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MANAGEMENT ADVISORY SERVICES

CPA Review School of the Philippines fixed costs for P50,000 units. variable cost per unit of output? A. P1.60 B. P1.67

Preweek Quizzer How much is Careras budgeted C. P3.00 D. P5.00

OVERVIEW Management Advisory Services 1. The following characterize management advisory services except A. involve decision for the future B. broader in scope and varied in nature C. utilize more junior staff than senior members of the firm D. relate to specific problems where expert help is required 2. Which of the following is not classifiable as a management advisory service by CPA? A. Systems design. C. Make or buy analysis. B. Project feasibility study. D. Assistance in budget preparation. Managerial Accounting 3. The following are inherent to either management accounting or financial accounting: 1. External report 2. Historical information 3. Contribution approach income statement 4. Generally accepted accounting principles 5. Prospective financial statements Which of the foregoing are related to management accounting and financial accounting, respectively? Management Financial Accounting Accounting A. 1, 2, 5 3, 4 B. 3, 5 1, 2, 4 C. 2, 3 1, 4, 5 D. 3 1, 2, 4, 5 COST BEHAVIOR 4. Total production costs for Carera, Inc. are budgeted at P230,000 for 50,000 units of budgeted output and P280,000 for 60,000 units of budgeted output. Because of the need for additional facilities, budgeted fixed costs for 60,000 units are 25% more than budgeted May 2005

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COST-VOLUME-PROFIT ANALYSIS Breakeven Point 5. Scrambled Brain Company has fixed costs of P90,000. At a sales volume of P300,000, return on sales is 10%; at a P500,000 volume, return on sales is 22%. What is the break-even volume? A. P120,000 C. P225,000* B. P200,000 D. P450,000 6. Bush Electronics, Inc. had the following sales results for 2004: TV sets CD Radios player Peso sales component 0.30 0.30 0.40 ratio Contribution margin 0.40 0.40 0.60 ratio Bush Electronics, Inc. had fixed costs of P2,400,000. The break-even sales in pesos for Bush Electronics, Inc. are: TV sets CD player Radios A. P1,800,000 P1,800,000 P3,600,000 B P1,800,000 P1,800,000 P1,600,000 C. P1,500,000 P1,500,000 P2,000,000 D. P1,531,915 P1,531,915 P2,042,553 7. Glareless Company manufactures and sells sunglasses. Price and cost data are as follows: Selling price per pair of sunglasses P25.00 Variable costs per pair of sunglasses: Raw materials P11.00 Direct labor 5.00 Manufacturing overhead 2.50 Selling expenses 1.30 Total variable costs per unit P19.80 Annual fixed costs: Manufacturing overhead P192,000 Selling and administrative 276,000 Total fixed costs P468,000 Forecasted annual sales volume (120,000 P3,000,000 May 2005

pairs) Income tax rate 40% Glareless Company estimates that its direct labor costs will increase 8 percent next year. How many units will Glareless have to sell next year to reach breakeven? A. 97,500 units C. 83,572 units B. 101,740 units D. 86,250 units

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CPA Review School of the Philippines

Preweek Quizzer

8. Madel Company manufactures a single electronic product called Walastik. Walastik sells for P900 per unit. In 2000, the following variable costs were incurred to produce each Walastik device. Direct labor P180 Direct materials 240 Factory overhead 105 Selling costs 75 Total variable costs P600 Madel is subject to 40 percent income tax rate, and annual fixed costs are P6,600,000. Except for an operating loss incurred in the year of incorporation, the firm has been profitable over the last five years. In 2001, a significant change in Madels production technology caused a 10% increase in annual fixed costs and a 20% unit cost increase in the direct labor component as a result of higher skilled direct labor. However, this change permitted the replacement of a costly imported component with a local component. The effect was to reduce unit material costs by 25%. There has been no change in the Walastik selling price. The annual sales units required for Madel to breakeven are: A. B. C. D. 2000 22,000 22,000 14,000 14,000 2001 20,840 22,407 22,407 20,840 Profit Planning 9. Signal Co. manufactures a single product. For 2000, the company had sales of P90,000, variable costs of P50,000, and fixed costs of P30,000. Signal expects its cost structure and sales price per unit to remain the same in 2001, however total sales are expected to jump by 20%. If the 2001 projections are realized, net income in 2001 should exceed net income in 2000 by A. 100% C. 20% B. 80% D. 50% 10.Six-Two Convenience Store currently opens only Monday through Saturday. Six-Two is considering opening on Sundays. The annual incremental fixed costs of Sunday openings are estimated at May 2005

P39,000. Six-Twos gross margin on sales is 25 percent. Six-Two estimates that 60 percent of its Sunday sales to customers would be made on other days if the stores were not open on Sundays. The one-day volume of Sunday sales that would be necessary for Six-Two to attain the same weekly operating income as the current six-day week is A. P6,000 C. P7,500 B. P5,000 D. P4,500

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MANAGEMENT ADVISORY SERVICES

CPA Review School of the Philippines

Preweek Quizzer

11.Gorilla, Co. provides two products, M and W. M accounts for 60 percent of total sales, variable cost as a percentage of selling price are 60% for M and 85% for W. Total fixed costs are P225,000. If fixed costs will increase by 30 percent, what amount of peso sales would be necessary to generate an operating profit of P48,000? A. P1,350,000 C. P1,135,000 B. P486,425 D. P910,000 12.Mount Park, Inc. had the following economic information for the year 2002: Sales(50,000 units @ P20) P1,000,000 Variable manufacturing costs 400,000 Fixed costs 250,000 Income tax rate 40 percent Mount Park budgets its 2003 sales at 60,000 units or P1,200,000. The company anticipates increased competition; hence, an additional P75,000 advertising costs is budgeted in order to maintain its sales target for 2003. What is the amount of peso sales needed for 2003 in order to equal the after-tax income in 2002? A. P1,125,000 C. P1,187,500 B. P1,325,000 D. P1,387,500 13.Larz Company produces a single product. It sold 25,000 units last year with the following results: Sales P625,000 Variable costs P375,000 Fixed costs 150,000 525,000 Net income before taxes P100,000 Income taxes 40,000 Net income P 60,000 In an attempt to improve its product in the coming year, Larz is considering replacing a component part in its product that has a cost of P2.50 with a new and better part costing P4.50 per unit. A new machine will also be needed to increase plant capacity. The machine would cost P18,000 with a useful life of 6 years and no salvage value. The company uses straight-line depreciation on all plant assets. May 2005

If Larz wishes to maintain the same contribution margin ratio after implementing the changes, what selling price per unit of product must it charge next year to cover the increased material costs? A. P27.00 C. P32.50 B. P25.00 D. P28.33

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CPA Review School of the Philippines A. 7,365 B. 4,092 C. 10,380 D. 12,275

Preweek Quizzer

Point of Indifference 14.Ravine Ski Company recently expanded its manufacturing capacity to allow it to produce up to 15,000 pairs of cross-country skis of either the mountaineering model or the touring model. The sales department assures management that it can sell between 9,000 and 13,000 pairs (units) of either product this year. Because the models are very similar, Ravine Ski will produce only one of the two models. The information below was compiled by the accounting department. Mountaineering Touring Selling price per unit P880.00 P800.00 Variable costs per unit P528.00 P528.00 Fixed costs will total P3,696,000 if the mountaineering model is produced but will be only P3,168,000 if the touring model is produced. Ravine Ski is subject to a 40% income tax rate. The total sales revenue at which Ravine Ski Company would make the same profit or loss regardless of the ski model it decided to produce is A. P8,800,000 C. P9,240,000 B. P4,224,000 D. P6,864,000 15.Valley of Fire Corporation has one department that produces three replacement parts for the company. However, only one part can be produced in any month because of the adjustments that must be made to the equipment. The department can produce up to 15,000 units of any one of the three parts in each month. The company expresses the monthly after tax cost/volume/profit relationships for each part using an equation method. The format of the equations and the equation for each replacement part are given below: (ATR) X ((SP VC) x (U) FC) ATR = after-tax rate VC = variable cost FC = fixed costs SP = selling price U = units Part Part Equations AL45 .6 ((P4.00 P1.25) (U) P33,400) BT65 .6 ((P4.05 P2.55) (U) P15,000) GM17 .6 ((P4.10 - P2.00) (U) - P22,365) The production and unit sales volume level at which Valley will be indifferent as to whether Part BT62 or GM17 is produced is May 2005

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MANAGEMENT ADVISORY SERVICES

CPA Review School of the Philippines

Preweek Quizzer

16.BM Motors, Inc. employs 40 sales personnel to market its line of luxury automobiles. The average car sells for P1,200,000 and a 6% commission is paid to the salesperson. BM Motors is considering a change to a commission arrangement that would pay each salesperson a salary of P24,000 per month plus a commission of 2% of the sales made by that salesperson. The amount of total car sales at which BM Motors would be indifferent as to which plan to select is A. P22,500,000 C. P24,000,000 B. P30,000,000 D. P12,000,000 17.Zapatero, Inc. operates a chain of shoe stores around the country. The stores carry many styles of shoes that are all sold at the same price. To encourage sales personnel to be aggressive in their sales efforts, the company pays a substantial sales commission on each pair of shoes sold. Sales personnel also receive a small basic salary. The following cost and revenue data relate to Store 9 and are typical of the companys many sales outlets: Selling price P800 Variable expenses: Invoice costs P360 Sales commission 140 P500 Fixed expenses per year: Rent P1,600,000 Advertising 3,000,000 Salaries 1,400,000 Total P6,000,000 The company is considering eliminating sales commissions entirely in its stores and increasing fixed salaries by P2,142,000 annually. If this change is made, what will be the number of pairs of shoes to be sold by Store 9 to be indifferent to commission basis? A. 25,300 C. 18,505 B. 15,300 D. 21,000 Sensitivity Analysis May 2005

18.If fixed costs increase while variable cost per unit remains constant, the contribution margin will be A. lower C. unchanged B. higher D. unpredictable 19.Firm D and Firm S are competitors within the same industry. Firm D produces its product using large amounts of direct labor. Firm S has replaced direct labor with investment in machinery. Projected sales for both firms are fifteen percent less than in the prior year. Which statement regarding projected profits is true? A. Firm D will lose more profit than Firm S. B. Firm S will lose more profit than Firm D. C. Firm D and Firm S will lose the same amount of profit. D. Neither Firm D nor Firm S will lose profit. 20.Last month, Zamora Company had an income of P0.75 per unit with sales of 60,000 units. During the current month when the unit sales are expected to be only 45,000, there is a loss of P1.25 per unit. Both the variable cost per unit and total fixed costs remain constant. The fixed costs amounted to A. P80,000 C. P247,500 B. P360,000 D. P210,000 21.The Liberal Marketing Co., is expecting an increase of fixed costs by P78,750 upon moving their place of business to the downtown area. Likewise it is anticipating that the selling price per unit and the variable expenses will not change. At present, the sales volume necessary to breakeven is P750,000 but with the expected increase in fixed costs, the sales volume necessary to breakeven would go up to P975,000. Based on these projections, what were the total fixed costs before the increase of P78,750? A. P341,250 C. P183,750 B. P262,500 D. P300,000 22.Machan Co.s year-end income statement is as follows: Sales (20,000 units) P360,000 Variable costs 220,000 Page 6 of 46

