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CORROSION MONITORING

IN

OIL & GAS INDUSTRY

SEONYEOB LI GS ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION, CO., LTD.


PLANT PROCESS ENGINEERING TEAM

21 JUNE 2012

CAUSES OF FAILURE IN REFINING & PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS IN JAPAN (2004)

Comparingthe2004surveyresultswithdatafromasimilar1984survey Comparingthe2004surveyresultswithdatafromasimilar1984survey showsthesituationappearsunchangedoverthepast20years.

Source:R.D.Kane,ChemicalEngineering,June2007

MATERIAL SELECTION - REALITY


CompromisebetweenexpensiveCRAsandlessexpensive,moreavailablemetal susceptibletocorrosion. susceptibletocorrosion CorrosionofCRAsduringupsetconditions Amoreproactive(realtime)approachtocorrosionmitigationisneeded,e.g., corrosionmonitoring

WHAT IS CORROSION MONITORING?


Thepracticecarriedouttoassessandpredictthe corrosionbehavior inoperatingplantandequipment

DEVELOPMENT OF MONITORING PLAN


1. 2.

Itshallbeincludedinthedetaileddesignstageofplantandfacilities. CorrosionRiskAssessment(systembysystembase)
1) 2) 3) 4)

Processstreamparameters Specificcorrosionmechanismsormodesofattacklikelytooccur Corrosionrateestimation Consequencesofsystemfailures

3. 3

Developmentofcorrosionmonitoringplan
1) 2) 3) 4)

Monitoringsystemdesignincludingtypes,locationsandorientation Prescribedmonitoringfrequency Monitoringprocedures Allocationofresponsibility

OBJECTIVES OF CORROSION MONITORING


Diagnosisofcorrosionproblem Monitoringcorrosioncontrolmethods Advancedwarningofsystemupsetsleadingtocorrosiondamage Invokingprocesscontrol Determinationofinspectionand/ormaintenanceschedules Estimatingservicelifeofequipment g q p

CORROSION MONITORING SYSTEM DESIGN

Designprocessincludedtheestablishmentofthetype,location andorientationofdevicesandsamplingports inthefacility.

PROBE LOCATION GENERAL RULES

Positionswherewaterwillcondense,poolorimpinge.

Forlonghorizontalpiperuns,e.g.,atthebottomofapipeline Influidstreamswithsuspendedsolids,thereisariskofsolidsaccumulatinginthe accessfittinglocatedinpositionsbetween3and9Oclock,whichcauseprobesealing problems. problems

Positionsofspecialsensitivity whereturbulence,velocitymixing,temperatureof pHetc.maybeofconcern. H b f

Accessfittingshouldbelocatedaminimumdistanceofsevenpipediameters downstreamandaminimumofthreepipediametersupstreamofanychangesinflow causedbybends,reducers,valves,orificeplates,thermowells,etc. causedbybends reducers valves orificeplates thermowells etc Ifaccessfittingsareinstalledinpairsthereshouldbeaminimumdistanceof1m(3ft) betweeneachfitting. Ifthemonitoringdevicesareintrusiveandcompriseaprobeandacouponholder the Ifthemonitoringdevicesareintrusiveandcompriseaprobeandacouponholder,the probeshouldbelocatedintheupstreamfittingtominimizeturbulencearoundthe secondmonitoringdevice.

PROBE LOCATION GENERAL RULES

Positionswhereupsets mayoccur,i.e.,afterchemicalinjection,acid concentrationorseparation. concentrationorseparation

Productionchemicals,corrosioninhibitors,scaleinhibitors,oxygenscavengers,etc. Corrosionmonitoringdevicesshouldbeplacedataminimumoffivepipediameters downstreamoftreatmentchemicalinjectionpoints. downstreamoftreatmentchemicalinjectionpoints

Positionswherethereareconcentrationsofcorrosivespecies. Positionswhereabruptchangesoccursuchasplantmetallurgy,processfluids,etc.

