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Learn Quranic Arabic - Class Notes

November 29, 2008


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Learn Quranic Arabic class was taught by Imam Dr. Yusuf Ziya Kavakci at
Islamic Association of North Texas (IANT) on 2002 and 2004 twice. This is the
class notes based on his teaching. For online class videos, materials, and more
courses taught at IANT, please visit website, http://iant.com/lqindex.php, for
a brief introduction to Imam Yusuf, please visit, http://iant.com/imam.php.
Imam Yusufs teaching make us students begin to taste the beauty of Quranic
Arabic, more important, the beauty and profound meaning of the Holly
Quran. May Allah(SWT) reward him, his family, and his teachers the best for
his eorts and patience to spread Islamic knowledge. Ameen.
1
Contents
1 Conjugation(

,
.
.

.
.

) 7
1.1 Pronouns (

.
.

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.2 Conjugation of Verb on Tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.3 Conjugation of Verb on Past Tense Active Form . . . . . . . . . 9
1.4 Conjugation of Verb on Past Tense Passive Form . . . . . . . . . 9
1.5 Conjugation of Verb on Present / Present Continuous Tense Ac-
tive Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.6 Conjugation of Verb on Present / Present Continuous Tense Pas-
sive Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.7 Derived Nouns (

.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.


..

.
.
.

.
.
.
) of Three-Letter Verb . . . . . . . 11
1.8 Derived Nouns (

.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.


..

.
.
.

.
.
.
) of Three-Letter Verb (More) . . . 12
1.9 Signs of Feminine Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.10 Dual Forms of Nouns (_

.
.

.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.11 Plural Forms of Nouns (
.

.
.

-

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.12 Dual Forms (_

.
.

.) and Plural Forms (


.

.
.

-

) of some Derived Nouns 16


1.13 Negative Forms and Others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.14 Conjugation of

.
.
.
.
.

.
..
.

..


_
.
.

. (never ever would do) . . . . . . . . 18


1.15 Conjugation of _
.

.
.


_
.
.

. (didnt do) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.16 Conjugation of _
.

.
.

.
_
.

.

..
.

.
.
.

.
. (never ever did) . . . . . . . . . 20
1.17 Conjugation of

.

.
.
.
(Order Form) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.18 Conjugation of

_
.
.

(Let .. not do) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22


1.19 Six
.

of Three Letter Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23


1.20 Four Letter Verbs (3+1) (

..
.

.
.


.
_
.
.

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.21 Five Letter Verbs (3+2) (

..
.

.
.


.
_
.
.

.
.
:

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2
1.22 Six Letter Verbs (3+3) (

..
.

.
.

.
_
.
.


.

.
.

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
1.23 Four Letter Verbs Isolated (
.
.

. .
_
.
.


) and Five Letter (4+1) and
Six Letter (4+2) Verbs (
.
..
.

.
.
_
.
.


) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
1.24 7 Categories (

.
.
.


.
.


,.

.
.
.

.
.
.
) of the Verb and 3 Sick Letters . . . 31
1.25 7 Categories of the Verb and 3 Sick Letters in Detail . . . . . . . 32
1.26 Curing sickness of the verb (
.
v

.
.
.

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2

.
-

37
2.1 Words (

..

.
.

) and Sentences (

.
.
.

.
:

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.2 Indenitive (

.
.

.
<

) and Denitive (

.
.

.
.

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.3 Dierent meanings of
.

(

.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.
.

,
.


) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.4 Words with and without end changing (
.

.
.

. vs.
.
.
_
.

.
.

.) . . . . . . 42
2.5 Some Terms Related to

.
-

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.6 Categories of
.
.

.
.

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.7 Categories of
.
.
.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.8 Categories of
.
.
.


.
.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
2.9
.

.
.

. maker of verbs in present or present continuous tense (_

.
.

.) 53
2.10

.

vs.

.

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
2.11
.
,
.

maker of verbs in present or present continuous tense (_

.
.

) 55
2.12 Conjugation of a verb following .

.
.

,
.
_

, .

. . . . . . . . . . . . 57
2.13 Auxiliary Verbs (


.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2.14 Almost happened, but actually did not (

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.
) . . . . 60
2.15 Words with end changing (
.

.
.

.) and words without end chang-


ing (
.
.
_
.

.
.

.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
2.16 Six special words (

.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.


..

.
.
.

.
.
.
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
2.17 Putting Harakat on

..

. (

..

.
.

.
.

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
2.18 Nouns with end changing (
.

.
.

.
.
..

.
.
.

.
) and Nouns without end
changing (

,

.
.

.
.
.

.
.
..

.
.
.

.
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
2.19 Conjunction Letters (

.

.
:

.
.


) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3
2.20 Phrase

.
_
.

..
.

..

.
.

.
.
.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
2.21 Phrase

.
_
.

.
.

.
.
.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
2.22 Followers

.

.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
2.23

.

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
:

and

.

.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.
:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
4
List of Tables
1.1 Conjugation of Pronoun (Separated and Connected Forms) . . . 7
1.2 Conjugation of Verb on Tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.3 Conjugation of Verb on Past Tense Active Form . . . . . . . . . 9
1.4 Conjugation of Verb on Past Tense Passive Form . . . . . . . . . 9
1.5 Conjugation of Verb on Present / Present Continuous Tense Ac-
tive Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.6 Conjugation of Verb on Present / Present Continuous Tense pas-
sive Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.7 Derived Nouns (

.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.


..

.
.
.

.
.
.
) of the verb
.
_
.
.

. . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.8 Derived Nouns (

.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.


..

.
.
.

.
.
.
) of the verb
.
_
.
.

(More) . . . . . . 12
1.9 Signs of Feminine Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.10 Dual Forms of Nouns (_

.
.

.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.11 Plural Forms of Nouns (
.

.
.

-

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.12 Dual Forms (_

.
.

.) and Plural Forms (


.

.
.

-

) of some Derived Nouns 16


1.13 Negative Forms and Others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.14 Conjugation of

.
.
.
.
.

.
..
.

..


_
.
.

. (never ever would do) . . . . . . . . 18


1.15 Conjugation of _
.

.
.


_
.
.

. (didnt do) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.16 Conjugation of _
.

.
.

.
_
.

.

..
.

.
.
.

.
. (never ever did) . . . . . . . . . 20
1.17 Conjugation of

.

.
.
.
(Order Form) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.18 Conjugation of

_
.
.

(Let .. not do) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22


1.19 Six
.

of Three Letter Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23


1.20 Four Letter Verbs (3+1) (

..
.

.
.


.
_
.
.

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.21 Five Letter Verbs (3+2) (

..
.

.
.


.
_
.
.

.
.
:

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1.22 Six Letter Verbs (3+3) (

..
.

.
.

.
_
.
.


.

.
.

) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5
1.23 Four Letter Verbs Isolated (
.
.

. .
_
.
.


) and Five Letter (4+1) and
Six Letter (4+2) Verbs (
.
..
.

.
.
_
.
.


) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
1.24 Conjugation of verbs with sick letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.1 Conjugation of a
.
_

. following _

.
.

. . . . . . . . . . 53
2.2 Conjugation of a
.
_

. following .

.
.


.
_

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
2.3 Conjugation of a
.
_

. following

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
2.4
.
.

.
.

. of 6 special words (

.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.


..

.
.
.

.
.
.
) . . . . . . . 63
6
Chapter 1
Conjugation(

,
.
.

.
.

)
1.1 Pronouns (

.
.

)
Table 1.1: Conjugation of Pronoun (Separated and Connected Forms)
Plural(
.

.
.

-

) Dual(_

.
.

.) Singular(
.
.

.)
.
,.


.
,

. .

..

. .

. Absent M.(

.
.

_.

. .

..

. .

.

_
.
.

Absent F.(

.
.

)
.
,


.
_

.
.

.
.
.


.

.

.
Addressed M.(


..

.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
Addressed F.(


..

.
.

)
.

_
.

. _
.

.
Addresser (

_
.

.
.

.
.

)
7
1.2 Conjugation of Verb on Tense
Table 1.2: Conjugation of Verb on Tense
Order(

..

.
.

.
.

.
)
Present, Present
Continuous (
.
_

.)
Past(_
.

.)
.
_

.
.

.
.

.
.

Active(

,

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

_.

Passive(

,
.
-


.
.