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Contribution margin P140,000 Fixed costs 105,000 Net income P 35,000 Management is unhappy with the results and plans to make some changes for next year. If management implements a new marketing program, fixed costs are expected to increase by P19,200 and variable costs to increase by P1 per unit. Unit sales are expected to increase by 15 percent. What is the effect on income if the foregoing changes are implemented? A. Decrease of P21,200 C. Increase of P13,800 B. Increase of P1,800 D. Increase of P14,800 23.Candyman Company is a wholesale distributor of candy. The company services grocery, convenience, and drug stores in Metro Manila. Small but steady growth in sales has been achieved by the company over the past few years while candy prices have been increasing. The company is formulating its plans for the coming fiscal year. Presented below are the data used to project the current years after-tax net income of P110,400. Manufacturers of candy have announced that they will increase prices of their products an average of 15% in the coming year due to increases in raw material (sugar, cocoa, peanuts, etc.) and labor costs. Candyman Company expects that all other costs will remain at the same rates or levels as the current year. Candyman is subject to 40 percent tax rate. Average selling price P4.00 per box Average variable costs Cost of candy P2.00 per box Selling expenses 0.40 per box Total P2.40 per box Annual fixed costs Selling P169,000 Administrative 280,000 Total P440,000 Expected annual sales volume (390,000 P1,560,000 boxes) May 2005

If net income after taxes is to remain the same after the cost of candy increases but no increase in the sales price is made, how many boxes of candy must Candyman sell? A. 480,000 C. 27,600 B. 400,000 D. 29,300 Margin of Safety 24.Claremont Company had is a manufacturer of its only one product line. It had sales of P400,000 for 2002 with a contribution margin ratio of 20 percent. Its margin of safety ratio was 10 percent. What are the companys fixed costs? A. P72,000 C. P288,000 B. P80,000 D. P320,000 25.Lemery Corporation had sales of P120,000 for the month of May. It has a margin of safety ratio of 25 percent, and after-tax return on sales of 6 percent. The company assumes its sales constant every month. If the tax rate is 40 percent, how much is the monthly fixed costs? A. P36,000 C. P432,000 B. P90,000 D. P360,000

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MANAGEMENT ADVISORY SERVICES Degree of Operating Leverage 26.A very high operating leverage indicates that a firm A. has high fixed costs B. has a high net income C. has high variable costs D. is operating close to its breakeven point

CPA Review School of the Philippines Repairs and maintenance General administrative services Rent Billings and collections Bad debt expense Other 5,200

Preweek Quizzer 7,140 131,760 275,320

27.The Didang Company has an operating leverage of 2. Sales for 2001 are P2,000,000 with a contribution margin of P1,000,000. Sales are expected to be P3,000,000 in 2002. Net income for 2002 can be expected to increase by what amount over 2001? A. P250,000 C. P500,000 B. 200 percent D. 40 percent Situational Questions 28 thru 34 are based on the following information: Calamba Hospital operates a general hospital but rents space and beds to separate entities for specialized treatment such as pediatrics, maternity, psychiatric, etc. Calamba charges each separate entity for common services to its patients like meals and laundry and for all administrative services such as billings, collections, etc. All uncollectible accounts are charged directly to the entity. Space and bed rentals are fixed for the year. For the entire year ended June 30, the Pediatrics Department at Calamba Hospital charged each patient an average of P65 per day, had a capacity of 60 beds, operated 24 hours per day for 365 days, and had revenue of P1,138,800. Expenses charged by the hospital to the Pediatrics Department for the year ended June 30 were: Basis of Allocation Patient Days Bed Capacity Dietary P 42,952 Janitorial P 12,800 Laundry 28,000 Lab, other than direct charges to 47,800 patients Pharmacy 33,800 May 2005

40,000 47,000 18,048 . P262,800 P453,000 The only personnel directly employed by the Pediatrics Department are supervising nurses, nurses, and aides. The hospital has minimum personnel requirements based on total annual patient days. Hospital requirements beginning at the minimum, expected level of operation follow: Annual Patient Aides Nurses Supervising Days Nurses 10,000 14,000 21 11 4 14,001 17,000 22 12 4 17,001 23,725 22 13 4 23,726 25,550 25 14 5 25,551 27,375 26 14 5 27,376 29,200 29 16 6 The staffing levels above represent full-time equivalents, and it should be assumed that the Pediatrics Department always employs only the minimum number of required full-time equivalent personnel. Annual salaries for each class of employee follow: supervising nurses, P18,000; nurses, P13,000; and aides, P5,000. Salary expense for the year ended June 30 for supervising nurses, nurses, and aides was P72,000, P169,000, and P110,000, respectively. The Pediatrics Department operated at 100% capacity during 111 days of the past year. It is estimated that during 90 of these capacity days, the demand average 17 patients more than capacity and even went as high as 20 patients more on some days. The hospital has an additional 20 beds available for rent for the coming fiscal year. 28.The variable expense per patient day is A. P15.08 C. P15.00 B. P12.50 D. P50.00 Page 8 of 46

MANAGEMENT ADVISORY SERVICES 29.The contribution margin per patient day is A. P49.92 C. P50.00 B. P52.50 D. P52.00

CPA Review School of the Philippines

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30.How many patient days are necessary to cover fixed costs for bed capacity and for supervisory nurses? A. 9,500 C. 12,500 B. 11,500 D. 10,500 31.The number of patient days needed to cover total costs is A. 14,200 C. 15,820 B. 15,200 D. 14,220 32.If the Pediatrics Department rented an additional 20 beds and all other factors remain the same as in the past year, what would be the increase in revenue? A. P99,450 C. P105,450 B. P87,750 D. P89,750 33.Continuing to consider the 20 additional rented beds, the increase in total variable cost applied per patient day is A. P22,935 C. P22,965 B. P22,950 D. P23,935 34.What is the increased fixed cost applied for bed capacity, given the increased number of beds? A. P151,000 C. P147,000 B. P173,950 D. P152,000 Questions 35 thru 37 are based on the following information. Ms. Casserole started a pizza restaurant in 1998. For this purpose a building was rented for P400 per month. Two women were hired to work full time at the restaurant and six college students were hired to work 30 hours per week delivering pizza. This level of employment has been consistent. An outside accountant was hired for tax and bookkeeping purposes, for which Ms. Casserole pays P300 per month. The necessary restaurant equipment and delivery cars were purchased with cash. Ms. May 2005

Casserole has noticed that expenses for utilities and supplies have been rather constant. Ms. Casserole increased her business between 1998 and 2001. Profits have more than doubled since 1998. Ms. Casserole does not understand why profits have increased faster than volume. A projected income statement for the year ended December 31, 2002, prepared by the accountant, is shown below: Sales Cost of food sold Wages & fringe benefits: Restaurant help Delivery help Rent Accounting services Depreciation: Delivery equipment Restaurant equipment Utilities Supplies Net income before taxes Income taxes (40%) Net income Note: The average pizza sells for P2.50. P95,000 P28,500 8,150 17,300 4,800 3,600 5,000 3,000 2,325 1,200

73,875 P21,125 8,450 P12,675

35.What is the tax shield on the noncash fixed costs? A. P3,200 C. P3,400 B. P14,950 D. P5,400 36.What is the breakeven point in number of pizzas that must be sold? A. 25,929 C. 18,150 B. 23,569 D. 42,114 37.What is the cash flow breakeven point in number of pizzas that must be sold? A. 19,529 C. 12,990 B. 21,284 D. 10,773 Page 9 of 46

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VARIABLE COSTING VS. ABSORPTION COSTING Absorption Costing 38.When a firm prepares financial reports by using absorption costing, it may find that A. profits will always increase with increase in sales. B. profits will always decrease with decreases in sales. C. profit may decrease with increased sales even if there is no change in selling price and costs. D. decreased output and constant sales result in increased profit. 39.The Bush Company has provided information concerning its projections for the coming year as follows: Net sales P10,000,000 Fixed manufacturing costs P 1,000,000 Bush projects variable manufacturing costs of 60% of net sales. Assuming no change in inventory, what will the projected cost of goods sold be? A. P5,000,000 C. P7,000,000 B. P6,000,000 D. P8,000,000 40.Colger Company manufactures a single product using standard costing. Variable production costs are P12 and fixed production costs are P125,000. Colger uses a normal activity of 12,500 units to set its standard costs. Colger began the year with 1,000 units in inventory, produced 11,000 units, and sold 11,500 units. The standard costs of goods sold under absorption costing would be A. P115,000 C. P242,000 B. P132,000 D. P253,000 41.The Trinkets Company estimated the following data for the coming year: Fixed manufacturing costs P565,000 Variable production costs per peso of sales Materials P0.125 Direct labor 0.150 Variable overhead 0.075 Variable selling costs per peso of sales 0.150 May 2005

Trinkets estimates its sales for the coming year to be P2,000,000. The expected cost of goods sold for the coming year is A. P1,265,000 C. P1,115,000 B. P1,565,000 D. P 700,000 42.Nirvana Co. employs a normal (nonstandard) absorption cost system. The information below is from the financial records of the company for the year. Total manufacturing costs were P2,500,000. Costs of goods of manufactured was P2,425,000. Applied factory overhead was 30 percent of total manufacturing costs. Factory overhead was applied to production at a rate of 80% of direct labor cost. Work-in-process inventory at January 1 was 75% of work-inprocess inventory at December 31. What are the amounts/value of the following cost elements and inventory? Direct labor Direct materials Work-in-process inventory A. P750,000 P750,000 P225,000 B. P937,500 P812,500 P225,000 C. P937,500 P812,500 P300,000 D. P750,000 P750,000 P300,000

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CPA Review School of the Philippines Variable overhead Fixed Variable selling and adm. Fixed selling and adm. Variances are closed to cost of sales monthly

Preweek Quizzer 23,000 18,000 60,000 35,000

43.Black Forest, Inc. began operations on January 3. Standard costs were established in early January assuming a normal production volume of 160,000 units. However, Black Forest produced only 140,000 units of product and sold 100,000 units at a selling price of P180 per unit during the year. Variable costs totaled P7,000,000, of which 60% were manufacturing and 40% were selling. Fixed costs totaled P11,200,000, of which 50% were manufacturing and 50% were selling. Black Forest had no raw materials or work-in-process inventories at December 31. Actual input prices and quantities per unit of product were equal to standard. Using absorption costing, Black Forests income statement would show: Cost of Goods Sold at Standard Overhead Volume Variance Cost A. P8,200,000 P800,000 Unf B. P7,200,000 P800,000 Fav C. P6,500,000 P700,000 Unf D. P7,000,000 P700,000 Fav Absorption Costing & Variable Costing 44.Southseas Corp. uses a standard cost system. The standard cost per unit of one of its products are as follows: Direct Materials P4.00 Direct labor 6.00 Factory overhead Variable 3.00 Fixed (based on a normal capacity of 2.00 10,000 units) Total 15.00 Beginning inventory Production Units sold (selling price P50) Actual costs: Direct materials Direct labor May 2005 2,000 units 8,000 units 7,000 units P 35,000 50,000