Positionswhereprocessstreamchangesuchaspressure,temperature,flowrate,etc. areprevalent.

Positionswherefromexperiencethehighestcorrosionrateswouldbeexpected.

LOCATIONS - GUIDELINES

NACERP0775
In lines handling wet gas water can accumulate at changes in the line elevation as depicted in Figure 8 In gas, 8. Corrosion may be accelerated where water has accumulated. Coupons in such systems must be located where they will be waterwet to correlate with corroding areas. Coupons located in the vapor phase could indicate only slight corrosion when waterwet areas are corroding severely.

LOCATIONS NACE RP0497

EXAMPLE OF PROBE INSTALLATION (FOR COLUMN TRAY MONITORING)

PROBE LOCATION

MONITORING DEVICE ACCESS


Theprobeandcouponmonitoringdevicesshouldbeavailablewithout

theneedtoshutdownthefacility. th dt h td th f ilit
Forsystemsoflessthan10bar(g)(150psig),lowpressureDN25(NPS1)

accessfittingscanbeemployed. Forhighpressuresystems,10137bar(g)(1502000psig)thisshallbe achievedbytheuseofproprietaryDN50(NPS2)accessfittings. Selectedlocationshallhaveadequateclearancefortheoperationofthe

retrievaltool;otherwise,theaccessfittingisunusable.

CORROSION DATA QUALITY


Generally,theinformationfromasingletypeofcorrosionmonitoring

methodshouldnotbereliedupontoprovideafullunderstandingofthe corrosionenvironmentofinterest. Foranymonitoringprogram,controlchecksshouldbeincludedtoensure reliabilityofthedata. reliabilityofthedata


Duplicatedevices Correlationwithinspectionresults Comparisonbetweendirectandindirectmonitoringdata Correlatingdatawithvisualinspectionresultstakenoutofservice

Validation Ifimportantdamagemechanismsaretransient,doesthemonitoringdevice identifyand/orrecordthem? Iftimelyawarenessofexcessivecorrosionratesorexcessivemetallossis needed,isthemonitoringdeviceprovidinginformationintherighttimescale? Isthemonitoringsystemidentifyingthemorphologyofinterest?

GENERAL GUIDE ON APPLICATION OF CORROSION MONITORING TECHNIQUES


Hyd drogenprobes pat tch San Monitoring nd Dev vices Dissolvedgasses Gal lvanic probes Dissolvedsolids X X X X X X X FieldSignature Me ethod(FSM) We eight loss cou upon LPR Rprobes Bac cteria mo onitoring X X X X X X X ER probes

Seawaterinjectionandcooling system Producedwatertreatmentandinjectionsystems q Aquifer water Effluentwater Boiler feedwater andstreamcondensate Multiphaseflowwithwater Unstabilized crudeoil Hydrocarbongas Fractionationunits,CDU, andpipework FCCU,reactorcolumns FCCU reactorcol mns Solventextractionunits,amine/caustictreaters and piping Vacuumtowers,regenerators,processunits,and pp pipework Storagevessels/tanks withseparatedwaterbottoms

4 1 3 X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X

X X 2 2 2 X X X X X X X

X X X X X X X

X X X X

pH6

O2 O2,CO2, H2S CO2, H2S O O2 O2 X CO2, H2S X O2 X O2 O2 CO2, H2S

:possibleapplication,X:Notapplicable, 1:Dependsonwaterquality.Unsuitableifthereislowioncontent,strongscalingtendency,orotherformsofelectrodecontamination arepossible 2:maybeusedifoxygencontentarehigh,3:onlyinwatercutsaboveca.10%20%,4:Dependsonwaterquality.Unsuitableifthereisbiofliming tendency 5:Intrusiveprobepreferred.Flushmountedprobeunsuitableifthereisbiofilming tendency,6:onlyinaqueousphaseispresent

