 S  l J =
=
.....;
\)c' v,' C = 1. 'S ' , .'J \':S .e j
, ',' '3
ANS II'
i
WB Chapter 12 ACTIVATED SLUDGE 197
PRACTICE PROBLEMS 12.2: BOD or COD Loading, lbs/day
1. The flow to an aeration tank is 890,000 gpd. If the BOD content of the wastewater
entering the aerator is 230 mg/L, what is the lbs/day BOD loading?
L J. = '6. ( """'?JJ VVI I L .) "e'70, 000 %) yc.\
oc.. . L I.OcO, 000
ANS \ "To+ .. .'
2. The flow to an aeration tank: is 2940 gpm. If the COD concentration of the wastewater
is 150 mg/L, how many pounds of COD are applied to the aeration tank: daily? (Round
the flow to the nearest ten thousand.)
.,
VI "I
'F \av..}
= 2, ql..\ 0 3 (PC) .;:...: L L\ I = 4, L ?>, p d
/
4, 3, (;00 tA po.!.
4 l \SO v ....., I L)
...
v \ 'C">C't 000
{
\
ANS S,2Qb d" I
3. The BOD content of the wastewater entering an aeration tank: is 155 mg/L. If the flow
to the aeration tank is 3,120,000 gpd, what is the Ibs/day BOD loading? .
"'t
J
(,
'
) '0\
\ '?::>
ANS Lj) 0 '/
198 WB Chapter 12 ACTIVATED SLUDGE
4. The daily flow to an aeration tank is 4,720,000 gpd. If the COD concentration of the
influent wastewater is 140 mg/L, how many pounds of COD are applied to the aeration
tank daily?
L.4,+"2.0,COO
....
Lood = <=6.3
Ll
\. \W.C v,=. iL)
I, o:::x:;>/ 000
......
\'::s
ANS S, S\ \ , (;.10 "
)
WB Chapter 12 ACTIVATED SLUDGE 199
PRACTICE PROBLEMS 12.3: Solids Inventory in the Aeration Tank
1. If the mixed liquor suspended solids concentration is 2040 mg/L and the aeration tank
has a volume of 450,000 gallons. how many pounds of suspended solids are in the
aeration tank?
l...\ SC) 000 'J""
= '3. "\ l "lOLlO W"", Il....)
..I
I ()OO, CCo
2. The volume of an aeration basin is 180,000 gallons. If the :tvILVSS concentration is
2160 mg/L, how many pounds of volatile solids are under aeration?
! "60,000 ".)".1
\ . 000 00(')
ANS \'os
3. The aeration tank of a conventional activated sludge plant has a mixed liquor volatile
suspended solids concentration of 2340 mg/L. If the aeration tank is 90 ft long, 40 ft
wide, and has wastewater to a depth of 15 ft, how many pounds of MLVSS are under
aeration?
\Jc> \J'vvIC .: 90 4. '\ 0 I;rl ) S 4 Sy 000 .q .3 =
I
V0 \ ..) Vv" C
M VA S S =: "6. ?, L..\ l "2::"\ 0 V/_ / \. ) l...\0 (n.. o c...\ u !
J \,000, oc'h
200 WB Chapter 12 ACTIVATED SLUDGE
4. The aeration basin is 120 ft long, 40 ft wide, and has wastewater to a depth of 15 ft. If
the aeration basin of a conventional activated sludge plant has a mixed liquor
suspended solids concentration of 2710 mg/L, how many pounds of MLSS are under
aeration?
+1. 000 4
3
I
'00" '.J
vr
( = =+"2. GOO y: ::;.. :+. w r ~
I
fl
WB Chapter 12 ACTIVATED SLUDGE 201
PRACTICE PROBLEMS 12.4: Food/Microorganism Ratio
1. An activated sludge aeration tank receives a primary effluent flow of 2.61 MOD with
a BOD concentration of 195 mg/L. The mixed liquor volatile suspended solids
concentration is 2560 mg/L and the aeration tank volume is 470,000 gallons. What is
the current FIN! ratio? (Round to the nearest hundredth.)
w. Goa "". I
\.. L '::>GO V.;.