)
8
1.3 Conjugation of Verb on Past Tense Active
Form
Table 1.3: Conjugation of Verb on Past Tense Active Form
Plural(
.

.
.

-

) Dual(_

.
.

.) Singular(
.
.

.)

Absent M.(

.
.

_
.
.

.
.

.
.

Absent F.(

.
.

)
.
_

.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

Addressed M.(


..

.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

Addressed F.(


..

.
.

)
.

.
.
.

.
.

Addresser (

_
.

.
.

.
.

)
1.4 Conjugation of Verb on Past Tense Passive
Form
Table 1.4: Conjugation of Verb on Past Tense Passive Form
Plural(
.

.
.

-

) Dual(_

.
.

.) Singular(
.
.

.)

..


_.

Absent M.(

.
.

_
.
..

.
.

..

.
.

..

Absent F.(

.
.

)
.
_

.
..

.
.
.
..

.
..

Addressed M.(


..

.
.

.
.
.
..

.
.
.
..

.
..

Addressed F.(


..

.
.

)
.

.
.
..

.
..

Addresser (

_
.

.
.

.
.

)
9
1.5 Conjugation of Verb on Present / Present
Continuous Tense Active Form
Table 1.5: Conjugation of Verb on Present / Present Continuous Tense Active
Form
Plural(
.

.
.

-

) Dual(_

.
.

.) Singular(
.
.

.)

.
.

.
.


.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
Absent M.(

.
.

_
.
.

.
.

.
.


.
.

.
.

_

.
.

.
. Absent F.(

.
.

.
.

.
.


.
.

.
.

_

.
.

.
. Addressed M.(


..

.
.

_
.
.

.
.

.
.


.
.

.
.

_
.
.
.

.
.

.
. Addressed F.(


..

.
.

.
.

.

_

.
.

.
Addresser (

_
.

.
.

.
.

)
1.6 Conjugation of Verb on Present / Present
Continuous Tense Passive Form
Table 1.6: Conjugation of Verb on Present / Present Continuous Tense passive
Form
Plural(
.

.
.

-

) Dual(_

.
.

.) Singular(
.
.

.)

.
.

.
.


.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
Absent M.(

.
.

_
.
.

.
.

.
.


.
.

.
.

_

.
.

.
. Absent F.(

.
.

.
.

.
.


.
.

.
.

_

.
.

.
. Addressed M.(


..

.
.

_
.
.

.
.

.
.


.
.

.
.

_
.
.
.

.
.

.
. Addressed F.(


..

.
.

.
.

.

_

.
.

.
Addresser (

_
.

.
.

.
.

)
10
1.7 Derived Nouns (

.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.


..

.
.
.

.
.
.
) of
Three-Letter Verb
Two types of Nouns:
1.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.: Derived
2.
.
..

.

-

: iced, can not be changed


Table 1.7: Derived Nouns (

.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.


..

.
.
.

.
.
.
) of the verb
.
_
.
.

Meaning
Derived
Noun
Name
Doer
.
_.

.
.


_
.
.
.

The one who is done upon


.

.
.

.
.

.
.


_
.
.
.

The place of doing


.
_

.
.

.
.


_
.
.
.

The time of doing



_
.
.
.

Doing
.
_.

.
.
.


.
.
.

.
Tool
.
_

.
.

..

.
.
..


_
.
.
.

Better / The best doer

.
.

.
.

.

.
.

_
.
.
.

11
1.8 Derived Nouns (

.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.


..

.
.
.

.
.
.
) of
Three-Letter Verb (More)
Table 1.8: Derived Nouns (

.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.


..

.
.
.

.
.
.
) of the verb
.
_
.
.

(More)
Meaning
Derived
Noun
Name
Doer
.
_.

.
.


_
.
.
.

The one who is done upon


.

.
.

.
.

.
.


_
.
.
.

The place of doing


.
_

.
.

.
.


_
.
.
.

The time of doing



_
.
.
.

Doing
.
_.

.
.
.


.
.
.

.
Tool
.
_

.
.

..

.
.
..


_
.
.
.

One time doing


.
.

.
.
.

.
.

. .

..


.
.
.

.
Kind of, Type of doing
.
.

.
.
.

. .

..


.
.
.

.
Little doing
.
_
.
.
.

.
.

.

.
.

.
.
.
.


_
.
.
.

Related to doing
.
.
_
.

.
.



.
.

.
.


_
.
.
.

Too much doing


.
.

.
.


.
.
.

.
.


_
.
.
.

Better / The best doer

.
.

.
.

.

.
.
.
.


_
.
.
.

Depends on context, means


either doer or the one who
is done upon
.
_.
.
.

.
.

.
.


_
.
.
.

.
.


_
.
.
.

Depends on context, means


either doer or the one who
is done upon
.

.
.

.
.


_
.
.
.

.
.


_
.
.
.

12
1.9 Signs of Feminine Words
Table 1.9: Signs of Feminine Words
Examples Signs Name
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.
.


..

.
.

.
.

.
.

-

..

.
.
.


.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.


.
.
.
.

.
.

13
1.10 Dual Forms of Nouns (_

.
.

.)
Dual Forms of Nouns (_

.
.

.) are formed by adding sux of


. or

.
.
.

.
Table 1.10: Dual Forms of Nouns (_

.
.

.)
Dual(_

.
.

.) Sux Singular(
.
.

.)

.
.

.
.

.

.

.
.

.

.

.
.
.

.
.

.

.
.
.
.

.

.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.

.

_

.
.
.

.
.

.

.

_

.
.
.

.
14
1.11 Plural Forms of Nouns (
.

.
.

-

)
There are three types of Plural Forms of Nouns in Arabic:
1. Masculine Form (

.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
:

): formed by adding sux


of

. or

_
.
.
.

2. Feminine Form (

.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
:

): formed by adding sux


of
.
.
.

.
3. Non Regular Form (

.
.

<

.
.

.
.

.
:

): no rule for this form


Table 1.11: Plural Forms of Nouns (
.

.
.

-

)
Plural(
.

.
.

-

) Sux Singular(
.
.

.)

.
.

.

.

.
.
.
.

.

.
.
_

. Masculine Form

_
.
.
.

.

.

_
.
.
.

_
.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.

.
.
.

. Feminine Form
.

.
.


.
.

-

.
.


.
_

-


Non Regular Form
15
1.12 Dual Forms (_

.
.

.) and Plural Forms (


.

.
.

-

)
of some Derived Nouns
Table 1.12: Dual Forms (_

.
.

.) and Plural Forms (


.

.
.

-

) of some Derived Nouns


Non Regular
Plural (
.
.

.
.

<

.)
Plural(
.

.
.

-

) Dual(_

.
.

.) Singular(
.
.

.)
.
.


.
_

.
.


.
.

.
.

..

.
_.

_
.
.
.

.
.
.

..

_.

.
.
v

.
.

..

.
.

..

.
.
.

.
.

..

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

_
.
.

.
.

.

_

.
.
.

.
.

_.

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.


.
.

.
.
_

.
.

_
.
.
.

.
.

.

_

.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.
v


.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

..


.
.

..

.
_

.
.

..

_
.
.
.

.
.

..

.
.
.

.
.

..

.
.
v


.
.

..

.
.

.
.

..

.
.

.
.

..

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

..

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

_
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.


.
.

.
.

_
.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

16
1.13 Negative Forms and Others
Table 1.13: Negative Forms and Others
Meaning Negative Forms Name
he doesnt do

.
.

.
.
.

. _

.
.


_
.
.

.
he doesnt do

.
.

.
.
.

.
.


_
.
.

.
he will never ever do

.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
..
.

..


_
.
.

.
he didnt do
.
_

.
.

.
.
.
_

_
.

.
.


_
.
.

.
he never ever did
.
_

.
.

.
.
.

.
.

_
.

.
.

.
_
.

.

..
.

.
.
.

.
.
he will do (near future)

.
.

.
.

.

.

.
.
.
.
.

.
..
.

he will do (far future)

.
.

.
.

,
.


.

.

.
.
.
.
.

.
..
.

let him do
.
_

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

let him not to do


.
_

.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.


_
.

.
(you) do!
.
_

.
.

..

.
.

.
.

(you) dont do!


.
_

.
.

.
. .

..

.
.


_
.

.
what a wonderful doing

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
..

