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NICOLAS RIMSKY-KORSAKOW

PRINCIPLES
OF

ORCHESTRATION
WITH MUSICAL EXAMPLES DRAWN FROM HIS
EDITED BY

OWN WORKS

MAXIMILIAN STEINBERG
ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY

EDWARD AGATE

E. F.

KALMUS ORCHESTRA
209

SCORES, INC.

WEST

57th STREET
N. Y.

NEW

YORK,
Printed

in U. S. A.

MUSIC LIBRARY
UNIVERSITY or COUi^^CTlCUT

STORRS, C0.*4N^CriCUT

rc\T

no

CONTENTS
page

Editor's Preface

VII XII
1

Extract from the Author's preface (1891)


Extract from the Preface to the last edition

T'hapter

I.

General review of orchestral groups


6
12 21
little

A. String-ed instruments
B.

Wind instruments: Wood-wind


Brass
sustaining power:

C. Instruments of

Plucked strings
Pizzicato

26 27
27

Harp
Percussion
instruments

producing determinate sounds,

keyed
29 30 32 32

instruments

Kettle-drums

Piano and Celesta


Glockenspiel, Bells, Xylophone

Percussion instruments producing indefinite sounds

Comparison

of

resonance

in orchestral

groups, and combination

33

of different tone qualities

Chapter

II.

Melody
36 39
in

Melody in stringed instruments Grouping in unison


Stringed instruments doubling
octaves

40
44 45 45 46 47
49
51

Melody
4

in

double octaves
in three

fX
~"^

'^

and four octaves Melody in thirds and sixths Melody in the wood-wind Combination in unison Combination in octaves Doubling in two, three and foiir octaves Melody in thirds and sixths Thirds and sixths together Melody in the brass Brass in unison, in octaves, thirds and sixths
Doubling

52

53 53

.......

55

IV
page

Melody in different groups of instruments combined together A. Combination of wind and brass in unison B. Combination of wind and brass in octaves C. Combination of strings and wind D. Combination of strings and brass E. Combination of the three groups

56

56
57

58
61 61

Chapter

111.

Harmony
63
of

General observations

Number
String

Duplication harmonic parts Distribution of notes in chords

64
67

harmony Wood-wind harmony


Four-part and three-part harmony

69
71

72

Harmony
Remarks

in

several parts

76
77
78

Duplication of timbres

Harmony

in the

brass

82 82

Four-part writing

Three-part writing

84

Writing in several parts


Duplication in the brass

84
85
88
.

Harmony
1.

in

combined groups
. . .

A. Combination of wind and brass


In unison

88
88

2.

Overlaying, crossing, enclosure of parts

90
94

Combination of strings and wind C. Combination of the three groups


B.

95

Chapter

IV.

Composition of the orchestra


ways
of orchestrating the

Different
Full

same music

97
101

Tutu wind
two and three parts

Tutti in the

103 103

Tuiti pizzicato Tutti in one,

104 104
106

Soli in the strings

Limits of orchestral range

Transference of passages and phrases

107
108

Chords

of different tone quality

used alternately

Amplification and elimination of tone qualities


Repetition of phrases, imitation, echo

109

110

Sforzando-piano and piano- sforzando chords Method of emphasising certain notes and chords Crescendo and diminuendo
Diverging and converging progressions

HI
Ill

112 113
114

Tone

quality as a

harmonic force.

Harmonic basis
rhythm and colour

Artificial effects

116

Use

of percussion instruments for


in orchestral

....

117

Economy

colour

118

V
page

Chapter V.

Combination of the human voice with orchestra.


119 119

The Stage band


Orchestral accompaniment of solo voices

General remarks

Transparence

of

accompaniment.

Harmony

120 122
125 126 128

Doubling voices in the orchestra Recitative and declamation


Orchestral accompaniment of the chorus

Solo voice with chorus


Instruments on the stage and
in the

wings

129

Chapter VI (Supplementary)
Technical terms
Soloists

Voices
132 133

Range and
Vocalisation

register

133
134

Vowels
Flexibility

136
137

Colour and character of voices


Voices
in

137
139

combination

Duet
Trio, quartet etc

139 139 142 142

Chorus

A.

Range and register Melody Mixed chorus


Chorus, in unison

144
145

145

Progression

in

octaves

145
146

Voices divisi; harmonic use of the mixed chorus


B. Men's chorus

and Women's chorus

148

ST0RI

Editor's Preface.
Rimsky-Korsakov had long been engrossed
orchestration.

in

his

treatise

on

We

have
in

in

our possession a thick note book of


dating

some 200 pages

fine

hand writing,

from the years


of acoustics,

18731874, containing a monograph on the question

a classification of wind instruments and a detailed description of


the construction and fingering of the different kinds of flute, the

oboe, clarinet and horn.


In

(1)

his

"Memoirs

of

my
"1

musical

life"

(li*

edition,
all

p.

120) the

following passage occurs:


to the compilation of
I

had planned
treatise

to

devote

my

energies
this

full

on orchestration. To

end

made

several rough copies, jotting

the technique of different instruments. the world on this subject,


of this treatise, or,
to

down explanatory notes detailing What intended to present to


1

was

to include everything.

The writing
it

be more exact, the sketch

for

took up

most

of
of in

my

time in the years 1873 and 1874.


1

After reading the


to

works
work,

Tyndall and Helmholtz,

framed an introduction

my

which

endeavoured

to expound the laws of acoustics

as applied to the principles governing the construction of musical


instruments.

My manual was

to

begin

with

detailed

list

of

instruments, classified in groups and tabulated, including a description of the various systems in use at the present day.
I

had be
that

not yet thought of the second part of the book

which was

to

devoted
I

to

instruments in combination.
far.

But

soon realised
in particular,

had gone too

With wind instruments

the

different

systems were innumerable, and each manufacturer favoured


pet theory.
his

his

own

By

the addition of a certain

key the maker

endowed
(I)

instrument with the possibility of a

new

trill,

and

This manuscript
is

was

gfiven to
it

me

by Alexander Glazounov;
be placed there.

if

a Rimsky-

Korsakov museum

ever founded

will

VIII

made
of

s^nic

difficult

passages more playable than on an instrument

another kind.

*
to

There was no end


instruments
with

such complications.
four,

In the brass,

found

three,
to

and

five

valves,
I

the

mechanism

varying according

the make. besides,

Obviously,
of

could not hope to

cover so
treatise

large

field;

What value would such a

be

to the

student? Such a mass of detailed description of


their

the various systems,

advantages and drawbacks, could not


Naturally he
its

but

fail to

confuse the reader only too eager to learn.


to

would wish
throw
the

know what

instrument to employ, the extent of


satisfactory information

capabilities etc.,

and getting no

he would
interest in

my

massive work aside.

For these reasons


finally
I

my

book gradually waned, and


1891 Rimsky-Korsakov,

gave up the

task."

In

now an

artist of

standing, the

comof

poser of Snegourotchka,
the

Mlada, and Sheherazade, a master


had been teaching
instrumentation.

orchestral technique he

for twenty years,


to

returned to his

handbook on
at
after

He would seem
to

have made notes

different
first

times from

1891
of

1893, during

which period,

the

performance

Mlada, he gave up
They

composition for a while.


in his

These notes,
volumes

occasionally referred to

Memoirs, are

in three

of manuscript-paper.
full

contain the unfinished preface of 1891, a paragraph


thoughtful writing, and reprinted in this book. (1)
As"

of clear,

the author

tells

us in his

Memoirs

(p.

297), the progress of

his

work was hampered


at

by certain

troublesome

events which
draft,

were happening
1894 he
of his

the time.

Dissatisfied with his rough


it,

he

destroyed the greater part of


In

and once more abandoned his


Christmas Night;
this

task.

composed
most

The

was

the

beginning
in

fertile period.

He became
was not

entirely engrossed

composition, making plans for a fresh opera as soon as the


in

one

hand was completed.


returned
to

It

until

1905
his

that

his

thoughts

the

treatise

on orchestration,

musical

output remaining in abeyance through no fault of his own.

Since
as

1891

the

plan

of

the

work had been


still

entirely

remodelled,

proved by the rough drafts

extant.

