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Chapter 1 Introduction

George W. Bush, once said For diplomacy to be effective, words must be credible and no
one can now doubt the word of America. which show the connection between language and

diplomacy. The speech of diplomacy is subject to strategic considerations as rigorous and complex
as those applied to armed forces. (Oliver 1951; 207) That is, as diplomacy was seen as the

important tool which not only help to convey the understanding of the people within the nation but also reinforce the relationship between the nations by the use of language. Rana (2003) gave the meaning of language as the medium of negotiation. It conveys
ones own ideas and concepts, and offers the means of understanding the thoughts and expectations of other side. and also affects the dialogue in a completely different way. It produces sometimes in diplomacy an infatuation with words that becomes a substitute for action. This is why the use

of language in diplomacy is very importance that we have to concern about the choice of the right words to use in diplomacy speech because language is often a cause for misunderstanding and conflict which can mean war in the term of diplomacy. Jaber (2003 and Matteucci (2003) called it diplomatic language, which has been designed to strengthen the relationships between people and nations, should lead to better understanding between them. The study of language and diplomatic discourse has become an important aspect of many researchers because of the important of it that impact to the nation. As(lit review) However, previous research in this field has neglected to consider about the word choice in the lexicon categories which reflect the purpose of speech and the pattern of diplomatic discourse which is the important factor that will guide the audiences through it. The aim of the present paper is to clarify the lexicon categories and the pattern that was use on the diplomatic discourses of Hillary Clinton, the secretary of state. In addition, the

researcher intends to determine; Firstly, the reflection of the word choice within the lexicon categories can help to reveal the underlying within the diplomacy discourses and can help evaluate the important of the message that the diplomat try to convey. Secondly, understanding the pattern of diplomatic discourse can help to understand the important of the speech that can impact the existence of the nation. The intent of this concurrent mixed methods study is to determine the important of language in diplomacy discourse. In the study, the text analysis program will be used to measure the relationship between word choice within lexicon categories and the purpose of the speech. At the same time, the pattern of diplomacy discourse will be explored using discourse schematic on Hillary Clinton speeches. The research for combining both quantitative and qualitative data to better understands this research problem by converging both quantitative and qualitative data. Most of previous researches, they have investigated speech of people by analyzed in several issues. But the aim of this study would like to specify the diplomatic discourse by explained the lexicon categories and the pattern that was use on the diplomatic discourses of Hillary Clinton, the secretary of state. Thus, the research questions to be addressed in this study are as follows: To what extent and in what ways do the discourse schematic on Hillary Clinton speeches serve to contribute to a more comprehensive and nuanced understanding of this predicting relationship between the word choice within lexicon categories and the purpose of the speech, via integrative mixed methods analysis?

Chapter 2 Literature Review


There are many researchers who studied on speech of people by analyzed speech in several field. According to Trace (2001) studied the applying content analysis to case study data. The aim of this report is explored to what extent; the data gathered through the Case Study Interview Protocol (CSIP) can be further employed using content analysis techniques in order to enhance our understanding about how records creators, managers, and information system personal view the nature of records the concept of authenticity. While Olga (2005) explored the politeness strategies in institutional speech acts. This research focused on some politeness strategies which related to the use of directive and expressive speech acts in diplomatic discourse and concentrates on how language reflects and shapes social relations in cross-cultural interaction. The analysis is performed speech act in UNESCO on the material of the Resolutions. The result of the analysis presents that the choice of directive and expressive speech act verbs and their co-occurrence with particular addresses are motivated by the socio-pragmatic situation. Also, Yu, Kaufmann and

Diermeier (2008) studied the classifying party affiliation from political speech. They examined the design of party classifiers for Congressional speech data: person-dependency and time-dependency. The results of this research show that cross-person ideology classifiers can be trained on Congressional speeches. However, there are other researchers who studied about discourse analysis. According to Dontcheva-Navrtilov (2009) studied in the construction of interpersonal relations in a relatively neglected genre of political discourse by Directors-General of UNESCO at international conferences and meetings. While exploring the communicative purpose and the rhetorical structure of address, the analysis relates the rhetorical moves of the