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How much are the net income under absorption costing and variable costing methods? A. B. C. D. Absorption P144,000 P143,000 144,000 142,000 Variable 143,000 144,000 142,000 144,000 45.Lord Industries manufactures a single product. Variable production costs are P10 and fixed production costs are P75,000. Lord uses a normal activity of 10,000 units to set its standard costs. Lord began the year with no inventory, produced 11,000 units and sold 10,500 units. The volume variance under each product costing are: A. B. C. D. Under Absorption P3,750 P3,750 P7,500 P7,500 Costing Under Variable P 0 P7,500 P0 P0 Costing Absorption Costing Income vs. Variable Costing Income 46.Simple Corp. produces a single product. The following cost structure applied to their first year of operations, 2000: Variable Costs per Annual Fixed Unit Costs SG&A P2.00 P14,000 Production 4.00 P20,000 Assume that during 2000 Simple Corp. manufactured 5,000 units and sold 3,800. There was no beginning or ending work-in-process inventory. How much larger or smaller would Simple Corp.s income be if it uses absorption rather than variable costing? A. The absorption costing income would be P6,000 larger B. The absorption costing income would be P6,000 smaller C. The absorption costing income would be P4,800 larger* D. The absorption costing income would be P4,000 smaller STANDARD COSTING & VARIANCE ANALYSIS Basic Concepts 47.Which of the following is a difference between a static budget and a flexible budget? May 2005

A. A flexible budget includes only variable costs; a static budget includes only fixed costs. B. A flexible budget includes all costs, a static budget includes only fixed costs. C. A flexible budget gives different allowances for different levels of activity, a static budget does not. D. There is no difference between the two. Setting Standards 48.Which of the following statements about the selection of standards is true? A. Ideal standards tend to extract higher performance levels since they give employees something to live up to. B. Currently attainable standards may encourage operating inefficiencies. C. Currently attainable standards discourage employees from achieving their full performance potential. D. Ideal standards demand maximum efficiency which may leave workers frustrated, thus causing a decline in performance. 49.The per-unit standard cost for variable overhead is normally based on the A. standard quantity of an input factor used in a unit of product. B. actual variable overhead cost incurred at the achieved level of production. C. budgeted total cost for variable overhead divided by the number of units expected to be produced. D. ratio of fringe benefits to the basic cost of labor. 50.Relevant Company had the following flexible budget for 2003 at 100 percent capacity of 30,000 direct labor hours. Direct materials P800,000 Direct labor 600,000 Variable manufacturing overhead 360,000 Fixed manufacturing overhead 288,000

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What is the total manufacturing overhead application rate if the Relevant Company has to operate at 80 percent of the stated capacity? A. P24.00 C. P24.60 B. P27.00 D. P21.60 Raw Materials Variances 51.Derby Co. uses a standard costing system in connection with the manufacture of a line of T-shirts. Each unit of finished product contains 2 yards of direct material. However, a 20 percent direct material spoilage calculated on input quantities occurs during the manufacturing process. The cost of the direct materials is P120 per yard. The standard direct material cost per unit of finished product is A. P192 C. P288 B. P240 D. P300 52.Silver Company has a standard of 15 parts of Component R costing P1.50 each. Silver purchased 14,910 units of R for P22,145. Silver generated a P220 favorable price variance and a P3,735 favorable usage variance. If there were no changes in the component of inventory, how many units of finished product were produced? A. 994 units C. 1,725 units B. 1,160 units D. 828 units 53.The standard usage for raw materials is 5 pounds at P40.00 per pound. Cave Company spent P131,200 in purchasing 3,200 pounds. Cave used 3,150 pounds to produce 600 units of finished product. The material quantity variance is A. P6,000 unfavorable C. P5,200 unfavorable B. P3,200 unfavorable D. P2,000 unfavorable 54.Ramie has a standard price of P5.50 per pound for materials. Julys results showed an unfavorable material price variance of P44 and a favorable quantity variance of P209. If 1,066 pounds were used in production, what was the standard quantity allowed for materials? A. 1,104 C. 1,074 May 2005

Direct Labor Variance 55.Anne had a P750 unfavorable direct labor rate variance and an P800 favorable efficiency variance. Anne paid P7,150 for 800 hours of labor. What was the standard direct labor wage rate? A. P8.94 C. P7.94 B. P8.00 D. P7.80 56.The flexible budget for the month of May 2002 was for 9,000 units with direct material at P15 per unit. Direct labor was budgeted at 45 minutes per unit for a total of P81,000. Actual output for the month was 8,500 units with P127,500 in direct material and P77,775 in direct labor expense. Direct labor hours of 6,375 were actually worked during the month. Variance analysis of the performance for the month of May would show a(n) A. favorable material quantity variance of P7,500 B. unfavorable direct labor efficiency variance of P1,275 C. unfavorable material quantity variance of P7,500 D. unfavorable direct labor rate variance of P1,275

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Two-Way Overhead Variances 57.Karla Company uses an annual cost formula for overhead of P72,000 + P1.60 for each direct labor hour worked. For the upcoming month Karla plans to manufacture 96,000 units. Each unit requires five minutes of direct labor. Karlas budgeted overhead for the month is A. P12,800 C. P84,800 B. P18,800 D. P774,000 58.If actual overhead is P14,000, overhead applied is P13,400, and overhead budgeted for the standard hours allowed is P15,600, then the overhead controllable variance is A. P600F C. P1,600F B. P2,200U D. P1,600U 59.Universal Company uses a standard cost system and following budget at normal capacity for January Direct labor hours Variable factory OH Fixed factory OH Total factory OH per DLH Actual data for January were as follows: Direct labor hours worked Total factory OH Standard DLHs allowed for capacity attained Using the two-way analysis of overhead variance, controllable variance for January? A. P3,000 F C. P9,000 F B. P5,000 F D. P10,500 U prepared the 24,000 P48,000 P108,000 P6.50 22,000 P147,000 21,000 what is the

The budget (controllable) variance for June is A. P1,000 favorable C. P6,000 favorable B. P1,000 unfavorable D. P6,000 unfavorable 61.South Company has total budgeted fixed costs of P75,000, Actual production of 19,500 units resulted in a P3,000 favorable volume variance. What normal capacity was used to determine the fixed overhead rate? A. 16,500 C. 20,313 B. 18,750 D. 20,325 62.CTV Company has a standard fixed cost of P6 per unit. At an actual production of 8,000 units a favorable volume variance of P12,000 resulted. What were total budgeted fixed costs? A. P36,000 C. P60,000 B. P48,000 D. P75,000 63.The Pinatubo Company makes and sells a single product and uses standard costing. During January, the company actually used 8,700 direct labor-hours (DLHs) and produced 3,000 units of product. The standard cost card for one unit of product includes the following: Variable factory overhead: 3.0 DLHs @ P4.00 per DLH. Fixed factory overhead: 3.0 DLHs @ P3.50 per DLH For January, the company incurred P22,000 of actual fixed overhead costs and recorded a P875 favorable volume variance. The budgeted fixed overhead cost for January is A. P31,500 C. P32,375 B. P30,625 D. P33,250 Questions 64 & 65 are based on the following information. Lucky Company sets the following standards for 2003: Direct labor cost (2 DLH @ P4.50) P 9.00 Manufacturing overhead (2 DLH @ P7.50) 15.00 Lucky Company plans to produce its only product equally each month. The annual budget for overhead costs are: Fixed overhead P150,000 Variable overhead 300,000 Page 14 of 46

60.The Terrain Company has a standard absorption and flexible budgeting system and uses a two-way analysis of overhead variances. Selected data for the June production activity are: Budgeted fixed factory overhead costs P 64,000 Actual factory overhead 230,000 Variable factory overhead rater per DLH P 5 Standard DLH 32,000 Actual DLH 32,000 May 2005

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Normal activity in direct labor hours 60,000 In March, Lucky Company produced 2,450 units with actual direct labor hours used of 5,050. Actual overhead costs for the month amounted to P37,245 (Fixed overhead is as budgeted.) 64.The amount of overhead volume variance for Lucky Company is A. P250 unfavorable C. P750 Unfavorable B. P500 unfavorable D. P375 Unfavorable 65.Using the preceding data for Lucky Company, the controllable overhead variance was A. P505 favorable C. P245 favorable B. P505 unfavorable D. P245 unfavorable Three-Way Overhead Variances 66.Arlene had an P18,000 unfavorable volume variance, a P25,000 unfavorable variable overhead spending variance, and P2,000 total under applied overhead. The fixed overhead budget variance is A. P41,000 favorable C. P41,000 Unfavorable B. P45,000 favorable D. P45,000 Unfavorable Four-Way Overhead Variances 67.Franklin Glass Works production budget for the year ended November 30, 2001 was based on 200,000 units. Each unit requires two standard hours of labor for completion. Total overhead was budgeted at P900,000 for the year, and the fixed overhead rate was estimated to be P3.00 per unit. Both fixed and variable overhead are assigned to the product on the basis of direct labor hours. The actual data for the year ended November 30, 2001 are presented below. Actual production in units 198,000 Actual direct labor hours 440,000 Actual variable overhead P 352,000 Actual fixed overhead P 575,000 Franklins variable overhead efficiency variance for the year ended November 30, 2001 is A. P33,000 unfavorable C. P66,000 unfavorable B. P35,520 favorable D. P33,000 favorable May 2005

68.The Virgin Island Company has standard variable costs as follows: Materials, 3 pounds at P4.00 per pound P12.00 Labor, 2 hours P10.00 per hour 20.00 Variable overhead, P7.50 per labor hour 15.00 Total P47.00 During September, Virgin Island produced 6,000 units, using 11,560 labor hours at a total wage of P113,870 and incurring P88,600 in variable overhead. The variable overhead variances are: A. B. C. D. Spendin P1,900 P1,900 P1,400 P1,400 g favorable unfavorable favorable unfavorable Efficienc P3,300 P3,300 P1,900 P1,900 y unfavorable favorable favorable favorable 69.Fixed manufacturing overhead was budgeted at P500,000 and 25,000 direct labor hours were budgeted. If the fixed overhead volume variance was P12,000 favorable and the fixed overhead spending variance was P16,000 unfavorable, fixed manufacturing overhead applied must be A. P516,000 C. P504,000 B. P512,000 D. P496,000 70.Mulvey Company derived the following cost relationship from a regression analysis of its monthly manufacturing overhead cost: C = P80,000 + P12M Where C = monthly manufacturing overhead cost M = machine hours The standard error of the estimate of the regression is P6,000. The standard time required to manufacture one six-unit case of Mulveys single product is 4 machine hours. Mulvey applies manufacturing overhead to production on the basis of machine hours and its normal annual production is 50,000 cases. Mulveys estimated variable manufacturing overhead cost for a month in which scheduled production is 5,000 cases would be A. P80,000 C. P240,000 B. P320,000 D. P360,000 Page 15 of 46

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Questions 71 thru 73 are based on the following information. The Lustre Company produces its only product, Kool Chewing Gum. The standard overhead cost for one pack of the product follows: Fixed overhead (1.50 hours at P18.00) P27.00 Variable overhead (1.50 hours at P10.00) 15.00 Total application rate P42.00 Lustre uses expected volume of 20,000 units. During the year, Lustre used 31,500 direct labor hours for the production of 20,000 units. Actual overhead costs were P545,000 fixed and P308,700 variable. 71.The amount of variable overhead spending variance is A. P6,300 Favorable C. P6,300 Unfavorable B. P 8,700 Favorable D. P8,700 Unfavorable 72.The total overhead controllable variance is A. P13,700 Favorable C. P13,700 Unfavorable B. P 8,700 Favorable D. P 8, 700 Unfavorable

73.The overhead efficiency variance is A. P22,500 Favorable C. P22,500 Unfavorable B. P15,000 Favorable D. P15,000 Unfavorable Gross Profit Variance Analysis 74.Vicki Division operates as a revenue center and sells only one product. Data for May 2000 are as follows: Actual Expected Sales in units 10,000 9,500 Selling price per unit P11 P10 Variable expense P 6 per unit

What are the price variance and price volume variance?