The author had given up

the idea of describing different instruments from their technical


(1)

This preface had already been published in his Notes


(St.

and

Articles

on

Music

Petersburgh, 1911).

IX
standpoint,

and was more anxious

to

dwell upon

the value

of

tone qualities and their various combinations.

Among
the

the author's papers several forms of the

book have been


At
last, in

found, each widely differing in detail from the other.

summer

of

1905 Kimsky-Korsakov

brought his

plans to a

head, and outlined the six chapters which form the foundation of
the present volume.

But the work suffered a further interruption,


laid

and the sketches were once more

aside.

In

his

Memoirs,

Rimsky-Korsakov explains the


and a and
general
feeling
of

fact

by lack

of interest in the
treatise

work
in

weariness:

"The

remained

abeyance.
I

To

start with, the

form

of the

book was not a success,


in

awaited the production of Kitesh,


that

order to give

some

examples from

work"

(p.

360).

Then came the autumn

of

1906.

The composer experienced


The Golden Cockerel
that winter

another rush of creative energy; his opera.

made
his

rapid strides, and kept

him busy
treatise

all

and the
of 1907,

following summer.

When
to

it

was

finished, in the

autumn

thoughts

reverted
little

the

on orchestration.

But the

work made
adequacy
of

progress.

The author had

his doubts as to the

of the plan

he had adopted, and,

in spite of the entreaties to

his

pupils

and

friends,

he could not bring himself

broach

the

latter

part of the

book.

Towards
in

the

end

of

1907 Rimskythis

Korsakov

was
and

constantly

ailing

health,

and

materially

affected his energy.

He

spent the greater part of his time reading

old notes
set

classifying

examples.

About the

20*li

of

May he

out for his

summer

residence in Lioubensk, and having just


of the lungs,
its

recovered from a third severe attack of inflammation

began
final

to

work on the

first

chapter of the treatise in


finished on
night, the
fatal.

present,

form. This chapter

was

June 7/20, about 4 o'clock

in the afternoon; the

same

composer was seized with a

fourth attack

which proved
fell

The honour
Korsakov
for

on

me
I

to

prepare
that

this

last

work

of

Rimsky-

publication.
in

Now
it

Principles
to

of Orchestration

has appeared
to

print

think

necessary

devote a few words


labour imposed

the

essential

features

of the

book, and

to the

upon

me
the

in

my

capacity as editor.
I

On

first

point

will say but

little.

The reader

will

observe

from the Contents that the work

differs

from others, not merely by

reaston of

its

musical examples, but more especially in the systematic


of

arrangement
groups
(the

material,

not according to orchestral division in


for instance), but accord-

method adopted by Gevaert

ing to each constituent of the

musical whole, considered separately.


II

The
and

orchestration
III)

of

melodic and harmonic elements (Chapters

receives special attention, as does the question of orches-

tration in general (Chapter IV).


to

The

last

two chapters are devoted


a

operatic

music,

and the

sixth

takes

supplementary form,

having no direct bearing on the previous matter.

Rimsky-Korsakov altered the

title

of his

book several
I

times,

and

his final choice was never made.


to

The

title

have selected seems


work, "prin-

me

to

be the one most suitable

to the contents of the

ciples" in the truest sense of the word.

Some may

expect to find

the "secrets" of the great orchestrator disclosed; but, as he himself

reminds us

in his preface, "to orchestrate is to create,

and

this is

something which cannot be taught."


Yet,

as invention, in

all

art,

is

closely allied to technique, this

book may reveal much


Korsakov has often

to the student of instrumentation.

Rimsky-

repeated

the axiom that

good orchestration
of tone-colours

means proper handling of parts.


and
their

The simple use

combinations
ends.

may

also be taught, but there the science of

instruction

From

these standpoints the present

book

will

furnish the pupil with nearly everything he requires.

The

author's

death prevented him

from discussing a few questions, amongst


full

which

would

include

polyphonic

orchestration

and

the

scoring of melodic and harmonic designs.

But these questions

can be partly solved by the principles laid

down
first

in

Chapters

II

and

III,

and

have no wish

to

overcrowd the

edition of this
if

book with extra matter which can be added later,


to

it

is

found

be necessary.

had

first

of all

to

prepare and amplify the

sketches

made by Rimsky-Korsakov
it

in 1905; these

form a connected
I

summary throughout
pleted

the whole six chapters.


is

Chapter

was comfive

by the author;
have

published as

it

stands, save for a few

unimportant alterations
ters,
I

in style.

As regards the other


in the order,

chap-

tried to

keep

to the original drafts as far as possible,

and have only made a few changes


indispensable
additions.

and one or two


point

The sketches made between 1891 and


to

1893 were too disconnected

be

of

much

use,

but,

in

XI
of
fact,

they

corresponded

very

closely

to

the

final

form

of

the work.

The musical examples are


drawn
Borodin
choosing

of greater importance.

According

to

the original scheme, as noted on the 1891 MS., they were to be

from

the

works

of

Glinka
to

and

Tschaikovsky;
later.

those

of of
to

and Glazounov were

be
his

added

The idea
only

examples

solely

from

own works
for
of

came
but

Rimsky-Korsakov by degrees.
partly

The reasons
preface

this

decision are
other
his

explained

in

the

unfinished
If

1905,

motives

may be
give

mentioned.

Rimsky-Korsakov had chosen

examples from the works

of these four

composers, he would have

had

to

some account
of

of their individual,

and often strongly


been a
difficult

marked

peculiarities

style.

This would have


to
justify the

undertaking, and then,

how

exclusion of West-Eu-

ropean composers, Richard Wagner, for example, whose orchestration

Rimsky-Korsakov so greatly admired?


hardly
fail

Besides, the latter


afforded

could

to

realise

that

his

own compositions
manner

sufficient material to illustrate every conceivable

of scoring,

examples emanating
the

frorfl

one great general principle.

This

is

not
is

place to criticise his method; RimsT^y-Korsakov's "school"

here displayed, each

may examine

it

for

himself.

The

brilliant,

highly-coloured orchestration of Russian composers, and the scoring


of the younger French musicians are largely

dev^opments

of the

methods

of

Rimsky-Korsakov, who,

in

turn,

looked upon Glinka

as his spiritual father.

The

table of

examples found among the author's papers was

far
at

from complete; some portions were badly explained, others, not


all.

The composer had not mentioned which musical quotations


to

were were

be printed

in

the second volume, and which


the
full

examples
limit
left

to indicate the study of

score, further,

no

was

fixed to the length of quotation.


editor's discretion.
I

All this

was
to

therefore

to the

selected the examples only after


it

much doubt
in

and

hesitation, finding

difficult tp

keep

those stipulated by the

composer, as every page

of the fnaster's

works abound

appro-

priate instances of this or that


I

method

of scoring.

was guided by
the

the
the

following

considerations
in

which agreed
first

with

opinions

of

author himself:

the

place the
to distract

examples should be as simple as possible, so as not

XII

the student's attention from the point under discussion; secondly,


it

was necessary

that

one example should serve

to illustrate several

sections of the book, and lastly, the majority of quotations should be

those mentioned by the author. These amount to 214, in the second

volume; the remaining 98 were added by me. They are drawn, as

far

as possible, from Rimsky-Korsakov's dramatic music, since operatic


full-scores are less accessible than those of

symphonic works.
diffe-

At the end of Vol.


rent

II

have added three tables showing


chords;
all

ways

of scoring full

my

additions to the text are

marked with
use

asterisks.

consider that the careful study of the

examples contained

in the

second volume

will

be

of the greatest

to the student without replacing the

need

for the study of other

composers' scores.

Broadly speaking, the present work should


of
full

be studied together with the reading

scores in general.

few words remain

to

be said regarding Rimsky-Korsakov's

intention to point out the faulty passages in his orchestral works,

an intention expressed

in

his

preface to the last edition.

The

composer
nations.

often referred to the instructional value of such examiIt

His purpose however was never achieved.

is

not for

me

to select these

examples, and

shall only
1.

mention two which were


of

pointed out by the composer himself:


220
71ii

The Legend

Tsar Saltan

bar the theme


233

in the (a

brass

is

not sufficiently prominent


easily
rectified);
2.

the

trombones being
,

tacet

mistake
14,
if

The

Golden Cockerel observed


in

bars 10
the the

the

marks

of expression are

the

brass,

counter- melody

on the violas and


hardly

violoncellos

doubled

by

wood-wind
myself

will

be heard.
63,

Example 75 may
In conclusion

also be mentioned, to
I

which the note on page


to these

in the text, refers.


