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VIII.

CONDUCTOR AND LINE ANALYSIS


VIII-1 Conductor Thermal Rating The integrity of conductors can be affected by temperature. It is commonly accepted that aluminum begins to anneal at a conductor temperature of about 100C. Annealing results in loss of aluminum strength. For all aluminum conductors (AAC), this can be an important consideration. Conductors that get much of their strength from steel (aluminum conductor steel reinforced - ACSR) will tolerate more annealing. Annealing is a cumulative affect and is a function of both aluminum temperature and time. Conductors can withstand high fault currents for short times (tenth of seconds) that are many times greater than the load current for which they are designed. A Figure in the Aluminum Electrical Conductors Handbook indicates that an aluminum conductor may lose 5% of its strength after 500 hours at 100C or 2 hours at 150C. Aluminum melts at about 650C. This temperature must be avoided. Another consideration affected by conductor temperature is clearance. As conductor temperature goes up, the conductor expands and the line sag increases. tolerated. This must be evaluated on a line by line and span by span basis. Historically, three current rating have been used for transmission line conductors. SMECOs definition of Emergency Rating is based on allowing the conductor to operate at 75C. This is conductor Rating 2 in the Transmission 2000 (T2000) database. Conductor Rating 1 is the Normal Rating for this TLRP analysis. Normal Rating is a current that is 75% of the Emergency Rating (Rating 2) current. SMECOs system is designed so that with the system in its normal configuration, conductor currents do not exceed this Normal Rating. Conductor Rating 3 is defined as 115% of the Emergency Rating 2 current for this TLRP analysis. The exact transmission line design and right-of-way maintenance dictate how much sag can be

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Electrical Heating There are two main effects that add heat and two that remove heat from current carrying conductors. The largest source of heating for conductors is I 2R where I is the line current and R is the resistance per unit length of the conductor. More current causes more heating and higher temperatures cause increased resistance. considered in current rating calculations. The other effect that contributes to higher conductor temperatures is solar heating. Solar heating is a function of transmission line orientation, time of year, time of day, latitude of the service area, and clarity of the atmosphere. A conductor property that affects solar heating is its absorptivity coefficient. This coefficient is a measure of the portion of available solar energy that is absorbed by the conductor and is a function of conductor age. Test data has indicated that a new aluminum conductor may have an absorption coefficient of about 0.59 and that a conductor aged in service more than eight years in the Washington D. C. area will have and absorption coefficient of about 0.92. The two mechanisms that remove heat from line conductors are convection and radiation. Convection has the most cooling power and is made up of the natural motion of air due to temperature gradients and wind that is a function of meteorological effects. Wind speed and its angle to the conductors is the most powerful line cooling affect. Radiative cooling depends upon the temperature gradient between the conductor and the surrounding atmosphere. It is a function of the conductors coefficient of emissivity. Emissivity is a measure of the conductors ability to radiate energy. It is a function of the conductors surface condition and gets higher as the conductor ages. Higher emissivity coefficients indicate that more heat is radiated from the conductor. Test data has indicated that a new aluminum conductor may have an emissivity coefficient of about 0.3 and that a conductor aged in service more than twenty years in the Washington D C. area will have and absorption coefficient of about 0.82. Figure VIII-1 shows the results of emissivity and absorptivity tests on conductor samples aged in the Washington D. C. area. VIII - 2 Both effects must be

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Figure VIII-1: Absorptivity and Emissivity ACSR Conductors

The calculation of conductor current rating solves the energy balance relationship equating heat energy going into the conductor to heat energy going out of the conductor according to the principles indicated above. Computer programs are available from manufacturers and as part of IEEE standards to compute conductor ratings. POWER used the Southwire Company SWrate software program to calculate the thermal ratings for the overhead transmission line conductors. The SWrate program is based on IEEE Standard 738-1993, IEEE Standard for Calculating the Current-Temperature Relationship of Bare Overhead Conductors.

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The SWrate program input data includes the following: - Air temperature (degrees C) - Wind speed (feet/second) - Wind angle relative to conductor (degrees) - Elevation above sea level (feet) - Latitude (degrees N) - Solar time (hours) - Conductor name - Diameter (inches) - Coefficient of emissivity - Coefficient of solar absorptivity - Conductor resistance (ohms/mile) - Conductor temperature (degrees C) - Date (month/day) - Conductor orientation (north-south or east-west) - Atmosphere (clear or industrial) Input data that controls the conditions for the rating calculations is always a subject for discussion. It must be decided upon by the operations, planning and system design personnel. Considering SMECOs 75C conductor temperature Emergency Rating, operating practice, summer conditions, geographical location and POWERs experience, the following data was used as input to the conductor rating program: Emergency Conductor Temperature: Air temperature: Wind Speed: Wind Angle: Elevation: Latitude: Emissivity coefficient: Absorptivity coefficient: Date: Solar Time: North-South Lines Clear Atmosphere 75C 35C 2.0 feet/second 45 150 feet 38.5 0.7 0.8 07/01 12:00 PM