Sales Variance Price Variance Price Volume A. P10,000 F P 5,000 F B. P 5,000 F P10,000 U C. P 5,000 U P10,000 F D. P10,000 U P 5,000 U

RESPONSIBILITY ACCOUNTING & TRANSFER PRICING Basic Concepts 75.Controllable costs are costs that A. are likely to respond to the amount of attention devoted to them by a specified manager. B. are governed mainly by past decisions that established the present levels of operating and organizational capacity and that only change slowly in response to small changes in capacity. C. will be unaffected by current managerial decisions. D. fluctuate in total in response to small change in the rate of utilization of capacity. 76.Which of the following does not apply to the content of managerial reports? A. Reporting standard is relevant to the decision to be made. B. May extend beyond double-entry accounting system. C. Pertain to subunits of the entity and may be very detailed. D. Pertains to the entity as a whole and is highly aggregated.* May 2005 Page 16 of 46

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Return on Investment 77.If the investment turnover decreased by 10 percent and ROS decreased by 30 percent, the ROI would A. increase by 30% C. decrease by 37% B. decrease by 10% D. decrease by 33.3% 78.Return on investment (ROI) is a term often used to express income earned on capital invested in a business unit. A companys ROI would be increased if sales A. increased by the same peso amount as expenses and total assets increased. B. remained the same and expenses were reduced by the same peso amount that total asset increased. C. decreased by the same peso amount that expenses increased. D. and expenses increased by the same percentage that total assets increased. 79.If the investment turnover increased by 30% and ROS decreased by 20%, the ROI would A. increase by 4% C. increase by 30% B. increase by 6% D. decrease by 50% Residual Income 80.Jar Division of Handy, Inc. expects the following result for 2004: Unit sales 70,000 Unit selling price P 10 Unit variable cost P 4 Total fixed costs P300,000 Total investment P500,000 The minimum required ROI is 15 percent, and divisions are evaluated on residual income. A foreign customer has approached Jars manager with an offer to buy 10,000 units at P7 each. If Jar accepts the order, it would not lose any of the 70,000 units at the regular price. Accepting the order would increase fixed costs by P10,000 and investment by P40,000. May 2005

What is the minimum price that Jar could accept for the order and still maintain its expected residual income? A. P5.00 C. P4.75 B. P5.60 D. P9.00 Return on Investment & Residual Income 81.Scotch Co. has the following results for the year: Sales P740,000 Variable expenses 260,000 Fixed expenses 300,000 Total divisional assets average P1,000,000. The companys minimum required rate of return is 14 percent. The residual income and return on investment for Scotch are: A. B. C. D. Residual Income P36,000 P40,000 P36,000 P40,000 Return on 36% 18% 18% 36% Investment

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82.The following information relates to two projects of Rica Corporation. Project A Project B Operating income P2,500,000 P600,000 Residual income P 500,000 P200,000 ROI 10% 12% Return on residual 2% 4% investment A bonus of P50,000 will be paid to the manager whose project contributed most to the overall performance of the firm. The P50,000 bonus should go to the manager of A. project A because the residual income is higher B. project B because the return on investment is higher C. project A because it was a larger, more complex project D. project B because the return on residual investment is higher* Transfer Pricing 83.An appropriate transfer price between two divisions of the Star Corporation can be determined from the following data: Fabrication Division Market price of P50 subassembly Variable cost of P20 subassembly Excess capacity (in units) 1,000 Assembling Division Number of units needed 900 What is the natural bargaining range for the two divisions? A. Between P20 and P50 C. Any amount less than P50 B. Between P50 and P70 D. 50 is the only acceptable price PRODUCT PRICING 84.In a cost-based pricing system the markup should cover I. Selling and administrative expenses II. Desired profit III. Manufacturing cost A. I, II, and III C. I and III only B. I and II only D. II and III only May 2005 Page 18 of 46

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RELEVANT COSTING Basic Concepts 85.The potential benefit that may be obtained from following an alternative course of action is called A. opportunity benefit C. relevant cost B. opportunity cost D. sunk cost 86.Opportunity costs: A. Are treated as period costs under variable costing. B. Have already been incurred as a result of past action. C. Are benefits that could have been obtained by following another course of action. D. Do not vary among alternative courses of action. 87.The Auto Division of Fly Insurance employs three claims processors capable of processing 5,000 claims each. The division currently processes 12,000 claims. The manager has recently been approached by two sister divisions. Division A would like the auto division to process approximately 2,000 claims. Division B would like the auto division to process approximately 5,000 claims. The Auto Division would be compensated Division A or Division B for processing these claims. Assume that these are mutually exclusive alternatives. Claims processor salary cost is relevant for A. division A alternative only B. division B alternative only C. both Division A and Division B alternatives D. neither Division A nor Division B alternatives Sell as is or Process-Further 88.Ottawa Corporation produces two products from a joint process. Information about the two joint products follows: Product Product X Y Anticipated production 2,000 4,000 lbs lbs Selling price per lb. at split-off P30 P16 Additional processing costs/lb after splitP15 P30 May 2005

off (all variable) Selling price/lb after further processing P40 P50 The cost of the joint process is P85,000. Ottawa currently sells both products at the split-off point. If Ottawa makes decisions which maximizes profit, Ottawas profit will increase by A. P16,000 C. P50,000 B. P4,000 D. P10,000

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Obsolete Inventories 89.The cost to manufacture an unfinished unit is P40 (P30 variable and P10 fixed). The selling price per unit is P50. The company has unused production capacity and has determined that units could be finished and sold for P65 with an increase in variable costs of 40%. What is the additional net income per unit to be gained by finishing the unit? A. P3 C. P15 B. P10 D. P12 Profit Maximization 90.Fe Company has only 25,000 hours of machine time each month to manufacture its two products. Product X has a contribution margin of P50 and Product Y has a contribution margin of P64. Product X requires 5 machine hours and Product Y, 8 hours. If Fe wants to dedicate 80% of its machine time to the product that will provide the most income, Fe will have a total monthly contribution margin of A. P250,000 C. P210,000 B. P240,000 D. P200,000 91.Geary Manufacturing has assembled the following data pertaining to two popular products. Blender Electric mixer Direct materials P 6 P11 Direct labor 4 9 Factory overhead @ P16 16 32 per hour Cost if purchased from 20 38 an outside supplier Annual demand (units) 20,000 28,000 Past experience has shown that the fixed manufacturing overhead component included in the cost per machine hour averages P10. Geary has a policy of filling all sales orders, even if it means purchasing units from outside suppliers. If 50,000 machine hours are available, and Geary Manufacturing desires to follow an optimal strategy, it should produce A. 25,000 electric mixers, and purchase all other units as needed May 2005

B. 20,000 blenders and 15,000 electric mixers, and purchase all other units as needed C. 20,000 blenders and purchase all other units as needed D. 28,000 electric mixers and purchase all other units as needed

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92.

ABC Electronics has the following standard costs and other data: Part Beta Part Zeta Direct materials P 4.00 P80.00 Direct labor 10.00 47.00 Factory overhead 40.00 20.00 Unit standard cost P54.00 P147.00 Units needed per year 6,000 8,000 Machine hours per unit 4 2 Unit cost if purchased P50 P150.00 In past years, ABC has manufactured all of its required components; however, this year only 30,000 hours of otherwise idle machine time can be devoted to the production of components. Accordingly, some of the parts must be purchased from outside suppliers. In producing parts, factory overhead is applied at P10 per standard machine hour. Fixed capacity costs that will not be affected by any make-or-buy decision represent 60% of the applied overhead. The 30,000 hours available machine time are to be scheduled so that ABC realizes maximum potential cost savings. The relevant unit production costs that should be considered in the decision to schedule machine time are: A. P54.00 for Beta and P147.00 for Zeta C. P14.00 for Beta and P127.00 for Zeta B. P50.00 for Beta and P150.00 for Zeta D. P30.00 for Beta and P135.00 for Zeta

The sales manager has had a P160,000 increase in the budget allotment for advertising and wants to apply the money to the most profitable product. The products are not substitutes for one another in the eyes of the companys customers. The manager may devote the entire P160,000 to increased advertising for either XY-7 or BD-4. 93.The minimum increase in peso sales of either XY-7 or BD-4 required to offset the increased advertising is A. B. C. D. XY-7 P160,000 P640,000 P 80,000 P 80,000 BD-4 P320,000 P960,000 P960,000 P320,000

Questions 93 & 94 are based on the following information. Brynles Manufacturing Company produces two products for which the following data have been tabulated. Fixed manufacturing cost is applied at a rate of P1.00 per machine hour. Per Unit XY-7 BD-4 Selling price P4.00 P3.00 Variable manufacturing P2.00 P1.50 cost Fixed manufacturing P0.75 P0.20 cost Variable selling cost P1.00 P1.00 May 2005 Page 21 of 46

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94.Suppose Brynles has only 100,000 machine hours that can be made available to produce additional units of XY-7 and BD-4. If the potential increase in sales units for either product resulting from advertising is far in excess of this production capacity, which product should be advertised and what is the estimated increase in contribution margin earned? A. Product XY-7 should be produced, yielding a contribution margin of P75,000. B. Product XY-7 should be produced, yielding a contribution margin of P133,333. C. Product BD-4 should be produced, yielding a contribution margin of P187,500. D. Product BD-4 should be produced, yielding a contribution margin of P250,000. Special Order 95.An opportunity cost commonly associated with a special order is A. the contribution margin on lost sales B. the variable costs of the order C. additional fixed related to the increased output D. any of the above 96.Jap Companys unit cost of manufacturing and selling a given item at an activity level of 10,000 units per month are: Manufacturing costs Direct materials P39 Direct labor 6 Variable overhead 8 Fixed overhead 9 Selling expenses Variable 30 Fixed 11 The company desires to seek an order for 5,000 units from a foreign customer. The variable selling expenses will be reduced by 40%, but the fixed costs for obtaining the order will be P20,000. Domestic sales will not be affected by the order. May 2005