I

will confine

examples.

Rimsky-Korsakov
this

work, thereby

my deep gratitude to Madame for having entrusted me with the task of editing providing me with the opportunity of performing a
desire to express

duty sacred to the


St. Petersburgh,

memory

of a master, held so deeply in reverence.

December

1912.

MAXIMILIAN STEINBERG.

Extract from the Author's Preface (1891).


Our epoch,
Liszt,

the post-Wagnerian age,

is

the age of brilliahce

and

imaginative quality in orchestral tone colouring.

Berlioz, Glinka,

Wagner,
those
of

modern
the

french

composers

others;

new

russian

Delibes, school Borodin,


to

Bizet

and

Balakirev,

Glazounov and Tschaikovsky


art
to
its

have

brought

this side of

musical

zenith;

they have eclipsed, as colourists, their prede-

cessors,

Weber, Meyerbeer and Mendelssohn,

whose genius,
In writing

nevertheless, they are indebted for their


this

own
of

progress.

book

my

chief

aim has been

to

provide the well-informed

reader with the fundamental principles

modern

orchestration
I

from the standpoint

of

brilliance

and imagination, and

have

devoted considerable space to


orchestral combination.
1

the study of tonal resonance and

have

tried to
to

show
the
to

the student

how

to obtain a certain quality

of tone,
I

how

acquire uniformity of structure and requisite power.


character
of

have specified
peculiar

certain

melodic

figures

and
and

designs

each

instrument

or

orchestral
to

group,

reduced these questions briefly and clearly


in short
I

general principles;
with matter and

have endeavoured
carefully

to furnish the pupil

material as
theless
I

and minutely studied as


to instruct

possible.

Never-

do not claim

him as
to

to

how such

information

should be put to

artistio

use,

nor

establish
of

my

examples

in

their rightful place in the poetic

language

music.

For, just as

a handbook of harmony, counterpoint, or form presents the student


with

harmonic or polyphonic matter,

principles

of

construction,

formal arrangement, and sound technical methods, but will never

endow him with

the

talent

for

composition, so a treatise on orto

chestration can demonstrate

how

produce a well-sounding chord


1


of

distributed,

certain

tone-quality,
its

uniformly
setting,

how

to

detach

melody from

harmonic

correct progression of parts,

and solve

all

such problems, but

will

never be able
is

to teach the

art of poetic orchestration.


is

To

orchestrate

to create,

and

this

something which cannot be taught.


It

is

a great mistake to say: this composer scores well,


is

or, that

composition

well orchestrated, for orchestration

is

part of the

very soul of the work.


orchestra,

A work

is

thought out in terms of the


it

certain tone-colours being inseparable from

in

the

mind

of

its

creator and native to


of

it

from the hour

of

its

birth.

Could the essence


tration?

Wagner's music be divorced from


is

its

orches-

One might

as well say that a picture

well

drawn

in colours.

More than one


colour

classical

and modern composer has lacked the


the

capacity to orchestrate with imagination and power; the secret of

has remained

outside

range

of

his

creative faculty.
to orchesof

Does
trate?

it

follow that these composers do not

know how

Many among them have had


mere
colourist.
in

-greater

knowledge

the

subject than the


tration?

Was Brahms
his

ignorant of orchesfind evidence of

And

yet,

nowhere

works do we

brilliant tone or picturesque fancy.

The

truth is that his thoughts


it.

did not turn towards colour; his

mind did not exact


this secret

The power
mit,

of subtle orchestration is

a secret impossible to trans-

and the composer who possesses and never debase


it

should value

it

highly,

to

the level of a

mere

collection of

formulae learned by heart.

Here

may mention

the case of

works scored by others from


composer,

the composer's rough directions.

He who undertakes such work


into the spirit of the
in all their essential

should enter as deeply as he


try to realise his intentions,

may

and develop them

features.

Though

one's

own
is

personality be subordinate to that of another,

such orchestration

nevertheless creative work.

But on the other


is

hand, to score a composition never intended for the orchestra,

an undesirable

practice.
it.

Many musicians have made


In

this

mistake
in-

and

persist

in

(1)

any case

this is the

lowest form of

(1)

In the

margin

of the

MS. a question mark

is

added here.
(Editor's note.)


process

my good

strumentation, akin to colour photography, though of course the

may be

well or badly done.


it

to

As regards orchestration a first-rate school, and


In

has been

fortune to belong

have acquired tha most varied exhave had the opportunity


of
St.

perience.
all

the

first

place

hearing
Peters-

my works

performed by the excellent orchestra of the


Secondly,
I

burgh Opera.

having experienced

leanings

towards
sizes,

different directions,

have scored for orchestras of different

beginning with simple combinations (my opera The


is

May

Night

written for natural horns

and trumpets), and ending with the


I

most advanced.

In the third place,

conducted the choir of the

Military Marine for several years and

was

therefore able to study


of

wind-instruments.
pupils,

Finally

formed an orchestra

very young

and succeeded
of

in teaching

them

to play, quite competently,


etc.

the

works

Beethoven, Mendelssohn, Glinka,


to

All

this

has

enabled

me

present this

work

to

the public as the result of

long experience.

As a
I.

starling-point

lay

down
is

the following fundamental axioms:

In the orchestra there


Orchestral

no such thing _^as ugly quality of tone.


be

II.

writing should

easy

to

play;

composer's

work stands
III.

the best chance

when

the parts are well written. (1)

work should be written


it,

for the size of orchestra that is to

perform
persist

not for

some imaginary body,


is

as

many composers
it

in

doing,

introducing brass instruments in unusual keys


impracticable because
is

upon which the music


in the
It

not played

key the composer intends.


difficult

is

to

devise any method of learning orchestration

without

a master.

As a general

rule

it

is

best to advance by

degrees from the simplest scoring to the most complicated.

The student

will

probably pass through the following phases:


faith in

1.

the

phase during which he puts his entire

percussion instru-

has well expressed the various degrees of excellence in which he divides into three classes: 1. When the orchestra sounds well, playing from sight; magnificent, after a few rehearsals. 2. When effects cannot be brought off except with the greatest care and attention on the part
(1)

A. Glazounov

scoring-,

of conductor

and players.
in

3.

When

the orchestra never sounds well.


is

Evi-

dently the chief aim

Orchestration

to

obtain the

first of

these results.
1*

(Author's note.)


branch
of the orchestra

2.

ments, believing that beauty of sound emanates entirely from this

this is the earliest stage;


it

the period

when he
chord;

acquires a passion for the harp, using


the stage during

in every possible

3.

which he adores the wood-wind and

horns, using stopped notes in conjunction with strings, muted or


pizzicato;
4.

the

more advanced
is

period,

when he has come


try
is

to

recognise that the string group


of
all.

the richest and most expressive


to

When
of

the student
first

works alone he must

avoid the

pitfalls

the

three phases.

The

best plan
in

to study full-

scores,
cult
to

and

listen to

an orchestra, score

hand.

But

it

is

diffi-

decide what music should be studied and heard.

Music

of

all

ages, certainly, but, principally, that

which

is fairly

modern.

Fairly

modern music
will

will teach the student

how

to

score

classical
Liszt,

music

prove of negative value to him.

Weber, Mendelssohn,
and
prove his best

Meyerbeer (The Prophet), Berlioz, Glinka, Wagner,

modern French and Russian composers


guides.
It

these

will

is

useless for a Berlioz or a Gevaert to quote examples


of Gluck.

from the works

The musical idiom


said of Mozart

is

too old-fashioned

and strange
today.
of

to

modern

ears;

such examples are of no further use

The same may be


orchestration).

and

of

Haydn

(the father

modern

The
his

gigantic

figure

of

Beethoven

stands

apart.

His

music

abounds

in countless

leonine leaps of orchestral imagination, but


in
detail,

technique,

viewed

remains much

inferior

to

his

titanic

conception.

