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Q. 1. What is a transducer? Ans.

The device which converts an energy from one form to another is known as ‘transducer’ The input energy may be electrical, mechanical, chemical, thermal or optical Q 2 Give classification of transducers Ans The transducers may be classified as (1) Electrical Transducers. These are the transducers which give electrical energy as output (voltage, current, frequency) etc. (2) Displacement Transducers. These transducers convert displacement (mechanical energy) into electrical energy (3) Optoelectronic Transducers These transducers convert light energy into electrical energy, For example photoconductive cell, photovoltaic cell, solar cell, etc Out of the above, electrical transducers are the most popular These transducers tire used for

measurement of non-electrical quantities (force, pressure, etc.) by changing them into electrical quantities. Q 3 Define electrical transducers’ Ans The transducers, which convert non electrical quantities (force, pressure, sound Ltd) into electrical quantities are called ‘Electrical transducers”, it then becomes easier to measure a non electrical quantity Q. 4. What are Inverse transducers? Ans The inverse transducers convert electrical quantities into non-electrical quantities, e g Piezo electrical transducers The recording devices which are used in feed-back measurement systems are also a type of Inverse transducers Q. 5. What are variable inductance type transducers?

Ans. These are analog passive transducers. They work on one of the following Principles: (i) Change of self inductance of a coil. (ii) Change of mutual inductance of a coil. (iii) Production of eddy currents. Q. 6. Differentiate between Transducers and Inverse transducers? Ans. Transducers are normally associated with a circuit which has non-electrical input and electrical output e.g. pressure gauge, strain gauge etc. An inverse transducer is a device that converts electrical quantities into non-electrical quantities e.g. piezo-electric crystal. Q. 7. What is a strain gauge? Ans. The strain gauge converts strain into a change of electrical resistance. Q. 8. What are the types of strain gauges?

Unbonded Q. Q. What is a semiconductor strain gauge? . It is the most commonly used transducer for measurement of displacement. There are four types of strain gauges namely: 1. 1. 10.Ans. Film strain gauge 4. Ans. 9. What is a Resistance Strain Gauge? Ans. A resistance strain gauge consists of a grid of fine wire cemented to a thin paper or bakellite sheet and covered with a protective covering. Bonded 2. Semiconductor strain gauge Q. Foil strain gauge 3. Wire strain gauge 2. Give other classification of strain gauges. 11.

What is thermocouple gauge used for detection of leaks in vacuum systems. Q. wider and simpler. A semiconductor strain gauge employs a semiconductor material commonly silicon. 14. Q. As the resistively of semiconductor is higher than a conductor. A thermocouple consists of dissimilar metals which when joined produce an e. it is possible to have a sensitive element as shorter. 12. The thermocouple gauge consists of an electrically heated wire operating at a temperature of approximately 320°K mounted inside a glass or metal envelope.Ans. Ans.m. . Write desired properties of thermocouple metals. Q. What is a thermocouple? Ans. 13.f when their one junction is heated.

Ans. What type of scale is used in thermocouple meters? Ans. Q. What is the main application of thermocouple meter? Ans. 16. Thermocouple is capable of measuring AC of high frequencies very accurately. They should not melt within the range of temperature requirements. 15. Ans. Q. 3. In a thermocouple meter. 2. It is based . there is a square law scale. It is mainly used to measure radio frequency currents having frequencies to thousands of megahertz. They should not corrode at their highest temperature. Q. 1. 17. Can a thermocouple measure AC. The emf generated by the couple must remain constant for a given temperature throughout its life.

The output voltage in this hafi effect transducer depends upon the strength of the magnetic field in the gap.. Any displacement in the ferro-magnetic Structure changes the magnetic field and hence the output voltage. how it can be used for measuring displacement? Ans A Hall Effect transducer is based on the effect of magnetic fields on moving charges. 1. 18. It can be used to measure strength of a magnetic field in terms of an electrical voltage. Q. What is Hall Effect transducers. 19. This method can be used to measure displacement down to 0.on the principle of generation of heat due to current.001 inch Q. What are the possible applications of Hall Effect Transducers? Ans. A Hail Effect transducer is located within a gap. .

