven Yumrukpaglar Arkeoloji ve in Sanat 24-27 (1984) 20-24, with illustrationsof stelae and coins in the EskigehirMuseum. Hierapolis. Prof. Daria de Bernardi Ferraro reports on the various sectors of excavation: "In the theater, further restorationwas postponedwhile the orchestrawas being cleared (fig. 36). The secondand third order of the scaenae frons have been studied, surveyed,and drawn. "In the west side of the agora, Prof. Francesco D'Andria exploredrural houses of the 12th and 13th centuriesA.C. built with much use of spolia from the west porticoand the necropolis.These houses overlie a Late Antique settlementof the sixth century built

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into the portico, partly ruining it. New parts of the porticowere excavatedtowardsthe gate of Frontinus. On the east side of the agora, the steps and fragments of the Ionic facade were traced to the north. In the center,the colonnadewas interruptedby a two-storied building with figured capitals (sphinxes) and sculptured figuresof lions attackingbulls. "In the north necropolis, the survey and prosopography of the sarcophagi continued:468 sarcophagi, mostly of the secondand first half of the third century, were studied in 1986, bringing the total to 1372. In the small necropolis to the southeast, the survey of chambertombs, tumuli, and rock-cutsarcophagiwas completed. These tombs date from the first century B.C. to the third centuryA.C." D'Andria discussesthe cycle of Apollo in the theaclassique(Rome 1985) 51-59; see also Symposium8:2 (1986) 193-98.
CAPPADOCIA, LYCAONIA

rock-cutchambersand staircases,and a walled citadel to the east. The authorsconnectthis site with the Pontic dynastyof Amaseia-Amasya. Konya. A group of Roman sculpturesfound at Yagllbayat (Savatra)ca. 50 km. east of Konyain 1984 is
published in Eski Eserler ve Miizeler Bilteni 7

ter frieze in EIADZAOHOIIA. Actes du Colloque sur les problmes de l'image dans le monde miditerranden

Terzili Hamam. The Roman Baths at Terzili Hamam-Sarikaya,16 km. southeastof Ali?ar,were studied by Richard Haines in 1932. The report is now publishedwith an introductionby K. Bittel in IstMitt 35 (1985) 227-35. Avanos-e?ttepe. M. Coindoz publishes a stone tumulus ca. 3 km. west of Avanos, on a ridge near the right bank of the Kizilirmak. This is a large tumulus, ca. 30 m. high, constructedof stones without addition of soil. Corum. A rock-cutrelief of a seated female figure, perhaps Kybele, 3.16 m. high, was discoveredin a niche above the Qekerek river near Incesu-Ortak6y, ca. 62 km. southeastof Qorum. The style is Hellenistic. A report by Erol Atalay and Ahmet Ertekin appeared in Eski Eserler ve Miizeler Biilteni 8 (1986)

(1986) 26-29. Meydancikkale-Guilnar. Dr. Alain Davesne reports the completionof the study of the great Hellenistic hoard found at this site in Cilicia Tracheia in 1980 (5215 silver coins of Alexander the Great and Diadochi). The publicationby A. Davesne and G. le Rider is forthcoming. "In 1986, activitieswere resumedat the site. A topographical survey and grid were established for the site as well as absolute levels. "A rock-cut shaft of 2 x 3 m. was cleared to 15.50 m. depthand continuesdown. A lateralopening leads to a natural cave. "Two Aramaic inscriptions,one at the entranceto the site and the other in a rock-cut tomb, have been studied by A. Lemaire. Although poorly preserved, they can be datedand providethe Persian name of the city, known fromother sources.This revealsa Persian occupationof the site of some importancealso attested by other monumentsdiscoveredat Meydancikkale:a built tomb with statues in front, and reliefs in Persian style (CRAI 1981, 357, fig. 2)." The historicaland geographicalcontextof these inscriptionswill be discussedby A. Davesne and A. Lemaire (evidencefor Meydancikkale= Kirwu,known from Neriglissar'sthird-yearNeo-Babylonianchronicle, 557 B.C.) and H. Otten (Treaty of Tarhuntavva) at the Academiein Paris in June 1987.
DEPARTMENT OF CLASSICAL AND NEAR EASTERN ARCHAEOLOGY BRYN MAWR COLLEGE BRYN MAWR, PENNSYLVANIA 19Igo

19-26. The hill on the opposite side of the river has

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