.
-

.
.
.
.


_
.
.

what a wonderful doing

.
_.

.
_
.

.
.
.

.
-

.
.
.
.


_
.
.

17
1.14 Conjugation of

.
.
.
.
.

.
..
.

..


_
.
.

. (never ever
would do)
Table 1.14: Conjugation of

.
.
.
.
.

.
..
.

..


_
.
.

. (never ever would do)


Plural(
.

.
.

-

) Dual(_

.
.

.) Singular(
.
.

.)

.
.

.
.
.


.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

Absent M.(

.
.

_
.
.

.
.

.
.
.


.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

Absent F.(

.
.

.
.

.
.
.


.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

Addressed M.(


..

.
.

_
.
.

.
.

.
.
.


.
.

.
.
.

_
.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

Addressed F.(


..

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

Addresser (

_
.

.
.

.
.

)
18
1.15 Conjugation of _
.

.
.


_
.
.

. (didnt do)
Table 1.15: Conjugation of _
.

.
.


_
.
.

. (didnt do)
Plural(
.

.
.

-

) Dual(_

.
.

.) Singular(
.
.

.)

.
.

.
.
.
_


.
.

.
.
.
_

.
_

.
.

.
.
.
_

Absent M.(

.
.

_
.
.

.
.

.
.
.
_


.
.

.
.
.
_

.
_

.
.

.
.
.
_

Absent F.(

.
.

.
.

.
.
.
_


.
.

.
.
.
_

.
_

.
.

.
.
.
_

Addressed M.(


..

.
.

_
.
.

.
.

.
.
.
_


.
.

.
.
.
_

_
.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.
_

Addressed F.(


..

.
.

)
.
_

.
.

.
.
_

.
_

.
.

.
_

Addresser (

_
.

.
.

.
.

)
19
1.16 Conjugation of _
.

.
.

.
_
.

.

..
.

.
.
.

.
. (never ever
did)
Table 1.16: Conjugation of _
.

.
.

.
_
.

.

..
.

.
.
.

.
. (never ever did)
Plural(
.

.
.

-

) Dual(_

.
.

.) Singular(
.
.

.)

.
.

.
.
.

.
.


.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
_

.
.

.
.
.

.
.

Absent M.(

.
.

_
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.


.
.

.
. .

.
.

.
_

.
.

.
. .

.
.

Absent F.(

.
.

.
.

.
. .

.
.


.
.

.
. .

.
.

.
_

.
.

.
. .

.
.

Addressed M.(


..

.
.

_
.
.

.
.

.
. .

.
.


.
.

.
. .

.
.

_
.

.
.

.
. .

.
.

Addressed F.(


..

.
.

)
.
_

.
.

. .

.
.

.
_

.
.

.
.

.
.

Addresser (

_
.

.
.

.
.

)
20
1.17 Conjugation of

.

.
.
.
(Order Form)
Table 1.17: Conjugation of

.

.
.
.
(Order Form)
Plural(
.

.
.

-

) Dual(_

.
.

.) Singular(
.
.

.)

.
.

.
.


.
.

.
.

.
_

.
.

.
.

Absent M.(

.
.

_
.
.

.
.

.
.


.
.

.
.

.
_

.
.

.
.

Absent F.(

.
.

.
.

.
v


.
.

.
_

.
.

.
Addressed M.(


..

.
.

_
.
.

.
.

.
v


.
.

_
.

.
.

.
Addressed F.(


..

.
.

)
21
1.18 Conjugation of

_
.
.

(Let .. not do)


Table 1.18: Conjugation of

_
.
.

(Let .. not do)


Plural(
.

.
.

-

) Dual(_

.
.

.) Singular(
.
.

.)

.
.

.
.
.


.
.

.
.
.
.
_

.
.

.
.
.

Absent M.(

.
.

_
.
.

.
.

.
.
.


.
.

.
. .
.
_

.
.

.
. .

Absent F.(

.
.

.
.

.
. .


.
.

.
. .
.
_

.
.

.
. .

Addressed M.(


..

.
.

_
.
.

.
.

.
. .


.
.

.
. .

_
.

.
.

.
. .

Addressed F.(


..

.
.

)
22
1.19 Six
.

of Three Letter Verbs


Table 1.19: Six
.

of Three Letter Verbs


Order(

..

.
.

.
.

.
)
Present, Present
Continuous (
.
_

.)
Past(_
.

.) Name
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.


.
(
.
.
_

.
.
_
.
.
.

)
.

1st

.
.

.
.

..

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
(
.
.
.
.

.
_
.
.
.

)
.

2nd


.
.

.
.

.
.
_

.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.

_

.
.

.
.

-
.
.
.

)
.

3rd

.
.
.

.
.

_
.
.

.
_

.
.

.
.

.
.

_

.
(
.
_
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

)
.

4th

.
.

.
.

_

.
.

_

.
.

_

.
.
.
.

_

.

(
.
.
_

.
.
.
_

.)
.

5th

_

.
.
.
.

_.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

)
.

6th


.
.
.
.

23
1.20 Four Letter Verbs (3+1) (

..
.

.
.


.
_
.
.

)
There are four
.

fall into this category:


1.

.
.

: it makes intransitive verbs transitive (

.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

)
2. _

.
.
.

.
.

: two meanings of this


.

:
(a) it makes intransitive verbs transitive (

.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

)
(b) it means doing something a lot (

.
.
.
.

.
<

.
.
.

)
3.
.

..

: it means doing something mutually (

.
.

.
.

)
Table 1.20: Four Letter Verbs (3+1) (

..
.

.
.


.
_
.
.

.
.

.

_
.
.
.


_
.
.
.


.
.
.

..

.
.

.
.

.
_

. _
.

.
.

.
_

.
.

.
.
_.

.
.
.

.
.

.
_.

_.

.
.

.
.

.
Active(

,

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

_.

.
Passive(

,
.
-


.
.

)
_

.
.
.

.
.

.
_

.
.

.
.
_
.

.
.
_.
.
.

.
.
.
_
.

_
.

.
.

.
.

Active(

,

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

_
.

Passive(

,
.
-


.
.

)
.

..

.
_

..

.
.
_.

.

.
.

..

.
.
_.

_.

.
.

..

Active(

,

.
.
.

.
.

)
.
.

..
.


.
.

..

.
.

_.

Passive(

,
.
-


.
.

)
24
1.21 Five Letter Verbs (3+2) (

..
.

.
.


.
_
.
.

.
.
:

)
There are ve
.

fall into this category:


1.

.
.

: it means obedience, obeyed actions (


.

.

:

.
.
.

)
2.

.
.
.

: it means obedience, obeyed actions (


.

.

:

.
.
.

)
3.

: it means (something) becomes (red, white, black,


or other colors) (

.
v
.

)
4. _

.
.

.
.

: it means to carry / do something with diculty /


eort (

.

.
.

.
.
.
.
.

)
5. _

..

.
.

: it means to do something mutually with intensity


(
.

.
.

.
.
.

)
25
Table 1.21: Five Letter Verbs (3+2) (

..
.

.
.


.
_
.
.

.
.
:

.
.

.

_
.
.
.


_
.
.
.


.
.
.

..

.
.

.
.

.
_

. _
.

.
.

.
_

.
.

.
.
_.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
_.

.
.

.
.

_.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

Active(

,

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

_.

.
.

.
Passive(

,
.
-


.
.

.
.
.

.
_

.
.
.

.
.
_.

.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.

.
_.

.
.
.

_.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

Active(

,

.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.

_.

.
.
.

.
Passive(

,
.
-


.
.

.
.
_

.
.

.
.
.
_

.
.

.
.
v

.
.

.
_

.
.

.
_

.
.

.
.

.
_

.
.

Active(

,

.
.
.

.
.

.
_

.
.

.
.

.
_.

.
Passive(

,
.
-


.
.

)
_

.
.

.
.

.
_

.
.

.
.

.
.
_
.

.
.

.
.
_

.
.

.
.
.
_

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
. Active(

,

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

_
.

.
. Passive(

,
.
-


.
.

)
_

..

.
.

.
_

..

.
.

.
.
_.

.
.

.
.
_

..

.
.
.
_

..

.
.

..

.
.

.
.

..

.
. Active(

,

.
.
.

.
.

..

.
.

.
.

_.