The minimum break-even price per unit to be considered on this special sale is A. P71 C. P69 B. P75 D. P84

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Make or Buy 97.For the past 12 years, the Blue Company has produced the small electric motors that fit into its main product line of dental drilling equipment. As material costs have steadily increased, the controller of the Blue Company is reviewing the decision to continue to make the small motors and has identified the following facts: 1. The equipment used to manufacture the electric motors has a book value of P150,000. 2. The space now occupied by the electric motor manufacturing department could be used to eliminate the need for storage space now being rented. 3. Comparable units can be purchased from an outside supplier for P59.75. 4. Four of the persons who work in the electric motor manufacturing department would be terminated and given eight weeks severance pay. 5. A P10,000 unsecured note is still outstanding on the equipment used in the manufacturing process. Which of the items above are relevant to the decision that the controller has to make? A. 1, 3, and 4 C. 2, 3, 4, and 5 B. 2, 3, and 4 D. 1, 2, 4, and 5 98.Buena Corporation operates a plant with a productive capacity to manufacture 10,000 units of its product a year. The following information pertains to the production costs at capacity: Variable costs P 80,000 Fixed costs 120,000 Total costs P200,000 A supplier has offered to sell 8,000 units to Buena annually. Assume no change in the fixed costs. What is the price per unit that makes Buena indifferent between the Make and Buy options? A. P8 C. P20 B. P12 D. P10 99.Elly Industries is a multi-product company that currently manufactures 30,000 units of Part MR24 each month for use in May 2005

production. The facilities now being used to produce Part MR24 have a fixed monthly costs of P150,000 and a capacity to produce 84,000 units per month. If Elly were to buy Part MR24 from an outsiDe supplier, the facilities would be idle, but its fixed costs would continue at 40 percent of their present amount. The variable production costs of Part MR24 are P11 per unit. If Elly Industries is able to obtain Part MR24 each month, it would realize a net benefit by purchasing Part MR24 from an outside supplier only if the suppliers unit price is less than A. P14.00 C. P16.00 B. P11.00 D. P13.00

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100. Below are a companys monthly unit costs to manufacture and market a particular product. Manufacturing Costs: Direct materials P2.00 Direct labor 2.40 Variable indirect 1.60 Fixed indirect 1.00 Marketing Costs: Variable 3.00 Fixed 1.50 The company must decide to continue making the product or buy it from an outside supplier. The supplier has offered to make the product at the same level of quality that the company can make it. Fixed marketing costs would be unaffected, but variable marketing costs would be reduced by 30% if the company were to accept the proposal. What is the maximum amount per unit that the company can pay the supplier without decreasing its operating income? A. P8.50 C. P7.75 B. P6.75 D. P6.90 101. Cable Company produces 1,000 units of Part W per month. The total manufacturing costs of the part are as follows: Direct materials P10,000 Direct labor 5,000 Variable overhead 5,000 Fixed overhead 30,000 Total manufacturing costs P50,000 An outside supplier has offered to supply the part at P30 per unit. It is estimated that 20% of the fixed overhead assigned to Part W will no longer be incurred if the company purchases the part from the outside supplier. If Cable Company purchases 1,000 units of Part W from the outside supplier per month, then its monthly operating income will A. decrease by P4,000 C. decrease by P20,000 B. increase by P1,000 D. increase by P20,000

102. The Rural Cooperative, Inc. produces 1,000 units of Part M per month. The total manufacturing costs of the part are as follows: Direct materials P10,000 Direct labor 5,000 Variable overhead 5,000 Fixed overhead 30,000 Total manufacturing cost P50,000 An outside supplier has offered to supply the part at P30 per unit. It is estimated that 20% of the fixed overhead assigned to Part M will no longer be incurred if the company purchases the part from the outside supplier. If Rural Cooperative purchases 1,000 units of Part M from the outside supplier per month, then its monthly operating income will A. decrease by P4,000 C. decrease by P20,000 B. increase by P1,000 D. increase by P20,000 Keep or Drop 103. Indicate which of the following costs would be avoided if a segment is eliminated. 1. variable manufacturing costs 2. direct fixed costs 3. common fixed costs 4. variable selling costs 5. direct fixed selling costs 6. common fixed selling costs A. 2, 3, 5, 6 C. B. 1, 2, 4, 5* D. 1, 2, 3, 4, 54, 5, 6 104. BEA Industries produces two products. products is as follows: Item 38B Units produced and 1,000 sold Selling price per unit P 25 Variable expenses P 15 per unit Information about the Item 40F 4,000 P 20 P 12

May 2005

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The companys fixed costs totaled P40,000, of which P8,000 can be avoided if Item 38B is dropped and P25,000 can be avoided if Item 40F is dropped. Product margin for Item 40F is A. P3,200 C. P(2,000) B. P7,000 D. P10,000 Shut Down Point 105. Bulusan Company normally produces and sells 30,000 units of E14 each month. E14 is a small electrical relay used in the automotive industry as a component part in various products. The selling price is P22 per unit, variable costs are P14 per unit, fixed manufacturing overhead costs total P150,000 per month, and fixed selling costs total P30,000 per month. Employment-contract strikes in the companies that purchase the bulk of the E14 have caused Bulusan Companys sales to temporarily drop to only 9,000 units per month. Bulusan Company estimates that the strikes will last for about two months, after which time sales of E14 should return to normal. Due to the current low level of sales, however, Bulusan Company is thinking about closing down its own plant during the two months that the strikes are on. If Bulusan Company does close down its plant, it is estimated that fixed manufacturing overhead costs can be reduced to P105,000 per month and that fixed selling costs can be reduced by 10%. Start-up costs at the end of the shutdown period would total P8,000. Since Bulusan Company uses just-in-time production method, no inventories are on hand. At what level of unit sales for the two-month period should Bulusan Company be indifferent between closing the plant or keeping it open? A. 11,000 C. 10,000 B. 24,125 D. 8,000 CAPITAL BUDGETING Basic Concepts 106. If Sol Company expects to get a one-year loan to help cover the initial financing of capital project, the analysis of the project should May 2005

A. offset the loan against any investment in inventory or receivable required by the project B. show the loan as an increase in the investment C. show the loan as a cash outflow in the second year of the projects life D. ignore the loan 107. When compared Net Present Value method to Internal Rate of Return in terms of reinvestment of cash flows, NPV is better than IRR. What are the reinvestment rate for each method? Net Present Value method Internal Rate of Return method A. Discount Rate Discount Rate B. Discount Rate IRR C. IRR IRR D. IRR Discount Rate Accounting Rate of Return 108. Tamaraw Company is negotiating to purchase equipment that would cost P200,000, with the expectation that P40,000 per year could be saved in after-tax cash costs if the equipment were acquired. The equipments estimated useful life is 10 years, with no salvage value, and would be depreciated by the straight-line method. Tamaraws minimum desired rate of return is 12 percent. Present value of an annuity of 1 at 12 percent for 10 periods is 5.65. Present value of 1 due in 10 periods at 12 percent is 0.322. The average accrual accounting rate of return during the first year of assets use is A. 20.0 percent C. 10.0 percent B. 10.5 percent D. 40.0 percent 109. The Fields Company is planning to purchase a new machine which it will depreciate, for book purposes, on a straight-line basis over a ten-year period with no salvage value and a full years depreciation taken in the year of acquisition. The new machine is expected to produce cash flow from operations, net of income taxes, of P66,000 a year in each of the next ten years. The accounting (book value) rate Page 25 of 46

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of return on the initial investment is expected to be 12%. How much will the new machine cost? A. P300,000 C. P660,000 B. P550,000 D. P792,000 110. Green Meadows Foundation (GMF), a tax-exempt organization, invested P200,000 in a five-year project at the beginning of the year. GMF estimates that the annual cash savings from this project will amount to P65,000. Tax and book depreciation on the project will be P40,000 per year for five years. On investments of this type, GMFs desired rate of return is 12%. Information on present value factors is as follows: At 12% At At 14% 16% Present value of P1 for 5 periods 0.57 0.52 0.48 Present value of an annuity of 1 3.6 3.4 3.3 for 5 periods For the projects first year, GMFs accounting rate of return, based on the projects average book value would be A. 14.4% C. 12.5% B. 13.9% D. 12.0% Payback Period 111. The payback method assumes that all cash inflows are reinvested to yield a return equal to A. zero C. the Time-Adjusted-Rate-ofReturn B. the Discount Rate D. the Cost-of-Capital Bailout Period 112. A project costing P1,800,000 is expected to produce the following annual cash flows (after tax) and salvage value: Year Net cash inflow Salvage value 1 500,000 800,000 2 500,000 600,000 3 600,000 500,000 4 800,000 400,000 May 2005

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MANAGEMENT ADVISORY SERVICES What is the bailout period for the project? A. 3.25 yrs. C. 2.73 yrs B. 2.5 yrs D. 2.4 yrs.

CPA Review School of the Philippines Second year Third year Fourth year Fifth year

Preweek Quizzer 120,000 90,000 60,000 30,000

Net Present Value 113. Panama Insurance Companys management is considering an advertising program that would require an initial expenditure of P165,500 and bring in additional sales over the next five years. The cost of advertising is immediately recognized as expense. The projected additional sales revenue in Year 1 is P75,000, with associated expenses of P25,000. The additional sales revenue and expenses from the advertising program are projected to increase by 10 percent each year. Panama Insurance Companys tax rate is 40 percent. The present value of 1 at 10 percent, end of each period: Periods Present value Factory 1 0.90909 2 0.82645 3 0.75131 4 0.68301 5 0.62092 The net present value of the advertising program would be A. P37,064 C. P(37,064) B. P29,136 D. P(29,136) 114. For P450,000, Roxas Corporation purchased a new machine with an estimated useful life of five years with no salvage value. The machine is expected to produce cash flow from operations, net of 40 percent income taxes, as follows: First year P160,000 Second year 140,000 Third year 180,000 Fourth year 120,000 Fifth year 100,000 Roxas will use the sum-of-the-years-digits method to depreciate the new machine as follows: First year P150,000 May 2005 Page 27 of 46

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The present value of 1 for 5 periods at 12 percent is 3.60478. The present values of 1 at 12 percent at end of each period are: End of: Period 1 0.8928, Period 2 - 0.79719, Period 3 0.71178, Period 4 - 0.63552, Period 5 - 0.56743 Had Roxas used straight-line method of depreciation, what is the difference in net present value provided by the machine at a discount rate of 12 percent? A. Increase of P9,750 C. Decrease of P24,376 B. Decrease of P9,750 D. Increase of P24,376 Profitability Index 115. A project has a NPV of P15,000 when the cutoff rate is 10%. The annual cash flows are P20,505 on an investment of P50,000. the profitability index for this project is A. 1.367 C. 2.438 B. 3.333 D. 1.300 Internal Rate of Return 116. Hilltop Company is planning to invest P80,000 in a three-year project. Hilltops expected rate of return is 10%. The present value of P1 at 10% for one year is .909, for years is .826, and for three years is .751. The cash flow, net of income taxes, will be P30,000 for the first year (present value of P27,270) and P36,000 for the second year (present value of P29,736). Assuming the rate of return is exactly 10%, what will the cash flow, net of income taxes, be for the third year? A. P17,268 C. P22,994 B. P22,000 D. P30, 618 117. Care Products Company is considering a new product that will sell for P100 and have a variable cost of P60. Expected volume is 20,000 units. New equipment costing P1,500 and having a five-year useful life and no salvage value is needed, and will be depreciated using the straight-line method. The machine has cash operating costs of P20,000 per year. The firm is in the 40 percent tax bracket and has cost of capital of 12 percent. The present value of 1, end of five May 2005

periods is 0.56743; present value of annuity of 1 for 5 periods is 3.60478. Suppose the 20,000 estimated volume is sound, but the price is in doubt. What is the selling price (rounded to nearest peso) needed to earn a 12 percent internal rate of return? A. P81.00 C. P70.00 B. P85.00 D. P90.00

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CPA Review School of the Philippines 121. A. B. C. D.