Source: BP GP 06-70

TYPES OF MONITORING METHODS


Direct*1 Intrusive*3 Corrosioncoupons Electricalresistance(ER) Linearpolarizationresistance(LPR) Indirect*1 OnlinepHorwateranalysis Internal hydrogenfluxprobes Ultrasonictesting Radiography Externalhydrogenfluxprobes Analysisofwatersamplesobtained y p throughanexistingvalve Surfacepatchhydrogen probes

Nonintrusive

*1 Tomeasureadirectresultofcorrosion. *2 Tomeasureanoutcomeofthecorrosionprocess *3 Torequireentryintotheprocessstream

Ofthetechniqueslistedabove,corrosioncoupons,ERandLPR f Ofth t h i li t d b i ER dLPR formthecoreofindustrialcorrosion th fi d t i l i monitoringsystems.

MONITORING METHODS

Corrosion coupon

LPR probe

Bioprobe for monitoring bacteria Source: Alabama Specialty Products, www.metalsamples.com Electrical resistance probe

17

FLUSH TYPE VS. INTRUSIVE TYPE

18

DIRECT INTRUSIVE TECHNIQUES


Flushmountedmonitoringdevice Simulationofprocessesthatoccuratthewallsurface. Corrosioninlowwatercutsituations(wetoil),waterdropout(wetgas), underdepositcorrosion,andareaswherewatercondenses. Susceptibletofouling(canbeignoredinturbulencelocations) Intrusiveprobes Overallcorrosivityofstreamsratherthanmorespecificenvironments Processupsetsinasinglephase,highwallshearstresses, worstcasesituations Forcleanwatersteams Cannotbeusedinlinesthatarepigged,ormustbedrawnbeforepigging. p gg , p gg g

CORROSION (WEIGHT LOSS) COUPONS (


Themethodinvolvesexposingaspecimenofmaterialofinterest(thecoupon)toa processenvironmentforagivenduration,thenremovingthespecimenforanalysis. Thebasicmeasurementisweightloss;theweightlosstakingplaceovertheperiodof exposurebeingexpressedascorrosionrate. Thesimplicity ofthemeasurementissuchthatthecoupontechniqueformsthe baselinemethodofmeasurementinmanycorrosionmonitoringprograms. Typically,a90daydurationtest(forpressureretrievalcoupons),whichgivesbasic corrosionratemeasurementsasafrequencyoffourtimesperyear.


NACERP0497:aminimumexposureduration(h)=50/[expectedcorrosionrate(mm/y)] Shutdownsorprocessinterruption

ASTM G58

C Ring ASTM G38 C

INHIBITOR COMPARISON USING COUPONS (OIL WELL)


FLOW

35 ppm Water Soluble Chemical

35 ppm

25 ppm

Oil Soluble Chemical

CORROSION RATE FROM COUPON DATA


Simplestandmostreliabletechniqueforcorrosionratedeterminationis

theWeightLossTechnique. th W i htL T h i CorrosionRate=[massloss]/[(exposedsurfacearea][time]) p or =Averagecorrosionpenetrationdepth/time =(mass/density/surfacearea/time) (mass/density/surfacearea/time)


CommonCorrosionRateUnits gmd:gramsofmetallosspersquaremeterperday(mdd) mm/y:averagemillimeterspenetrationperyear mpy:averagemilspenetrationperyear 1mil=0 001inch) mpy:averagemilspenetrationperyear,1mil 0.001inch)

NACE RP 0775 CORROSION RATES GUIDELINES


General l (mm/y) <0.025 0.025 0.12 0.13 0.25 >0.25 Max.Pitting (mm/y) <0.13 0.13 0.20 0.21 0.38 >0.38 Corrosion Rating Low Moderate High Severe

CORROSION COUPONS
Advantages Inexpensive,easilyapplied Couponmadeofmaterialssimilartopipeorvessel Visualinspectionidentifiesmodeofcorrosion attack Samplesavailableforscale orsurfacedeposit analysis Sources ofmicrobiologicaldata Applicable toallenvironments Disadvantages Corrosionrate averagedoverexposuretime Corrosionratecalculationassumesuniform corrosion Datagenerationslow(longexposuretimes) Requiresinsertion andretrievalunderpressureorat aturnaround