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The above input data results in the following conductor currents and temperatures for common aluminum conductors. Table VIII-1: Current Ratings and Conductor Temperatures (Based on 75C Conductor Temperature Criterion) Ampacity Conductor Ampacity Cond. Cond. Cond. Rating 1 Temp. Rating 2 MCM Type Name 75% of with 100% the 75C Rating 1 with 75C Rating 2 Ampacity Conductor Temp. Amps C Amps 2312 ACSR Thrasher 921 A 65.4 1228 A 1750 1590 1590 556.5 336.4 2/0 AAC ACSR AAC ACSR ACSR ACSR Jessamine Falcon Coreopsis Dove Linnet Quail 782 A 768 A 744 A 415 A 306 A 163 A 64.9 65.0 64.8 63.6 62.9 61.6 1043 A 1024 A 992 A 554 A 408 A 218 A

Ampacity Rating 3 115% of the 75C Rating 2 Amps 1412 A 1199 A 1178 A 1140 A 637 A 469 A 251 A

Conductor Temp. With Rating 3 Ampacity C 82.3 82.6 82.7 82.7 83.6 84.1 86.2

The conductor ratings in Table VIII-1 are more conservative than necessary and they are below the ampacity values that SMECO presently uses. POWER suggests that SMECO can increase their Emergency Rating (Rating 2) conductor temperature from 75C to 85C to take more advantage of the conductors thermal capability. Also, the 115% of Emergency Rating 2 current may be increased to allow the conductor temperatures to approach 100C. The following input data is recommended for the calculation of SMECOs aluminum conductor ampacity ratings:

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Recommended Summer Conductor Rating Data Emergency Conductor Temperature: 85C Air temperature: 35C Wind Speed: 2.0 feet/second Wind Angle: 45 Elevation: 150 feet. Latitude: 38.5 Emissivity coefficient: 0.7 Absorptivity coefficient: 0.8 Date: 07/01 Solar Time: 12:00 PM North-South Lines Clear Atmosphere The above input data results in the following conductor current and temperature ratings for common aluminum conductors. Table VIII-2: Summer (35C Air) Current Ratings and Conductor Temperatures (Based on 85C Conductor Temperature Criterion) Ampacity Conductor Ampacity Ampacity Conductor Cond. Cond. Cond. Rating 1 Temp. Rating 2 Rating 3 Temp. MCM Type Name 75% of with 100% 115% of With the 85C Rating 1 with 85C the 85C Rating 3 Rating 2 Ampacity Conductor Rating 2 Ampacity Temp. Amps C Amps Amps C 2312 ACSR Thrasher 1105 A 70.8 1473 A 1694 A 95.8 1750 1590 1590 556.5 336.4 2/0 AAC ACSR AAC ACSR ACSR ACSR Jessamine Falcon Coreopsis Dove Linnet Quail 932 A 915 A 884 A 487 A 355 A 185 A 70.3 70.3 70.2 69.0 68.3 66.2 1243 A 1220 A 1179 A 649 A 474 A 247 A 1429 A 1403 A 1356 A 746 A 545 A 284 A 96.2 96.2 96.4 97.4 97.9 100.3

The current values in Table VIII-2 are very close to the ratings that SMECO has historically used for conductor ratings. It is believed that the results indicated in this

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table are good for SMECOs service area. They are based on reasonable assumptions consistent with SMECOs service area and consistent with SMECOs past practice. Winter conductor ratings may take advantage of lower air temperatures and should employ a different month for solar heating considerations. POWER recommends that SMECO use these effects and assume 20C as a conservative winter air temperature and February as a representative winter month for ampacity rating calculations. Combining these recommendations with the previous recommendations yields the following set of input data and winter ratings. Recommended Winter Conductor Rating Data Emergency Conductor Temperature: 20C Air temperature: 35C Wind Speed: 2.0 feet/second Wind Angle: 45 Elevation: 150 feet Latitude: 38.5 Emissivity coefficient: 0.7 Absorptivity coefficient: 0.8 Date: 02/01 Solar Time: 12:00 PM North-South Lines Clear Atmosphere

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Table VIII-3: Winter (20C Air) Current Ratings and Conductor Temperatures (Based on 85C Conductor Temperature Criterion) Ampacity Conductor Ampacity Ampacity Conductor Cond. Cond. Cond. Rating 1 Temp. Rating 2 Rating 3 Temp. MCM Type Name 75% of with 100% 108% of with the 85C Rating 1 with 85C the 85C Rating 3 Rating 2 Ampacity Conductor Rating 2 Ampacity Temp. Amps C Amps Amps C 2312 ACSR Thrasher 1437 A 59.4 1916 2069 A 95.2 1750 1590 1590 556.5 336.4 2/0 AAC ACSR AAC ACSR ACSR ACSR Jessamine Falcon Coreopsis Dove Linnet Quail 1201 A 1180 A 1137 A 612 A 443 A 227 A 59.1 59.1 59.0 58.1 57.7 54.9 1602 1573 1516 816 591 303 1730 A 1699 A 1637 A 881 A 638 A 327 A 95.4 95.3 95.4 95.8 96.2 98.4

Note that Conductor Rating 3 now must use 108% of the 85C Emergency Rating to keep the temperature below 100C in the winter for all the conductors listed rather than 115% as was the case in the summer. This is because heat into the conductor is proportional the square of current. The 85C conductor temperature allows more current with the 20C winter air temperature than with the 35C summer air temperature. If the winter 85C Emergency Rating current were raised the same 15% as in the summer, the absolute current increase would be more. The current squared effect would add more heat to the conductor. The temperature would rise more resulting in the temperature of some conductors going above 100C.