genre to communicative functions of language conveying interpersonal meanings and considers their contribution to the perception of discourse coherence. The findings of the analysis show that owing to the ritualistic character of addresses, interpersonal meanings contributing to perception of coherence convey a continuous appeal to the audience related to claiming common ground and shared ideology, and a consistent subjective evaluation of social actors, their actions and relations by the speaker and Bayram (2010) investigated an ideology and political discourse: a critical discourse analysis of Erdogans political speech. The researcher proposes to discuss the realization of power by means of language use in a political environment, specifically focusing on the Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan and his walk-out from a debate in the World Economic Forum in Davos in January 2009 that the researcher will be examined within the context of his beliefs, cultural and language background. The result is that ideology invests language in various ways at various levels and that ideology is both properties of structures and of events. Despite Erdogan has retained his background throughout his political time in government. His attitude and linguistic behavior were the reflection of particular social group, and the attitude of this particular group towards him was positive. In additional, Ndambuki and Janks (2010) also studied on political discourses but they focused on womens voices: mismatches in representation. They investigated the

representation of womens issue in Makueni District at Kenya, using Critical discourse Analysis. This study focused on representations of womens agency, the data was collected by use of focus group discussions, political speeches and interviews. And the analysis focuses on the use of pronoun and modality. In the same year, Wang (2010) explored the critical discourse analysis of Barack Obamas speeches. This research based on Critical Discourse Analysis theory and Systematic Functional Linguistics; analyze Obamas presidential speeches mainly from the point of transitivity and modality. The author would

like to examine the relationship among language, philosophy and power and to find out how to use the power of speeches to persuade the public to accept and support his policies. Whereas Bird (2011) studied the discourse of American tragedy: an analysis of President Clintons rhetoric as it functions to construct reality, shape community, and display presidential eloquence. The researcher focused to analysis on rhetoric field as two sub-genres of rhetoric: crisis rhetoric and the national eulogy. The result of analysis, it shows that president uses both forms of rhetoric to shape community. Besides, some researcher focused on diplomacy and diplomatic language as Burhanudeen (2006) studied in diplomatic language through the documentation and discussion of the language choices used in speeches on the occasion of the XII Summit Conference of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and the 10th Islamic Summit (OIC) in 2003, in Kuala Lumper. By focusing on two contexts aforementioned, the study aims to identify specific conventions and norms present in the texts selected. Discussion of the research findings indicate that the language choices used, with regard to international diplomacy, are consistent across several speeches that were examined and Mark (2008) studied a comparative study of the cultural diplomacy of Canada, New Zealand and India. This thesis explores the concept and practice of cultural diplomacy. The researcher would like to investigate how cultural diplomacy presents a national image abroad; its role in the protection of cultural sovereignty, and how it advances domestic objectives. The conclusion of this thesis is that cultural diplomacy remains valuable tool of diplomacy and is likely to become more important to governments, particularly to their public diplomacy and as a contributor to soft power. Meanwhile Magambo (2011) studied on trends in diplomatic communication: a case study of Uganda. The author examined the communication trends in diplomacy with a focus on Uganda. Unless this study will examine the communication strategies used by Ugandan diplomats, this study also examine the extent to which Ugandas

MFA applied ICTS and identify the gaps in use of ICT by the diplomats of developing Countries and how these can be bridged. Diplomatic is not just an arts of political science but also the arts of language, as Baranyai (2011) studied about the language used for diplomatic purposes within translation and interpretation in diplomatic context which most of the diplomatic lexicons and dictionaries mention and explain the notion of diplomatic language and concentrates on the different ways for solving the question of language-related understanding between the actors of diplomacy. The finding of this paper showed the most important qualities and qualifications of good interpreter, as well as the difficulties that an interpreter might have face during his work. Due to one of the main interests in the study of press conferences is the use of diplomatic language, Bhatia (2006) studied in political press conferences which allows a closer look at diplomatic speech to communicate political differences. By using a critical discourse analysis (CDA), this study analyses textual data from press conferences involving the former Chinese President Jiang Zemin and the US President George W. Bush. The findings reveal three major themes: positivity for the reinforcement of mutual trust, respect and progress; influence and power for subtle persuasion; and evasion to hedge or avoid responses to probing and inconvenient questions from the media.

Theoretical Framework

Figure 1 Discourse Schematic

In this study, we adapt the framework from Ray T. Donahue and Michael H. Prosser in Diplomatic Discourse: International Conflict at the United Nations by and from Burhanudeen H. which they showed their interest in international diplomacy discourse.