TYPICAL CORROSION MORPHOLOGY (SOIL)

Straycurrentcorrosion

Corrosioninoxygenrich(aerobic)soil

Microbiologicallyinfluencedcorrosion Inanaerobicsoil 25

EDS ANALYSIS OF CORROSION COUPON


3000

O
2000

Si S Ca Fe
1

MIC

1000

Al
2

0 3000 0 3

Inorganiccorrosion
2000

O Fe Ca Si

1000

0 0 1

S
2 3

keV

AVERAGE CORROSION RATE VS. INSTANTANEOUS CORROSION RATE

TYPES OF PITTING (ASTM G46) ( )

Ratioofmaximumlocalizedcorrosionratetogeneralcorrosionratedeterminedbymass g y loss(pittingfactor)

PittingofSS Velocityacceleratedcorrosion

Percentofcorrosionaffectedareaonthecoupon

ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE (ER) PROBE ( )


Measuresthechangeinelectricalresistanceofacorrodingmetal

elementsrelativetoareferencenoncorrodingelementsealedwithinthe l t l ti t f di l t l d ithi th probebody.

L R A

ER PROBE TYPES (CORROSOMETER) (

Velocity shield

ER PROBE

TRADEOFF BETWEEN SENSITIVITY AND SENSOR LIFE IN COMMERCIAL ER PROBE


Wiretype:lossofaquarterof thickness Othertypes:lossofahalfof thickness

ER PROBE
Recommendedmeasurementinterval

ER PROBE
Advantages Directmeasurementofmetal loss Disadvantages Sensitivetothermal change

Willworkinmostenvironments:doesnotrequire Corrosionrate calculatedasuniformcorrosion. continuousaqueous phase Noinformationonlocalizedcorrosion (suitableformultiphase,nonaqueousenvironments) (suitableformultiphase non aqueousenvironments) Quickerresponsethancorrosioncoupons Continuously loggedprobesgivehighqualitydata (loggingrateaslowas5min) (trendsandchangesincorrosionactivity) Meter outputisincumulativemetalloss.Slopeof dataneededtocalculatedcorrosionrate Highsensitivitytypeprobeis available. (Takreer RRE#2) Noncorrodingelementscanbeusedaspure N di l t b d erosionmonitor. Manual readingssubjecttosignalnoise (probeconnections) Crevicecorrosioncanoccuronpoorlyconstructed flushtype probes Requiresinsertionandretrievalunderpressure whichcanhavesafetyimplications Requires severaldaystodetermineareliable corrosionratetrend Adverselyaffectedbyconductivesulfidefilm Ad l ff t db d ti lfid fil corrosionproductswhereH2Sispresent

APPLICATIONS OF ER PROBE
Oilandgasproduction Gassweetening,storage,andtransportationsystems Reneriesandpetrochemicalplants Inhibitorevaluation/optimizationprograms Powerplantsforcoolingwater,feedwater,andscrubbersystems.In

baghousesandstacksforspecialfunctionsuchasdewpointalarmingin uegassystems Chemicalprocesses Cathodicallyprotectedsystems Aircleaningsystemsincontrolrooms Papermillsorotherplantswithavolatileinherentlycorrosiveprocess p p y p stream

SAND PROBE

ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION MONITORING


Linearpolarizationresistance(LPR) () Potentialmonitoring Zeroresistanceammetry(ZRA);galvaniccurrentmeasurements Electrochemicalimpedancespectroscopy(EIS) Electrochemicalnoise(EN)

ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION MONITORING


Corrosioninanelectrochemicalprocessthatcanbemonitoredby

measuringpotential&currentthatcharacterizethecorrosionprocess. i t ti l& tth t h t i th i