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VIII-2 High Temperature Low Sag (HTLS) Conductors There are a number of new High Temperature Low Sag (HTLS) conductors on the market designed to operate at temperatures of 200C to 300C. This is well above the normally accepted maximum operating temperature of 100C allowed for more standard AAC and ACSR conductors. These new conductors still employ aluminum as the main current conducting medium. They have a core material inside the aluminum that provides high mechanical strength with a low coefficient of thermal expansion. This internal core material is the main difference between conductors supplied by the various manufacturers. The new conductors are capable of carrying two to four times as much current as the more standard AAC and ACSR conductors of similar diameters and weights while minimizing sag. Limited experience indicates that the new conductors perform as advertised. They tend to cost two to six times more than standard conductors to purchase and install. Some require special handling and equipment for installation and maintenance. When applying these new conductors, only manufacturer recommended splices and dead ends must be installed using extreme care. These tend to be the weak links in line construction and any flaws at these points will most likely lead to conductor failures. Since the conductors operate at very high temperatures, they must not be connected directly to oil and/or paper insulated bushings. Leads from HTLS dead end towers to equipment bushings may be constructed with a bundle of standard AAC or ACSR conductors designed to carry the total current from the HTLS line without heating above their normal limits. The new HTLS conductors are generally used for specific applications or to solve existing problems. For example, if reconductoring an existing line is required for load purposes, and installing a larger conductor will require extensive structural work to increase strength and/or height, an HTLS conductor may be considered. A trade-off can

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be evaluated between cost of the HTLS conductor and the cost of the structural modifications. Currently, HTLS conductors are only used for specialized high current applications. These applications tend to occur at voltages of 230 kV or less. Above that level, lines tend to be designed with bundled conductors having sufficient current carrying capability to avoid overload problems. Long high voltage lines sometimes have series capacitors added to compensate for the line inductive reactance voltage drop and phase shift to allow more current to flow in the normal line conductors than would be possible without compensation. The new HTLS conductors will probably have limited application for new line construction. For new construction, the line will be designed with load current, sag and conductor strength requirements taken into proper account. New lines will be installed at a significantly lower cost using standard, accepted, and proven design techniques than using HTLS conductors having higher costs and requiring special construction techniques.

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VIII-3 Transmission Line Parameters Electrical characteristics of transmission lines are defined by their inductance, resistance, and capacitance. These parameters are a function of the conductor characteristics and the physical location of the conductors in space relative to each other and to earth. The parameters are specified in two matrices. One matrix contains self and mutual inductances and resistances. The other matrix contains phase to phase and phase to ground capacitances. For the purpose of power flow and short circuit calculations, the parameters are generally simplified into positive, negative, and zero sequence components. Mutual coupling between sequence components are ignored. This technique has proven to be acceptable for most steady state system performance calculations. The present TLRP is concerned with power flow in the transmission system and requires only the positive sequence impedances and capacitances of the transmission lines. Thermal capabilities of the conductors are also of concern. This topic is considered the Conductor Thermal Ratings section of this report. Conductor properties are listed in many reference books and manufacturers catalogs. Table IV-4, Conductor Data from References, lists data obtained from the various sources indicated in the last column. Conductor ampacity ratings are a function of the assumptions made for the calculations as indicated by the differences in the tabulated values. Tabulated resistances are at 25C and 75C during steady state 60 hertz operation except as noted. Skin effect at 60 hertz is included in the values listed. The inductances, Xa, tabulated are at 60 hertz for a one foot triangular conductor configuration on a fully transposed line. Conductor diameter, conductor resistance, and Xa are input to the line parameter program for computing the impedance and capacitance matrices. The reference data is in near complete agreement on the diameters and X a values. The resistance values are reasonably close to the same values. Conductor temperature is selected at 75C for this TLRP analysis. This produces the most resistive voltage drop

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and the most conservative system design. When there is disagreement among the data sources, data from the Aluminum Conductor Handbook is used for this TLRP analysis. Calculated Properties The IEEE Standard 738-1993, IEEE Standard for Calculating the Current-Temperature Relationship of Bare Overhead Conductors, method is used for conductor thermal calculations in this report. Both the results in the following Table VIII-5 and the results in the Conductor Thermal Rating section of this report were obtained by this method. Table VIII-5 shows conductor ratings using the assumptions shown in the table foot notes. These are the assumptions that have been historically used by SMECO for The currents listed in the 75C conductor conductor thermal rating calculations.

temperature column are in good agreement with SMECOs corresponding data. The second table below also lists electrical parameters computed for lines with the conductors considered for use in the transmission system. Electrical parameters are computed for line upgrades and new lines considered for the transmission system. Line parameters are computed using the Line Constants subroutine in the Alternate Transients Program, ATP. This program was initially developed by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). It is not public domain software, but is available free to licensed users. Transmission line configuration is based on 66 kV Steel Pole, TP66EF7-S as shown on SMECO Drawing A 1340. This is the construction used for the 2005 Hughesville bypass project. Figure VIII-2 is a sample output from the ATP Line Constants subroutine for the 1590 MCM AAC Coreopsis conductor recommended for use in SMECOs new construction. Zero is entered in the Skin Effect field for the phase conductors because the 60 hertz skin effect is already included in the resistance and inductance input data. Skin effect for the 57OPT fiber static wire is computed based on an assumed conductor thickness to outside diameter ratio (T/D) of 0.25. The value of 1 for the phase conductor X-type tells the program to use the Xa values entered at a one foot spacing for the inductance calculations rather than calculating the conductor internal inductance based on tubular conductor VIII - 12