.
. Passive(

,
.
-


.
.

)
26
1.22 Six Letter Verbs (3+3) (

..
.

.
.

.
_
.
.


.

.
.

)
There are two
.

fall into this category:


1.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.

: this

has two meanings:


(a) it makes intransitive verbs transitive (

.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

)
(b) to ask (someone) to do sth
2.

.
.
.

: it means something becomes more (red, yellow,


white, or other colors)
3.

..
.
.

: it means
4.

.
.

: it means
27
Table 1.22: Six Letter Verbs (3+3) (

..
.

.
.

.
_
.
.


.

.
.

.
.

.

_
.
.
.


_
.
.
.


.
.
.

..

.
.

.
.

.
_

. _
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.

.
_

.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
_.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.

.
_.

.
.
.
.
.

_.

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.
.
.

Active(

,

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

_.

.
.
.
.

.
Passive(

,
.
-


.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
.
v

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

Active(

,

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
_.
.
.

.
Passive(

,
.
-


.
.

..
.
.

.
_

.
.

.
.

.
.
_.

.
.

.
.
.

..
.
.

.
_.

.
.

_.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

Active(

,

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

_.

.
.

.
Passive(

,
.
-


.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

Active(

,

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
Passive(

,
.
-


.
.

)
28
1.23 Four Letter Verbs Isolated (
.
.

.
.
_
.
.


) and
Five Letter (4+1) and Six Letter (4+2)
Verbs (
.
..
.

.
.
_
.
.


)
1.
.

.
.
.

: this

makes intransitive verbs transitive (

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

)
2. _

.
.
.

.
.

: it means to obey to do something (

.

:

.
.
.

)
3. ,

.
.

: it means to obey to do something (

.

:

.
.
.

)
4.

.
.

: it makes intransitive verbs transitve more


Note: For verbs with more than 3 letters, the following four
derived nouns are of the same form:
the one who is done upon(

.
.

.
.

.
_
.
.
.

); the place of an
action(

.
.

.
_
.
.
.

); the time of an action(


.
_
.
.
.

); the
gerund(_
.
.

.
.
.


.
.
.

.).
For example:
.
_.

.
.

. has the above four meanings.


29
Table 1.23: Four Letter Verbs Isolated (
.
.

. .
_
.
.


) and Five Letter (4+1) and
Six Letter (4+2) Verbs (
.
..
.

.
.
_
.
.

.
.

.

_
.
.
.


_
.
.
.


.
.
.

..

.
.

.
.

.
_

. _
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
_

.
.
.

.
.
_.

.
.

.
.
v

.
.


.
.

.
.
.

.
_.

.
.

_.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.

Active(

,

.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.

_.

.
.

Passive(

,
.
-


.
.

)
_

.
.
.

.
.

.
_

.
.
.

.
.

.
.
_.

.
.

.
.

.
.
_

.
.
.

.
.
.
_

.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
. Active(

,

.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

_.

.
.

.
. Passive(

,
.
-


.
.

)
,

.
.

.
,

.
.

.
.

.
.
,.

.
.

.
.

.
.
,.

.
.

.
,.

.
.

,.

.
.

.
.
.

.

,

.
.

Active(

,

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.

,.

.
.

.
Passive(

,
.
-


.
.

.
.

.
.
_

.
.

.
.
.
_.

.
.

.
.
v

.
.

.
.

.
_

.
.

.
_.

.
.

.
.

.
_

.
.

Active(

,

.
.
.

.
.

.
_

.
.

.
.

.
_.

.
.

.
Passive(

,
.
-


.
.

)
30
1.24 7 Categories (

.
.
.


.
.


,.

.
.
.

.
.
.
) of the Verb
and 3 Sick Letters
There are seven categories of Arabic verbs:
1.

.

.
.

-.
.
.

.
2.

.

.
.

.
..

3.
.

..

.
4.
.

..
.

5.
.

.
6.
.

.
.
,

.
7.
.

There are three sick letters (


.

.
..


) in Arabic:
1.
.

2.
.

.
.

.
.

.

.

3.
.

.

.
.

31
1.25 7 Categories of the Verb and 3 Sick
Letters in Detail
1. Healthy verb (
.
_

.

.
.
_.
.
.

.
.
_
.
.

)
Verbs in this category have no sick letter (
.

.
..



..

_
.
.

)
ex.

.
.

2. Verb with hamzah (


.

.
.
,

.
.
_
.
.

)
Hamzah = Alif + Harakat (etc
.
. .

. .

.)
Hamzah always has harakat.
Dierent forms of hamzah:

.

.

.

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
.

ex.

.
.

.

_

..

-

3. Mithal verb (
.
.

.
..

.
_
.
.

)
Verbs in this category have their rst letter sick
(
.

.
.

.
.

.

.
.


..

)
ex.
.
.
.
.

.
.


.

-

4. Ajwaf verb (
.

.
_
.
.

)
Verbs in this category have their second letter sick
(
.

.
.

.
.

.

.
.

_
.
.
.

.)
ex.
.

.

.
_
.
.
.

,
.

5. Naqis verb (
.

.)
Verbs in this category have their last (third) letter sick
(
.

.
.

.
.

.

.
.

.
,.

)
ex.

. (

.)
6. Lafeef (
.

..
.

)
Verbs in this category have two sick letters (
.

.
..

_.


)
There are two sub categories under
.

..
.

category:
32
1) Mafruq (
.
.

.): The rst and the third letters are sick letters
ex.

_
.


(to protect),

_
.

.

(to be aware)
2) Maqrun (
.

.
.
.

.): The last two letters are sick letters


ex.

(to burn, to sear),



. (to fold, to shut)
7. Mudaaf (
.

..

.)
Verbs in this category have same letter repeated twice, not
necessarily sick letters
ex.

.
.

. (to prolong),

.

(to ee, to run away),

.
_

. (to be ill),

.
.

(to
love, to be fond)
33
1.26 Curing sickness of the verb (
.
v

.
.
.

)
.
v

.
.
.

is the process to cure the sickness, in Tasrif, of verbs with


sick letter(s). There are dierent rules in
.
v

.
.
.

process to cure
those sick letter(s), such as omiting the sick letter(s), changing sick
letter(s) to other letters, etc. Below are several rules:
1. Amongst Harakat (

. .

.),

. is the heaviest one, .

is the next
heaviest one, while

. is the lightest one. So in the situation when
some Harakat need to be put for the purpose of just protecting
Harakt,

. is the one to be put as protecting Harakt.
For example, in the case of
.
.
.

. (order form of the addressed), we


need to put some Harakat with Shadda as protecting Harakat, so

.
is put, it becomes

.
.

.
2.

.
.
.

<
.

.
..

.
.



.
.

.
.

.

.
.

When Sukin has to be given some Harakat, Kasra (.

) is given.
So for the above example, the Sukin in
.
.
.

. has to be given some


Harakat, according to this rule, we can put Kasra .

, it becomes
.

..
That is why for
.
.
.

. (order form of the addressed), we can use:

.
.

. or
.

..
3. If the harakat on the letter before
.

.

.
is

.,
.

.

.
will change to .

.
For example:

.
->

Below are some examples of


.
v

.
.
.

process:
a)

.
->

.
;

.
.
.
<

.
.
->

_
.
.
.

<

.
.
->

.
.
34
b)

_
.
.

.
->

_
.
.

.
->

_
.
.

c)
.

.
.

.
->
.

.
->
.

d)
.
_.
.

->
.
_.
.

->
.
_

e)
.
_.
.
<


.
.
.
_

->
.
_.


.
.
.
_

f)

. ->

_.
.

.
g)

.
.
->

.
.
h)

.
.
.
_

->

.
.
.
_

->

.
.
.
_

i) _
.
.

-> ,

j)

_
.
.

.
.
.
_

-> ,

.
.
.
_

k) _
.
.

->
.

->
.

l)
.

->

m)
.

.
<

.
.
.
_

->

.
<

.
.
.
_

n)

.

.
.
.

.
.
_

->
.
.

.
.
.

.
.
_

->
.

.
.
_



.
.

.
.
_

35
Table 1.24: Conjugation of verbs with sick letters
Meaning
.


.
.
.

..

.
.

.
.

.
_

. _
.

.
.
.

.
..

promise
.
.
.
.

.
..

..

.
.

.

Active(

,

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

..