Preweek Quizzer

118. Payback Company is considering the purchase of a copier machine for P42,825. The copier machine will be expected to be economically productive for 4 years. The salvage value at the end of 4 years is negligible. The machine is expected to provide 15 percent internal rate of return. The company is subject to 40 percent income tax rate. The present value of an ordinary annuity of 1 for 4 periods is 2.85498. In order to realize the IRR of 15 percent, how much is the estimated before-tax cash inflow to be provided by the machine? A. P17,860 C. P25,000 B. P15,000 D. P35,700 Equipment Replacement 119. A company is considering replacing a machine with one that will save P40,000 per year in cash operating costs and have P10,000 more depreciation expenses per year than the existing machine. The tax rate is 40%. Buying the new machine will increase annual net cash flows of the company by A. P28,000 C. P18,0000 B. P24,000 D. P6,000 120. Maxwell Company has an opportunity to acquire a new machine to replace one of its present machines. The new machine would cost P90,000, have a five-year life, and no estimated salvage value. Variable operating costs would be P100,000 per year. The present machine has a book value of P50,000 and a remaining life of five years. Its disposal value now is P5,000, but it would be zero after five years. Variable operating costs would be P125,000 per year. Ignore present value calculations and income taxes. Considering the five years in total, what would be the difference in profit before income taxes by acquiring the new machine as opposed to retaining the present one? A. P10,000 decrease C. P35,000 increase B. P15,000 decrease D. P40,000 increase Investment Decision May 2005

The NPV and IRR methods give the same decision (accept or reject) for any single investment the same choice from among mutually exclusive investments different rankings of projects with unequal lives the same rankings of projects with different required investments

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Preweek Quizzer

122. In choosing from among mutually exclusive investments the manager should normally select the one with the highest A. NPV C. payback reciprocal B. IRR D. book rate of return 123. Why do the NPV method and the IRR method sometimes produce different rankings of mutually exclusive investment projects? A. The NPV method does not assume reinvestment of cash flows while the IRR method assumes the cash flows will be reinvested at the internal rate of return. B. The NPV method assumes a reinvestment rate equal to the discount rate while the IRR method assumes a reinvestment rate equal to the internal rate of return.* C. The IRR method does not assume reinvestment of the cash flows while the NPV assumes the reinvestment rate is equal to the discount rate. D. The NPV method assumes a reinvestment rate equal to the bank loan interest rate while the IRR method assumes a reinvestment rate equal to the discount rate. 124. Investors, Inc. uses a 12% hurdle rate for and has done the following analysis for upcoming year: Project 1 Project 2 Initial cash outlay P200,000 P298,0 00 Annual net cash inflows Year 1 P 65,000 P100,0 00 Year 2 70,000 135,00 0 Year 3 80,000 90,000 Year 4 40,000 65,000 Net present value ( 3,798) 4,276 Profitability index 98% 101% May 2005 all capital expenditures four projects for the Project 3 P248,0 00 P 80,000 95,000 90,000 80,000 14,064 106% Project 4 P272,000

Internal rate of 11% 13% 14% 15% return Which project(s) should Investors, Inc. select during the upcoming year under each budgeted amount of funds? No Budget P600,000Available P300,000Available Restriction Funds Funds A. Projects 2,3, & 4 Projects 3 & 4 Project 3 B. Projects 1, 2, & 3 Projects 2, 3 & 4 Projects 3 & 4 C. Projects 1, 3, & 4 Projects 2 & 3 Project 2 D. Projects 3 & 4 Projects 2 & 4 Projects 2 & 4

P 95,000 125,000 90,000 60,000 14,662 105% Page 30 of 46

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Preweek Quizzer

Comprehensive 125. Which of the following combinations is possible? Profitability Index NPV IRR A. greater than 1 positive equals cost of capital B. greater than 1 negative less than cost of capital C. less than 1 negative less than cost of capital* D. less than 1 positive less than cost of capital MASTER BUDGET Basic Concepts 126. Zero-base budgeting requires managers to A justify expenditures that are increases over the prior periods budgeted amount. B. justify all expenditures, not just increases over last years amount. C. maintain a full-year budget intact at all times. D. maintain a budget with zero increases over the prior period. Production Budget 127. Isabelle, Industries plans to sell 200,000 units of Batik products in October and anticipates a growth in sales of 5 percent per month. The target ending inventory in units of the product is 80 percent of the next months estimated sales. There are 150,000 units in inventory as of the end of September. The production requirement in units of Batik for the quarter ending December 31 would be A. 670,560 C. 665,720 B. 691,525 D. 675,925 Cash Budget 128. The Mango Company is preparing its cash budget for the month of May. The following information is available concerning its accounts payable: Estimated credit sales for May P200,000 Actual credit sales for April 150,000 May 2005

Estimated collections in May for credit sales in May 20% Estimated collections in May for credit sales in April 70% Estimated collections in May for credit sales prior to AprilP12,000 Estimated write-offs in May for uncollectible credit sales 8.000 Estimated provision for bad debts in May for credit sales in May 7,000 What are the estimated cash receipts from accounts receivable collections in May? A. P142,000 C. P150,000 B. P149,000 D. P157,000

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CPA Review School of the Philippines

Preweek Quizzer

129. At the beginning of the current month, Rose had P100,000. Cash disbursements were P2,600,000 and cash collections were P2,850,000. Rose invests all excess cash in a money market fund and has a line of credit to cover cash deficiencies. If Rose wishes to start the next month with P150,000, Rose must A. invest P200,000 C. invest P350,000 B. borrow P400,000 D. do nothing FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS Horizontal Analysis 130. Sales for a three-year period are: Year 1, P4.0 million, Year 2, P4.6 million, and Year 3, P5.0 million. Using year 1 as the base year, the respective percentage increase in sales in year 2 and 3 are A. 115% and 125% C. 115% and 130% B. 115% and 109% D. 87% and 80% Solvency Ratio 131. A firms financial risk is a function of how it manages and maintains its debt. Which one of the following sets of ratios characterizes the firm with the greatest amount of financial risk? A. High debt-to-equity ratio, high interest coverage ratio, volatile return on equity B. High debt-to-equity ratio, high interest coverage ratio, stable return on equity C. Low debt-to-equity ratio, low interest coverage ratio, volatile return on equity D. High debt-to-equity ratio, low interest coverage ratio, volatile return on equity* 132. The ratio that measures a firms ability to generate earnings is A. times interest earned. C. days sales in receivables. B. sales to working capital. D. operating asset turnover. Other Ratio 133. Taylor company paid out one-half of its 2002 earnings in dividends. Taylors earnings increased by 20%, and the amount of May 2005

its dividends increased by 15% in 2003. Taylors dividend payout ratio for 2003 was A. 75.0% C. 47.9% B. 52.3% D. 41.7% 134. Glo expects sales for 2002 to be P2,000,000, resulting in a return on sales of 10%. The dividend payout rate is 60%. Beginning stockholders equity was P850,000 and current liabilities are projected to be P300,000 at the end of 2002.

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CPA Review School of the Philippines Return on equity (ROE) The Bryan Companys debt ratio is A. 40% C. 60% B. 35% D. 65%

Preweek Quizzer 5%

What are the total equities available if the ratio of long-term debt to stockholders equity is 60%? A. P1,788,000 C. P2,046,000 B. P1,980,000 D. P858,000 135. The following were reflected from the records of War Freak Company: Earnings before interest and taxes P1,250,000 Interest expense 250,000 Preferred dividends 200,000 Payout ratio 40 percent Shares outstanding throughout 2003 Preferred 20,000 Common 25,000 Income tax rate 40 percent Price earnings ratio 5 times The dividend yield ratio is A. 0.50 C. 0.12 B. 0.40 D. 0.08 Integrated Ratios 136. Selected data from Maui Companys year-end financial statements are presented below. The difference between average and ending inventory is immaterial. Current ratio 2.0 Quick ratio 1.5 Current liabilities P120,000 Inventory turnover (based on cost of sales) 8 times Gross profit margin 40% Mauis net sales for the year were A. P800,000 C. P672,000 B. P480,000 D. P1,200,000 137. Assume you are given the following relationships for the Bryan Company: Sales/total assets 1.5X Return on assets (ROA) 3% May 2005

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MANAGEMENT ADVISORY SERVICES 138.

CPA Review School of the Philippines Ratio Working Capital

Preweek Quizzer

The following data were obtained from the records of Trend, Inc.: Current ratio (at year end) 1.5 to 1 Inventory turnover based on sales and ending inventory15 times Inventory turnover based on cost of goods sold and ending inventory 10.5 times Gross margin for 2002 P315,000 What was Trend, Inc.s December 31, 2002 balance in the Inventory account? A. P138,000 C. P140,000 B. P 70,000 D. P135,000

None

Increase

Decrease

Increase

141. The days sales-in-receivable ratio will be understated if the company A. uses a natural business year for its accounting period* B. uses a calendar year for its accounting period C. uses average receivable in the ratio calculation D. has high sales at the end of the year

139. The board of directors of Contemporary Company was unhappy with the current return on common equity. Though the return on sales (profit margin) was impressively good at 12.5 percent, the asset turnover was only 0.75. The present debt ratio is 0.40. Atty. Tristan, the vice-president of corporate planning, presented a proposal as follows: Profit margin should be raised to 15 percent. The new capital structure will be revised by raising debt component. The asset turnover will be maintained at 0.75. The proposed adjustment is estimated to raise return on equity by 50 percent. What debt ratio did Atty. Tristan propose in order to raise the return on equity (ROE) to 150 percent of the present level? A. 0.52 C. 0.61 B. 0.68 D. 0.72 Sensitivity Analysis 140. Annette Company uses the direct write-off method to account for uncollectible accounts receivable. If the company subsequently collects an account receivable that was written off in a prior accounting period, the effect of the collection of the account receivable on Annettes current ratio and total working capital would be A. B. C. D. Current None Increase Decrease None May 2005 Page 34 of 46

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WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT Working Capital Policy 142. As a company becomes more conservative with respect to working capital policy, it would tend to have a(n) A. increase in the ratio of current liabilities to noncurrent liabilities. B. decrease in the operating cycle. C. decrease in the operating cycle. D. increase in the ratio of current assets to noncurrent liabilities.* 143. Wen Company follows and aggressive financing policy in its working capital management while Manong Corporation follows a conservative financing policy. Which one of the following statements is correct? A. Wen has low ratio of short-term debt to total debt while Manong has a high ratio of short-term debt to total debt. B. Wen has a low current ratio while Manong has a high current ratio C. Wen has less liquidity risk while Manong has more liquidity risk. D. Wen finances short-term assets with long-term debt while Manong finances short-term assets with short-term debt. Cash Management 144. Gear Inc., has a total annual cash requirement of P14,700,000 which are to be paid uniformly. Gear has the opportunity to invest the money at 24% per annum. The company spends, on the average, P40 for every cash conversion to marketable securities. What is the optimal cash conversion size? A. P60,000 C. P80,000 B. P62,500 D. P70,000 145. The Alabang Company has a daily average collection of checks of P250,000. It takes the company 4 days to convert the checks to cash. Assume a lockbox system could be employed which would reduce the cash conversion period to 3 days. The lockbox system would have a net cost of P25,000 per year, but any additional funds made available could be invested to net 8 percent per year. Should Alabang adopt the lockbox system? A. Yes; the system would free P250,000 in funds May 2005

B. Yes; the benefits of the lock-box system exceed the costs. C. No; the benefit is only P10,000. D. No; the firm would lose P5,000 per year if the system were used.