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geometry. X-type of 4 is used for the static wire so that its internal inductance will be computed based on tubular geometry. The 99999 in the reactance data column for the static wire is a flag to the user that this value is not used in the calculations. Conductor height at the pole is controlled by the pole geometry. A sag of ten feet (10) is assumed between poles and the subroutine computed the average conductor heights as indicated. Output from the subroutine shows the complete capacitance and impedance matrices of symmetrical components. The positive and zero sequence values computed for the line are listed near the bottom of Figure VIII-2. The positive and zero sequence propagation velocities provide a sanity check on the calculation. For overhead lines, the positive sequence wave propagation velocity is always a little less that the speed of light (186,000 miles per second) and the zero sequence propagation velocity is on the order of twenty per cent less (150,000 miles per second). The Figure shows that the positive sequence impedance of the line is 0.0749 + j0.626 ohms per mile and the positive sequence shunt susceptance is j6.93 mho/mile (Xc = -j144,000 ohm miles). These are the values upon which new 1590 MCM AAC Coreopsis lines are based in this TLRP.

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Table VIII-4: Conductor Data from References


Cond. Size MCM 2312 2312 2312 2312 1750 1750 1590 1590 1590 1590 1590 1590 1590 1590 1590 795 795 795 795 795 Cond. Type Code Name Thrasher Thrasher Thrasher Thrasher Jessamine Jessamine Falcon Falcon Falcon Falcon Falcon Coreopsis Coreopsis Coreopsis Coreopsis Drake Drake Drake Drake Drake Diameter Inches 25oC R Ohm/ mile 0.0454 0.0446 0.0396* 0.0391* 0.0587 0.0522 0.0611 0.0602 0.0570* 0.0555* 0.0611 0.0634 0.0636 0.0576* 0.0635 0.1170 0.1190 0.1129* 0.1127* 0.1166 75oC R Ohm/ mile 0.0528 0.0518 0.0528* 0.0524* 0.0684 0.0681 0.0721 0.0712 0.0739* 0.0704* 0.0739 0.0743 0.0745 0.0744* 0.0743 0.1390 0.1306 0.1388 0.1393 0.1390 Xa Ohm/ mile 0.343 0.342 1673** 1680** 0.366 1408 0.358 0.358 0.359 0.372 0.372 0.372 0.399 0.399 0.399 907** 896** 788*** 1333** 1174*** 1359** 1391** 1200***
**

Ampacity Amperes

Reference

ACSR ACSR ACSR ACSR/AW AAC AAC ACSR ACSR ACSR ACSR/AW ACSR AAC AAC AAC AAC ACSR ACSR ACSR ACSR/AW ACSR

1.802 1.802 1.802 1.525 1.525 1.545 1.545 1.545 1.545 1.454 1.454 1.454 1.108 1.108 1.108 1.108

Al Electrical Conductor Handbook EPRI Trans Line Reference Book Sural (www.sural.com) Sural (www.sural.com) EPRI Trans Line Reference Book Sural (www.sural.com) Al Electrical Conductor Handbook EPRI Trans Line Reference Book Sural (www.sural.com) Sural (www.sural.com) SMECO Conductor Characteristics Al Electrical Conductor Handbook EPRI Trans Line Reference Book Sural (www.sural.com) SMECO Conductor Characteristics Al Electrical Conductor Handbook EPRI Trans Line Reference Book Sural (www.sural.com) Sural (www.sural.com) SMECO Conductor Characteristics

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Table VIII-4: Conductor Data from References (continued)


Cond. Size MCM 556.5 556.5 556.5 556.5 556.5 336.4 336.4 336.4 336.4 4/0 4/0 2/0 2/0 2/0 2/0 Cond. Type ACSR ACSR ACSR ACSR/AW ACSR ACSR ACSR ACSR/AW ACSR Cu Cu ACSR ACSR ACSR/AW ACSR Code Name Dove Dove Dove Dove Dove Linnet Linnet Linnet Linnet 7-strand 7-strand Quail Quail Quail Quail Diameter inches 0.927 0.927 0.927 0.927 0.720 0.720 0.720 0.522 0.5217 0.4470 0.4470 0.4470 25oC R Ohm/ mile 0.1660 0.1694 0.1616* 0.1562* 0.1655 0.273 0.2666* 0.2586* 0.2728 0.278 0.2808 0.6870 0.6653* 0.6478* 0.6810 75oC R Ohm/ mile 0.1980 0.2026 0.1980* 0.1915* 0.1978 0.327 0.3494* 0.3162* 0.3264 0.3030+ 0.3326 0.9290 0.9293* 0.7888* 0.9320 Xa Ohm/ mile 0.420 0.420 0.420 0.451 0.451 0.503 0.504 0.590 0.590 529** 537** 450*** 420++ 405*** 295 276** 301** 231*** Ampacity Amperes Reference Al Electrical Conductor Handbook EPRI Trans Line Reference Book Sural (www.sural.com) Sural (www.sural.com) SMECO Conductor Characteristics Al Electrical Conductor Handbook Sural (www.sural.com) Sural (www.sural.com) SMECO Conductor Characteristics Westinghouse T&D Reference Book SMECO Conductor Characteristics Al Electrical Conductor Handbook Sural (www.sural.com) Sural (www.sural.com) SMECO Conductor Characteristics