==
v
i,DOC>. C.co
10 ('):'5
. ..J:""
,,' .,,'"
." /
ANS O.l...t?...
2. An activated sludge aeration tank receives a primary effluent flow of 3,260,000 gpd
with a BOD of 145 mg/L. The mix.ed liquor volatile suspended solids is 2490 mg/L and
the aeration tank volume is 470,000 gallons. What is the cunent P/M ratio? (Round to
the nearest hundredth.)
l..l aoo 0') C/ \
\,CC0 'J:}O =
.? 2,lrO, 000
Lao,\ ce.. j u '_ '\ S v .:.
..J
/ L. ';
J
; ("'. 0("",0
_J., ,
ANS C). L\O
3. The flow to a 190,000gallon oxidation ditch is 310,000 gpd. The BOD concentration
of the wastewater is 175 mg/L. If the mixed liquor suspended solids concentration is
2576 mg/L with a volatile solids content of 70%, what is the F/M ratio? (Round to the
nearest hundredth.)
,
. , . _.
'0::::'
L 0:...  ' ::= C6.::::,y (.. "+ S ,,",
J US1..
'\ S 2. J:.o."t
.I,s I
4 , o'is 2. 'I . o. +0
Le :,' '
=
=
ANS O. \ b
202 WB Chapter 12 ACTIVATED SLUDGE
4. The desired F/M ratio at an extended aeration activated sludge plant is 0.7 lbs BOD/lb
MLVSS. If the 3.1 MGD primary effluent flow has a BOD of 178 mg/L, how many
lbs of MLVSS should be maintained in the aeration tank? (Round to the nearest
hundredth.)
=
\= / M = 0."+
r n.=t M
ANS I", So.:I.Ll ,,\,:,s
5. The desired F/M ratio at a particular activated sludge plant is O.3lbs BOD/lb MLVSS.
If the 2,460,OOOgpd primary effluent flow has a BOD concentration of 139 mg/L,
how many lbs of MLVSS should be maintained in the aeration tank? (Round to the
nearest hundredth.)
. .;' c( c',
,
::., .. L\:;,9 Ie.'  1_)
. : I (F :,.,
e
J
I
J
I
=
1=
=
M
M
=
\,?"
/V\ =
_=h' l
03
ANS g. SO L? \\'O.s
0.=+
)
WB Chapter 12 ACTIVATED SLUDGE 203
PRACTICE PROBLEMS 12.5: Sludge Age (Gould)
1. An aeration tank has a total of 15,600 lbs of mixed liquor suspended solids. If a total
of 2520 lbs/day suspended solids enter the aeration tank in the primary effluent flow,
what is the sludge age in the aeration tank? (Round to the nearest tenth.)
1 S, 000 ":>":;,
SIJ I c. A v , c
2. . S"'2 0 'I\:;5
..J J
c,),,/. I
2. An aeration tank contains 470,000 gallons of wastewater with a MLSS concentration
of 2740 mg/L. If the primary effluent flow is 2.8 MOD with a suspended solids
concentration of 108 mg/L, what is the sludge age? (Round to the nearest tenth.)
\,r .:,) '6.:,L\ <... L.. 4LJ,O IL)
\ c:x::D... n0
\.
c6 ."'3>\4 l \ CX5' \rc JL) ?. S M (;, I) _ L, S "2 L .2S
de
I
\0 _ =tu,o
==
2,S"l"'2..
c
J
" I
3. An aeration tank is 100 ft long, 40 ft wide, and operates at a depth of 15 ft. The
MLSS concentration in the aeration tank is 2480 mg/L. If the influent flow to the tank
is 2.72 MOD with a suspended solids concentration of 110 mg/L, what is the sludge
age? (Round to the nearest tenth.)