His use of the trumpets, standing out above

the rest of the orchestra, the difficult and

unhappy

intervals

he

gives to the horns, the distinctive features of the string parts and
his

often

highly- coloured

employment

of the
of

wood-wind, these
to

features will

combine causing the student


in

Beethoven

stumble

upon a thousand and one points


It

contradiction.

is

a mistake

to

think that the beginner will light upon no simple


in

and

instructive

examples

modern music,

in that of

Wagner and
to

others.

On

the contrary,

clearer,

and better examples are


in

be
the

found

amongst modern composers than

what

is

called

range of classical music.

Extract from the Preface to the last edition.


My aim
modern
in

undertaking
in

this

work

is

to reveal the principles of

orchestration

somewhat

different
I

light

than

that

usually brought to bear upon the subject.


principles in orchestrating

have followed these


to

my own
or

works, and, wishing


I

impart

some
from

of

my
to

ideas to

young composers,
given

have quoted examples


to

my own

compositions,

references
is

them,

en-

deavouring
is

show,

in all sincerity,

what

successful and

what

not.

No one can know

except the author himself the purpose


of

and motives which governed him during the composition


certain

work, and the practice of explaining the intentions

of a

composer, so prevalent amongst annotators, however reverent and


discreet,

appears

to

me

far

from

satisfactory.

They

will attribute
to a plain

a too closely philosophic, or excessively poetic

meaning

and simple
good;

fact.

Sometimes the respect which great composers'


will

names command

cause inferior

examples

to

be quoted as

casfco of carelessness

or ignorance, easily explained by the


give rise to whole pages of

imperfections of current technique,

laborious exposition, in defence, or even in admiration of a faulty

passage.

This book

is

written for those

who have
treatise,

already studied instru-

mentation from Gevaert's excellent

or any other well-known


of a

manual, and
tral
I

who have some knowledge

number

of orches-

scores.
shall therefore only just touch

on such technical questions as


etc.

fingering, range, emission of

sound

(1)

The present work deals with

the combination of instruments in

separate groups and in the entire orchestral scheme; the different

means

of

producing strength of tone and unity of structure; the

sub-division of parts; variety of colour and expression in scoring,

the
(1)

whole, principally from the standpoint of dramatic music.

short review of these various questions forms the

first

chapter of the

book.

(Editor's note.)

Chapter

1.

GENERAL REVIEW OF ORCHESTRAL GROUPS.

A. Stringed Instruments.
The following is the formation of the number of players required in present day
theatre or concert-room.
string

quartet

and the

orchestras, either in the

Whenever a group
parts
of

is

strings

written

for

more than

five

without

taking double notes or chords fnto consideration

these parts

may be

increased by dividing each one into two, three

and four

sections, or even
is

more

(divisi).

Generally, one or

more

of the principal parts

split up, the first

or second violins, violas


1,

or violoncellos. The players are then divided by desks, numbers


3, 5 etc. playing the upper part,

and

2, 4,

etc.,

the lower; or

else the musician


line,

on the right-hand
left

of

each desk plays the top


Dividing by threes
is is

the

one on the

the bottom line.


of players
in

less

easy, as the

number

one group

not always

divisible

by

three,

and hence the

difficulty

of obtaining proper

balance.

Nevertheless there are cases where the composer should

not hesitate to employ this method of dividing the strings, leaving


it

to

the
to
I,

conductor to ensure equality of tone.

It

is

always as
the score;

well

mark how
more
parts

the

passage
div.

is

to

be divided

in

Vni
as

1, 2,

3 desks, 6 'Cellos
is

a 3, and so on.

Division into

four and
it

rare, but

may be

used

in

piano passages,
of strings.
parts are very

greatly reduces
In

volume

of tone in the

group

Note.

small orchestras passages sub-divided into

many

hard

to realise,

and the

effect obtained is

never the one required.

String parts

may be
.

divided thus:
div.

rVni I I Vni II

div.
div.

(Vnill
I

/Violas

div.

'Cellos div. f'Ce

Violas div.

^ I 'Cellos div.

D. basses

div.

Possible combinations less frequently used are:

fVn^I
^
I

div.
'

rVnill
I

div.

Violas div.

Violas div.
It

'Cellos div.

^ I D. basses div.
Still

Note.
is
is

is

evident that the tone quality in b and e will be similar.

preferable since the

number

of

Vni

II

(14

10

practically the same, the respective r61es of

8 and Violas (12 4) the two groups are more closely


6)

allied,

and from the


first,

fact that

second

violins generally sit nearer to the violas

than the

thereby guaranteeing greater unity in power and execution.


will

The reader
to the

find
II.

all

manner

of

divisions

in

the musical

examples given

in Vol.

Where

necessary,

some

explanation as
I

method

of dividing strings will follow in


in order to

due course.

dwell

on the subject here


of the string quartet

show how

the usual composition

may be

altered.


Stringed instruments possess

of

more ways

producing sound than


better than

any other orchestral group.


being of an

They can pass,

other

instruments from one shade of expression to another, the varieties


infinite

number.

Species of bowing such as legato,

detached, staccato, spiccato, portamento, martellato, light staccato,


saltando, attack at the nut

and

at the point,

nn H
all this

and V V V (down
belongs
to the

bow and up

bow), in every degree of tone, fortissimo, pianissimo,

crescendo, diminuendo, sforzando,

morendo

natural realm of the string quartet.

The

fact

that these
full

instruments are capable of playing double

notes and

chords across three and four strings


parts

to

say nothing

of sub-division of

renders
(1).

them not only melodic but also


and
the violin

harmonic

in

character
point
of

From
come

the

view of

activity

flexibility

takes pride of place

among

stringed instruments, then, in order,


In jyactice the notes of

the viola, 'cello

and double bass.

extreme

limit in the string quartet

should be fixed as follows:

for violins:

(fe

for violas:

^
^

u.

for 'cellos:

V'

for

double basses:

Higher notes given


that
is

in

Table A, should only be used with caution,

to

say

when
in

they are of long value, in tremolando, slow,

flowing

melodies,

not

too

rapid sequence of scales,

and

in

passages of repeated notes.


Note.
In

Skips should always be avoided.

quick passages for stringed instruments long chromatic figures

are never suitable; they are difficult to play and sound indistinct and muddled.

Such passages are better

allotted to the

wood-wind.

limit

should be set to the use of a high note on any one of

the three lower strings

on

violins,

violas

and

'cellos.

This note

should be the one

in

the fourth position, either the octave note

or the ninth of the open string.

(1) To give a list of easy three and four-note chords, or to explain the different methods of bowing does not come within the scope of the present book.

Nobility,

warmth, and equality

of

tone from one end of the scale to


stringed instruments, and render
Further,

the other are qualities

common

to all

them
each
in

essentially superior to instruments of other groups.

string has a distinctive character of its

own,

difficult to define

words. The top string on the violin (E)

is brilliant in

character,

that of the viola

(A)

is

more

biting in quality

and

slightly nasal;

the highest string on the 'cello

(A)

is

bright and

possesses

"chest-voice" timbre.

The
the

and

strings

on the

violin

and the

string
in

on the violas and


tone

'cellos

are

somewhat sweeter and


are rather harsh. Speak-

weaker
violin

than

others.

Covered strings (G)y on the


'cello

(G and C), on the viola and


the

ing generally,

double bass

is

equally

resonant throughout,

slightly duller on the two lower strings (E and A), and more

penetrating on the upper ones


Note.

(D and G).

Except

in the

case of pedal notes, the double bass rarely plays an


moving- in octaves or in unison with the 'cellos, or else
is

independent
heard by

part, usually

doubling the bassoons. The quality of the double bass tone


itself

therefore seldom

and the character

of its different strings is not so noticeable.

The

rare ability to connect sounds, or a series of sounds, the


of

vibration
qualities

stopped strings

combined with
of

their

above-named
this

warmth
"limits

and

nobility

tone

renders
e. g.

group of
of

instruments far and away the best orchestral


expression.

medium

melodic

At the same time, that portion of their range situated


of

beyond the
higher than

the

human

voice,

notes on the violin

the

extreme top note of the soprano voice, from

upwards, and notes on the double bass below the range of the
bass voice, descending from
(written sound)

lose in expression

and warmth

of tone.

