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TOPIC:- WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING (GROUP 5) Interlinking of rivers by diverting Wardha & Tapi rivers is only remedy for

removal of backlog in Western Vidharbha BY Nikhil B. Waware B.E.-III Gaurav Wankhede B.E.-III RAM MEGHE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY & RESEARCH BADNERA.

Interlinking of rivers by diverting Wardha and Tapi rivers is the only remedy for removal of irrigation backlog in western Vidarbha
By.
1) Nikhil B. Waware , B.E. (III) 2) Gourav Wankhade ,B.E. (III)

INTRODUCTION : Water has been recognized as a basic and crucial natural resources

for overall development of a nation. However, the availability of water does not match with the demand in term of quantity and quality in time and space. To fulfill the requirement of water for irrigation and water supply, mankind has been exploiting the surface or subsurface resources locally since long. The orange growing area, popularly known as California Maharashtra and the Cotton growing area , popularly of

known as

Manchester of India are situated in this region. But now a days by over exploitation of surface and ground water, the so called California is approaching towards the desert as well as due to lack of one watering to the cotton, declination in crop yield which causes the tremendous suicide cases of the cultivators. The scarcity of water in Akola city in 2005 planned to carry water from upper Wardha Project. The cultivators of Melghat tries to grow crops in rainy seasons forgetting their malnutrition child lying in the home. The root cause of the above problems is the increasing irrigation

backlog. As per steering committees report of June 2004, the irrigation backlog of this region is 3.74 Lakh hectors which is highest in the state.

GEOGRAPHY & GEOLOGY : Amravati, Akola and Buldhana district are located at the foot hill of Satpuda, Tapi river rises in Madhya Pradesh and flows east to west at the Border. Purna river is a major tributary of Tapi rises in M.P. initially flows north south then flows west wards upto confluence of Tapi. Wardha river also rises in M.P. flows north south then turns east west upto Upper Wardha project then flows north south along the border of western Vidarbha. There is a existence of Achalpur Fault between the western flowing line of Purna Wardha rivers and Satpura foot hills. The alluvial of

pebble,sand, silt , lime and Kankar is filled in this fault. Therefore this area along the fault is rich of under ground water which is called buzzada zone. The river Wardha is flowing very nearer to this buzzada zone hence

formed well drained track but river Purna flows on plain plateau and is far away from the buzzada zone hence sedimentation took place. Secondly a huge run off from Chikhaldara hills situated on high altitude got entered in the sea like deep Achalpur fault. The procedure of salt formation held alike in the Arabic sea. The salts accumulated in plain silt valley. In this way well drained soil track i.e. buzzada zone and non drained soil tract i.e. saline tract are formed.

AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT : As discussed above buzzada zone along the fault is reach for ground water hence orange orchard and irrigated cropping is developed on open dug wells and Bore holes in the well drained soil tracks. Whereas the Britishers have developed the cotton in the deep soils of saline track which required normal rainfall. Over rainfall creates the problem of logging and scanty rainfall and stretches the root of cotton hence the yield of cotton decreases. The average yield of cotton 2 quintals/ha. One or two

protective irrigations can enhance the yield of cotton 25-30 quintal per Hector.

IRRIGATION BACK LOG : The districtwise irrigation backlog of the region is increasing. District Dandekar Samiti In thousand Hec. Amravati Akola Washim Buldhana Yeotmal 219 181 168 158 Irrigation Backlog Stearling Latest Committee Committee In thousand Hec. In thousand Hec. 159 118 54 57 150 125 89 109 36

The govt. of Maharashtra Irrigation Deptt. conveyed the governor of Maharashtra that the irrigation backlog is irremovable due to feasible sites are not available. This is happened due to 22393 Sq.Km spread area is saline track. It is presumed that irrigation in saline track may increase

logging problem. The procurement of the material for construction is longer hence the projects becomes in-feasible. Since the plain area ideal sites are not available. Suitable foundation is not available . According to water account sufficient water is not available. Therefore the whole region is seriously facing the following problems. 1) 2) Over exploitation problems in Warud Taluka. Water scarcity in Akola city 2005 plan to carry water from Upper Wardha Project. 3) 4) 5) Replacement of Cotton by sowing 185% soyabean in Saline tract. Increasing deaths due to mal nutrition in Melghat. Suicides of farmers. To overcome the above problem inter river diversion are necessary to be taken.

1)

WARDHA DIVERSION PROJECT FOR OVER EXPLOITED AREA. The river wardha enters in the state along the eastern border of

Warud Taluka. In

1993 Central ground water board has studies water level and conducted

the some

problems of declination of ground

experiments and then declared as a over exploited area i.e. dark water shed. The water shade WR-II covers an area of about 488.7 Sq.Km. in part of Warud Taluka of Amravati district. In this part of Vidarbha orange orchards are very common and are being irrigated by ground water

through dug wells tapping phreatic acquifers. In the last three decades the orange cultivation has been increasing since it is given higher returns. The

water requirement is around 1 to 1.2 m/ year. The increase of orange orchards has put undue pressure on the ground water resources due to withdrawl for irrigation purposes resulting the declining trends of ground water levels. The watershed covers 96 villages in which central tract shows conspicuous declining trend due to over exploitation of ground water as given below Sub Water Shade No. Geographical area (Ha) No.of Villages No of Dug Net amount Net wells recharge HaM annual