726** 737** 625***

1/0 Cu 7-strand 0.3680 0.555 0.607+ 0.546 265++ Westinghouse T&D Reference Book 1/0 Cu 7-strand 0.3684 0.5615 0.6658 0.546 259*** SMECO Conductor Characteristics * Sural Resistance given at DC @ 200C, AC @ 750C. ** Sural Ampacity for 250C ambient, 750C conductor, 2 feet/second wind, 0.5 coefficients of emissivity and absorption. *** SMECO Ampacity for 400C ambient, 750C conductor, 2 feet/second wind, 0.5 coefficients of emissivity and absorption. + Westinghouse T & D reference Book, 500C for copper conductor resistance ++ Westinghouse T & D Reference Book, 750C for copper conductor and 400C ambient for ampacity (Fig. 25)

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Table VIII-5: Calculated Conductor and Line Properties


Cond. MCM 2312 1750 1590 1590 795 795 556.5 336.4 4/0 2/0 Cond. Type ACSR AAC ACSR AAC ACSR ACSR ACSR ACSR Cu ACSR Cond. Name Thrasher Jessamine Falcon Coreopsis Drake Drake 2 cond. Bundle Dove Linnet 7-strand Quail 75oC Cond. Amp 1492 1242 1215 1174 788 1418* 624 450 420 232 265 Latitude: 38.5o Clear Atmosphere Coefficient of Absorption: 0.5 Coefficient of Emission: 0.5 * Bundle rating is 10% less than the conductor rating sum 268 288 90oC Cond. Amp 1764 1468 1433 1386 927 1669* 732 528 100oC Cond. Amp 1920 1597 1558 1507 1007 1813* 792 573 0.0701 0.1986 0.461 0.674 0.630 0.760 1.963 2.197 9.227 6.347 3.632 3.034 0.0727 0.0749 0.612 0.626 0.635 0.637 2.135 2.149 7.023 6.935 3.180 3.162 66 kV Steel Pole Construction TP66EF7-S SMECO Drawing A 1340 X1 R0 X0 B1 B0 -6 Ohms / mile 10 Mho / mile 0.597 0.615 2.120 7.256 3.227

R1 0.0534

1/0 Cu 7-strand Ambient Temperature: 40oC Wind Speed: 2 feet/second North-South conductor Wind Angle: 45o No Solar Effect Altitude: 150 feet

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Figure VIII-2: ATP Line Constants Example - 1590 MCM AAC Coreopsis
Line conductor table after sorting and initial processing. Table Phase Skin effect Resistance Reactance data specification Diameter Horizontal Avg height Row Number R-type R (Ohm/mi) X-type X(ohm/mi) or GMR (inches) X (feet) Y (feet) 1 1 .00000 .07430 1 .372000 1.45400 3.750 50.833 2 2 .00000 .07430 1 .372000 1.45400 3.750 43.833 3 3 .00000 .07430 1 .372000 1.45400 -3.750 43.833 4 0 .25000 1.18100 4 99999.000000 .46500 0.667 59.167 Matrices are for earth resistivity = 1.00000000E+02 ohm-meters and frequency 6.00000000E+01 Hz. Correction factor = 1.00000000E-06 Capacitance matrix, in units of [farads/mile ] for symmetrical components of the equivalent phase conductor Rows proceed in sequence (0, 1, 2), (0, 1, 2), etc.; columns proceed in the sequence (0, 2, 1), (0, 2, 1), etc 0 1 2 8.387048E-09 0.000000E+00 2.120474E-10 -2.450550E-10 -1.931703E-10 -8.312831E-10 2.120474E-10 1.931703E-10 1.839555E-08 -2.450550E-10 2.452663E-25 8.312831E-10

Impedance matrix, in units of [ohms/mile ] for symmetrical components of the equivalent phase conductor Rows proceed in sequence (0, 1, 2), (0, 1, 2), etc.; columns proceed in the sequence (0, 2, 1), (0, 2, 1), etc. 0 1 2 6.367723E-01 2.149059E+00 5.858032E-05 -2.618439E-02 -2.428065E-02 9.281198E-03 2.563464E-02 -2.506301E-02 7.485916E-02 6.257380E-01 2.729865E-02 9.213317E-03 velocity Wavelength Resistance miles/s miles ohm/mile 1.43094E+05 2.38489E+03 6.36772E-01 1.80651E+05 3.01085E+03 7.48592E-02 Reactance Susceptance ohm/mile mho/mile 2.14906E+00 3.16184E-06 6.25738E-01 6.93496E-06

Sequence

Surge impedance Attenuation magnitude(ohm) angle(degr.) db/mile Zero : 8.41959E+02 -8.25235E+00 3.31893E-03 Positive: 3.01451E+02 -3.41103E+00 1.08039E-03