CORROSION RATES AND POLARIZATION

POTENTIODYNAMIC POLARIZATION CURVE

LINEAR POLARIZATION RESISTANCE (LPR) METHOD


Within~10mVmorenobleoractivethantheEcorr,,i isalinear functionoftheelectrodepotential. iapp =|iaic|=f(E) pp E=Eapp Ecorr =alog ia/io,M alog icorr/io,M =a logia/icorr =a/2.303ln ia/icorr l ia =icorr e2.303E/
a

Eapp Ecorr

ic

ia

io,a
c

log i g

Similarly, ic =icorr e2.303E/


a

iapp =ia ic =icorr (e2.303E/ e2.303E/ ) =icorr (2.303E/a +2.303E/c) =2.303icorrE(a +c)/ac =icorrE/B S SternGearyequation G i
c

assumingthata =c =0.12 Rp = E/iapp =B/icorr=0.026/icorr B/i 0.026/i Rp:polarizationresistance.

TYPICAL POLARIZATION RESISTANCE PLOT

FARADAYS LAW AND CORROSION RATES


Q M m nF F
Where g ( ) Q=charge(C)=It F=Faradaysconstant(96,500C/eq.) n=numberofequivalents(molesofelectrons)transferredpermol ofmetal m=massofmetalcorroded(g) M=molecular(atomic)weightofmetal(g/mole) Corrosion R ( C i Rate(mm/y)=(8.76104 m)/(A D T) / ) (8 6 )/(A D T) Where A=Couponsurfacearea(cm2) D=Materialdensity(g/cm3) p ( ) T=Timeofexposure(hours)

LPR PROBE

Givesinstantaneouscorrosion rates Onlyusedinconductive, aqueoussolutions Basedonthecurrentflow betweentwoormoreelectrodes Requiresthesurfacetobecome polarizedandcurrentresistance ismeasured. Sometimesprobehasa referenceelectrodeaswell.

LPR PROBE OPERATING RANGE

Close Spaced 3 electrode probes

APPLICATION OF LPR PROBE


Watersystems Condensingwatersystems Oilsystemswithhighwatercontents

LPR PROBE WITH REMOTE MONITORING


HoneywellsSmartCETusesasensorforbackground electrochemicalnoise(EN)todetectpittingalongwith l h l d l h LPRprobe.

LPR PROBE
Advantages Rapidmeasurementofcorrosivity Sensitivetoanyprocesschanges:flow, pressure,temperature,etc. Disadvantages Generalcorrosionratesindicativeoftrendrather thanabsolute Continuouswaterphaserequired Probesaresusceptibletofoulingbydepositsor hydrocarbonphase. Nolocalizedcorrosioninformation

ALGORITHM FOR SUITABILITY OF ER AND LPR TECHNIQUES

OTHER TECHNIQUES
ElectrochemicalImpedanceSpectroscopy(EIS) ElectrochemicalNoise(EN) ZeroResistanceAmmetry(ZRA)

GALVANIC PROBE

Measuresthecurrentflowingbetweentwodissimilarmetalelectrodesthroughazero resistanceammeter(ZRA). Themagnitudeofthecurrentanditsdirectiongivesanindicationofthecorrosivityofthe fluidandwhichmaterialisanodicorcathodic. Customarily,apairofsteelandbrass SensitivetoDO

DOmonitoringinEastTexas WaterInjectionStation

DIRECT NON-INTRUSIVE TECHNIQUES


Fieldsignaturemethod(FSM)

NDTmethods

RT IMAGE - EXAMPLE

54

INDIRECT ON-LINE TECHNIQUES


Hydrogenmonitoring Acousticsolidparticledetectors Waterchemistryparameters Processparameters

HYDROGEN FLUX MONITORING


Hydrogenrelatedproblems Blistering HIC SOHIC SSC Hydrogenprobetomonitorhydrogenabsorptionbysteel I Intrusive(fingerprobes) P i (fi b ) Pressuredetection d i Nonintrusive electrochemicalprobe Provisionofagoodmeasureofhydrogenactivity