Q. 1. 3. Errors Q. Physical environment 5. Name the types of Pyrometers. Pyrometers are instruments. 20. What are Pyrometers? Ans. Q. It can also be used to measure current without cutting the conductor and without making any electrical connections between conductor circuit and the meter. Hall effect transducer can be used as an analog multiplier. Range . which are used for the measurement of very high temperatures. Electrical output characteristics -• 4. What are the points to be considered for selecting transducer? Ans. 22.2. . Sensitivity 3. 21. 2.

Define Gauge Factor of a strain gauge. Resistance pyrometers. What is LVDT? Ans. Ans. Thermo-couple pyrometers 3. 24. Gauge factor. K = AR/R AL IL where. Gauge factor is defined as the ratio of unit change in resistance to unit change in length. Radiation pyrometers 4.Ans. 23. It is a Linear Voltage Differential Transformer. 2. Optical pyrometers i Q. 1. R = Resistance of gauge wire AR = Change in resistance L Length of wire AL = Change in length . Q.

8 20. 25. Ans 1 Strain gauges are extensively used for analyzing dynamic strains in complex .10 0.Q.1 4. Table 1. Ans.0 2. Material nickel manganin nichrome Constanant platinum Carbon Soft iron Doped crystals Gauge factor 12.47 2. Give Gauge Factor for few materials.2 100 to 5000 Q 26 Mention applications of a resistance strain gauge for measurement of non electric quantities.0 4. The table lists gauge factors for different commonly used wire materials.

Strain (AL/L) = Change in resistande/ Unstrained resistance Gauge factor = 1/150 3 . The resistance of the strain gauge (having a gauge factor of ‘3’) changes from 150 ohms to 151 ohms when strained. Force and Stresses in structures. Q 27 Strain in a beam is being measured with the help of a strain gauge attached to the beam. Automobiles. Strain gauges are used in load cells and load rings to measure force producing strain. I Ans.structures such as in Bridges. Determine the strain in the beam to which the gauge has been attached. Roads. 3. 2 Resistance wire strain gauges are very useful for measurement of Tension. etc. Torque.

Q. 2. They can measure very high temperature. .= 0. They can measure temperature of moving object. 31. 1. Synchro transducer is a POSITION MEASURING DEVICE. 28. Q. They can be kept away from hot body. The optical pyrometers are used for higher temperature measurement up to 3500°C such as temperature of furnaces. What is a SYNCHRO TRANSDUCER? Ans. Q. 3. Give advantages of Radiation Pyrometers. 30.0022 Ans Q. What are optical pyrometers? Ans. Ans. molten metals and other heated materials. 29. Give disadvantages of Radiation Pyrometers.

constantan. nickel. 3. This meter can measure rotational speed of a shaft. 33. They are costly.Ans. Each pyrometer has individual calibration. What is Tacho generator? . Q. Ans. platinum. These are 1. High maintenance is required. Photo voltaic cell Q. Nichrome. Q. Name two light sensitive transducers. Ans. 34. What is an Eddy current tachometer? Ans. 1. 35. What are the different types of strain gauges ? Name four resistance materials used in wire and foil gauges. 32. Photo conductive cell 2. Q. This works on the principle of eddy currents. 2.

gauging machine profile. 2. This is an equipment which produces pulses of light at a controlled frequency. 36. Ans. thickness measurement. 38.V. 1. What is stroboscope? Ans. These are 1.T. Q. 37. This. 2. LVDTs have also been used for force and pressure measurement. long mechanical life . This. is used to measure rotational speeds of shaft with more accuracy.g. can measure rotational speed from a distance. Frictionless instruments. Mention major applications of L. Enlist advantages’ of LVDT.Ans.D. These are used for direct displacement measurement e. Hence..s? Ans. Q. Q. surface roughness etc.

A sensitive PERMANENT MAGNET MOVING COIL METER that operates on the thermal e. What are. 3. What are the essential components of a Thermocouple instrument that can be used for measurement of an unknown current or voltage? Ans. the various advantages of thermocouple instruments? . 2. Q. Infinite resolution. Q. Q.3. 40. It is used for measuring displacement. The THERMQCOUPLE having its hot junction in contact with the heater and its cold junction at room temperature.T. 1.R.I. The HEATER ELEMENT that carries the current to be measured. It stands for Variable Reluctance Inductive Transducer.f generated in the thermocouple. 39. What is V.m. 41. ? Ans.