draft HaM

1/6 2/6 3/6 4/6 5/6 6/6

10425 5995 12162 7790 6680 5810

20 8 28 13 16 11

1935 1321 2563 1695 1111 271

1308.7 686.5 1596.7 965.7 805.6 472.4

1151.3 786.0 1525.00 1008.5 661.00 161.10

A perusal of above table shows that out of the six sub water shades , the stage of development in 3 Sub-water shades ( 2/6, 3/6 and 4/6) will be more than 100% while in 2 sub-water shades (1/6 and 5/6) it will be between 85% and 94%, sixth water shade is around 40% hence white (Plate I). To overcome this problem Wardha diversion project is proposed by the irrigation department. This project is also called as WRII Canal Project. The project envisage the various components viz Diversion barriage on Wardha river, Intake structure ; 7.00 Km long feeder channel in which 3 Km long tunnel included. These structures are provided for diverting flood water in Pandhari Tank. At Pandhari Tank 3300 m long earthern bund and 56.25 m long gated spillway is provided. At the right flank head

regulator is provided to feed water to the 18.50 Km long WR-II canal on which 8150 Ha Commond is proposed to be irrigated . The scheme will serve the purpose of surface irrigation as well as ground water recharge in dark water shades as described above. Diversion of Bel river in Chandas Wathoda and Dhawalgiri river in a Jarud tank also will serve the purpose of irrigation and recharging of the remaining areas of some dark water subshades. The Govt. of Maharahstra issued administrative approval to Wardha diversion (WRII Canal Project) on date 15.6.2005 (Plate II). The over exploitation zone is extending along Satpuda foot hills towards the Morshi Chandur Bazar, Achalpur. Achalpur, Akot and Telhara talukas. Therefore as a precautionary measures following two more river diversion projects are proposed by the irrigation department.

MEGHA DIVERSION IN BORDI NALLA PROJECT : Megha river in Maharashtra rises in M.P. as a Arna river ; and flows along the border. The river is proposed to trained along Bordi nalla through 15 km in proposed Bordi nalla project. At the diversion on intake structure is proposed to divert 20 mm3 water received from the flood. The heading up weir as balancing weir is proposed between Inayatpur and Kondwardha villages. The balancing weir will surve the purpose of direct irrigation of 3000 Ha to the developing orchards at both flanks 1000 Ha irrigation is proposed on Bordi nalla project. 1000 Ha irrigation is proposed on the right flank through head regulator and Canal arrangement. Detailed project report is under the technical scrutiny.

TAPI DIVERSION PROJECT : It is proposed to construct a dam or a barrage across Tapi river at the confluence of Gadga river to impound the 1532.578 Mm3 of water. The project will serve the need of well known areas hunger deceased Melghat of Amravati district as well as hungry cotton crop for one or two times protective irrigation for saline track areas of Akola and Amravati districts.

1) PROBLEMS

OF MELGHAT - Geographically this area

is

mountainous. Culturable ara is less due to vast spread area covered under forest and wild sanctuary. Dec to scanty irrigation facilities they have to

pick up the benefit of mansoon rains for kharif crops which is feeding support for whole year. Most of all the house members got engaged in Kharif season. Therefore they are unable to take care of their hungry and deceased child property. In some regions like Doma Katkumba there are member of small dams constructed by the local sector. Peoples of Melghat are of irrigation mentality. Wheat production of this area stood first in the whole district. Deaths due to malnutrition are also controlled. therefore the provision of irrigation facility in this area is a must.

2)

SALINE TRACT - About 10% area of the Purna Valley covered the flanks of Purna river. The area of

undersaline track along both

Amravati district about 1113 Sq.km, Akola district , 20637 Sq.km. and Buldhana district 643 Sq.Km. within 546 villages covered under saline

tract. As per Geological report 98 water shades are covered under saline tract. As per Geolocial history greety alluvial carried from the mountains is filled up in the Achalpur fault zone. Finesilt particles are thrown way through the greety alluvial zone i.e. Buzzada zone. At the lava eruption time heavy stretch of Chikhaldara mountain causes Achalpur fault. Ions forming procedure as held in the Arabic sea also, took place in the faulty zone and form the salts which is thrown downstream along the fine silt particles. In this track 18% shallow land, medium black cotton soil 35%, 17% deep black cotton soil and about 45% deep silty soil are formed. Drainage capacity of this soil is less. All the construction material are to be procured from long distance. Waste lands are formed by logging due to excess irrigation. Therefore the dams can not be constructed in this area. In dry spells root of cotton stretched . In the heavy rains logging takes place hence crop yield reduces. By detailed study it is observed that by ground water irrigation waste lands are formed within 2-3 years, by river water irrigation waste lands are formed within 9-10 years. The rains from million of years washes the salt and carried to down stream. Hence the salinity near the river course is more. It clearly indicate that the protective irrigation of sweet water brought from another area can improve the cotton yield from 2-3 quintal / Ha to 25 to 30 quintal/ Ha. Most of the cases of suicides are observed in this area. The real remedy is to provide sweet water

protective irrigation by diverting Tapi river. The proposal of Tapi diversion project is at the preliminary stage (Plate III A & III B)

To irrigate above described area 108.89 Km long canal in which about 40 Km long tunnel is proposed. It is proposed to irrigate 42,000 Ha area of M.P., 95546 Ha area of Vidarbha, 1 ; 0.05, 610 Ha area of north Maharahtra. The length of earthen dam is 6250 m nad 36.29 m height. To carry out discharge 14690.70 M3/sec (trunion type) spillway 18 gates 12 m x 18 m size is proposed. The cost of this project about 1500 crores and the proposal is principally accepted by M.P. Irrigation officials held in the meeting 29 Dec 2005 (Plate -IV).

CONCLUSION : Inter river diversion projects are the only remedy to recover irrigation backlog which can stop the suicides of the cultivators and hunger deceased deaths held in the western Vidarbha region.