Passive(

,
.
-


.
.

)
_
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
..

to make...easy
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

..
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

.

.
.
Active(

,

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

..


.
.
Passive(

,
.
-


.
.

.
.

talk, speak
.

.
_

.
.

.
.

.
Active(

,

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

_.
.
.

Passive(

,
.
-


.
.

)
_
.
.

.
.
.
.

measure, weigh
.
_
.
.
.

.
_

_.
.
<


.
.

Active(

,

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

_.
.

Passive(

,
.
-


.
.

.
.

.
invade, attack
.
.
.

.
.

. Active(

,

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.

. Passive(

,
.
-


.
.

)
_
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
cast
.
.

.
.
.
.

_
.
.

.
.
_

.

Active(

,

.
.
.

.
.

)
_

.
.

.
.
_
.
.

Passive(

,
.
-


.
.

)
.
.

. .
.

..
.

protect
_
.
.

_
.
.
.

.
.
_


Active(

,

.
.
.

.
.

)
_

.
.

.
.
_
.
.

Passive(

,
.
-


.
.

)
.

.
.
.

. .
.

..
.

burn, brand

.
<

.
.

Active(

,

.
.
.

.
.

.
<

.
.

.

Passive(

,
.
-


.
.

)
.

..

.
prolong
.
.
.

.
.

.

.
.

.
.

.

.
.

. Active(

,

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.

.
.

. Passive(

,
.
-


.
.

)
36
Chapter 2

.
-

2.1 Words (

..

.
.

) and Sentences (

.
.
.

.
:

)
Arabic words can be classied from dierent aspects. One aspect is
to classify words into:
1.
.

,
.


: Words which possesses neither independent meaning
nor time factor
2.
.
_
.
.
.

: Words which possesses independent meaning, but no time


factor
3.
.
_
.
.

: Words which possess both independent meaning and


time factor
While there are two (basic) types of sentence structures in Arabic:
1.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

..

.
.
.

.
:

: its struture is:


.

- +
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
Both
.
.

.
.
.
.

. and
.

- are nouns or equivalence of nouns. For


example:
.
_
.

.
.
.
.
.

37
2.

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
:

: its structure is:


.

.
.

. +
.
_.

+
.
_
.
.

.
_
.
.

is the verb,
.
_.

is the subject, while


.

.
.

. is the object.
For example:

.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.

Another example:

.
.

.
.

.

_
.
.

Here
.
.

.

.

.
.

.
is subject grammatically, but from meaning
point of view, it is object. This type of subject is called
_

.
.

.
.

.
In Arabic, both
.
.

.

.

.
.

.
and

.
are popular names, they are
same in writting without Harakat. To dierentiate them, usually
.

.
.

.
is written as
.
.

.
.
Arabic verbs can be either intransitive (
.
,

) or transitive (
.
.

.
.

.
.

.)
38
2.2 Indenitive (

.
.

.
<

) and Denitive (

.
.

.
.

)
Arabic nouns have indenitive form (

.
.

.
<

) and denitive form


(

.
.

.
.

). For example, book has two forms:


.

.
.

: means a book, this is the indenitive form;

.
.<

: means the book, this is the denitive form.


The
.

in denitive form is called



.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.
.

,
.


. When
.

comes
before a noun, it makes the noun
.

., or denitive form. While


the
.
on top of Hamzat (in
.

), for example,

_
.
.
.

.
.


,
represents
.
.

..

, means connection.
.
.
.

.
.

. has two types:


1. _

.
.


.
.

.
.

.: Connection Hamza. Example is the Hamza in

.
.<

2.

.
:

.
.
.


.
.

.
.

.: Decisive Hamza. Example like the Hamza in



_
.
.

.
.

So Tanwin (
.

_.
.

.
.) is the symbol of Indenitive Noun (

.
.

.
<

); while

.
.

.
.

.
.
.
.

,
.


(
.

) is the symbol of Denitive Noun (

.
.

.
.

). They
two can neither come into being together nor disappear together at
the same time in a noun. In Arabic, this is called:
.
.

.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
..

.
.
.
.

.

.

Dierent types of

.
.

.
.

(
.

.) words:
1. Denitive noun (

.
.

.
.

):
Ex.:

.
.<

39
2. Designating Pronoun (
.
.


.

.
..
.

..


_
.
.
.

):
Ex.:

. .

.
3. Pronoun (
.

.
.

.
):
Ex.:

.

.
.

.


_
.
.

.
4. Relative Pronoun (


.
.

.
.


_
.
.
.

), which connects sentences


together:
Ex.: _
.
.

_.
.

.

.

.

.
_
.

.
.

.
.
.
.
.

40
2.3 Dierent meanings of
.

(

.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.
.

,
.


)
.

possesses four types of meanings:


1.

_
.

..

.
:

: a type of, a kind of, a category of


Ex.

.
.<

, a kind of book
2.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.

: including everything, covering all


Ex.

_
.
.
.

.
.


, the Cherisher and Sustainer of all the worlds
3.
.
_
.

-
.
.
.
,

.: the one just mentioned before


Ex.
.
..
.
.

.
.<

.
.

., this is a book, which is new


4.
.
_
.

.
.

.

.
.
.
,

.: something not mentioned before, but the addressee


knows
41
2.4 Words with and without end changing
(
.

.
.

. vs.
.
.
_
.

.
.

.)
Arabic words can be classied into:
1.
.

.
.

.: Words with end changing Harakat (


.
. .

. .

. etc)
Ex.
.

.
.

is a
.

.
.

. word, since based on context, it can be

.
.

or

.
.

.
.

or

.
.

, etc.
2.
.
.
_
.

.
.

.: Words without end changing Harakat


Ex. Past tense verbs (
.
_
.

.) are all
.
.
_
.

.
.

. words.

will not
change its ending Harakat no matter what context it is in
.

.
.

is the process to put end Harakat (


.
. .

. .

. etc) on a
word based on its context.
Maybe around 90% of Arabic words belongs to

.
.

.
.

, the other
10% belongs to

.
_
.

.
.

.
.

.
42
2.5 Some Terms Related to

.
-

Harakat (
.
.


) refers to the (etc
.
. .

. .

.) at the end of a
word, there are 3 types of
.
.


:
1.
.
.

: it refers to the (.

) at the end of a word


(a)
.
.
.

-

:
.
.

maker (words / grammar structures that can


make another word to end with
.
.

)
(b)
.

.
.

.
(plural
.
.

.
.

.
): words end with
.
.

2.
.

.
.

.: it refers to the (

.) at the end of a word


(a)
.

. (plural

.):
.

.
.

. maker (words / grammar


structures that can make another word to end with
.

.
.

.)
(b)
.



.
.

. (plural
.
.
.


.
.

.): words end with


.

.
.

.
3.
.

: it refers to the (
.
.

.) at the end of a word


(a)
.

:
.

maker (words / grammar structures that can


make another word to end with
.

)
(b)
.
_

. (plural
.
.
.

.): words end with


.

4.
.
,
.

: it refers to the sukin at the end of a word


(a)
.
,

.

-

:
.
,
.

maker (words / grammar structures that can


make another word end with
.
,
.

)
(b)
.
,

.
.

.
: words end with
.
,
.

43
In general, in

.
-

, we have maker (
.
_.

.) and taker (
.

.
.
.

.)
of (
.
.

,
.

.
.

.,
.

,
.
,
.

). Maker includes
.
.
.

-

,
.

.,
.

,
.
,

.

-

;
while taker includes
.

.
.

.
,
.



.
.

.,
.
_

.,
.
,

.
.

.
.
44
2.6 Categories of
.
.

.
.

.
There are two categories of
.
.

.
.

.
:
1.

,

.
.

.
.

.
: Letters which make words following them taking
.
.

. These letters are called


.


, which are:
_

:
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

_.

.
.

.

.
_

. .

.
..

- v

-

.

.
.

.

.
.
_



,.

The basic meaning of these letters are as follows:


(1)

: with, to
(2)

(_

.
.
.

): by (Allah)(it is used when make oath)


(3) .

.
.(_

.
.
.


..

.
.): by (Allah)(it is used when make oath)
(4)
.

_.

: from
(5)
.

.: from (=
.

_.

)
(6)
_

.: on, upon
(7) _

.
.


: until, till
(8) _

:
.