100 c...c,. 'i
.. C) \
=
(), C)CC) t;..:. '''':' .c;:;'::!. = 1.4 u C6, 1500 ::Y \
4 'is , .._ 1
""v."?:,U [_ "Luc:.sC' ...... :::: I:....) 1.0
0
0:')00 = gJ "Z.S:s3
l \,C"".:::;'L) L.=t"2 ""GO = L,Y,gS
c/"'/
c.. _\
"'" .J ,
204 WB Chapter 12 ACTIVATED SLUDGE
4. The MLSS concentration in the aeration tank is 2940 mg/L. The aeration tank is 100 ft
long, 45 ft wide, and operates at a depth of 15 ft. H the influent flow to the tank is
1.94 MGD and has a suspended solids concentration of 105 mg/L, what is the sludge
age? (Round to the nearest tenth.) .
\10 I ..J ........., C =.
(;:"f, !::Go ;3 . 71 .U<;S 8=>'4.f ClOO j""
'O.:>u l 2q...:.O v .... lt...) qc>o 0&'
./ ; ('0' C'lC'lC'l = \ L I "60 \
\..nc..) = c:... :....., '.\C"S" .. 'i..) i,1.
J
':..,' .
..
._.
...,'. I
5. An oxidation ditch has a volume of 210,000 gallons. The 260,000gpd flow to the
oxidation ditch has a suspended solids concentration of 201 mg/L. If the Iv1LSS
concentration is 3720 mg/L, what is the sludge age in the oxidation ditch? (Round to
the nearest tenth.)
" ,
l... , 0, ".lS::.l._
)
\ . 0..:::.( ....l
2.LCi.OC'.: ".11' ,
,
L
<:; ,"
1 .
_.
. 2. (l \ 11'.'.' I L )
...J
;:t:.. rc. '.';
S \ S \''?S
C \ I )
.......,; J":, ::. ....,(
=
l..:I:,(;
....I
0".1 '/
ANS \ S.O c),,,,,/,,::>
WB Chapter 12 ACTIVATED SLUDGE 205
PRACTICE PROBLEMS 12.6: Solids Retention Time
1. An activated sludge system has a total of 28,600 Ibs of mixed liquor suspended solids.
The suspended solids leaving the final clarifier in the effluent is calculated to be
390 lbs/day. The pounds suspended solids wasted from the final clarifier is 2860
Ibs/day. What is the solids retention time, in days?
/
=
? cc., GOC,' '
.sRT = .
"3, L.<"n \',:;.,
d" I
2. Determine the solids retention time (SRT) given the following data:
(Use the "core sampler" method of calculating SRT.)
Aer. Tank Vo1.1AOO,OOO gal !v1LSS2650 mg/L
Fin. Clar.105,OOO gal WAS5960 mglL
P. E. Flow3.1 MOD
S.E. SS20 mg/L
WAS Pumping Rate70,OOO gpd
CCSS1920 mg/L
I , w. c.e> 00r) "" e. '

\ \ c ,..... ': C'" C',
L 00,' =. r

,. "., '
":., _ 51'" "
' "'ro,:, 'l L('\ "', :J / ')
"'" \ t" " J == 2, I 'l'J <":.1 ."
ANS
=
"3.
.:;:1,_. /
3. An aeration tank has a volume of 450,000 gallons. The final clarifier has a volume of
175,000 gallons. The MLSS concentration in the aeration tank is 2115 mg/L. If a total
of 1570 lbs/day SS are wasted and 230 lbs/day SS are in the secondary effluent, what
is the solids retention time for the activated sludge system? (Use the "combined
volume" method of calculating system solids.)
VL S,ooo <='i"'" I
'"
c:c .") w ':) v, 0 \ / L )
(,,25>,000 c'''' \
\ . 00C)
\ "'"
\ s+.o
\ , ,() 1,  ',:;. :.
\ \".
ct.
ANS
(y. \ e
I
"",,/ S
(
206 WB Chapter 12 ACTNATED SLUDGE
4. Calculate the solids retention time (SRT) given the following data:
(Use the "combined volume" method of calculating SRT.)
