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Class - XII Section (a) Reading Unseen Comprehension Passages (1)

1. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
The doctors clamouring against reservations for OBCs have demanded that merit be the sole criteria for admission to medical and engineering colleges. Then, how is it that they havent objected either to the NRI quota or candidates who procure admission on the basis of capitation fee? Does this not affect quality ? Reservation was introduced in the Kolhapur State as early as in 1902 and in the State of Mysore in 1921 . In Tamil Nadu, where the human health index is much better than in other states, there is as much as 69 per cent reservation. Let us take for a moment that upper caste doctors are meritorious. But is this of any help to thenation when many of them use elite institutes as springboard to go abroad for higher wages. Nearly 70 per centof doctors from AIIMS doctors go abroad. How are these elite institutes, under such circumstances, serving the interests of the common people ? On the other hand , it has been in Tamil Nadu that a good number of SC/ST/OBC doctors, who procured admission into colleges due to the reservation policy, stick to their stste or hometown, resulting in better healthcare services. 2. Reservation is not a phenomenon exclusive to our country. The American MNC,IBM, voluntarily in traduced reservations for Blacks in 1930 . In Malaysia there are reservations not just in jobs but also in contracts , licences and company shares for Malays. Reservation for the depressed and weaker sections exist in many countries like Brazil, South Africa, Japan, Netherland and Ireland. There is 50 per cent reservation for Blacks and women in the medical faculity of Harvard University. And the Whites have never made an issue of being eligible only for 50 per cent of the seats. In fact, it is the handful of anti- reservationist doctors, who taik of disintegration of society on account of reservation, who are really responsible for creating dissension and obstacles in the ways of social justice of the OBCs.The media have, of course, played a negative role. But it is a reality that Indian society is constituted on caste lines .If the anti reservations are so concerned about the disintegrationof society on caste lines, they should first lead the struggle against social discrimination. 3. Reservation get a job or admission even if they get less percentage of marks, In one of the cases a person was in Indian Revenue Service. He saw that candidates getting high marks in a competition were not necessarily successful in the field. Merit, as it is being presently understood, does not include honesty, hardwork and patriotism. In the American school system, besides the syllabus, students have to undergo practical training in social

4. services, etc. and marks are added in the certificate based on performance in thus area. The only people tailing of merit today are those who have studied in public schools or whose children study in such schools. 5. The expenditure incurred on education in public schools in 50 to 100 times more than those of corporation/ government schools. There is a vast difference in quality between the teachers of public and government schools. Parents who can afford to send their children to public schools are mostly educated. They not only teach the children themselves at home but also provide coaching for them . On the other hand , parents who send their children to corporation/ government schools are mostly uneducated . These children have to lend a helping hand to their parents after schools hours . Under such circumstances, what is wrong if such students ask for concession of a few marks? 6. Reservation will bring unity and integrated in society. Reservation in elite institutes will enable people from different social strata to come together and established bonhomie among them . It is true that reservation is not a permanent solution to the vexed problem of our society. As and when equal and compulsory education is introduced in the country, Dalits and OBCs will not stake their claims to reservation. 7. Reservation is not a pancea for the economic backwardness of the country. For this purpose ,the government has already launched many schemes. Reservation is only a concession given to socially and educationally backward people, so that they may integrate with the mainstream. We have no objection if the poor among the upper caste people, too, are the benefit of reservations. But the problem here is that the among them start taking advantage of the policy.

On the basis of your reading the passage, answer the following questions:
(a) Why were the Indian doctors clamouring against reservation? Ans. Value Point: merit be the sole criteria for admission to medical and engineering colleges. (b) Write down the procedure on the basis of capitation fee. Ans. Value point:Reservation was introduced in the Kolhapur State as early as in 1902, in the state of Mysore in 1921.. In Tamil Nadu, where the human health index is much better than in other states, there is as much as 69 percent reservation. (c) What ideas do you know about reservations in Malaysia and Harvard University?