Open

strings are clearer

and more powerful but

less expressive than stopped strings.

Comparing the range


the

of

each stringed instrument with that of


assign: to the violin, the soprano

human

voice,

we may

and


contralto voice plus a
tralto

10

higher register; to the


'cello,

much

higher range; to the viola, the con-

and tenor voice plus a

much

the tenor and bass voices plus a higher register; to the double
bass, the bass voice plus a lower range.

The use

of

harmonics, the mute, and some special devices in


difference in the resonance

bowing produce great

and tone

quality

of all these instruments.

Harmonics, frequently used

to day, alter the

timbre of a stringed
in

instrument to a very appreciable extent.


soft
little

Cold and transparent

passages, cold and brilliant in loud ones, and offering but

chance

for expression, they

form no fundamental part of orfor

chestral writing,
their

and are used simply

ornament.

Owing

to

lack of resonant

power they should be used

sparingly, and,

when employed, should never be overpowered by


As a
or
rule

other instruments.

harmonics are employed on sustained notes, tremolando.,

here

and there

for brilliant

effects;

they are rarely used in

extremely simple melodies.


the flute they

Owing

to a certain tonal affinity

with

may be

said to form a kind of link between string

and wood-wind instruments.


Another radical change
is

effected

by the use

of mutes.

When
soft

muted, the clear, singing tone of the strings becomes dull in

passages, turns to a slight hiss or whistle in loud ones, and the

volume

of tone is

always greatly reduced.

The
of

position of the

bow on

the string will affect the resonance

an instrument.

Playing with the

bow

close to the bridge (sul

ponticello),

chiefly used

tremolando, producer a metallic sound;


dull,

playing on the finger-board (sul tasto, flautando) creates a


veiled effect.
Note.
or

wood

Another absolutely different sound results from playing with the back of the bow {col legno). This produces a sound like a xylophone or
It

a hollow pizzicato.
sustaining power.

is

discussed under the heading of instruments of

little

The
plus
of

five

sets
fairly

of

strings with

number
of

of players given
If

above

produce a

even
it

balance

tone.

there
of

is

any surviolins,

strength

must

be

on

the

side

the
of

first

as

they

must be heard

distinctly

on account

the
this,

important

part they play in the

harmonic scheme.
in
all

Besides

an extra

desk of

first

violins is usual

orchestras,

and as a general

11


rule

12

violins.

they
latter,

possess

more powerful tone than second


a

The
stand

with the violas, play so


prominently.

secondary

part,

and do not

out

The

'cellos

and double basses are


form the bass

heard more
in octaves. In

distinctly,

and

in the majority of cases

conclusion

it-

may be

said that the group of strings, as a


all

ipelodic element,

is

able to perform

manner

of passages, rapid

and interrupted phrases


in

of every description, diatonic or chromatic


difficulty,

character.

Capable of sustaining notes without


to

of

playing

chords of three and four notes; adapted

the infinite

variety of shades of expression,

and

easily divisible into

numerous
considered

sundry parts, the string group

in

an orchestra

may be

as an harmonic element particularly rich in resource.

B.

Wind
'

instruments.

Wood-wind.
constituent parts remains constant, satisfull

Apart from the varying number of players, the formation of the


string group, with
its five

fying

the

demands
of

of

any orchestral

score.

On

the other

hand the group

number

of parts

wood-wind instruments varies both as regards and the volume of tone at its command, and here
at will.

the composer

may choose

The group may be divided


13).

into

three general classes:

wood-wind instruments
on page

in pair's, in three's

and

in four's, (see table

Arabic numerals denote the number of players on each instru-

ment; roman figures, the parts

(isl,

2^

etc.).

Instruments which

do not require additional

players, but are taken over

by one or the
and

other executant in place of his usual instrument, are enclosed in


brackets.

As a

rule the first flute, first oboe,

first

clarinet

first

bassoon never change instruments; considering the importance of


their parts
to another.
it

is

not advisable for them to turn from one mouthpiece


parts written for piccolo, bass
flute,

The

English horn,

small clarinet, bass clarinet and double bassoon are taken by the

second and
to

third players in

each group,

who

are

more accustomed

using these instruments of a special nature.


Wood-wind

13


strings;
different
In

14

they lack the vitality and power, and are less capable of

shade

of expression.
I

each wind instrument


that is to

have defined the scope of

greatest
is

expression,

say the range in which the instrument

best qualified to achieve the various grades of tone, {forte, piano,


cresc,
of

dim., sforzando, morendo, etc.) the register


playing,
in

which admits
for richness

the most expressive

the truest sense of the word.


is

Outside this range, a wind instrument


of

more notable

colour than for expression.

am

probably the originator of


It

the term "scope of greatest expression".

does not apply

to the

piccolo and double bassoon which represent the two extremes of


the orchestral compass.

They do not possess such a

register

and

belong
ments.

to

the

body
of

of highly-coloured but non-expressive

instru-

The four kinds


bassoons

wind instruments:

flutes,

oboes, clarinets and

may be
ba^s

generally considered to be of equal power.

The

same cannot be
piccolo,

said of instruments

which

fulfil

a special purpose:

flute,

Eng. horn, small

clarinet,

bass clarinet and

double bassoon.

Each

of these instruments

has four registers: low,


is

middle, high and extremely high, each of which

characterised
define

by certain differences of quality and power.


together and the passage from one to another

It

is difficult to

the exact limits of each register; adjacent registers almost blend


is

scarcely noticeable.

But

when

the

instrument jumps from one register to another the

difference in

power and
families
a)

quality of tone is very striking.

The

four

of

wind

instruments

may be

divided

into

two classes:

instruments of nasal quality and dark resonance


in-

oboes and bassoons (Eng. horn and double bassoon); and b)


struments
of

"chest-voice"

quality

and bright tone and resonance

flutes

and
in

clarinets (piccolo, bass flute, small clarinet, bass clarinet).

These characteristics
the middle and

of

colour

expressed

too simple and rudimentary a form

are

specially noticeable in
register of the

upper
thick
is

registers.

The lower
still

oboes

and bassoons

is

and rough, yet


shrill,

nasal in quality; the

very high compass


of the flutes

hard and dry.

The

clear resonance
in the

and

clarinets acquires
in

something nasal and dark


it

lower compass;
piercing.

the very high register

becomes somewhat

Note to Table B.
In the following

Table

the top note in each register serves as the bottom note

The note and bassoons. In the very high compass those notes are only given which can really be used; anything higher and not printed as actual notes are either too difficult to produce or of no artistic value. The number of sounds obtainable in the highest compass is indefinite, and depends, partly on the quality of the instrument itself, partly on theposition and application of the lips. The signs r== =:: are not to be mistaken for crescendo and diminuendo; they indicate how the resonance of an instrument increases or diminishes in relation to the characteristic quality of its timbre. The scope of greatest expression for each typical instrument is marked thus, under the notes the range is the same in each instrument of the same type.
in the next, as the limits to

each register are not defined absolutely.

fixes the register of flutes

and oboes, C

for the clarinets

3 O
c

GO

18

Note. It is a difficult matter to define tone quality in words; we must encroach upon the domain of sight, feeling, and even taste. Though borrowed from these senses, I have no doubt as to the appropriateness of my comparisons, but, as a general rule definitions drawn from other sources are too elementary
to to

be applied

to music.

No condemnatory meaning however should be attached

my

descriptions, for in using the terms thick, piercing, shrill, dry, etc.
is

my

object

to

express artistic fitness

in

words, rather than material exactitude.

Instrumental sounds which have no musical meaning are classed by me in the category of useless sounds, and I refer Jo them as such, giving my reasons. With the exception of these, the reader is advised to consider all other orchestral

timbres beautiful from an


times, to put

artistic point of

view, although

it

is

necessary, at

them

to other uses.
is

Further on, a table of wind instruments

limit of range, defining different qualities of

appended, outlining the approximate tone and indicating the scope of

greatest expression (the piccolo and double bassoon excepted).

Flutes and clarinets are the


(the
in
flutes

most

flexible

wood-wind instruments

in

particular),

but for expressive


tfiis

power and

subtlety

nuances the clarinet supersedes them;


of tone
to

instrument can reduce

volume
by

a mere
less

breath.