Aer. Tank Vol.340,OOO gal
Fin. Clar.120,000 gal
P.E. Flowl.2 MOD
WAS Pumping Rate25,000 gpd
:MLSS2940 mg/L
WAS6110 mg/L
S.E. SS17 mg/L
l "2..qw,o """'C'\
'oJ
IL) C>l.\O,OOOcj0 \ '2.0 000 '0c.' I)
\ ,000,000
\ \, ""2...+ q
\ .._0:', =
5.
:. _ \  '1 .,) <'":.
::::;:,\..!.. = " .LJ.'_O'.J ",',"_,_
The volume of an aeration tank IS 365,000 gallons and the final clarifier is
105,000 gallons. The desired SRT for a plant is 7.5 days. The primary effluent flow is
1.76 MGD and the WAS pumping rate is 28,400 gpd. If the WAS SS is 5740 mg/L
and the secondary effluent SS is 18 mg/L, what is the desired MLSS mg/L?
(Use the "combined volume" method of calculating SRT.)
\  :
,.., ........ 
J",
\
''\'"
v
....>,.
....... v.
,l' 5 ',.' \
.J
= 4 =to. 000
0
c.l
Le., \ =
[
l"
:) .....
' c..."'v,'"
_ .1r '\.1 \.
yOO __ .
)
ANS OJ. e.c ,. I :.
.., ..
fa.:::> eJ.:' ,:1;...
ANS 3. \0+
"X =
6. Calculate the solids retention time (SRT) given the following data:
(Use the "core sampler" method of calculating SRT.)
Aer. Tank VoLl.5 MG
MLSS2460 mg/L
Fin. Clar.O.ll MO
WAS8040 mg/L
P.E. Flow3.4 MGD
S.E. SS18 mg/L
WAS Pumping Rate60,000 gpd
CCSS1850 mg/L
c.s . ':;; '...J \ SO v:' ! ,; o. i \ /"": J
.\
'.,/
M",.s::, =
("",0<, noo <;,)'):;1
.. (":5..... / ' \ .::'.'l ,....
l,O':)'=', 7'/')0
J
LCK.':\ = w" ..... !....l
, :=> > c' ,,<,./
ANS
3'2, t.....l :l ., I.,
co, _
........".
W S
WB Chapter 12 ACTNATED SLUDGE 207
PRACTICE PROBLEMS 12.7: Return Sludge Rate
1. The settleability test after 30 minutes indicates a sludge settling volume of 215 mL/L.
Calculate the RAS flow as a ratio to the secondary influent flow. (Round to the nearest
hundredth.)
2 \ S 'vv.LI L
 1000 "'". L / L  2. \ "'" L I L
ANS 0.7 i
2. Given the following data, calculate the RAS return rate (QRAg) using the secondary
clarifier solids balance equation.
MLSS2460 mg/L QWAr60,000 gpd
RAS SS7850 mg/L Q
pE
3.4 MOD
WAS 557850 mg/L
\ \ cI oS \ VI = '. , ",I S o...A
(
S::' \ \.:J ':> \ V"\
S:s . L.\ c.. l 'LL4 GO Yv1':/1 / L) (;;;,.1...4 MG\J +
"'X) ]
== .J
S::>\ IcJ \ v, =: =rSLo \b
+ 20 I .s\'.$ 'X
( 0 . (> M G V ' 1<. )
So\ .. .,.).s (""leA :,'\ L l"f"6SJ v'.:J I Lj
ANS
\ . L.\ (,. """GD
So' J :.
= ::"J 12<7S \ '0 4 1""5,'\ l:;q
')(,
x. 
3. A total of 270 mVL sludge settled during a settleability test after 30 minutes.
The secondary influent flow is 3.12 MGD. (a) Calculate the RAS flow as a
ratio to the secondary influent flow. (Round to the nearest hundredth.) (b)
What is the RAS flow expressed in MOD? (Round to the nearest hundredth.)
0)
MGO
RA S = MGD . D."3=:t
ANS CA) Q.""3> '1
208 WB Chapter 12 ACTIVATED SLUDGE
4. The secondary influent flow to an aeration tank is 1.67 MOD. If the results of the
settleability test after 30 minutes indicate that 285 mIlL sludge settled. (a) What is the
RAS flow as a ratio to the secondary influent flow? (Round to the nearest hundredth.)