: until, till (=_

.
.


)
(9)

: belong to, for, to


(10)

,

: at, in, inside


(11)

.: as, like
(12)

.
.

.: since, from that time


(13)
.

.: since, from that time (=

.
.

.)
(14)

.


: how many(much)
45
(15) .

-: except, excluding, but


(16) .

.
..

-: except, excluding, but
(17)

.

.: except, excluding, but


(18) .

: maybe (more likely it is impossible)


(19)

.
_

: maybe (likely it is possible)


Notes: It is debatable, or not agreed unanimously, whether or
not

.
_

should be categorized as
.

.
:

.

2.
.

..
.

. .
..

.
.

.
:

.
.
.

,.

. takes
.
.

at its end
.

.
.
.
.

. means attach to, ascribe to.


.
.

.
.

is a type of phrase
structure in Arabic:

.
.
.

,.

. +
.

,.

.
For example,
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

is
.

,.

., while .

.
.
.

is

.
.
.

,.

.. Since

.
.
.

,.

. takes
.
.

at its end, so .

.
.
.

Another example is

.
.
.

, here

is
.

,.

., while

.
.

is

.
.
.

,.

., that is why it
takes
.
.

at its end.
46
2.7 Categories of
.
.
.

.
Before going over categories of
.
.
.

., lets rst review sentence


structures (

.
.
.

.
:

) in Arabic. There are two types of sentence


structures in Arabic:
1.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

..

.
.
.

.
:

: its struture is:


.

- +
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
Both
.
.

.
.
.
.

. and
.

- are nouns or equivalence of nouns. For


example:
.
_
.

.
.
.
.
.

2.

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
:

: its structure is:


.

.
.

. +
.
_.

+
.
_
.
.

.
_
.
.

is the verb,
.
_.

is the subject, while


.

.
.

. is the object.
For example:

.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.

Another example:

.
.

.
.

.

_
.
.

Here
.
.

.

.

.
.

.
is subject grammatically, but from meaning
point of view, it is object. This type of subject is called
_

.
.

.
.

.
There are 10 categories of
.
.
.

., while categories 7-10 can be


considered as special cases of categories 1 and 2:
1.

.
.
.
.

.
.

(in

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

..

.
:

)
47
2.

.
.
:

(in

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

..

.
:

)
3.

_.

.
.

(in

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
:

)
4. _

.
.

.
.

. (in

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
:

)
5.

_

.
.

: example,

.

.
.

.
.


_

.
.

.
.
6.

.

.
.

.


..

.
.

: the one who is called upon when it is a single


word.
For example,

.

.

.
.
.

_
.
.

.
.

.
.
, in these examples,

.

.

.
.

_
.
.

.
.

(both are a single word) are


called

..

.
.

(
.
.

.

means to call). While .

. .

.
.
are called
.


.
.

.
.

There are three .


.
.

.
.


: .

.

.

.
.

.
.
7. .


_
.
.
.

:
Ex. .

..
.
.

.
.
.

8.

-:
Ex.
.
_
.

.


.
.
.
.

9. _

..

.
:

.
_
.

-:
Ex.
.

.
.
.

. .

.

_

.
.

, No deed with showing o is acceptable.


10. .

.

_
.
.
.

: when .

., like

_
.
.
.

, means not
Ex. .


-

.

.

.
.
:

.
.

48
2.8 Categories of
.
.
.


.
.

.
There are 8 big categories of
.
.
.


.
.

.
.

:
1. _

.
. .
.

..

. (
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

.)
2.

.
.
:

.

.
3.

.
.

.
.

and its sub-categories (in

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
:

)
4. _

.
.

.
5.
.
.

-
6.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

7. .

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
..
.

..

,
.

8.

.
.

..

.
.

: the one who is called upon when it is a phrase,


or not a single word
Lets go over these categories one by one.
1. _

.
. .
.

..

. (
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

.)
There are 8
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

., they are:
.

.
_

.
.
.

_<

.
.

(1)

: no doubt, of course, denitly


(2)

.
: no doubt, of course, denitly
(3)

.
.

: as if
(4)

.

_<

: but
49
(5)

.

.
.
.

: I wish ... had (this is an impossible wish situation)


(6)

.
_

: maybe (this is a possible situation)


(7) .

: but, except
(8) .

: no, not (negate totally for a whole category)


Some examples:
.

.
.

.
.

_<


_.

.
:

.

.
The arrogant will not succeed, just as the knowledgable is the
successor.
Maybe Allah will forgive my sin. _
.

.
.
.

.
_

Evil doer will never succeed.


.

.
.

.
.

_.

2.

.
.
:

.

. There are 5

.
.
:

.

., they are:
.

.

_
.
.
.



.

.

(1)

: to be, to exist
(2)

.

.: to be, to exist, to be changed/turned to be
(3)

_
.
.
.

: was not, is not


(4) .

.: was not, is not


(5) .

: was not, is not


Some examples:
Surely Allah is the Allmighty.

.
.
.

.
.
.

Zaid became a scholar. .

.
.
.
.
.
.


.

.
Isnt Allah sucient for His servant?

.

.
.
.


.

,

..

.
.
.


_
.
.
.

3.

.
.

.
.

and its sub-categories (in

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
:

)
This category is subcategorized into the following:
50
(a)

.
.

.
.

: to
Example:

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.

(b)

..

.
.

.
.

: from
(c)

.
.

.
.

: for
(d)

.
.

.
.

.
.

: inside, at
(e)

.
.

.
.

: together with
(f)

.
.
:

.
.

.
.

.
.

:
.


.
.
.

. of the verb, usually for emphasizing.


Some examples:
_


.
.
.

.
.
.

_.

.
.
.
.


.
.

.
.

.
_
.

.
.
.
.



.
.
.
.

.
.
.

4. _

.
.

.: See next section


5.
.
.

-: it is a word to describe how subject/object is doing,
acting, etc
For example:
Zaid came by walking / driving. .

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.


..

-

.
.
.
.

. is
.
.

-, used to describe how
.
.
.
.
.

came.
6.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
: it is used to discriminate / dierentiate sth, or make the
meaning complete.
For example:
You own 20 Dollars (some money).


.
.
.


.

.
_
.

.

.

. is
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
, used to make the meaning complete.
7. .

.
.
.
.
.
.

.
..
.

..

,
.


: except, exclude
For example:
People came except Zaid.

.
.
.
.

,
.

.
.
.


..

-


.
.
.
.

is .

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

, while

,
.

.
.
.

is called

..

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

This category have two sub-categories:


51
(a)

_.

.
.
.

.
.

: in this case, .

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

and

..

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

belong to
same category, like above example.
(b)

:

.
.
.

.
.

: in this case, .

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

and

..

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

belong to
dierent categories, like in the following example:
People came except donkey.

.
-

,
.

.
.
.


..

-

8.

.
.

..

.
.

: the one who is called upon when it is a phrase


(or not a single word).
For example:
Ya, Allahs messenger!

.
.
.

.
.
Notes: When

..

.
.

is a single word, it takes


.

.
For example:

.

.

.
.
.

.
.
52
2.9
.

.
.

. maker of verbs in present or present


continuous tense (_

.
.

.)
There are 5 _

.
.

.:
1.
.

.
: doing
2.
.

: never ever, at all


3.
.
_
.

: for
4.

.
.

: that time, then


5. (
.

.
+

): for
These 5 words who make a
.
_

. following them takes


.

.
.

.. The
conjugation of a verb following any of these 5 words are as follows
(
.
_
.
.

following
.

.
is used as an example):
Table 2.1: Conjugation of a
.
_

. following _

.
.

.
Plural(
.

.
.

-

) Dual(_

.
.

.) Singular(
.
.

.)

.
.

.
.
.

.
v


.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
Absent M.(

.
.

_
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
v


.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
Absent F.(

.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
v


.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
Addressed M.(


..

.
.

_
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
v


.
.

.
.
.

_
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
Addressed F.(


..

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
Addresser (

_
.

.
.

.
.

)
53
2.10

vs.

and

.
have the same meaning, of course, surely, question is
when should use which. Generally speaking,
1.

is used at the beginning (.


.
.
.

.
.

.
.

..
_
.

) of a sentence:
Ex.
.
_
.

.


.
.
.
.

2.

is also used when after


.

.
and its related (


.
.