Ans. value point: In Malaysia there are reservations not just in jobs but also in contracts, licences and company shares for Malays. There is 50 percent reservation for Blacks and women in the medical faculty of Harvard University (d) What view is taken by the Indians and Americans about merit? Ans.value points: In india reservation on caste lines and reservationists get a job or admission even if they get less percentage of marks. In American school system, besides the syllabus, students have to undergo practical training in social service, etc. and marks are added in the certificate based on performance in this area. (e) Point out the difference in Public as well as Government University. Ans. value points: The expenditure incurred on education in public schools in 50 to 100 times more than those of corporation/ government schools.There is a vast difference in quality between the teachers of public and government schools. (f) What way out has been suggested in the passage about reservation? Ans. Value Points : Reservation is only a concession given to socially and educationally backward people so that they may integrate with the mainstream. We have no objection if the poor among the upper caste people, too, are given the benefit of reservations. 8. On the basis of reading the passage, trace words that are similar in meaning to the following:. (a) the best possible(para-2) (b) academically able(para- 5) (c) a fine remedy(para- 5) (d) money spent (para -4)

Ans. Ans.solution

(a)eligible d.

(b)Ans. educated Ans-expenditure

c.

PASSAGE-------------2.

The government appears to have woken up to the problem of acute agrarian distress. In a flurry of activity surrounding the prime minister,s visit to Vidarbha,

the government had declared its intent to seek remedies for the crisis affecting the peasantry, symbolized by the spate of farmers suicides over thelast few years . This is indeed welcome, though the response should have come sooner. Reports and studies from various sources, including government commissions, on farmerssuisides and their proximate causes have analysed the issue to the bone. What was missing was concerted action on the part of the Centre. The package being put together now recognizes that the immediate problem is not one of eccess to credit or the level of the interest rate (though these are indeed medium- term issues0 but of a legacy of debt that cannot be borne. Low farm gate prices, rising input cost and anadequate increases in productivity have combined to make interest and debt repayment commitments too onerous to bear. The explains the governments decision to writeoff debt ay least in the case of marginal and small farmers, and, if the Finance Ministry agrees, to insure them against crop failure so to prevent the legacy of debt from becoming an unbearable burden for many more. These are significant steps forward. However the government also adopt policies that militates against long term redressal of the agrarian crisis that underlies farmers distress. The first of these is a fiscal policy stance that precludes the adoption of measures that are crucial to revitalize agriculture. : Massive public investment in rural infrastructure, including irrigation, drainage and flood control; lowering of input cost through subsidies where necessary; and a hike in expenditure to restructure the provision of a host of extention and a support services to improve agricultural productivity. With the government focused on fiscal deficit reduction rather on raising Indiaabysmal tax-GDP ratio and expanding much needed expenditures, thse measures are being virtually ignored. Rather the emphasis, as reflected in this years budget for example, is on increasing the flow of credit to rural areas, without recognizing why even the current limited flow has taken the farming community into a debt trap. The second is the decision to use free imports as a means to dampen inflation. The evidence on inflation is clear. While aggregate inflation on an annual point to point basis(as measured by the official Wholesale price index) stood at just 5.24 percent over the week ending June 10, 2006, the rate of inflation in the case of indivisual essential commodities was much higher: Between 9 and 10 percent in the wheat, fuel and sugar and as much as 35 percent in the case of pulses. A factor underlying these trends is long term deterioration in agricultural performances. In most cases lower demand resulting from limited purchasing power among some sections of the population has ensure that poor agricultural performance has yet to result in a short fall in supply related to demand. Even so, speculative hoarding has indeed resulted in an artificial short fall. Speculation has been added by a number of decisions of the government such as removal of control on the movements of agricultural, commodities and liberalization of rules relating to the operation of the private traders and agri-