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CPA Review School of the Philippines

Preweek Quizzer

Receivables Management 146. It is held that the level of accounts receivable that a firm has or holds reflects both the volume of a firms sales on account and a firms credit policies. Which one of the following items is not considered as part of a firms credit policy? A. The maximum risk group to which credit should be extended. B. The extent (in terms of money) to which a firm will go to collect an account. C. The length of time for which credit is extended. D. The size of the discount that will be offered. 147. Relax Companys budgeted sales for the coming year are P40,500,000 of which 80% are expected to be credit sales at terms of n/30. Relax estimates that a proposed relaxation of credit standards will increase credit sales by 20% and increase the average collection period from 30 days to 40 days. Based on a 360-day year, the proposed relaxation of credit to standards will result in an expected increase in the average accounts receivable balance of A. P540,000 C. P900,000 B. P2,700,000 D. P1,620,000 148. Matang-Lawins budgeted sales for the coming year are P48,000,000, of which 80% are expected to be credit sales at a terms of n/30. Matang-Lawin estimates that a proposed relaxation of credit standards would increase credit sales by 30 percent and increase the average collection period from 30 days to 45 days. Based on a 360day year, the proposed relaxation of credit standards would result in an expected increase in the accounts receivable balance of A. P3,440,000 C. P3,040,000 B. P1,440,000 D. P960,000 149. Lipa company currently has annual sales of P2,000,000. Its average collection period is 40 days, and bad debts are 5 percent of sales. The credit and collection manager is considering instituting a stricter collection policy, whereby bad debts would be reduced to 2 percent of total sales, and the average collection period would fall to 30 days. However, sales would also fall by an estimated P250,000 May 2005

annually. Variable costs are 60 percent of sales and the cost of carrying receivables is 12 percent. Assume a tax rate of 40 percent and 360 days per year. What would be the incremental investment in receivables if the change were made? A. P(16,667) C. P(48,611) B. P(27,167) D. P(45,833)

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Preweek Quizzer

Inventory Management 150. Which of the following items is irrelevant for a company that is attempting to minimize the cost of the stockout? A. Cost of placing an order C. Storage cost of inventory B. Contribution margin on lost sales D. Size of the safety stock 151. When a specified level of safety stock is carried for an item in inventory, the average inventory level for that item A. decreased by the amount of the safety stock. B. is one-half the level of the safety stock. C. increases by one-half the amount of the safety stock. D. increases by the amount of the safety stock. 152. Gleim Company, which manufactures a line of appliances, has an annual demand for its HD washing machine estimated at 7,500 units. The annual cost of carrying one unit of inventory is P200, and the cost to initiate a production run is P5,000.There are no HD washing machine on hand, and Gleim has scheduled 5 equal production runs of HD washing machines for the coming year. Gleim has 250 business days per year. Assume that sales occur uniformly throughout the year and that production is instantaneous.

The product is restocked at the start of each day. If the company desires a 90% service level in satisfying sales demand, the initial stock balance for each day should be A. 245 C. 315 B. 300 D. 220 154. Each stockout of a product sold by AFM Co. costs P1,750 per occurrence. The companys carrying cost per unit of inventory is P5 per year, and the company orders 1,500 units of product 20 times a year at a cost of P100 per order. The probability of a stockout at various levels of safety stock are: Units of Safety Stock Probability of Stockout 0 0.50 100 0.30 200 0.14 300 0.05 400 0.01 The optimal safety stock level for the company based on the units of safety stock level above is A. 0 units C. 300 units B. 100 units D. 400 units Trade Credit 155. If a retailers term of trade are 3/10, net 45 with supplier, what is the cost on an annual basis of not taking the discount? Assume a 360-day year. A. 24.00% C. 24.74% B. 37.11% D. 31.81% Short-term Loans 156. Alice Company borrows from a bank a certain loan at a stated discount rate of 12 percent per annum. The bank requires 10 percent of loan as compensating balance in its new checking account. The loan is payable at the end of 6 months. The effective interest rate of this loan is A. 28.21% C. 14.29% B. 27.27% D. 15.38% Page 37 of 46

If Gleim does not maintain a safety stock, the estimated total carrying costs and total set-up costs for the coming year are:
Carrying costs Set-up costs A. P150,000 P 25,000 B. P300,000 P 25,000 C. P150,000 P 5,000 D. P300,000 P 5,000

153. The sales office of Hermit Company has developed the following probability distribution for daily sales of a perishable product. X (Units Sold) P (Sales = X) 200 0.2 250 0.5 300 0.2 350 0.1 May 2005

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Preweek Quizzer

157. The Dean Company has an outstanding 1 year bank loan of P800,000 at a stated interest rate of 8%. In addition, Dean is required to maintain a 20% compensating balance in its checking account. Assuming Dean would normally maintain a zero balance in its checking account, the effective interest rate on the loan is A. 8.0% C. 11.11% B. 10.0% D. 6.4%

COST OF CAPITAL Cost of Debt 158. The Maru Companys bonds have 5 years remaining to maturity. Interest is paid annually; the bonds have a P1,000 face value; and the coupon interest rate is 9 percent. What is the estimated yield to maturity of the bonds at their current market price of P850? A. 10.64 percent C. 11.76 percent B. 11.00 percent (?) D. 10.00 percent Capital Asset Pricing Model 159. Spec, Inc.s stock is expected to generate a dividend and terminal value one year from now of P57.00. The stock has a beta of 1.3, the risk-free interest rate is 6 percent, and the expected return market return is 11 percent. What should the equilibrium price of Specs stock in the market now? A. P50.67 C. P53.77 B. P51.35 D. P43.84 Dividend Growth Model 160. Tiger Companys stock is currently selling for P60 a share. The firm is expected to earn P5.40 per share and to pay a year-end dividend of P3.60. If investors require a 9 percent return, what rate of growth must be expected for Tiger? A. Zero growth C. 40.0 percent B. 3.0 percent D. 50.0 percent Dividend Policy 161. Resi, Inc. expects net income of P800,000 for the next fiscal year. Its targeted and current capital structure is 40% debt and 60% common equity. The director of capital budgeting has determined that the optimal capital spending for next year is P1,200,000. If Resi follows a strict residual dividend policy, what is the expected dividend payout ratio for next year? A. 80.0% C. 40.0% B. 66.7% D. 10.0%

May 2005

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CPA Review School of the Philippines

Preweek Quizzer

162. Galvez Company expects next years after-tax income to be P7,500,000. The firms debt ratio is currently 40 percent. Galvez has P6,000,000 of profitable investment opportunities, and it wishes to maintain its existing debt ratio. According to the residual dividend policy, what is the expected dividend payout ratio next year? A. 52.0 percent C. 48.0 percent B. 75.0 percent D. 25.0 percent 163. Glenda Company expects to generate P10 million internally which could be available for financing part of its P12 million capital budget for this coming year. Glendas management believes that a debtequity ratio of 40 percent is best for the firm. How much should be paid in dividends if the target debt-equity ratio is to be maintained? A. P2,800,000 C. P8,571,429 B. P1,428,571 D. P4,000,000 QUANTITATIVE METHODS Probabilities 164. Express Co. is developing a silver mine at a cost of P5 million. There is a 20% probability that silver worth P15 million can be sold. There is a 20% probability that the silver will only be worth P500,000. What is the maximum Express would be willing to spend to develop the mine? A. P10,000,000 C. P3,100,000 B. P 5,000,000 D. P0 165. CTV Company has three sales departments. Department FA processes about 50 percent of CTVs sales, Department TA about 30 percent, and Department PA about 20 percent. In the past, Departments FA, TA, and PA had error rates of about 2 percent, 5 percent, and 2.5 percent, respectively. A random audit of the sales records yields a recording error of sufficient magnitude to distort the companys results. The probability that Department FA is responsible for this error is A. .50 C. .02 B. .33 D. .25 May 2005

166. A beverage stand can sell either soft drinks or coffee on any given day. If the stand sells soft drinks and the weather is hot, it will make P2,500; if the weather is cold, the profit will be P1,000. If the stand sells coffee and the weather is hot, it will make P1,900; if the weather is cold, the profit will be P2,000.The probability of cold weather on a given day at this time is 60%. The expected payoff for either selling coffee or soft drinks and the expected payoff if the vendor has perfect information are Coffee Soft drinks Perfect information A. P1,360 P1,600 P3,000 B. P1,960 P1,600 P2,200 C. P2,200 P1,900 P1,360 D. P3,900 P1,900 P1,960 Linear Programming 167. Anderson Co. manufactures two different products, A and B. The company has 100 pounds of raw materials and 300 direct labor hours available for production. The time requirement and contribution margins per unit are as follows: A B Raw materials per unit 1 2 (lbs) Direct labor hours per 4 2 unit Contribution margin per P4 P5 unit

The objective function for maximizing profits and the equation for the constrain on raw materials are:
A. B. C. D. Objective Function Max P1A + P2B Max P4A + P5B Max P4A + P2B Min P4A + P5B Constraint on raw materials 4A + 2B < 100 1A + 2B < 100 4A + 5B < 100 4A + 5B < 300

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CPA Review School of the Philippines

Preweek Quizzer

ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING 168. A cost system that first traces costs to activities and then traces cost from activities to products A. Job order cost system. C. Activity-based cost system. B. Process cost system. D. Flexible cost system. 169. The last step in activity-based costing is to A. identify the major activities that pertain to the manufacture of specific products B. allocate manufacturing overhead costs to activity cost pools C. identify the cost drivers that accurately measure each activitys contribution to the finished product D. assign manufacturing overhead costs for each activity cost pool to products 170. McMds standard cost card indicates that it takes three hours of direct labor to produce one unit of product. A recently conducted time and motion study revealed that it should take one hour to produce the same unit. Labor cost is P150 per hour. McMds value-added, and nonvalue-added costs would be A. P150 and P0 C. P150 and P300 B. P0 and P150 D. P450 and P0 171. Designing and redesigning are activities that are classified as A. facility level C. unit level B. batch level D. product level