3. The fuses don’t provide any protection as the heater wire may burn before the fuse blows off. The thermocouple instruments correctly indicate the R. Ans. The thermocouple instruments have the following disadvantages: 1.c. These instruments are not affected by stray magnetic fields. . The overload capacity of thermocouple instruments is small as compared to that of other instruments. These instruments can be used over a wide frequency range. 42. Q. 2. Define : Thermoelectric Inversion and Neutral Temperature.c. The thermocouple instruments have the following advantages: 1. as well as d. 4. value of current or voltage. They can measure a.M.Ans. Q. Give disadvantages of thermocouple instruments. 43.S. 2.

m.f As the temperature of the hot junction is increased above the temperature of the cold junction. Ans. After a certain temperature for the hot junction.Ans.m. Platinum or Tungsteri wire is wound on a former to give a resistance in the range of 10 ohms to 10 kilo-ohms.m. Give advantages and disadvantages of resistance thermometers. the thermoelectric e. 45. the e. The variation in resistance of a metal with temperature is the basis of temperature measurement in a resistance thermometer.f starts decresing with increase in temperature. (a) Advantages : These provide the most accurate method for temperature . Thermoelectric inversion means reversal of polarity of thermoelectric e. What is the principle of operation of a RESISTANCE THERMOMETER? Ans. This transition temperatures is called the NEUTRAL TEMPERATURE. Q. 44. Q.f increases proportionally.

These have a simple installation and need only copper cables for long rims. 47. They are available in an insulated cable housing or ultra fine wires. Ans. What are the advantages of semiconductor strain gauge? . (a) Advantages These have a wide temperature range. They need extension cables for long runs. are versatile and are simple in application. Q. They need great attention where high accuracy is needed. (b) Disadvantages : These need energising current. These are available in a variety of package configuration. (b) Disadvantages : Thermocouples need a temperature reference for their operation.measurement. Q. 46. Give advantages and disadvantages of thermocouples. These are large in size as compared to thermo couples.

2. Ans. They have good frequency response. Give some thermocouple materials and temperature range. 49.Ans. Ans Table 2 . They are free from hysteresis and creep error. 1. They are of small size. Ans The major disadvantage of LVDT is the hazard of induced noise in an Electro magnetically noisy environment: However. Give disadvantages of semiconductor strain gauge. this can be overcome with proper shielding. brittle. highly sensitive to temperature variations and have poor linearity. Q. 48. Mention one disadvantage of LVDT. Q. Q. These semiconductor gauges are expensive. 50. 3.

Should have high value of gauge factor. 1.Combination of Thermocouple materials Copper-Constantan Iron-Constantan Chromel-Alumel + 10% Rhodium Platinum-Platinum + 13% Rhodium Temperature Range . Should not have hysteresis or creep effect. Incremental encoder and Absolute encoder. 51. Mention desirable characteristics of strain gauges.20°C to 750°C 300°C to 1000°C 700°C to 1600°C Q. Ans. What are the following: Shaft encoder. Q. . 52.200°C to 550°C . Should have very good frequency response. 3. 2.

Ans. 3. 1. Shaft encoders are ANGULAR MEASUREMENT devices that make use of optical or magnetic technique to measure the shaft angle in terms of a digital number. Q. HOT WIRE GAUGES depend for their operation on the thermal conductivity . 53. What is the principle of operation of HOT WIRE GAUGES? Ans. 2. Incremental encoders have simple ON and OFF coded pattern. Binary coded decimal and Gray code. Different codes are practiced for this purpose such as Binary. The output is in the form of number of counts between start and end of displacement. The absolute encoders have a coded pattern that gives a unique digital output for each discrete displacement increment.

of the heated wire due to change in pressure. Time constant 3 Break point . These devices have a very high temperature co-efficient of résistance. PTC thermistors have a positive temperature coefficient of resistance i e their resistance increases with temperature Q 56 Define for thermistors 1 Dissipation constant 2. A thermistor is a device whose resistance varies with temperature. 55.e. What is a Thermistor? Ans. What are NTC and FTC thermistors. Q. The NTC thermistors have a negative temperature coefficient of resistance i. These are normally used to measure pressure of gases and vapours. 54. These are basically ceramic materials. Q. Ans. their resistance decreases with increase in temperature.