business firms, which in turn have resulted in the failure to procure adequate government stocks at the minimum support price where applicable. The government have sort to augment supply with imports. Beside deciding February to import wheat to replenish dwindling government stocks, it has now decided to permit private actual users of wheat like flour millers biscuit manufacturers and bread makers to import wheat duty free till the next rabi harvest. It has also allow custom duty free import of sugar till the bignning of the next crushing season which start in October. And it has put a ban on exports of pulses this efforts to enhance domestic supply with import may be successful in dempening in inflationary expectations and holding the price level in the short run. But it could also adversely affect revenues garnered by the already- distressed peasantry with attended implications for private expenditure needed to sustain and improve agricultural production. E.g., Reliance on PL-480 imports in the 1950s and early 1960s, while dampening price in inflation during Second Plan Years, was partly responsible for the inadequate yield growth that preceded the aggrarion crisis of the mid-1960s. Reliance on imports to dampen price increases can, Therefore, worsen the agrarian crisis and the distressed condition of farmers in the medium term. What is needed is to directly curb speculative activities, reverse policies with regard to freer agricultural trade that have brought in large private players driven by opportunities for profit and combine this with an investment- led agricultural strategy. If not, the small relief being offered the prime minister of farmers in the worst affected areas would amount to little other than temporary relief and a declaration of concern.

On the basis of reading passage answer the following questions.

a)

What is the actual problem of agrarians in Vidarbha?

Ans : VALUE POINTS : Acute agrarian distress, the crisis effecting the peasantry, simbolised the spate of farmers suicides over the last few years.

b) How the government can help for their redressal? Write atleast two major steps. Ans : VALUE POINTS : Intent to see remedies for the crisis, to militate against long term red ressal of the agrarian crisis that underlies farmers distress. First- Precludes adoption of measures that are crucial to revitalizes agricultural including irrigation, drainage and flood control, provision of a host of extension supports services to improve agricultural productivity.

Second- to use free imports as a means to dampen inflation.

c) In what does the hoarding create a problem for all? Write down the solution. Ans : VALUE POINTS : Speculation has been aided by a number of decisions of the government such as removal of controls on the movements of agricultural commodities and liberalization of rules relating to the operation of private traders and agribussinessfirm,which in turn have resulted in the failure to procure adequate government stock s at the minimum support price where applicable. The government has sought to respond to the situation by seeking to augment supply with imports.

d)

Mention the steps initiated by the government to tackle the situation?

Ans : VALUE POINTS : to permit private actual users of wheat like flour millers, biscuit manufacturers and bread makers to import wheat duty free till the next rabi harvest. , allowed customs duty- free, a ban on exports of pulses.

e)

What solution has been put forth by the writer in the concluding para?

Ans : VALUE POINTS : to directly curb speculative activity, reverse policies with regard to freer agricultural trade that have brought in large private players driven by opportunities for profit and combine this with an investment- led agricultural strategy,the small relief offer by prime minister of farmers in the the worst affected areas would amount to little other than temporary relief .

3.Find words from the above passage that are similar in meaning to the following: (a) havoc(para -1) farming( para-1) (b) To shut off( para -3) (c) Collection (para-6 (d)

Ans : (a) flurry (c) garner

(b) militate (d) agrarian

PASSAGE-3
2. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:

It is reported that the government is close to finalizing a system of dual pricing for the public procurement of food grains. There would be two basic elements to this system: Afixed Minimum Support Price (MSP) covering the cost of cultivation, as at present,recommended by the Commission on Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP), and variable procurement prices, at the discretion of the department of food , depending on market For example, according to a working group of the Planning Commission, over the five year period ending 2001-02 when there was a steep rise in procurement price resulting in accumulation of embarrassing large stock of food grains of over 60 million tones with the government, consumption of foodgrauns in the country was reduced, on this account, by at least five million tones per annum. The new system by assigning a greater role for private trade can improve the efficiency in the distribution of foodgrains and susdtantially cut down subsidies, which can help to step up much needed public investment in agriculture. The proposed dual pricing ststem is a better alternative than total marketisation of foodgrains trade by disbanding altogether public procurement at MSP. Such a dismantling could lead to a crash in market prices of foodgrains in years of food harvest. Even though this may take exports competitive and raise domestic consumption of food grains in the short run, it may undermine food security by sapping producer incentives. The experience of green revolution underlines the importance of assured MSP including the farmers to step up their own investment and effirt and derive full benefit from available infrastructure. For the dual pricing system to yield desired results, it needs to be backed by several other policy measures. Since the impetus for crop diversification would be greater in the infrastructurally- developed regions like the north-west , this can slow down the growth of foodgrains output in the country and, in particular, the surpluses procured, unless immediate measures are taken to strengthen public support for irrigation, technology, extension and credit in thr rest of the company, especially in the central and eastern regions where there is a large potentialas the growth of food grains output has barely kept pace with population growth since the mid-90s. This also calls for more effective public procurement of food grains at MSP in these regions, as farmers have to often sell their produce immediately after the harvest at prices that are lower than MSP. Therefore, dual pricing system can be sustained only through non-price interventions such as infrastructural support for regional dispersal of growth in foodgrains output.