The nasal instruments, oboe


this
is

and bassoon, are


their

mobile and supple;


having

accounted for

double

reed, but,

to effect all sorts of scales

and

rapid

passages in

and bassoons
In very quick

common with the flutes and clarinets, oboes may be considered melodic instruments in the real
more
cantabile and peaceful character.
flutes, clarinets

sense of the word, only of a

passages they often double the


families are

or strings.

The
playing

four

equally

capable
to

of

legato

and staccato

and

changing from one

the other in different ways,

but distinct and penetrating staccato passages are better suited to the

oboes and bassoons, while the


sustained
legato

flutes

and

clarinets excel in well-

phrases.

Composite

legato

passages
stacca'.o

should be

allotted to the first


to

two instruments, composite

passages

the latter

pair, but these general directions should not deter

the orchestrator from adopting the opposite plan.


In

comparing the technical

indivitualities of the

wood-wind the

following fundamental differences should be noted:


a)
n*in
'

The rapid
to all

repetition of a single note by single tonguing


repitition of a single note
flute,

is

com-

wind instruments;
is

by means

double tonguing
b)

only possible on the

a reedless instrument.
is

On

account of

its

construction the clarinet


to

not well adapted

to

sudden leaps from one octave

another;

these

skips

are

easier

on

flutes,

oboes and bassoons.


c)

19

on oboes and bassoons.


care must be
to time.

Arpeggios and rapid alternation of two intervals legato sound

well on flutes

and

clarinets, but not

Wood-wind
passages,

players

cannot manage extremely long sustained

as

they

are

compelled

to

take breath;
rest

taken therefore to give them a


is

little

from time

This

unnecessary in the case of string players.


In the

endeavour

to characterise the

timbre of each instrument


I

typical of the

four families, from a psychological point of view,

do not

hesitate to

make

the following general remarks which apply

generally to the middle and upper registers of each instrument:


a) Flute.

Cold
of
light

in quality, specially suitable, in the

major key,

to to

melodies

and graceful character;

in

the minor key,

slight touches of transient sorrow.

b)

Oboe.

Artless

and gay

in

the major, pathetic and sad in

the minor.
c) Clarinet.

Pliable

and expressive,

suitable, in the major, to


to outbursts of

melodies of a joyful or contemplative character, or


mirth; in the minor, to sad

and

reflective

melodies or impassioned

and dramatic passages.


d) Bassoon.

In

the major, an atmosphere of senile mockery;

a sad, ailing quality in the minor.


In the

extreme registers these instruments convey the following

impressions to

my

mind:

Low
a)

register

Very high

register

Flute

Dull, cold

Brilliant

b)
c)

Oboe
Clarinet
Ringing,

Wild
threatening
Sinister

Hard, dry
Piercing
Tense.

d)

Bassoon
It

no mood or frame of mind, whether it be joyful or sadj mocking or distressed can be aroused by one single isolated timbre; it dep^ds more upon the general melodic line, the harmony, rhythm, and dynamic shades of expression, upon the whole formation of a given piece of music. The choice of instruments and timbre to be adopted depends on the position which m< lody and harmony occupy in the seven-octave scale of the orchestra; for example, a melody of light character in the tenor register could not be given to the flutes, or a sad, plaintive phrase in the high soprano register confided to the bassoons. But the ease with which tone colour can be adapted to expression must not be forgotten, and in the first of these two cases it may be conceded that the mocking character of the bassoon could easily and quite naturally assume a light-hearted aspect, and
Note.
is

true that

meditative or

lively,

careless or reflective,

2*

20

in the second case, that the slightly melancholy timbre of the flute is somewhat related to the feeling of sorrow and distress with which the passage is The case of a melody coinciding in character with the into be permeated. strument on which it is played is of special importance, as the effect produced There are also moments when a composer's cannot fail to be successful. artistic feeling prompts him to employ instruments, the character of which is at variance with the written melody (for eccentric, grotesque effects, etc.).

The following remarks illustrate the employment of special instruments:


The duty
register.

characteristics, timbre,

and

of

the
of

piccolo and sm^ll clarinet


the ordinary flute and

is,

principally, to
in

extend the range

clarinet

the high
its

The
is

whistling, piercing quality of the piccolo in

highest
itself

compass

extraordinarily powerful,

but does not lend

to

more moderate shades of expression. The small clarinet in its highest register is more penetrating than the ordinary clarinet
The low and middle range
but the tone
regions.
is

of

the

piccolo

and small
flute

clarinet
clarinet,

correspond to the same register


so

in the

normal

and

much weaker
register.
still

that

it

is of little

service in those

Tlie double bassoon


in the

extends the range of the ordinary

bassoon

low

The

characteristics of the bassoon's


in

low compass are


range
of the

further accentuated

the corresponding

double bassoon, but the middle and upper registers

of the latter are

by no means so

useful.

The very deep


and dense
in

notes of
quality,

the double bassoon

are remarkably thick

very powerful in piano passages.


Note.

Nowadays, when the


to

limits of the orchestral scale are considerably

extended (up
similarly,

the high

of the 7*h octave,

and down
is

to

the low C, 16

ft.

contra octave), the piccolo forms an indispensable constituent of the wind-group;


it

is

recognised that the double bassoon

capable of supplying
for colour

valuable assistance.
effects.

The small

clarinet is rarely

employed and only

The English horn, or


to

alto

oboe (oboe
low

in

F)

is

similar in tone
its

the

ordinary oboe,

the listless,
In the

dreamy

quality of
it

timbre pene-

being sweet
trating.

in the extreme. clarinet,

register

is

fairly

The bass
is

though strongly resembling the ordinary

clarinet,

of

darker colour in the low register and lacks the


in

silveiy

quality

the upper notes;


flute is

it

is

incapable of joyful ex-

pression.
it

The bass
the

an instrument seldom used even today;


but
it

possesses

same

features as the flute,

is

colder in


colour,

21

These
their

and

crystalline

in

the middle and high regions.

three particular instruments, apart from extending the low registers


of the instruments to

which they belong, have


and are

own

distinctive

peculiarities of timbre,

often used in the orchestra, as solo

instruments, clearly exposed.


Note.

Of the

six

special instruments referred to above, the piccolo and

double bassoon were the first to be used in the orchestra; the latter, however, was neglected after Beethoven's death and did not reappear until towards the

The Eng. horn and bass clarinet were employed initially the same century by Berlioz, Meyerbeer, and others, and for some time retained their position as extras, to become, later on, permanent orchestral factors, first in the theatre, then in the concert room. Very few attempts have been made to introduce the small clarinet into the
end
of the 191!l century.
first

during the

half of

orchestra (Berlioz etc.); this instrument together with the bass flute is used in my opera-ballet Mlada (1892), and also in my most recent compositions.

The Christmas Night, and Sadko; the bass flute will also be found in The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitesh, and in the revised version of "Ivan the
Terrible".

Of

late years the habit of


is

muting the wood-wind has come

into

fashion. This

done by

inserting a soft pad, or a piece of roUed-

up cloth into the bell of the instrument.

Mutes deaden the tone


it is

of

oboes, Eng. horns, and bassoons to such an extent that


for

possible

these instruments

to

attain

the

extreme limit

of

pianissimo

playing.

The muting

of clarinets is
artificial

unnecessary, as they can play

quite softly

enough without

means.

Is

has not yet been

discovered
great

how

to

mute the

flutes;

such a discovery would render

service to

the piccolo.

The lowest note on the bassoon.

and on the oboe and Eng. horn

are impossible
effect in the

when

the instruments are muted.

Mutes have no

highest register of wind instruments.

Brass.
The formation of the group of brass instruments, like that of the wood-wind is not absolutely uniform, and varies ih different scores.
The brass group may be divided
ponding
four's).

into three general classes corres(in

to

those of

the

wood-wind

pair's,

in three's,

and

in

22

Group corresponding to the wood- wind


in pair's


passages,
the

23

same
force;

strength; cornets have not quite the

horns, in forte
they have
softly.

are

about one

half

as

strong,

but piano,

same weight as

other brass

instruments played

To

obtain an equal balance, therefore, the

marks

of expression in the

horns should be one degree stronger than


if

in the rest of the brass;

the

trumpets
p.

and trombones play pp,


the

the

horns should be

marked
forte

On

other hand,

to

obtain a proper balance in


to

passages,

two horns are needed

one trumpet or one

trombone.