Chapter 3 Methodology: Data Collection and Data Analysis


This study determined the significant of pattern and lexicon category used in political speech and the discourse schematic on two distinctive Hillary Clintons; the Secretary of State, speeches; saving more lives than ever and Opening remarks at the global counterterrorism forum. The methods employed were a text analysis program and the descriptive content analysis from these two sources under the discourse analysis concepts; salutation, introduction, summoning cooperation, and conclusion (Donahue, Prosser: 1997). A: Materials In this study; two speeches of Hillary Clinton are selected from the website of U.S. Department Of State: http://www.state.gov. The date of the speeches was 7 June 2012 and 27 September 2012 respectively. B: Procedure Researchers will try to analyze the chosen speeches critically in terms of some categories of discourse analysis concept; Discourse Schematic which is introduced by Ray T. Donahue and Michael H. Prosser in order to understand the speech structure and the hidden meaning. Also the text analysis program will be used to measure the relationship between word choice within lexicon categories and the purpose of the speech.

Chapter 4 Results
Speeches in the international diplomacy domain generally have four sections. First section is the opening salutation. This section is followed by the introduction, the mediation, and finally the conclusion. In this section the speech context analysis in Opening Remarks at the Global Counterterrorism Forum will be considered in numeric (1), and Op-Ed: Saving More Lives than Ever will be numeric (2).

Section 1: Opening salutations Opening salutations in speeches are a must in the diplomatic discourse. Therefore knowledge of protocol is also essential in determining the rank and file of addressees present to ensure the order of salutation in the opening is proper and correct. (Donahue, Prosser: 1997) (1) Thank you very much, Ahmet, and once again, thank you for hosting us in this beautiful city and for being a steadfast champion of this forum. I want to recognize all of our colleagues around the table. It is often easier to focus on the concerns and crises of the moment, but the long-term partnership we are building through this forum, we believe, will pay off for years to come. The expected language choices in the opening salutation above were the norm for many of the speeches, acknowledging membership and knowledge of diplomatic conventions to show the respect to the representative of the host country. On the other hand, the speech (2) did not show any salutation towards anyone, it shows the background s and the aim of the health project on AIDS; (2) America and our partners have more than doubled the number of people who get AIDS drugs. Well soon cut maternal mortality by a quarter. How? The answer may surprise you.

Section 2: Introduction This is commonly used for sequencing discourse elements and may activate a related cognitive schema for agenda-making in the mind of the listeners, and it acted as a departure from issuing acknowledgment (the salutation). (1) In recent years, the international community has made important strides in the fight against violent extremism in all its forms. Weve worked together to disrupt terrorist financing; pass new and more effective counterterrorism laws; (2) When I became Secretary of State, I asked our diplomats and development experts: How can we do better? I could see our strengths, including tens of thousands of public servants who get up everyday thinking about how to advance Americas interests and promote our values around the world. At the same time, I could also see areas where we could be stronger partners, and where we could do more to get the most out of every hour of effort and dollar of funding. I saw it in our diplomacy, in our development effortsand in our global health work. The introduction section of the speech contain two narratives, from the above paragraphs indicate the speakers abstract and orientation that will lead to the event, resolution, evaluation, and coda (Pratt:1988). The abstract presented by indicating it is recent years, the international community has made important strides in the fight against violent extremism in all its forms (1) and (2) America had been leading the global health fight for decades. In my husbands administration, we began to make HIV treatment drugs more affordable, stepped up the fight against AIDS in India and Africa, and expanded investments in scientific research.

The orientation sets the stage by identifying the participant or protagonist, time, and place. (1) Weve worked together to disrupt terrorist financing; pass new and more effective counterterrorism laws; tighten border, aviation and maritime security; and improve international coordination. Over the past decade, more than 120,000 suspected terrorists have been arrested around the world, and more than 35,000 have been convicted.(2) Under President Bushs leadership, we made historic commitmentson AIDS and malaria in particularthat were saving millions of lives. The complicating event is what it suggests: a complication or problem. (1) The danger from terrorism remains urgent and undeniable. The core of al-Qaida that carried out the 9/11 attacks and other attacks in countries represented here today may be on the path to defeat, but the threat has spread, becoming more geographically diverse as groups associated with al-Qaida expand their operations: This stated the terrorism that widely spread around the world. (2) But we recognized that to sustain the impact of our work, we needed to change the way we did business. For example, while our agencies were providing tremendous leadership in isolation, they could still do more to collaborate effectively. While the second speech indicates the majority funds about AIDS that need to be worked another way.