The new system requires better market intelligence forecasts as well as concurrent analyses on prices and sales in markets in India and abroad

Questions.
(a) What are the two elements of dual pricing system for procuring foodgrains? Ans : VALUE POINTS : A fixed Minimum Support Price (MSP) covering the cost of cultivation, as at present, recommended by the Commission on Agriculture Costs and Prices(cacp) and variable procurement prices, at the discretion of the department of food, depending on market conditions in different seasons and regions of the country.

(b)

How will the above proposed system benefit the nation?

ANS: VALUE POINTS: It would enable to the country to more effectively cope with emerging challenges in agriculture .the proposal also recognizes the greater ability of our economy , in the post liberalization era ,to meet temporary shortages of food grains through imports. (c) Mention atleast four non food grain item used by the consumer

ANS: VALUE POINTS : Non food grain items such as sugar , edible oils ,milk, meat, fish, eggs, vegetables and fruits are used by the consumer

(d) What is the result of ecological degradation in the north-western region of India ? ANS: VALUE POINTS : The depletion of soil nutrients and water table driven down to unsustainably Low levels

(e) In order to boost the dual system what urgent measures are needed to be taken? ANS: VALUE POINTS :

Improving the efficiency in the distribution of food grains and substantially cut down subsidies, which can help to step up much needed public investment in agriculture.

(f)

How we can sustain the dual pricing system?

ANS: VALUE POINTS: Only through non price interventions such as infrastructural support for regional dispersal of growth in food grains output . Trace words from the passage that are the synonyms of the following

(a) Extra (para-3) roles(para-5)

(b) extract(para3) (c) a driving force (para-5) (d) Two

Ans. a surplus b. depletion c. impetus d. dual

PASSAGE- 4

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:

One of the greatest advances in modern technology has been the invention of computers. They are widely used in Industries and in Universities . Now there is hardly any sphere of human life where computers have not been pressed in to service of man. We are heading fast on the close of this present century towards a situation when a computer will be as much part of mans daily life as a telephone or a calculator. Computers are capable of doing extremely complicated work in all branches of learning . They can solve the most complex mathematical problems or put thousands of unrelated facts in order. These machines can be put to varied uses. For instance, they can provide information on the best way to prevent traffic, or they can count the number of times the word and has been used in the Bible. Because they work accurately and at high speed ,they save the research workers hard work. This whole process by which machines can be used to work for us had been called automation. In the future automation may enable human beings for more leisure than they do today. The coming of automation is bound to have important social consequences .

Some years ago an expert on automation , Sir Leon Bagrit , pointed out that it was a mistake to believe that these machines could think . There no possibility that human beings will be controlled by machines. Thougth computers are capable of learning from their mistakes and improving on their performance, they need detailed instructions from human beings to operate. They can never ,as it were, lead independent lives or rule the world by making decision of their own. Sir Leon said that in future, computers would be developed which would be small enough to carry in the pocket. Ordinary people would than be able to use them to obtain valuable information. Computers could be plugged into a national network and be used like radios. For instance, people going on holiday could be informed about weather conditions. Car drivers can be given alternative routes when there are traffic jams. It will also be possible to make tiny translating machines. This will enable people who do not share a common language to talk to each other without any difficulty or to read foreign publication. It is impossible to assess that importance of a machine of this short, for many international misunderstandings are caused simple through our failure to understand each other. Computers will also be used in ordinary public hospital, by providing a machine with a patients systems; a doctor will be able to diagnosis the nature of illness. Similarly machines could be used to keep a check on a patients health record and bring it up to date. Doctors will there for have immediate access to a great many facts which will help in their work. Bookkeepers and accountants too could be relieved of dull clerical work, for the tedious task of compiling and checking lists of figures could be done entirely by machines. Computers will also be able to tell the exact the age a man is going to live, with the help of his blood picture. Computers are the most efficient servants man has ever had and there is no limit to the way they can be used to improve our life style and life.