Brass instruments are so similar in range and timbre that the


is

discussion of register

unnecessary.

As a general
is

rule quality

becomes more
vice versa,

brilliant as the

higher register

approached, and

with a decrease in tone.


is

sweet; played // the tone

hard and "crackling".


for swelling

Played pp the resonance is Brass instru-

ments possess a remarkable capacity


to fortissimo,

from pianissimo

and reducing the tone

inversely, the sf

= p

effect

being excellent.

The following remarks as


be added:
a)
1.

to

character and tone quality

may
in

Trumpets (B\>
tone,
stirring

A).

Clear
in
full

and
forte

fairly

penetrating
in

and rousing

passages;
silvery, the

piano

phrases the high notes are

and

low notes

troubled, as though threatening danger.


2.

Alto trumpet
first

(in F).

An
in
to

instrument of

my own
it

invention,
In

used

by

me

the opera

ballet

Mlada.

the

deep register (notes 2


a
fuller,

in the

trumpet scale)

possesses

clearer,
alto

and

finer tone.

Two

ordinary trumpets

with

an

trumpet produce greater smoothness and


Satis-

equality in resonance than three ordinary trumpets.


fied with
I

the beauty and usefulness of the alto trumpet,


it

have consistently written for

in

my

later

works, com-

bined with wood-wind

in three's.
alto

Note. To obviate the difficulty of using: the and some concert rooms, I have not brought
its

trumpet

in

ordinary theatres

into play the last four notes of

lowest register or their neighbouring chromatics; by this

means

the alto

trumpet part
3.

may be

played by an ordinary trumpet in Bl> or A.


(in

Small trumpet
for

E\>D).
in

Invented by
to

me

and used
very

the

first

time

Mlada

realise

the

high


trumpet notes without
the instrument
tary band.
Note.
is

24

In

difficulty.

tonality

and range

similar to the soprano cornet in a mili-

The small trumpet, {B\^

A)

sounding an octave higher than the

ordinary trumpet has not yet appeared in musical literature.

b)

Cornets (m B\>
to

A).

Possessing a quality of tone similar


It

the trumpet, but softer and weaker.


rarely

is

a beautiful
theatre or

instrument though
concert room.

employed today

in

Expert players can imitate the cornet tone


vice versa. of this instrument is soft, poetical,

on the trumpet, and


c)

Horn
and

(in F).

The tone
In
full

full

of beauty.

the lower register


in the upper.

it

is

dark and

brilliant;

round and

The middle notes

resemble those of the bassoon and the two instruments


blend well together.

The horn,

therefore, serves as a link


In spite of

between the brass and wood-wind.


the horn has but
little

valves
to pro-

mobility and would

seem

duce
d)

its

tone in a languid and lazy manner.

Trombone.
brilliant
is

Dark and threatening


in the

in the deepest register,

and triumphant

high compass.

The piano

full

but somewhat heavy, the forte powerful and sono-

rous.

Valve trombones are more mobile than slide trombut the


latter

bones,

are

certainly

to

be preferred as

regards nobility and equality of sound, the more so from


the
fact

that

these- instruments

are

rarely

required

to

perform quick passages, owing


their tone.
e)

to the special character of

Tuba. Thick and rough

in quality, less characteristic

than

the trombone, but valuable for the strength and beauty


of
its

low

notes.
is

Like

the

double bass

and double

bassoon, the tuba

eminently useful for doubling, an


it

octave lower, the bass of the group to which

belongs.

Thanks

to its valves, the tuba is fairly flexible.

The group
throughout
its

of brass

instruments, though uniform in resonance


is

constituent -parts,

not so well adapted to expressive

playing (in the exact sense of the word) as the wood-wind group.
Nevertheless, a scope of greatest expression

may be

distinguished

25

O u

a 3
U
o
a E

u
CO
(1>

>

'So

x:


in the

26

the piccolo and double

middle
it

registers.

In

company with
of

bassoon
to

is

not given to the small trumpet (E\j(

D)
The
is

and tuba
rapid and

play with

any great amount

expression.

rhythmical repitition of a note by single tonguing


all

possible to

members

of the brass,

but double tonguing can only be done


cornets.
diffi-

on instruments with a small mouth-piece, trumpets and

These two instruments can execute rapid tremolando without


culty.

The remarks on
of

breathing, in the section devoted to the


to the brass.

wood-wind, apply with equal force

The use
brass tone.

stopped

notes

and mutes

alters

the character of

Stopped notes can only be employed on trumpets,


the shape
of

cornets and horns;


the

trombones and tubas prevents


the bell.

hand from being inserted


all

into

Though mutes

are

applied indiscriminately to

brass instruments in the orchestra,

tubas rarely posses them.


in quality.

Stopped and muted notes are similar

On

the trumpet, muting a note produces a better tone


it.

than stopping
In the

horn both methods are employed; single notes are stopped

in short phrases,

muted

in longer ones.

do not propose

to describe

the difference between the two operations in detail, and will leave
the reader to acquire the

knowledge

for himself,

and

to

form an

opinion as to
Sufficient
to

its

importance from his own


is

personal observation.

say that the tone

deadened by both methods,


in forte passages,

assuming a wild "crackling" character


dull in piano.

tender and

Resonance

is

greatly reduced, the silvery tone of the

instrument to lost and a timbre resembling that of the oboe and

Eng. horn
-f-

is

approached. Stopped notes (con sordino) are marked

underneath the note, sometimes followed by

denoting the

resumption of open sounds, senza sordini. Brass instruments,


muted, produce an
effect of distance.

when

C.

Instruments of

little

sustaining power.

Plucked strings.
When
'Cellos,

the usual orchestral string quartet (Vni

I,

Vni

II,

Violas,
thjC

D. basses) does not


it

make

use of the bow, but plucks


to

strings with the finger,

becomes

my mind

new and

inde-


pendent group with
its

27

Associated
I

own

particular quality of tone.

with the harp, which produces sound in a similar manner,


sider
it

con-

separatelyIn this

under the heading

of

plucked

strings.

Note.

plucked with a

be used

in

group may be classed the gmids, zither, balalaika; instruments such as the domra, (1) the mandoline etc., all of which may an orchestra, but have no place in the scope of the present book.
quill,

Pizzicato.

Although capable of every degree of power from


cato playing has but small

// to
is

pp, pizzi-

range

of expression,
it

and

used chiefly

as a colour effect

On open

strings

is

resonant and heavy, on


it

stopped strings shorter and duller; in the high positions

is

rather

dry and hard.

Table

on page 31 indicates the range

in

which pizzicato may


two

be used on each stringed instrument.


In

the orchestra, pizzicato

comes

into operation in

distinct

ways: a) on single notes, b) on double notes and chords.


fingers of the right
pizz.

The
bow;

hand playing

pizz. are far less agile than the

passages therefore can never be performed as quickly as those

played arco.

Moreover, the speed of pizzicato playing depends upon

the thickness of the strings;


it

on the double basses,


violins.

for instance,

must always be much slower than on the


In

pizzicato

chords

it

is

better to

avoid open strings, which

produce a more
four
there

brilliant

tone than of covered strings.

Chords
attack,

of

notes
is

allow

oi

greater

freedom and vigour

of

as

no danger

of accidentally touching a

wrong

note.

Natural
is

harmonics played

pizz. create a

charming

effect; the

tone

weak

however, and they are chiefly successful on the violoncello.

Harp.
In

the

orchestra,

the

harp

is

almost entirely an harmonic or


of

accompanying instrument.
one harp
or
part,

The majority

scores

require

only

but in recent times composers have written for two


harps, which

even

three

are sometimes compressed into the

one part

(1)

russian instrument which, like the balalaika,

is

better

known abroad.

(Translator's note.)

28

Note. Full orchestras should include three or even four harps. My operas Sadko, The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitesh, and The Golden Cockerel are designed for t\yo harps, Mlada for three.

The

special function of the harp lies in the execution of chords,


florid

and the

figures springing from

them.

As only four notes

at the most can be played by each hand, the notes of a chord

should be written close together, with not too great a space be-

tween one hand and the


(arpeggiato);
notify
it

other.