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VIII-4 Transmission Line Age Analysis The table below lists SMECOs 69 kV and 230 kV transmission lines according to age. Locations of the lines from 1972 and older are shown on the Aging Transmission map below. The oldest lines in SMECOs transmission system were constructed in the 1950s and have small conductors (2/0 ACSR and 336.4 MCM ACSR). Most of these lines on the map below are either in service or available if needed. If they are performing satisfactorily and not requiring excessive maintenance, it is recommended that they not be changed until necessitated by system performance requirements or begin to require excessive maintenance. SMECO has a program of pole inspection whereby each pole is checked every five years. This identifies problems that occur over time and flags maintenance needs before serious system problems develop due to aging. The Bryantown Switching Station to Holland Switching Station Line 6730 was built in 1950 and is not being used in the present normal system configuration. The section of the line from the Bryantown Switching Station to the new Bryantown Substation will be needed by year 2025 in Load Block C when the Bryantown Substation is constructed. This section of the line should be upgraded to 1590 MCM AAC conductor when the substation is constructed so that it will be available for future system expansion. Line 6712 from Hawkins Gate Switching Station to Bryantown Switching Stationwas built in 1950. It is only 2/0 ACSR conductor, has some sections missing and is not presently needed. The right-of-way for this line should be maintained. If the Hawkins Gate Switching Station and/or Hughesville Substation transmission voltage is ever increased, this line along with Line 6730 could provide a valuable transmission path from Hawkins Gate to Calvert County (Holland Cliffs). The Hughesville Substation to Cedarville Substation Line 6720 was built in 1951 and is only 336.4 MCM ACSR conductor. This line will need to be upgraded to 1590 MCM AAC conductor by year 2025 to handle the Cedarville Substation and West Brandywine Substation loads. This portion of the line is 9.41 miles long. It could be upgraded in sections over time as maintenance on the original old line is required. VIII - 19

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Line 6715 from the Mattawoman Tap to the Mattawoman Substation was built in 1969 and is 336.4 MCM ACSR conductor. This conductor will need to be upgraded to serve the substation load by year 2025. It is recommended that the conductor be upgraded to 1590 MCM AAC because it is a weak link between sections of 1590 MCM AAC conductor. If Burches Hill becomes a viable supply point, Line 6715 will be valuable to transfer power south from Burches Hill to Forest Park Substation and/or Waldorf Substation. It could also be part of another path from Hughesville (Chalk Point supply) to the Waldorf area if the rest of Line 6720 from Cedarville Substation to Burches Hill were upgraded to 1590 MCM AAC conductor. The portion of Line 6717 from LaPlata Substation to Marshalls Tap was built in 1971 with 556.5 MCM ACSR conductor. This section of Line 6717 and the next section of the same line between Marshalls Tap and the Ripley Switching Station (also 556.5 MCM ACSR built in 1992) are located in a main transmission path from the Hawkins Gate supply point between 1590 MCM ACC sections. These two sections of Line 6717 should both be upgraded to 1590 MCM AAC at the earliest convenient time. Line 6756 from Valley Lee Substation to Piney Point Substation is 4.39 miles long and was built in 1971 with 336.4 MCM ACSR conductor. This conductor is sufficient to supply Piney Point Substation (38.6 MVA @ 66 kV) in the foreseeable future. The Piney Point Substation maximum load is expected to be 12.6 MVA by 2025. If it were decided to loop Redgate Substation with Piney Point and Valley Lee Substations, it would be desirable to upgrade Line 6756 to 556.5 MCM ACSR to match the other sections of the loop. When the line has to be rebuilt due to aging, it should be replaced with 556.4 MCM ACSR conductor. With the exception of the Navy Line 6756 built in 1972 and Line 6775 built in 2004, SMECO has not constructed any transmission lines with 336.4 MCM ACSR conductor since 1971. Most of SMECOs recent transmission construction has employed 1590 MCM AAC Coreopsis conductors. A few lines that serve only one or two substations

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(radial) with total loads that were not expected to exceed about 50 MVA in locations where loop feeds were not expected, have been built with 556.5 MCM ACSR conductors. Table VIII-6: SMECO Transmission Lines Listed According to Age Approximate SMECO Line # 6775 6730 6712 6720 6720 6720 6715 6750 6750 6750 6750 6750 6750 6790 6717 6721 6790 6703 6713 6713 6740 Source Bus PAX RIVER 2 BRYANTOWN HAWK 69 CEDARVILLE HUGHESVILLE W BRANDY TAP MATTA TAP HEWTSME HOLLYWOOD HUGHESVILLE MECHANICS SAINTANDREW GOLDBEACH SW MORG 69 LAPLATA W BRANDY TAP MORG EXIT 1 CHALSM69 MORG 69 FAULKNER HUGHESVILLE Load Bus PAX RIVER 1 HOLLAND BRYANTOWN W BRANDY TAP CEDARVILLE BURCHES MATTAWOMAN SAINTANDREW OAKVILLE GOLDBEACH SW OAKVILLE HOLLYWOOD MECHANICS MORG EXIT 1 MARSHALL TAP WESTBRANDY TOMPKINSVILL HUGHESVILLE NEWBURG LAPLATA 6740 GOAB Length Miles 1.3 9.3 4.6 5.48 9.41 2.11 2.13 2.77 7.1 3.41 7 2.87 2.44 2.12 2.81 0.76 4.72 6.6 4.1 6.07 4.879 As-Built" Conductor Date Size 1949 (Navy) 4/0 CU 1950 (Rvr Xing 1986) 1950 1951 1951 1951 1969 1970 1970 1970 1970 1970 1970 1971 1971 1971 1971 1972 1972 1972 1972 2/0 ACSR 2/0 ACSR 336.4 ACSR 336.4 ACSR 336.4 ACSR 336.4 ACSR 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 336.4 ACSR 556.5 ACSR 336.4 ACSR 556.5 ACSR 1590 AAC 556.5 ACSR 556.5 ACSR 1590 AAC

