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CURRENT SCENARIO OF THE EDUCATION IN ARGENTINA

The goal of achieving the right to a quality education on a universal basis for each child, and adolescent constitutes a crucial challenge, since education has direct implications in the possibility of exercising other rights and, in addition, prints its effects on poverty and the goal of achieving development with social justice. In the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 2, Argentina has set a goal for the year 2015 ensuring that all children, girls and teens may be able to complete the basic education (10 completed years of schooling). In addition, the recent National Education Act establishes the requirement for secondary education, bringing to 13 years this goal. This demand new policy responses of the education sector, as well as articulation efforts and alliances of the various sectors.

In the initial level of education , the assistance of the boys and girls to educational services is relatively homogeneous for children of 5 years, but not in those of 3 and 4 years: 3 years, the 50% attends to this level of teaching in the Great Buenos Aires (GBA) and only 10.5 per cent in the provinces of the Argentine Northwest (NOA). In the 4 years, 73.5 % assists in the GBA, compared to 30.6 % in the northeast of Argentina (NEA). (Source: own development of UNICEF, on the basis of EPH, INDEC/MECON, October 2006). Basic education is characterized by its high rate of coverage, almost universal, combined with high repetition rates and age ratios.

The school failure is a problem to deal with since it marks present or future possibilities of the boys and girls, the repetition rate for the first six years of basic education is of the 6.5 %, with provinces that reach the 11.5 per cent and others that are close to 2.5 %. Grades 7th, 8th and 9th are those who express the greater relative percentage of repetition (10.4 % ), with higher values in the provinces of NEA (Source: CGECSE/SsCA/issues based on information from DINIECE/issues annual surveys 2003-2004). In the basic education problems are observed quality that can be reversed by strengthening policies aimed at improving the school; however, there are other problems arising from the context, as is the child labor. In addition, there are situations of vulnerability and violence, such as the mistreatment, abuse, exploitation and discrimination, which have an impact on the educational potential of children and adolescents. The average level , advances in their levels of coverage, but does not have sufficient capacity to sustain with quality to the school population and contains the highest percentage of abandonment of the system is, precisely, in the education for adolescents where it becomes clear that a knot more critical of the school system, the access and retention of quality with adolescents require innovative proposals and schools and trained teachers in new areas of knowledge, taking into account new issues, languages and cultures, as well as changes in the forms of access to information and the needs of participation in a society demanding, uneven and changing. The level of repetition in the first year of the polimodal reaches an average of 11.4 % and reaches a maximum value of provincial 16.5 %" in both, the level of their grade for the national total is 35.9 %, reaching maximum values provincial 53 %" This mark various school populations, with different needs that require not only different forms of support and pedagogical strategies, but comprehensive care that give answers to their problems. The school dropout in the polymodal arrives at the 18.9 % to the total country, with nearby provinces to 21.5 % (source: CGECSE/SsCA/issues based on information from DINIECE/issues annual surveys 2003-2004).

The unequal opportunities are also reflected in the educational possibilities depending on the level of household income in this s entido, of the young people of 20 to 29 years who completed their secondary school, the 72.5 % comes from contexts not poor people, while only 28.4 % comes from poor contexts. (Source: own development of UNICEF, on the basis of EPH, INDEC/MECON, October 2006). In spite of the fact that the levels of school coverage (basic and secondary levels) are among the highest in the region, not all those who enter the school the culminate. The population between 6 and 18 years outside of the educational system reaches to 1,154,961 people, i.e. educational exclusion impacts on 13.2 % of the total of children and adolescents (Source: INDEC, Population and Housing Census, 2001). In this context, we must mention the special situation of indigenous children. The information on the educational situation of indigenous peoples is insufficient; however it is possible to point out the inequality and the violation of the right to education of indigenous children and adolescents for the sector of the Wichi population in Chaco, Formosa and Salta, in the age range of 20-29 years, for a total of 5969 persons, only 1528 (25.6 %) have completed primary school, and 290 (4.8 %) ended the secondary for the sector of the population Toba in Chaco, Formosa, Santa Fe, in the same range of age, of a total of 6840 persons, only 2383 (34.8 %) have completed primary school and 278 (4 % ), secondary (Source ECPI, INDEC/MECON 2004-2005). The problems are focused on the insufficient educational supply primarily from secondary schools, in the quality of basic education, aimed at these populations and in the training of teachers. In recent years the responses of the government in the field of education have achieved a significant expression in the adoption of new laws , which provide important opportunities for achieving the goals of a quality education for all. The Law of Educational Financing ensures growing resources up to achieve a consolidated budget of education equivalent to 6% of the GDP by 2010. For its part, the National Education Act introduces, among other innovations, the recognition of the right to education as a public good or the creation of new forms of education. In addition, the Ministry of Education established in the framework of this Law the National Institute for Teacher Training, with strategic functions to promote changes in one of the pillars of the educational quality.