where its resistance is approximately five times its base resistance Q 57 Give basic requirements of a transducer Ans Following are the basic requirements of a transducer 1 Ruggedness It should be capable of withstanding overloads and some safety arrangement should be provided for over load protection . Typical value IOmW/°C. 2 The TIME CONSTANT is the time taken b the thermistor to mdicate 63% of the newly impressed temperature input Agam it may be several seconds 3 The BREAK POINT of a FTC thermistor is a point of the rapidly rising portion of its resistance vs temperature characteristics after the Curie temperature.Ans 1 DISSIPATION CONSTANT is the amount of power dissipated by the thermistors which will raise its temperature by I °C.

such a transducer is called primary transducer. Q. No Hysterisis. such transducer is called secondary transducer. 58. What are primary and secondary transducers? Ans. Following are the advantages of an electrical transducer . What are the advantages of an electrical transducer? Ans. It should be free from hysterisis while input signal is varied from its low value to high value and vice versa Q.2. 3. When the input signal is directly sensed by the transducer and is converted into electrical form directly. When the input signal is first sensed by some detector or sensor and its output being of some form other than input signal is given as input to a transducer for conversion into electrical form. 59. Its input-output characteristics should be linear and it should produce these characteristic in symmetrical way. Linearity.

Q. which converts force into proportionate displacement. 60. . 3. Q. What is the basic principle of operation of INDUCTION TYPE transducers? Ans. A spring is a simplest transducer. What is a spring? Ans. Very small power is required for controlling electrical system. The electrical output can be amplified to any desired value. 61. Mass-inertia effects are reduced to the minimum possible.m. 2. 4. Frictional error will be less in electrical transducer.f being induced in a conductor placed in a magnetic field whenever there is a rate of change of flux linking the conductor.1. Induction type transducers are based on the Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction which talks about an e.

Transducers in which electrical parameters i. How capacitive transducers are superior to other transducers? Ans. Their power requirements is very small. 63. What are Analog and Digital transducers? . inductance or capacitance change with change in input signal are called the passive transducers. resistance. Q.Q. 62. as the capacitor plates themselves have very little mass. Q. 64.e. These have a very good dynamic response. 1. which develop their output in the form of electrical voltage or current without any auxiliary source are called the active transducers. 2. The transducers. What are Active and Passive transducers? Ans.

What is pulse counter? Ans. e. The spring can measure force by converting it into displacement. What is the use of spring as a transducer? Ans. Analog transducers convert input signal into the output signal which is a continuous function of time. strain gauge thermocouple etc. This is a simple device of measuring displacement of liquid surface. Q. In other words it is a water level Indicator. 65. Q. Digital transducer convert input signal into the output signal in the form of pulses. 66. Q. This is an electronic instrument used to count pulses. 67. What is Float? Ans. Q. What is Bourden Pressure Tube? . thermistor.Ans.g. 68.

Q. What are the factors to be kept in mind to select a transducer? Ans. (v) They lend themselves to bidirectional flow. Write advantages of Flow meters. density and change in temperature. It is a transducer. . (a) The quantity to be measured. Q. (iv) There is no moving part. (iii) They are not affected by the viscosity. It is used to measure pressure by converting into electrical energy.Ans. Q. 71. Ans. (i) There is no obstruction in the velocity. 70. 69. which can measure pressure. What is a Piezeo electric transducer? Ans. (b) Accuracy required. (ii) The output is proportional to the velocity.

6. their use is limited. 72. Few mechanical transducers and their mode of operation is given: Table 3. Mode of operation (conversion) Pressure to displacement bellow Pressure to displacement diaphram Pressure to displacement spring Force to displacement Pendulum Force to displacement manometer Pressure to displacement Thermocouple Temperature to current bimetal Temperature to displacement .no Mechanical transducers 1. 8. Ans. 4.But due to complexity and high costs. Sr. Enlist few mechanical transducers and modes of operatin. Q. Burden tube 2. 7. 5. 3.

The transducer selected should be able to withstand the .’ Ans The transducer are selected on the basics of following points (i) Range The transducer should have sufficient range of operation (ii) Sensitivity It should give sufficient output per unit of measured input (iii) Good electrical characteristics The electrical characteristics such as output impedence. 11. frequency response. response time of transducer’s output signal should be compatible with the recording device (iv) Environment friendly. 10. Float hydrometer venturi vane Fluid level Pressure to displacement Sp gravity to displacement Velocity to pressure Velocity to force Q. 73.9. Write a note on ‘selection of transducer. 12.