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Table VIII-6: SMECO Transmission Lines Listed According to Age (continued) Approximate SMECO Line # 6713 6756 6747 6740 6781 6787 6613 6733 6610 6610 6718 6708 6710 6709 6719 6710 6710 6710 6752 6716 6620 6723 6716 6620 Source Bus NEWBURG VALLEY LEE NEW MARKET 6740 GOAB ST LEON TAP BERTHA HAWK 69 HAWK 69 HUGHESVILLE BRYANTOWN RIPLEY SW FARMING 1 FARMING 1 FARMING 2 MARSHALL TAP MATTA TAP WALDORF TAP FOREST TAP2 GOLDBEACH SW HAWK 69 ACCOKEEK BANNISTER BAN TAP B FARMING 2 Load Bus FAULKNER PINEY POINT RYCEVILLE LOVEVILLE CLVRT CLIFF2 CLVRT CLIFF1 LAPLATA FOREST TAP1 BRYANTOWN FOREST PARK GRAYTON PISCATAWAY2 BOLTON TAP 1 PISCATAWAY1 MARSHALL CRN WALDORF TAP BOLTON TAP 2 MATTA TAP GOLDEN BEACH BAN TAP B MASONSPRING2 BAN TAP A BANNISTER ACCOKEEK Length Miles 3.48 4.39 2.77 11.711 5.93 4.08 4.98 4.5 4.04 4.16 9.23 0.2842 8 1.4 0.2498 1 2.45 1.1 3.6 3.9 2.8 3.03 5.03 1.27 1.27 4.87 As-Built" Date 1972 1972 1972 1972 1975 & 1994 1975 & 1995 1975 1975 1975 1975 1975 1975 1975 1975 1975 1975 1975 1975 1979 1982 1982 1982 1982 1982 Conductor Size 556.5 ACSR 336.4 ACSR 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 750 AL 1590 AAC 750 AL 556.5 ACSR 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 556.5 ACSR 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC

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Table VIII-6: SMECO Transmission Lines Listed According to Age (continued) Approximate SMECO Line # 6742 6743 6705 6781 6704 2310 6701 6702 2320W 2320E 6765 6765 6765 6766 6701 6765 6740 6740 6740 6706 6611 6612 6607 6608 6786 Source Bus LEONARD TAP1 LEONARD TAP2 CHALSM69 MUTUAL CHALSM69 CHALSM69 CHALSM69 CHALSM69 SMRYCE72 SMRYCE74 LEXINGTON PK PAX 6765 TAP PAX RVR4 TAP PAX SO GATE ROUTE 5 PAX RVR SW BAREFOOT LOVEVILLE INDBRIDGE CHALSM69 WALDORF WESTLAKE BOLTON TAP 1 BOLTON TAP 2 DUKES INN 2 Load Bus LEONARDTOWN1 LEONARDTOWN2 DUKES INN 2 ST LEON TAP HUGHESVILLE HOLLAND ROUTE 5 ROUTE 5 HEW2320W HEW2320E PAX RVR SW PAX SO GATE PAX 6765 TAP PAX RIVER 3 NEW MARKET PAX RVR4 TAP INDBRIDGE LEONARD TAP1 LEONARD TAP2 PR FRED TAP WESTLAKE SAINTCHARLE BOLTON BOLTON MUTUAL Length Miles 1.7 1.7 4.092 2.34 6.6 7.66 5.96 5.96 23.66 23.66 0.21 0.26 1.52 1.3 5.24 0.9 1.97 2.5 6.36 4.6 1.6 1.62 1.45 1.45 5.098 As-Built" Date 1982 1982 1984 1984 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 1988 1988 1988 1989 1989 1989 1989 1989 1989 Conductor Size 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 556.5 ACSR 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 556.5 ACSR 556.5 ACSR 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1750 AL 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 556.5 ACSR 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC

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Table VIII-6: SMECO Transmission Lines Listed According to Age (continued) Approximate SMECO Line # 6762 6706 6706 6760 6740 6725 6788 6622 6782 6727 6717 6767 6711 6770 6760 6723 6770 6770 6779 6783 6764 6755 6761 6717 Source Bus NAWCAD TAP PR FRED TAP PR FRED TAP HEWTSME HEWTSME HAWK 69 SOLOMONS BURCHES HOLLAND RIPLEY SW MARSHALL TAP PAX SO GATE WALDORF TAP HEWTSME PATUXENTPK BAN TAP A BRIDGE CALV BRIDGE STMRY HEWTSME HOLLAND PAX RVR4 TAP BAREFOOT SAINTJAMES RIPLEY SW Load Bus NAWCAD PRINCE FRED1 DUKES INN 2 PATUXENTPK BAREFOOT NEWTOWN BERTHA MATTAWOMAN SUNDERLAND McCONCHIE RIPLEY SW SAINTJAMES WALDORF BRIDGE STMRY SAINTJAMES SAINTCHARLE SOLOMONS BRIDGE CALV LEXINGTON PK PRINCE FRED2 PAX RIVER 4 VALLEY LEE NAWCAD TAP MASONSPRING1 Length Miles 2.56 0.87 0.962 1.8 1.1 4.1 1.81 5.55 4.6 3.84 4.22 5.54 0.88 3.61 6.7 1.97 1.15 1.9598 5 1.12 7.77 0.1 7.36 3.26 4.84 As-Built" Date 1989 1989 1989 1990 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1994 1996 1996 1998 1999 1999 Conductor Size 556.5 ACSR 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 556.5 ACSR 556.5 ACSR 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1000 CU 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 336.4 ACSR 556.5 ACSR 556.5 ACSR 1590 AAC