(b) What is the RAS flow expressed in MOD? (Round to the nearest hundredth.)
0) R.c..A.. 10 _
lC"O Ir'\ LI L  "'2. S vv, LI L
'0) \\O\N _ \,tp=t MG'.)
ANS c;e.J G.Y Q
O.l.P + /'".:,.,D
5. Given the following data, calculate the RAS return rate using the aeration tank solids
balance equation.
MLSS2100 mg/L
RAS SS7490 mg/L
QpE6.3MGD
}
So\\oS \ V'\
= ovt
l..\ L =tL\ qO I L) ')(
So\'cAs
\V\
SoI. \::A "'j \ V\
=
I
SClI,o'", C:' '...1""'
\ lO,
);( = ANS L .L\S MGD
"15::'
WB Chapter 12 ACTIVATED SLUDGE 209
PRACTICE PROBLEMS 12.8: Wasting Rate
1. The desired F/M ratio for an activated sludge system is 0.61bs BODllb MLVSS. It
has been calculated that 3300 Ibs of BOD enter the aeration tank daily. If the volatile
solids content of the MLSS is 68%, how many lbs MLSS are desired in the aeration
tank? Q:,OD \I."j
F(M = O,(C
\'OCA<)., = ::S?>OO
,.., r. 1.' \ .., s
M L = _"":: de' ( S SCD cI,. /'
e J. 'r I "
ANS etc.,/
fv\ \.. SS
2. Using a desired sludge age, it was calculated that 14,8501bs MLSS are desired in the
aeration tank. If the aeration tank volume is 780,000 gallons and the MLSS
concentration is 2670 mg/L, how many lbs/day MLSS should be wasted?
"..10 \'.J VV" = 000 :)"" \
M LSS =
ANS L S\q
c)."'/
3. Given the following data, detennine the lbs/day SS to be wasted:
Aer. Tank Vol.I,IOO,OOO gal
Influent Flow2,930,OOO gpd
BODlOB mg/L
Desired FIM0.3 lbs BOD/day/lb MLVSS

r! M 0, '''\.. 
:MLSS2100 mg/L
% VS67%
"""::/ L) 2 ,C)
_ C6 4
=
tv,L'=:::>S  ....:j'L) \.\ MG 
\q :"2G>S \b
ANS
\ '.:::> ...l.'a...
= \9/'2.<RS  dGoI
210 WB Chapter 12 ACTIVATED SLUDGE
4. The desired sludge age for an activated sludge plant is 5.5 days. The aeration tank
volume is 850,000 gal. If 3140 lbs/day suspended solids enter the aeration tank and the
MLSS concentration is 2920 mg/L, how many lbs/day MLSS (suspended solids) should
be wasted?
5. The desired SRT for an activated sludge plant is 8.5 days. There are a total of
32,100 lbs SS in the system. The secondary effluent flow is 3,160,000 gpd with a
suspended solids content of 22 mg/L. How many lbs/day WAS SS must be wasted to
maintain the desired SRT?
SQ.,
'X >,. .::,L.i, l "'2.L L.) "3. \ v M G \)
1.., 'c:Q
'6.S ==
'>< I =. "3"2...\cx)\\':'s
ANS 3\Cf (p ChI!
2":1 \
')<  I
 "Ao I
6. Given the following data, calculate the lbs/day WAS SS to be wasted.
(Use the "combined volume" method of calculating SRT.)
Desired SRTlO days S.E. SS15 mg/L
Clarifier + AeraiO!' Vol.l.33 MG Inf. Flow{).85 MGD
MLSS2940 mg/L
R."7:=. '0 0'''' ( S
<'"""0 \."2 g L.\ 0 .. 'L) '. 1'4 c... _ :s "2 J \) \ I.;,

L"c", c.,\ 
'6. :>1.4. L \ S ..'" I L.) l". <"6 S M 'D 'X
LClCAcA
 C6&:+ ')<.
'3"2., (", \ \ \ bS
c,.:....... \10
\0 r:J.,c.o (