The resolution indicates the way to solve the situation or even the problem, for example:

(1)Because we have learned that to defeat a terrorist network, we need to do more than remove terrorists from the battlefield. We need to attack finances, recruitment, and safe havens. We need to take on ideology and diminish its appeal, particularly to young people. (2) We started by defining a set of seven principles for our work under the Global Health Initiative. Among them, we emphasized country ownershipthe end state where a nations efforts are led, implemented, and eventually paid for by its government, communities, civil

society and private sector. Then the evaluation is the consequence that fulfilled the resolution for example: (1) The Global Counterterrorism Forum emphasizes strengthening civilian institutions as a critical part of our strategy. And were already taking important steps to put this into practice, building new partnerships with the United Nations and other multilateral bodies. And (2) each of our country teams now assess how they fit within a comprehensive vision and program, based upon a health plan established by the country where we are operating. We also took several practical steps to lower costs, such as switching to generic AIDS drugs, which saved more than $380 million in 2010 alone. The last section of the first narrative is coda; the telling is the change of tense from the past for the story events to the present for the coda. For example; (1) Let me just highlight two areas where it is essential we continue to make progress. And (2) what does all this mean in practice? Through our global health diplomacy, weve helped bring new partners to the table and keep old partners at the table. The second narrative will lead the orator to move to another coherent story. According to the first speech; (1) the second area I want to mention is the rule of law. Experience tells us that democracies are better equipped than autocracies to stand up against terrorism. This narrative story will determine the democracy as the efficient tool against the terrorism. By all means, the second speech will indicate how the new procedures have been worked under the new thought.(2) we are supporting a cadre of health workers in rural Malawi who travel door-to-door to provide a range of services, including HIV testing and counseling, nutrition evaluations, family planning, and tuberculosis screening.

Section 3: Summoning cooperation Apart from the introduction section, this part will be the core of the conventional diplomatic language is at its best, with the intention use of meaningful words and phrases to achieve the purpose. The particular situation has been presented in the introduction therefore this section will clarify the second phase. For example; (1) First, we have to continue working together to defeat extremist ideology, blunt the spread of radicalization, and slow the flow of recruits to terrorist networks. (2)together, we made concrete commitments on five specific strategiesfrom focusing our funding on the hardest-hit populations to spurring new research and innovationthat will accelerate our progress so that, one day, every child will get to celebrate her fifth birthday. According to this section, the language used mainly with the rhetoric of we our and them, and that will be discussed in the lexical data analysis section.

Section 4: Conclusion The speeches are expected to end with a final emphasis on cooperation among member. However the most interesting aspect in this section is words and phrases that portray negative images are absent in the conclusion. For example;

(1)All of us share a commitment to take on this challenge, and the United States is very proud to continue working with you to further our common efforts. Thank you very much. (2) In short, Americas investments in global health are saving lives. They are making us more secure, and advancing our values. But it is a shared responsibility. Every nation

partner countries and donors alikeneeds to invest in health. Its one of the surest steps to build the safer, fairer world that we all want.

As a result, we can imply that the international diplomacy speeches have the mandatory sections. These sections are naturally part of every speech in any context, with the opening salutations, the introduction, the body and the conclusion. However the distinctive part is the body which is plenty of meaningful words and rhetorical style. Coherence or textual semantics constitutes the meaning of a text (Titscher, Meyer, Wodak, Vetter: 2003). A text creates no sense in itself but only in connection with knowledge of the world and of the text. It has been suggested that a text relates to preceding or simultaneously occurring discourse, and it also implied that there are formal criteria that link text each other in text varieties. Content analysis limits this studys finding to the frequency and use of coherence or textual semantics in political speech. Apart from the schematic framework, the coherence used is also an obligatory rule in this kind of speech. There are four elements in studying this section; narrative, argumentative, descriptive, and instructive texts (Wodak: 1986) are the guideline for researcher to understand the lexical categories used in this kind of speech. Therefore we use text computer analysis to calculate these texts quantitatively as in Table 1. According to the data, both two speeches used pro-forms we 22 times in the speech (1) about against terrorism while 34 times in speech (2) about worlds AIDS health. All the rhetoric pro-forms; our, you, they, them are ranked in the first top-ten word choices in these two speeches. This is also typical in international diplomacy where the speaker, on behalf of the national we constructs ultimately the collective we for the purposes of cooperation, consensus and collaboration and solidarity (Burhanudeen, 2006; 46). An example from the speech (1):