172. A company that uses activity-based costing to develop standard costs A. will usually have more than one variable overhead component in its standard costs B. cannot compute variable overhead efficiency variances C. will have less information about the profitability of individual products D. all of the above 173. Classify the following as volume (unit) base or nonvolume (activity) base: 1. Number of purchase orders issued 2. Direct labor hours 3. Number of machine hours 4. Number of set ups 5. Number of receiving reports issued 6. Direct material cost Volume (Unit) Base Nonvolume (Activity) Base A. 1, 4, 5, 6 2, 3 B. 1, 4, 5 2, 3, 6 C. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 6 D. 2, 3, 6 1, 4, 5 174. The Oilfield plant has two categories of overhead: maintenance and inspection. Costs expected for these categories for the coming year are as follows: Maintenance P100,000 Inspection 150,000 The plant currently applies overhead using direct labor hours and expected capacity of 50,000 direct labor hours. The following data have been assembled for use in developing a bid for a proposed job: Direct materials P1,000 Direct labor P4,000 Machine hours 500 Number of inspections 4 Direct labor hours 800 Page 40 of 46

May 2005

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CPA Review School of the Philippines

Preweek Quizzer

Total expected machine hours for all jobs during the year is 25,000, and the total expected number of inspections is 1,500. Using activity-based costing and the appropriate activity drivers, the total cost of the potential job would be A. P2,400 C. P7,400 B. P3,600 D. P7,750 QUALITY COST 175. The cost of statistical quality control in a product quality cost system is A. training cost C. appraisal cost B. internal failure cost D. prevention cost INFORMATION SYSTEMS 176. The process of learning how the current system, functions, determining the needs of users, and developing the logical requirements of a proposed system is referred to as A. systems maintenance C. systems feasibility study B. systems analysis D. systems design 177. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a batch processing system? A. The collection of like transactions which are sorted and processed sequentially against a master file. B. Keypunching of transactions, followed by machine processing. C. The production of numerous printouts. D. The posting of a transaction, as it occurs, to several files without intermediate printouts. 178. All activity related to a particular is recorded in a journal. The name computerized system is a A. master file C. B. year-to-date file D. application in a manual system of the corresponding item in a transaction file current balance file

B. increase the secondary storage capacity. C. obtain software that will facilitate data retrieval. D. integrate the accounting system into the data base. 180. A system with several computers that are connected for communication and data transmission purposes but that permits each computer to process its own data is a A. distributed data processing network C. decentralized network B. centralized network D. multidrop network 181. The process of developing specifications for hardware, software, personnel hours, data resources, and information products required to develop a system is referred to as A. systems analysis C. systems design B. systems feasibility D. systems maintenance

179. One of the first steps in the creation of a data base is to A. define common variables and fields used throughout the firm* May 2005 Page 41 of 46

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CPA Review School of the Philippines 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 151. 152. 153. 154. 155. 156. 157. 158. 159. 160. A A B B A D B B A B D A B D D C B B A B 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 161. 162. 163. 164. 165. 166. 167. 168. 169. 170. A B A B D D B A A D D A B C B B B C D C 121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. 129. 130. 171. 172. 173. 174. 175. 176. 177. 178. 179. 180. A A B A C B C D A A D A D C C B D C A A 131. 132. 133. 134. 135. 136. 137. 138. 139. 140. D A C A D A A B A B

Preweek Quizzer 141. 142. 143. 144. 145. 146. 147. 148. 149. 150. A D B D D B D C D A

182. An integrated set of computer programs that facilitates the creation, manipulation, and querying of integrated files is called a(n) A. translator C. operating system B. database management system D. flat file system 183. A. B. C. D. Turnaround documents generally circulate only within the computer center. can be read and processed only by the computer. are generated by the computer and eventually return to it. are only used internally in an organization. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. B A A A C D C C C D A A D A A D C B A B 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. C A B A A A A C C D B D A B B C B A A B 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. A C C C D C C D A A

Answer Key 1. C 11. C 2. D 12. A 3. B 13. D 4. C 14. A 5. C 15. D 6. C 16. C 7. A 17. B 8. B 18. C 9. B 19. B 10. C 20. B 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. D B A A B D B C A D 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. B A B A D A A B B C

181. C 182. B 183. C

91. B 92. D 93. B 94. D 95. A 96. B 97. B 98. A 99. A 100. D

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CPA Review School of the Philippines

Preweek Quizzer

1. Standard cost can, if properly used, help motivate employees 2. A company would most likely have an unfavorable labor rate variance and a favorable labor efficiency if the mix of workers used in the production process was more experienced than the normal mix 3. The expected annual capacity level has traditionally been used to compute the fixed overhead application rate? 4. A favorable volume variance increases absorption costing net income; it does not affect variable costing net income. 5. The variable costing format is often more useful to managers than the absorption costing format because costs are classified by their behavior. 6. CVP analysis relies on the assumptions that costs are either strictly fixed or strictly variable. Consistent with these assumptions, as volume decreases total variable costs and total costs decrease while fixed costs remain constant. 7. A managerial preference for a very low degree of operating leverage might indicate that a decrease in sales volume is expected 8. Payback period potentially ignores part of a projects relevant cash flows. 9. Payback method does not routinely rely on the assumption that all cash flows occur at the end of the period? 10.The payback method assumes that all cash inflows are reinvested to yield a return equal to zero

11.When using one of the discounted cash flow methods to evaluate the desirability of a capital budgeting project, the method of financing the project under consideration is not an important factor? 12.In capital budgeting, a firms cost of capital is frequently used as the discount rate 13. The net present value method assumes that all cash inflows can be immediately reinvested at the discount rate 14. The basis for measuring the cost of capital derived from bonds and preferred stock, respectively, is the after-tax rate of interest for bonds and stated annual dividend rate for preferred stock 15.The weighted average cost of capital that is used to evaluate a specific project should be based on the overall capital structure of the corporation 16.The weighted average cost of capital approach to decision making is not directly affected by the current budget for capital expansion 17.At a profitability index of 1.0, the NPV is 0, and the IRR equals the discount rate used. If the PI is above 1.0, the NPV is positive and the IRR is higher than the discount rate used. 18.The profitability index is the ratio of the present value of cash flows to the original investment 19.The rate of interest that produces a zero net present value when a projects discounted cash operating advantage is netted against its discounted net investment is the internal rate of return 20.Internal rate of return has been criticized because it might mistakenly imply that earnings are reinvested at the rate of return earned by the investment.

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21.As the marginal tax rate goes up, the benefit from the depreciation tax shield increases 22.Fixed cost is relevant if it is avoidable 23.When a scarce resource, such as space, exists in an organization, the criterion that should be used to determine production is contribution margin per unit of scarce resource 24.A cost driver is defined as a causal factor that increases the total cost of a cost objective 25.Committed costs are governed mainly by past decisions that established the current levels of operating and organizational capacity and that only change slowly in response to small changes in capacity 26.Discretionary costs are those that management decides to incur in the current period to enable the company to achieve objectives other than the filling of orders placed by customers 27.If a firm orders raw materials in quantities larger than the optimum quantity obtained using the simple economic order quantity model in order to obtain a quantity discount, the company will experience carrying costs higher than ordering costs 28.One of the primary purposes of using a standard cost system is to provide a distinct measure of cost control. 29.Favorable variances are not necessarily good variances. 30.Whether the variance is favorable or unfavorable is irrelevant to a need of investigating it. 31.The sum of the material price variance and materials quantity variance is not meaningful. May 2005

32. The fixed overhead variance would be the same irrespective of the capacity or denominator used. 33.The fixed overhead volume variance is the least significant variance for control purposes. However, it is the most useful variance in evaluating plant utilization. 34.Fixed overhead costs are mostly incurred to provide the capacity to produce and are best controlled on a total basis at the time they are originally negotiated. 35.In a standard cost system, when production is greater than the estimated unit or denominator level of activity, there will be a favorable volume variance. 36.In analyzing factory overhead variances, volume variance is the difference between the budget allowance based on standard hours allowed for actual production for the period and the amount budgeted to be applied during the period. 37.The use of separate variable and fixed overhead rates is better than a combined rate because such a system is more effective in assigning overhead costs to products. 38.In a just-in-time inventory system, ideal standards become expected standards. 39.If a firm produces more units than it sells, absorption costing, relative to variable costing, will result in higher income and assets. 40.A firm presently has total sales of P100,000. If its sales rise by P1.00, its net income based on variable costing will go up more than its net income based on absorption costing. 41.A company could never incur a loss that exceeded its total costs.

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42.At breakeven point the contribution margin equals fixed costs. After the level of volume exceeds the breakeven point, the total contribution margin exceeds the total fixed costs. 43.As projected net income increases the degree of operating leverage declines. 44.A managerial preference for a very low degree of operating leverage might indicate that a decrease in sales volume is expected. 45.The time value of money is considered in long-range investment decisions by assigning greater value to more immediate cash flows. 46.For a project such as plant investment, the return that should leave the market price of the firms stock unchanged is known as the cost of capital. 46.Opportunity cost of capital is the highest rate of return that can be earned from the most attractive alternative capital project available to the firm. 47.If an analyst desires a conservative net present value estimate, he will assume that all cash inflows occur at year-end. 48.When a profitable corporation sells an asset at a loss, the after-tax cash flow on the sale will exceed the pre-tax cash flow on the sale. 49.Sensitivity analysis is an appropriate response to uncertainty in cash flow projections. 50.Relevant costs are anticipated future costs that will differ among various alternatives. 51.In a make or buy decisions, the opportunity cost of capacity could be considered to decrease the price of units purchased from suppliers.

52.Fixed costs are ignored in allocating scarce resources because they are unaffected by the allocation of scarce resources. 53.A linear programming model must have only one objective function. 54.Strategic planning as assumed by top management is stating and establishing long-term plans. 55.The master budget is a static budget because it is geared to only one level of production and sales. 56.The primary reason why managers impose a minimum cash balance in the cash budget is that it protects the organization from the uncertainty of the budgeting process. 57.Slack in operating budgets is greater when managers are allowed to participate in the budgeting process. Budget slack refers to intentional overestimate of expenses or underestimate of revenues. 58.Performance measurements and a reward system are part of motivational element of cost management system. Focus on cost control and assessing core competencies are part of informational element of cost management system. 59.A decentralized company grows very quickly than a centralized one. 60.In a decentralized company, transfer pricing system is designed to aid in the appraisal and motivation of managerial performance. 61.Responsibility accounting refers to an accounting system in which the operations of the business are broken down into reportable segments and the control function of sales manager or supervisor is emphasized. 62.The most valid reason for using something other than a full-cost based transfer price between units of a company is because a fullcost price does not ensure the control of costs of a supplying unit. Page 45 of 46

May 2005

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63. A cost classified according to its activity-related behavior is a fixed cost. 64. The distinction between direct and indirect costs depends on whether a cost can be conveniently and physically traced to a cost object under consideration. 65. An accounting system that focuses on transactions is a traditional accounting system.

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