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Table VIII-6: SMECO Transmission Lines Listed According to Age (continued) Approximate SMECO Line # 6761 6741 6784 6733 6710 6710 6775 6785 6745 Source Bus NAWCAD TAP LOVEVILLE ST LEON TAP FOREST TAP1 FOREST TAP1 FOREST TAP2 PAX RVR SW SUNDERLAND INDBRIDGE Load Bus RIDGE MILESTOWN SAINTLEONARD FOREST PARK FOREST TAP2 FOREST PARK PAX RIVER 2 MOUNTHARMONY REDGATE Length Miles 2.4 6.67 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.46 3.8 4 As-Built" Date 1999 2000 2001 2002 2002 2002 2004 2005-2006 2005-2006 Conductor Size 556.5 ACSR 556.5 ACSR 556.5 ACSR 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 1590 AAC 336.4 ACSR 556.5 ACSR 556.5 ACSR

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VIII-5: Economic Transmission Conductor Analysis Conductors considered for use in SMECOs transmission system were 336.4 MCM ACSR, 556.5 MCM ACSR, 1590 MCM AAC, and 2312 MCM ACSR. These conductors covered the range of sizes that would reasonably be used for light through heavily loaded transmission lines. The costs of using these conductors were evaluated over a twentyfive (25) year period by computing the cost of line construction plus the present worth of the cost of electrical power losses operated over a range of current levels. The wholesale cost of electricity was based on SMECOs present best cost estimate as filed with the Maryland Public Service Commission. The cost was $0.05253 per kilowatt hour (kWh). Annual cost escalation for future years of 2.9% was assumed as interpolated from values in the 2004 Annual Energy Outlook published by the Energy Information Administration. The annual interest rate of 7.91% that SMECO uses for financial/economic analysis was used for the conductor cost analysis. Construction costs per mile were based on SMECOs most recent transmission construction cost proposal for the 66 kV Hughesville bypass Line 6720 to the north and Line 6750 to the south. Line 6720 uses 336.4 MCM ACSR conductors and Line 6750 uses 1590 MCM AAC conductors. Per mile construction costs for 336.4 MCM ACSR single-circuit overhead transmission lines with no distribution underbuild were estimated to be $281,415 per mile considering the most recent (12/29/2004) pole quotations. Costs for other conductors sizes were interpolated and extrapolated form SMECOs Line 6720 and Line 6750 cost data including the recent pole cost quotations. The cost of I2*R losses in annual kilowatt hours considered a loss factor (LsF) of 0.327 as determined from SMECOs five year average load factor (LdF) of 53.61%. These factors are according to the United States Department of Agriculture Rural Utilities Services Bulletin 1724D-104, Engineering Economics Computer Workbook Procedure. Each year, after the first year, has the 2.9 % escalation factor applied and the future year cost referred back to the present worth at a 7.91% annual interest rate according to the number of years in the future being considered. These calculations are according to sound economic principles

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as described in the Engineering Economy text by C. Robert Emerson and William R. Taylor published by Cardinal Publishers in 1979. The twenty-five (25) year present worth cost of losses plus the initial construction cost per mile are summed to yield the present worth cost of constructing and operating the indicated conductors for twenty-five years. The calculation results and plots of 336.4 MCM ACSR, 556.5 MCM ACSR, 1590 MCM AAC, and 2312 MCM ACSR conductor costs per mile at each current level over the allowable continuous operating current range, up to the 1000C rated ampacity for each conductor, are shown on Figure VIII-3 and in Tables VIII-7 through VIII-10. At each current level the lowest curve, on Figure VIII-3 indicates the lowest cost of owning and operating the conductors at that current level. Theoretically the crossover points of the curves, on these figures, are the current levels where a larger conductor should be selected. Since conductors are applied considering future load growth, they should operate below their ampacity rating when they are installed with the expectation that load current will increase over time. The economic analysis establishes the basic criteria for selecting conductor sizes; however, many times conductors are chosen for reasons other than economics. They must provide capacity for emergency feeds, they must coordinate with existing upstream and downstream facilities, and they must allow for future possible load growth to avoid repetition of construction work. It also should be noted that the present worth of losses will vary depending upon the escalation rate, interest rate, load factor, and number of years included in the calculation. These values can and will vary with time and are unlikely to exactly match the values used in this analysis. Therefore this analysis, while very useful in establishing conductors that are reasonable choices for a given loading, should not be construed as precise calculation.

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The curves in Figure VIII-4 indicate the obvious conclusion that larger conductors are more economical for higher currents. SMECOs general practice is to use 556.5 MCM ACSR and 1590 MCM AAC conductors for most transmission applications. There are presently no conductors larger that 1590 MCM AAC used in SMECOs transmission system. The curves suggest that for currents above about 600 amperes the larger 2312 MCM ACSR conductor should be considered. The 1590 MCM AAC conductor used for Line 6750 and for many other large conductor lines in SMECOs transmission system has a calculated ampacity of 1,174 amperes at 750C. It is recommended that this conductor continue to be used in SMECOs transmission system for applications where the current will stay below this level. This will maintain consistency and minimize training, spare parts, tools and equipment that would be required for larger conductors.

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INSERT CHART FIGURE VIII-3 INSERT TABLES TABLE VIII-7 TABLE VIII-8 TABLE VIII-9 TABLE VIII-10

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