Q.1 what is the greatest advancement in modern technology? Ans. Value Points; the invention of computers.

Q.2 Explain Automation? Ans. Value Points: Computers are capable of doing extremely complicated work in all branches of learning. They can solve the most complex mathematical problems or put thousands of unrelated facts in order. These machines can be put to varied uses. This whole process by which machines can be used to work for us had been calledautomation

Q.3 What was the prediction of Sir Leon about the computers in future?

Ans. Value Points: in the future , computer s would be developed which would be small enough to carry in the pocket.

Q.4 Name the areas where computers can be effectively used? Ans. Value Points: used like radio, car drivers use for alternative routes, used in ordinary public hospitals, patient,s systems, use for clerical work, tell the exact age of a man.

Q.5 Find word in above passage which convey the similar meaning for i) Difficult or complex ii) Collect or arrange iii) Another choice Ans.5 i) complicated ii) compiling iii) alternative

PASSAGE-5

The New year is the time for resolution .Mentally, at least most of us could compile formidable lists of dos and donts. The same old favourites recur year in and year out with the children, do a thousand and one job abut the house, be nice to people we dont like, drive carefully, and take the dog for a walk every day. Past experience has tahght us that certain accomplishments are beyond attainment. If we remain deep rooted liars, it is only because we have so often experienced the frustration that results from failure. Most of us fail in our efforts at self improvement because our schemes are too ambitious and we never have time to carry them out. We also make the fundamental error of announcing our resolution to everybody so that we look even more foolish when we slipback into our bad old ways. Aware of these pitfalls, this year I attempted to keep my resolution to myself. I limited myself to two modest ambitions, to do physicat exericese every mornimg and to read

more in the evening. An overnight party on New years eve provided me with a good excuse for not carrying out eiter of these new resolution on the first day of the year, but on the second, Iapplied myself assiduously to the task. The daily exercise lasted only eleven minutes and I proposed to do them early in the morning before anyone had got up. The self discipline reqired to drag myself out of bed eleven minutes earlier than usual was considerable. Nevertheless, I managed to creep down into the living room for two days before anyone found me out. After jumping about in the carpet and twisted the human frame into uncomfortable positions.I sat down at the breakfast table in an exhausted condition. It was this that betrayed me. The next morning the whole family trooped into watch the performance. That was really unsettling but I fended off the taunts and jibes of the family good humouredly and soon everybody got used to the idea. However, my enthusiasm waned , the time I spent at exercises gradually diminished. Little by little the eleven minutes fell to zero. By January10th I was back to where I had started from. I argued that if I spent less time exhausting myself at exercises in the morning. I would keep my mind fresh for reading when I got home from work. Resisting the hypnotizing effect of television, Isat in my room for a few evenings with my eyes glued to a book. One night, however, feeling cold and lonely, I went downstairs and sat in front of the television pretending to read. That proved to be my undoing, for I soon got back to the old bad habit of dozing off in front of the screen. I still havent given up my resolution to do more reading. In fact, I have just bought a book entitled How to Read a Thousand Words a Minute. Perhaps it will solve my problem, but Ijust have not had time to read it. Q.1. Why most of us fail in our efforts for self-improvement? Ans. Value Points: because our schemes are too ambitious and we never have time to carry them out. Q.2. Why is it a basic mistake to announce our resolution to everybody ? Ans. Value Points: look even more foolish when we slipback into our bad old ways.

Q.3. Why did the writer not carry out his resolution on New Years Day Ans. Value Points: An overnight party on New Years Eve provided the writer with a good excuse for not carrying out either of these new resolutions on the first day of the year.

Q.4. Find out the words in the above passage which convey the similar meaning to the following: (1) Overwhelming (2) Drawbacks (3) Decrease

Ans..(1) Formidable

(2)

Pitfalls

(3) Wane