HYDROGEN PROBE

WATER & PROCESS PARAMETERS


Waterchemistryparameters pH Oxidationreductionpotential(ORP) Dissolvedoxygen(DO)content yg ( ) Conductivity P Processparameters t Pressure temperature

INDIRECT OFF-LINE TECHNIQUES

Waterchemistryparameters
Dissolvedsolidsanalysis(APIRP45) Metalioncorrosionanalysis(NACERP0192 ironcountanalysis) Dissolvedgasanalysis O2,CO2,H2S Testkitsorlaboratoryanalysis

BacterialMonitoring
Planktonic bacteria(APIRP38 SRB) bacteria(APIRP38SRB) Sessilebacteria(NACETM0194)

ChemicalAnalysis

Sulfurcontent(ASTMD4294) TAN(ASTMD664,D974,UOPmethod565,587) Nitrogencontent(ASTMD3228) Saltcontentincrudeoil(ASTMD3230) Mercury(ASTMD6350)

CORROSION MONITORING IN CRUDE UNIT OVERHEADS

Methods
Wateranalysis(overhead) pH Fecontent Chlorides(waterinoverheadreceiver) baseforoptimizationofcaustic ( ) p injection/blendingofcrudes Hardness CWquality,precipitationatoverhead(waterwashing) Hydrocarbonanalysis Residualtestoffilminginhibitor(35ppm) d l ffl hb Metalanalysisofoil(forNACcontrol) Corrosionratemeasurements ERprobe LPRprobe overheadreceiverwaterdrum Corrosioncoupon NDT(onstream) ( ) UT,RT Whenthereisaconfirmedorsuspectedproblems

CORROSION MONITORING IN ADU

LPR ER

Crudeunitdesalter Crudeoilpreheatexchangers&piping Tower Toweroverhead Overheadpipingandcondensers watercondensation+acidchloridesnotneutralizedand/or inhibited.

CORROSION MONITORING IN CRUDE UNIT OVERHEADS


CorrosionProbesStatistics(example) NACESurvey(1983) Abreakdownofmonitoringpractices(129CDUacross44companies worldwide)
ERProbes(CORROSOMETER) LPRProbes(CORRATER) CorrosionCoupons(COSASCOtype) Noneofabove(?)

59% 1% 17% 23%

CORROSION MONITORING IN ADU/VDU

Atsitesofcondensationofacidicchlorideinthedistillatedrumbootandtheejectorintercondenser collectordrum. Areassusceptibletonaphthenicacidcorrosion(NAC,500700F)suchasVDUpreheater,shellandtraysof tower,transferline,columnsidestripper,gasoilcircuits. tower transferline columnsidestripper gasoilcircuits Inregionsofcondensationfoundinsideofthecolumn. Highsulfurcorrosion(bottom) Hightemperaturecylindricalelementprobesoftheretractabletypes

CORROSION MONITORING IN FCCU

Reactor&regenerator g

Hightemperature(9001200oF) Notbyprobes,butbyUTorvisualinspection Fractionatoroverheadsystem,sidestripper Fractionatoroverheadsystem sidestripper Effluentpipingofthecompressoraftercoolers

Corrosionprobes

CORROSION MONITORING IN CLER UNIT

ChemicalTest

CN andSCN contentinwastewaterstream pH(highpressurecondensate)forwaterwashcontrol Condenser/coolerbunldes (highpHcorrosionofCualloys) Heatexchangereffluentsingascompressionsystem Debutanizeroverheadsystem,etc. Sourwaterlines Differentelevationoftheabsorber/strippertower Vapor/liquidinterfaceareaofthehighpressureseparatordrum

Corrosionprobes

HydrogenmonitoringProbe

HIGH PRESSURE ACCESS FITTING FOR A RETRIEVABLE PROBE

COUPON INSTALLATION INTO HIGH PRESSURE LINE

67

CORROSION MONITORING SYSTEMS

Use of Portable CorrosometerTM Instrument for M f Measuring Corrosion of Shell-side of Heat Exchanger i C i f Sh ll id f H t E h