..

.)
Ex.
.

.
.
.

.

.

3.

.
is used when in the middle of a sentence:
Ex.
.
_
.

.


.
.
.
.

.
..

.
54
2.11
.
,
.

maker of verbs in present or present


continuous tense (_

.
.

)
Next, lets take a look at
.
,
.

makers on

_

.
.

. There are 2
subcategories under _

.
.

:
1. .

.
_

.
.

: There are 4 words belong to this


category:

.
.

.
.
.


,.

.
.


.
_

2.

_

.
.
.

.
.

: There are 12 words belong to this category:


.

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.

.
.

.


.

.
_

.
_

_
.
.
.

.

.

. .

. .

.
.
,

.
.

Lets go over these 2 categories a little bit more :


1. .

.
_

.
.

:
(1)
.
_

: didnt
(2) .

.
.

: never ever did


(3) .

: (order) not to do!


(4)

.
.

.
.
..


,.

): (order) do!
Please see the next section for the conjugation of a verb
following
.
_

, .

.
.

, .

.
2.

_

.
.
.

.
.

:
(1)
.

: if
For example:
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

. .

If you study hard, youll be successful.


55
(2) .

.
.
,

.: whatever
For example:

..

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
_

.
.

.
.
.

.
.
,

.
Whatever you do, youll be questioned.
(3) .

.: whatever
For example:

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

-
.

_.

.
_

.
.

.
.
.

.
Whatever good a person does, Allah will reward him.

.
.

.


_

.
.

.
.
.

. ->
.

.
.

.
.

.

.
_

.
.

.
.
.

.
(4)
.

.: who, whoever
(5)

_
.
.
.

.
: where, wherever
For example:

.

.
.


.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

<

.
.

_
.
.
.

Wherever you are, death will come to you.


(6) _

.: when, whenever
(7) _

.
: whenever
(8)

.

.
: what, which, whoever, anyone
(9) .

.
.

.
: whenever, wherever
(10) .

.
.
.
.
.

: whenever, wherever
(11) .

.
.

.
.

: whenever
(12) .

.
.

: whenever
For example: _

.
.

.
.
.

-
.

<

.
.

..

.
..

.
_

.
.
.

.
. .

.
.

Whenever you do and act upon your knowledge, you


become the best of human being.
56
2.12 Conjugation of a verb following .

.
.

,
.
_

, .

Conjugation of a verb following .

.
.

,
.
_

, .

is as follows (
.
_
.
.

following
.
_

is used as an example):
Table 2.2: Conjugation of a
.
_

. following .

.
.


.
_

Plural(
.

.
.

-

) Dual(_

.
.

.) Singular(
.
.

.)

.
.

.
.
.
_


.
.

.
.
.
_

.
_

.
.

.
.
.
_

Absent M.(

.
.

_
.
.

.
.

.
.
.
_


.
.

.
.
.
_

.
_

.
.

.
.
.
_

Absent F.(

.
.

.
.

.
.
.
_


.
.

.
.
.
_

.
_

.
.

.
.
.
_

Addressed M.(


..

.
.

_
.
.

.
.

.
.
.
_


.
.

.
.
.
_

_
.

.
.

.
.
.
_

Addressed F.(


..

.
.

)
.
_

.
.

.
.
_

.
_

.
.

.
_

Addresser (

_
.

.
.

.
.

)
Conjugation of a verb following

is as follows:
Table 2.3: Conjugation of a
.
_

. following

Plural(
.

.
.

-

) Dual(_

.
.

.) Singular(
.
.

.)

.
.

.
.


.
.

.
.

.
_

.
.

.
.

Absent M.(

.
.

_
.
.

.
.

.
.


.
.

.
.

.
_

.
.

.
.

Absent F.(

.
.

.
.

.
v


.
.

.
_

.
.

.
Addressed M.(


..

.
.

_
.
.

.
.

.
v


.
.

_
.

.
.

.
Addressed F.(


..

.
.

)
57
2.13 Auxiliary Verbs (


.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.
)


.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.
in Arabic are like auxiliary verbs in English, they
dont have full verb functions.


.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.
come before

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

..

.
.
.

.
:

, they are all


.
.
:

.

., no matter what tense they


are in.
The most famous example from


.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.
is

, so these verbs
are also called .

. Below is a list of this type of verbs:


1.

: was
2.

.

. : became to be, turned to be, came to be
3.

_

.
.

.
: became morning
4. _

.
.
.

.
: became evening
5. _

.
.
.

.
: became Duha time
6.

.
_

. : happened
7.

.
.

(

.

.
.
.

) : night time happened


8.

.
: happened, took place
9.

..

. : happened, turned to
10.

.

. : morning turned to happen


11.

_

: happened, departed
58
12.

. : continued, didnt disappear, didnt cease


13.

.
.

.
.

.
.

. : it was there, didnt depart, didnt cease


14. _
.
.

. : didnt leave
15.

_

. : didnt leave, didnt go


16.

,

. .

. : didnt continue
17.

_
.
.
.

: didnt happen, did not


59
2.14 Almost happened, but actually did not
(

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.
)
Verbs in

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.
category have the meaning of Almost
happened, nearly happened, but didnt happen. Below is a list of
this type of verbs:
1. _

. : Almost happened. This verb doesnt have


.

..
.

.
.
.

.
.
Ex.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.

., Zaid almost came out (but not).


2.

..

(

.
.
.
.

) : Almost happened. This verb has


.

..
.

.
.
.

.
.
3.


. : Almost happened
4.

.
: Almost happened
5.

: Made ... happened


6.

.

.
.
.

.
: Nearly happened
60
2.15 Words with end changing (
.

.
.

.) and
words without end changing (
.
.
_
.

.
.

.)
Words can be categorized into two groups:
.

.
.

. (words with end changing), and


.
.
_
.

.
.

. (words without end changing).


.

.
.

. (words with end changing) can be categorized into following


subgroups:
1.
.

,
.

.
..

.
.

.: Reect end changing through Harakat


(
.
. .

. .

.). We already discussed this category in


before sections (categories of
.
.

.
.

.
,
.
.
.

.,
.
.
.

.)
2.

,

.
.
:

.
..

.
.

.: Reect end changing with some special


letters. Usually these letters are:
.

is used to represent
.

.
..

.
.
is used to represent
.
.

.
..

.
.
or
.

.
is used to represent
.

.
.

.
.
:

.
..

.
.

. has the following subcategories:


(a) 6 special words (

.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.


..

.
.
.

.
.
.
):
i.
.

.
: father
ii.
.
_

.
: brother
iii.
.
,

: Aunt
iv.
.

.: Aunt
v.
.
_

: mouth
61
vi.

.: owner
These 6 words form their
.

.
.

.
.


.
.

through changing
their end letters. Use
.

.
as an example:

.
.
.

(
.

.
.

.
);

..

(
.

.);


..

-

(
.
_

.)
Please refer to next section for their
.

.
.

.
.


.
.

of
these 6 words.
(b)
.
_

.

.
.

.
.
.

(Healthy masculine plural nouns):


This type of plural nouns form their
.
_

. by sux

.;
while
.

.
.

.
and
.



.
.

. by sux

_
.
.
.

For example:

.
.

(
.
_

.)

_
.
.
.

.
.

(
.

.
.

.
and
.



.
.

.)
(c) _

.
.

. (Dual form of a noun):


Dual form nouns form their
.
_

. by sux

.; while
.

.
.

.
and
.



.
.

. by sux

_

.
.
.

.
For example:

.
.

(
.
_

.)

.
.
.

.
.

_
.

(
.

.
.

.
and
.



.
.

.)
(d)
.
_

.

.
.
.

.
.
.

(Healthy feminine plural nouns):


This type plural nouns form their
.
_

. by sux
.
.
.

.;
while
.

.
.

.
and
.



.
.

. by sux
.

. (no .

.
..

. form for
.
_

.

.
.
.

.
.
.

)
For example:
.
.
.

.
.

.

. (
.
_

.)
.

.
.

.

. (
.

.
.

.
and
.



.
.

.) (no such a form of .

.
..

.
.

.

.)
62
2.16 Six special words (

.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.


..

.
.
.

.
.
.
)
Table 2.4:
.
.

.
.

. of 6 special words (

.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.


..

.
.
.