Weve worked together to disrupt terrorist financing; pass new and more effective counterterrorism laws; tighten border, aviation and maritime security; and improve international coordination.

An example from the speech (2)


At the same time, I could also see areas where we could be stronger partners, and where we could do more to get the most out of every hour of effort and dollar of funding.

Which in speech (1), the speech style shown in Enunciative; setting some influence, or revealing a point of view. The outstanding word categories in speech (1) are; Need, terrorist, terrorisms, counterterrorism, countries, law, states, rule, international, strengthening, cooperation, understand, education, extremism, violent, center, and al-qaida. Most of the word in speech (1) were into the Politics & society category which show the high used of word in Law & Justice sub-category that also indicate the relation to crimes as shown in Figure 1 and 2.

Synopsis
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Synopsis

Figure 1 Synopsis lexicon categories in speech (1)

Law & justice


25 20 15 10 5 0 Law & justice

Figure 2 Law & Justice lexicon category

The words are terrorist, terrorism, criminal, kidnapping, hostage-taking, extortion

In speech (2), the speech style was shown as Narrative; telling a story, at a time, in a certain place On the other hand the speech (2) will use different group of word categories, which are; Health, global, aids, work, partners, donors, diplomacy, investments, plan, program, Malaria, HIV, sustainable, and do. Which most of the words, were into the Health, life and casualties category, show the high used of word in Medicine & health sub-category that also indicate the relation to health as shown in Figure 3 and 4.

Synopsis
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Synopsis

Figure 3 Synopsis lexicon categories in speech (2)

Medicine & health


25

20

15

10

Medicine & health

0 Birth control Diseases Drugs Health Sick and handicapped persons

Figure 4 Medicine & health lexicon category The words are AIDS, drugs, health, HIV, malaria, disease, patients, family planning, tuberculosis The two speeches are used in narrative style to express the facts and acts, to construct, to argue and to conclude. As a result even the speech styles are in the same mandatory steps but the outstanding different section is the words choices. The word choices in both speeches are serve the purpose of the requirement of these diplomatic discourses. The diplomatic language which used in both speeches was fall into the same category Politics & society as shown in Figure 5

Synopsis
120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Synopsis

Figure 5 Synopsis lexicon categories of speech (1) and speech (2)

Chapter 5 Conclusion
According to discourse analysis, we can summarize the features of Hillary Clintons speeches as follow. First, the opening salutations in speeches; the expected language choices are the average of many speeches, acknowledging membership and knowledge of diplomatic conventions in order to present the respect to the representative of the host country. Moreover, the opening salutations can also show the background and the purpose. Second, for introduction; it uses the same pattern but it differs in word choice and it is the start to the body of the speech. Third, the summoning cooperation; we can see the language which used mainly with the rhetoric of we our and them, and that is discussed in the lexical data analysis section. The last one, for conclusion section; we can indicate that the international diplomacy speeches have the mandatory sections and the distinctive part is the body which is plenty of meaningful words and rhetorical style, mostly the positive words. Besides, we can explain the lexicon categories of each speech as follow. For the first speech, the most of lexicon used in the discourse were in Health, life and casualties category which show the most use in Medicine & health sub-category. Whereas the second speech, the most of lexicon used in the discourse were in Politics & society category which show the most use in Law & Justice sub-category. Although, both speeches have a style in the same mandatory steps but the outstanding distinct sections are the words choices. The word choices of both speeches are supported the objective of the requirement of these diplomatic discourses. Thus, discourse analysis can explore the relationship amongst language, ideology and power. Therefore, it is a worth study for the EFL learners to pay attention, because people

can use words as the weapons in this present time for the achievement, especially in political discourse.

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