environmental conditions such temperature. (v) Errors. Q 74 What are the basic requirement of a transducer? Ans The basic requirements of a transducer are (i) Ruggedness It should be capable to withstand overloads (ii) Linanty Its input-output characteristic should be linear (iii) Repeatability It should give same output for the same input. moisture. The errors produced by transducer and caused by environment should small. when varied from low to high value or vice-versa Q 75 Enlist advantages of Electrical transducers . etc. if applied again and again (iv) High output quality The output should have high signal noise ratio (v) No hysterisis It should not give any hysterisis effect.

transmitted and processed Note More Short Answer Questions are given at the end of the Chapter . physical quantities before measurement are converted into electrical quantity It has the following advantages I Amplification Attenuation of an electrical quantity can be done easily 2 The effects of friction are minimized. 3 The electrical/ electronic system can be easily controlled and that too with little power 4 Telemetry used now-a-days in modem instrumentation This is possible only in electrical/electronic systems 5 The use of I C s has brought a revolution in the field of instrumentation 6 The electrical output can be easily used.Ans Advantages of Electrical Transducers Usually.

. A transducer may be thought of consisting of two closely related elements (Fig. 1).SHORT & LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS Q 76 Describe elements and requirements of transducers Ans. (a) Elements.

In addition. Good Response. This element senses detects the physical quantity under measurement. If the input to the transducer varies with time (in few cases. This element transfers the output of the sensing element into. Linear Output I Input Characteristic. power supply. The transducer should be mechanically rugged. it does) the transducers should have good response to the variations. (b) Requirements.1. 2. calibrated scale. Mechanical Ruggedness. . 3. The transducers should have the following requirements: 1. an electrical output. a transducer may have amplifiers. The result should also be stable and should not change with temperature and other changes. 4. The transducers should have linear output/input characteristic. Reliability. It should be able to withstand the working conditions and mechanical strains. etc. Sensing or Detecting Element. Transduction Element. The results of the transducers should be reliable. 2.

77.5. (voltage. they develop output need an external (voltage or current)power source to give without any. Ans. 3.e. Give comparison between Active and Passive transducers. 2. current). under measurement. which may amplification is not need any necessary. Q. electrical output auxiliary device. They give very low They give sufficient output and output. they generating i. Sr. The noise / signal ratio of the transducers should be low so that its output can be directly measured with sufficient accuracy. Low Noise. They are self They are not self generating i. and capacitive .e. 4. amplification. Examples : Examples Inductive Active transducers Passive transducers 1. Table 4. They draw energy They need an external from the quantity energy source.

Examples of there transducers are (1) Potentiometer . Q. where R = resistance of the conductor p = resistivity of the material of the conductor = length of conductor a = cross-section of the conductor. 78.electric transducers etc. transducers etc.Piezo. In these transducers. Resistance transducers are preferred as ac and dc both supplies are suitable fa resistance measurement. Ans. What are variable resistance type transducers? list few examples. resistance between the output terminals gets varied according to the quantity under output terminals.

(2). Ans. A loudspeaker is a transducer which converts electrical energy back to sound energy. Explain the following as transducers: (1) microphone and loudspeaker (2) Video cameras (3) Human ear (4) Human eye. Q. The two constitute a public address (PA) system Fig.(2) Strain gauge (3) Thermistor (4) Resistance hygrometer. This principle is used in radio transmission and reception. which converts sound into electrical energy. (1) A microphone is a transducer. . 79.

(2) The video camera is a transducer which converts picture (light) into electrical energy. 3). The picture tube is a transducer which converts the electrical energy back into light (picture). (3) The human ear acts as a transducer which converts sound into electrical pulses which go to our brain. Our eye is like a camera which can take infinite photographs black and white as well as colour simultaneously and can send them to the . (4) The human eye acts as a transducer which converts a picture into electrical pulses which go to our brain which. in turn also acts as a transducer and reconverts back the electrical pulses into the original picture and thus we can see the object. The principle is used in TV transmission and reception (Fig. the brain also acts as a transducer and converts back the electrical pulses into the original sound and we feel the sound.

a greater output is obtained than increasing value of the same quantity. This phenomenon is called as “Hysterisis”. 80. • . Our eye can change focal length to see near and distant objects. all transducers suffer from this effect.brain. The output of a transducer depends not only on the input quantity applied at present. Q. when the same input quantity is applied repeatedly For decreasing values. A different output is obtained. Ans. while camera cannot. Explain the term “Hysterisis” effect found in transducers. but also depends on the input quantities applied previously.