ON-LINE THICKNESS MEASUREMENTS

Source: Hydrocarbon Processing, March 2012, pp.35-37

ASSESSMENT OF CORROSION INHIBITOR PERFORMANCE FOR MEG REBOILER


Temp. : 140 C solution : EG + inhibitor
0.400 0.375 0.350 0.325 0.300 0.275 0.250 0.225
o

Ar blowing (+ NaCl 16%) Air blowing (+ NaCl 16%) Ar blowing g Air blowing

mm/yr r

0.200 0.175 0.150 0.125 0.100 0 100 0.075 0.050 0.025 0.000 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36

EG:water 60:40

EG:water 78:22

38

40

42

water %

RiverWaterAnalysis

LPR (CASE STUDY HONEYWELL) (

ChemicalTreatment

Program

CycledWater

Analysis

LPR (CASE STUDY HONEYWELL) (

LPR (CASE STUDY HONEYWELL) (

LPR (CASE STUDY HONEYWELL) (

EXAMPLE EFFECT OF UNSTABLE OPERATION

Source: N.P. Hilton, Hydrocarbon Processing, March 2012, 49.

ON-LINE MONITORING

MONITORING STRATEGY
CORROSION AS A PROCESS CONTROL VARIABLE!

REFERENCES
1) 2) 3) ) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 1) 2) 13) 14) 15) 16) ) 17) 18) 19) R.D.Kane,ChemicalEngineering,June2007,34. CoursebookforCorrosionControlintheRefiningIndustry,NACEInternational,July2011. SurveyofCorrosionCostinJapan,CommitteeonCostofCorrosioninJapan,JapanSocietyofCorrosionEngineering(JSCE), S fC i C i J C i C fC i i J J S i fC i E i i (JSCE) March2001. AlabamaSpecialtyProducts,www.metalsamples.com. NACERP0775,Preparation,Installation,Analysis,andInterpretationofCorrosionCouponsinOilfieldOperations,2005. NACERP0497,FieldCorrosionEvaluationUsingMetallicTestSpecimens,2004. ASTMG4StandardGuideforConductingCorrosionCouponTestsinFeldApplications ASTMG46StandardGuideforExaminationandEvaluationofPittingCorrosion ASTMG102StandardPracticeforCalculationofCorrosionRatesandRelatedInformationfromElectrochemical Measurements. CoursebookforCorrosionBasics,NACEInternational,Jan2003. P.R.Roberge,HandbookofCorrosionEngineering,McGrawHill,2000. P.A.Schweitzer,CorrosionofLiningsandCoatings CathodicandInhibitorProtectionandCorrosionMonitoring,CRCPress, 2007. NACEPublication3T199TechniquesforMonitoringCorrosionandRelatedParametersinFieldApplications,NACE International,1999. NACEPublication3D170ElectricalandElectrochemicalMethodsforDeterminingCorrosionRates,NACEInternational ApplicationNoteAN107,CorrosionMonitoringinCrudeUnitDistillationColumns,Rohrback Cosasco Systems,Inc.,April1990. J.Gutzeit,CrudeUnitCorrosionGuide ACompleteHowToManual,PCC,2004. ApplicationNoteAN109,CorrosionMonitoringinFluidCatalyticCrackers(FCC),Rohrback Cosasco Systems,Inc.,April1990. K.Wold andR.Stoen,MonitoringInternalCorrosioninPipelins,ASTMEIndiaOil&GasPipelineConference,GOA,February , g p , p , , y 2011. OperatingManualforModelCET5000,SeriesSmartCET CorrosionMonitoringTransmitter,Honeywell,July2006. P.Collins,HydrocarbonProcessing,March2012,35. GuidanceonPracticeforCorrosionMonitoring,EngineeringTechnicalPracticesGP0670,BPGroup,2005.

QUESTIONS?