.
.
.
)
owner mouth Aunt Aunt brother father

.
.
_

.
.
,

.
_

.

-

.
_

. .

. .

.

-
.

.
.



.
.

_
.
.

_
.

. _
.
.

-
_
.

.
_
.

.
.

.
63
2.17 Putting Harakat on

..

. (

..

.
.

.
.

)
.
.

.

: to call

..

. : the one who is called upon


.


.
.

.
.


includes .

.

.

.
.

.
.
Below are rules to put Harakat on

..

.:
1.
.
_

.

.

.
.

.


..

.
.

: when

..

. is a single word, it takes


.
_

.
For example,

.

.

.
.
.

.

,.

.
.

.
.
2.
.



.
.

.
.

.


..

.
.

: when

..

. is a phrase (
.

.
.

.
.), or
not a single word, it takes
.



.
.

.
For example,

.
.
.

.
.
64
2.18 Nouns with end changing (
.

.
.

.
.
..

.
.
.

.
)
and Nouns without end changing
(

,

.
.

.
.
.

.
.
..

.
.
.

.
)
Around 99% nouns are with end changing (
.

.
.

.
.
..

.
.
.

.
), while the
other around 1% nouns are without end changing
(

,

.
.

.
.
.

.
.
..

.
.
.

.
). Most of former sections talked about
.

.
.

.
.
..

.
.
.

.
, this section will talk about

,

.
.

.
.
.

.
.
..

.
.
.

.
.
Nouns without end changing (

,

.
.

.
.
.

.
.
..

.
.
.

.
) include the
following subcategories:
1. Non Arabic words (
.
.

.
.
-


.): ex.

_.

. (Dallas),

_

.-

.

.
.

(Los Angeles)
2. When two words come together to form a noun: ex.

.
.

.
.
.

comes from

.
.

_
.
.

3. Verbs used as noun (_

.
.


):
4. _

.
.

.

.
.
.
.


_
.
.

: ex.

.

.
.
-

.
, the meaning is the one who praises
most
Notes:
1. Nouns without end changing (

,

.
.

.
.
.

.
.
..

.
.
.

.
) doesnt take
.

_.
.

.
.
2. Nouns without end changing (

,

.
.

.
.
.

.
.
..

.
.
.

.
) doesnt take
.
.

, instead, it takes
.

.
.

..
65
Ex.

.
.

.
.
.

_
.

,

.

.
.
-

_.

,

_.

. _
.

But there is an exception, when nouns without end changing


(

,

.
.

.
.
.

.
.
..

.
.
.

.
) is used as
.

,.

., it takes
.
.

:
Ex. .

.
..
.

.
.

.
_

.
(Compare:
.
_

.

.
.
.

.
.
.

(Healthy feminine plural nouns)


take no
.

.
.

., instead, they take


.
.

)
66
2.19 Conjunction Letters (

.

.
:

.
.


)
Conjunction letters (

.

.
:

.
.


) are used to connect two peer
parts in grammar. For example
.
.

.
.

.

.

.
.
-

.
.
-

.
is called

.
.
.

,

:
.
.

. (the one who is connected by something)


,

is called
.

.
.
:

.
.

,
.


or
.

..

.
, while
.
.

.
.

.

.
is called
.

,

:
.
.

. (the one connecting to something)


So, the general structure related to

.

.
:

.
.


is as follows:
.

,

:
.
.

. ,

.

.
:

.
.

.
.
.

,

:
.
.

.
Below are some commonly used

.

.
:

.
.


:
1.

: when

is used to connect two things, no order is applied,
that means we dont know which one is the rst, which one is
the second
2.

, : when

, is used to connect two things, order is applied,


that means

.
.
.

,

:
.
.

. is the rst, while


.

,

:
.
.

. is the second
3.

.
_

.
: after
4. _


: after
5.
.

.
: or
6. .

.
.
.

: either
7.
.
,

.
: or, usually used in question sentence started with

.
or
.
_

.
67
8. .

: no, opposite
9.
.
_

: no, opposite
10.

.

_<

: but
68
2.20 Phrase

.
_
.

..
.

..

.
.

.
.
.

.
_
.

..
.

..

.
.

.
.
.

is a type of phrase structure in Arabic, its


structure is as follows:

.
.
.

,.

. +
.

,.

.
Some examples:
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.

is
.

,.

., while .

.
.
.

is

.
.
.

,.

.)
.

.
.

is
.

,.

., while
.

.
.

is

.
.
.

,.

.)
1.
.

,.

. and

.
.
.

,.

. forms a unit
2.
.

,.

. takes no
.

_.
.

.
. (
.
. .

.)
3.

.
.
.

,.

. is something known
4.

.
.
.

,.

. always takes
.
.

at its end
69
2.21 Phrase

.
_
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
_
.

.
.

.
.
.

is a type of phrase structure in Arabic, its


structure is as follows:
.
.

..

+
.

,

.
.

.
.

.
.
.

means to describe, to qualify


Some examples:
.
..
.
.

.
.

(
.

.
.

is
.

,

.
.

., while
.
..
.
.

is
.
.

..

)
Rule:

,

.
.

.
.

.
.

..

.
.

.

..

..

follows

,

.
.

.
.

in nitivity (
.
.
.

<

.
.
.

.
.

.), gender
(
.
.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
.), number (
.
.

.

.), ending Harakat(


.

.
.
.

).
This is also called
.
.

.

:

.
. (corresponding) of
.
.

..

to
.

,

.
.

..
70
2.22 Followers

.

.
.
Below we will discuss about following phenomena, such as
ending Harakat following, in some Arabic grammar structures.
1.
.
.

..

: Describing

.

.

means to describe
.
.

..

structure in Arabic is as follows:


.
.

..

+
.

,

.
.

.
Ex.
.

.
.
.

.
.
_

-


(a good man)
,
.
_

-


is called
.

,

.
.

., while
.

.
.
.

. is called
.
.

..

Rule:

,


.
.

.
.
.

.
.

..

.
.

.

.
.

, or
.
.

..

follows
.

,

.
.

. in below
aspects:
(a)
.

.
.
.

: Ending Harakat
(b)
.
.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.

.
. : Masculine / Feminine
(c)
.
.

.

. (
.

.
.

-

.
.

.
.
.

.) : Numbers (singular, dual, plural)


(d)
.

.
.
<

.
.
.

..
.

.
.

.
. : Denitive / Indenitive
For example:

.
.

..

.
.

.
.

.
.
.

(two Muslim females)


2.
.

,

:
.
.

.: the one connecting to something


Ex.
.

_

.

.
.
-


..

-

(Ahmed and Hasan came.)


,

.

.
.
-

.
is called

.
.
.

,

:
.
.

. (the one who is connected by


something)
,

is called

.

.
:

.
.

,
.


or
.

..

.
71
, while
.

_

.

is called
.

,

:
.
.

. (the one connecting to


something)
Rule:
.

,

:
.
.

. follows

.
.
.

.
.

,

:
.
.

. in
.

.
.
.

(ending Harakat).
3.
.

: Something takes the place to explain or complete the


meaning
Ex. .

.
.
.

:
.

.
.
-


,
.

.
.
.


..

-

,

.

.
.
-

.
is called
.

, while

,
.

.
.
.

is called

..


.
.
.

..
Rule:
.

takes the same


.

.
.
.

as

..


.
.
.

. takes
4.

.
.

.
.
:

.: to explain something
Ex.

_
.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.
:

_
.
.
.

.
.


is called

.
.

.
.
:

., which explain

.
.

in front of
it.
Rule:

.
.

.
.
:

. follows the word it explains.


72
2.23

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
:

and

.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.
:

1.

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
:

are:
.


.

.

.
.
.
.


.

.
.
_
.
_
.


.

.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.

2.

.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.
:

are:
.

.

.

.
.
.
,
.
.
.
.

.

,
.

_
.
_
.
_
.
_
.
_

, to remember them easily:


..
.

.
.


.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
:

need to be put Shadda (


.
.) when they follow
.

,
.

(in
.

) is not pronounced; while

.
.
.

.
.
.

.
.
:

need not to be put


Shadda (
.
.) when they follow
.

, and
.
(in
.

) need to be
pronounced. For example:

_
.
.

.
.
.

.
.
.

_
.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.
:

All Praise be to Allah! The Cherisher and Sustainer of the worlds!


73