The chords must always be broken


otherwise

should

the

composer wish
In

he should

(non arpeggiato).

the middle and lower octaves the

resonance
dually.
In

of the strings is slightly prolonged,

and dies away gra-

changes

of

harmony

the player stops the vibration of

the strings with his hands, but, in quick modulations, this


is

method

not feasible, and the mixture of one chord with another produces
effect.
It

a discordant

follows that

more

or less rapid figures can

only be realised clearly and neatly in the upper register of *he harp,

where the

strings are shorter


rule, in the

and harder

in tone.

As a general

whole range

of the harp:

bassa
first to

only the notes of the

the fourth octave are used; the extreme


in special

notes in both compasses

may be employed

circumstances,

and

for doubling in octaves.


is

The harp

essentially a diatonic instrument, since all chromatic

passages depend on the manipulation of the pedals.


the harp does not lend
trator is advised to
itself to

For

this

reason

rapid modulation, and the orches-

bear

this fact in

mind. But the

difficulty

may

be obviated by using two harps


Note.
I

alternately. (1)

would remind the reader that the harp is not capable of double flats. For this reason, certain modulations from one key to another one, adjacent to it can only be accomplished enharmonically. For instance, the transition from C flat, G flat or D flat, major to their minor subdominant chords or keys is not possible owing to double flats. It is therefore
sharps or double
(I)

chromatic harp

without

pedals

has

now been

invented in France

(Lyon's system), on which the most abrupt modulations are possible.


(Translator's note.)


necessary
major.
to

29

keys of B,
it

start

enharmonically from the


of

sharp or

sharp,

Similarly,

on account

double sharps,

is

impossible to change from

sharp,

D
B

sharp or
flat,

sharp, minor to their respective dominant major chords


flat,

or keys;

flat

and A

minor must be the starting-points.

The
alone.

technical operation

known

as glissando

is

peculiar to the harp

Taking

for granted

that the reader is conversant with the

methods
pedals,
it

of acquiring different scales


will

by means

of

double-notched

be

sufficient to

remark
and

that glissando scales


to

produce
time the

discordant

medley
to

of

sound owing

the length

of

strings
effect,

continue

vibrate,

therefore,

as a

purely musical

glissando can only be used in the upper octaves, quite piano,


of

where the sound


prolonged.

the strings

is

sufficienty

clear,

yet not too

Forte glissando scales, entailing the use of the lower


strings are only permissible as embellishments.
in

and middle

Glis-

sando passages
obtained, are

chords of the seventh and ninth, enharmonically


as the above reservations
is

much more common, and

do not apply, every dynamic shade of tone


harmonics can only consist

possible.

Chords

in

of three notes written close together^

two

for the left

hand and one

for the right.

The tender

poetic quality of the


it

harp

is

adapted

to every dy-

namic shade, but


At least three,

is

never a very powerful instrument, and the


it

orchestrator should treat


if

with respect.

not

four

harps
full
is

in

unison

are

necessary,
forte.

if

they are to be heard against a

orchestra playing
it

The

more

rapidly a glissando passage

played, the louder

will

sound.

Harmonic notes on

the harp have great

charm but

little

resonance,

and are only possible played

quite softly.
is

Speaking generally, the

harp, like the string quartet, pizzicato,

more an instrument

of

colour than expression.

Percussion instruments producing determinate sounds, keyed instruments.


Kettle-drums.
Kettle-drums, indispensable to every theatre and concert orchestra

occupy the most important place


ments.

in the

group

of percussion instru-

pair of kettle-drums (Timpani), in the tonic and domito,

nant keys, was the necessary attribute of an orchestra up

and

tury onward, in western Europe

30

in Russia,

including Beethoven's* time, but, from, the middle of the WJl cen-

and

an ever-increasing

need was

felt

for the presence of three or even four kettle-drums,


If

during the whole course or part of a work.

the expensive

chromatic drum, permitting instant tuning


in the majority of
rally to

is

rarely

met

with,

still,

good orchestras, three screw drums are genebe found. The composer can therefore tdke it for granted
timpanist, having three kettle-drums at his

that a

good

command,

will

be able to tune at least one of them during a pause of

some

length.

The
dered

limits
to be:

of possible

change

in

Beethoven's time was consi-

(chromaticatly)

(cVw*^'^*'^

Big
kettle-drura

4|;

^.^
it

^"
to

Small
kettle-drum:
.

4y
P

In

these days

is

difficult

define the precise extent of high

compass
and
but
I

in the kettle-drums, as this of

depends

entirely

on the size

quality of the smallest one,

which there are many kinds,

advise the composer to select:


CcMomaV.caV^

^
made
for

Note.
ballet

magnificent kettle-drum of very small size was


this

my

opera-

Mlada;

instrument gave the Z)> of the

fourtii octave.

Kettle-drums are capable of every dynamic shade of tone, from

thundering fortissimo to a barely perceptible pianissimo.

In tre-

molando they can execute the most gradual crescendo, diminuendOy


the sfp and morendo.

To deaden

the sound, a piece of cloth

is

generally placed on

the skin of the drum, according to the instruction: timpani coperti


(muffled drums).

Piano and Celesta.


The use
is

of a piano in the orchestra (apart

from pianoforte con(1).

certos) belongs almost entirely to the russian school

The object

two-fold:

the quality of tone, either alone, or combined with

(1)

Rimsky-Korsakov's opera Sadko and Moussorgsky's Boris Godounov


(Translator's note.)

are particularly interesting in this respect.

31

Table D.
Pizzicato.

Violin.

Viola.

Violoncello.

Double bass.

The black notes are dry and hard, without resonance, and should only be
used when doubled with the wood-wind.

Table E.

Glockenspiel, celesta, xylophone.

Glockenspiel
(with keyboard!.

Glockenspiel
(ordinary).

Celesta.

Xylophone.

This note

is often

missing.


that of the harp, is

32

popular instrument, the guzli,

made

to imitate a

(as in Glinka), or a soft peal of bells.

When

the piano forms part


is

of

an orchestra, not as a solo instrument, an upright


piano
it

preferable

to a grand, but today the

is

gradually being superseded by


In the celesta, small steel

the celesta,

first

used by Tschaikovsky.

plates take the place of strings,

and the hammers

falling

on them

produce a delightful sound, very similar to the glockenspiel.


celesta
it

The

is

only found in

full

orchestras;

when

it

is

not available

should be replaced by an upright piano, and not the glockenspiel.

Glockenspiel, Bells, Xylophone.

The

glockenspiel

(campanelli)

may be made
type
is

of steel

bars, or

played with a keyboard.

The
its

first

the
of

more

satisfactory
is

and posesses greater resonance.


similar
trating.

The use
is

the glockenspiel
brilliant

to

the celesta,
in the

but

tone
of

more

and pene(1),

Big bells

shape

hollow discs or metal tubes

or real church bells of moderate size

may be

considered more as

theatrical properties than orchestral instruments.

The xylophone

is

a species of harmonica composed of strips or


little

cylinders of wood, struck with two


clattering sound, both powerful

hammers.

It

produces a

and piercing.

To complete
the bow.

this

catalogue of sounds mention should be

made

of the strings playing col legno, that is with the

wood

or back of

The sound produced

is

similar to the xylophone, and


is

gains in quality as the number of players

increased.

A
spiel

table is

appended showing the range

of 'the celesta, glocken-

and xylophone.

Percussion instruments producing indefinite sounds.


Instruments in this group, such as triangle, castanets,
little

bells,

tambourine, switch or rod {Rule. Gen), side or military drum, cymbals, bass

drum, and Chinese gong do not take any harmonic or


in

melodic part

the

orchestra,

and can only be considered as

ornamental instruments pure and simple.


(1) Recently, bells

They have no

intrinsic

have been made

of

suspended metal plates possessing the


(Editor's note.)

rare quality of a fairly pure tone, and which are sufficiently portable to be used

on

the concert platform.

33

The
first

musical meaning, and are just mentioned by the way.


three m^ay be considered as high, the four following as

medium^

and the
to

last

two as deep instruments.

This

may

serve as a guide

their

use with percussion instruments of determinate sounds,

playing in corresponding registers.

Comparison

resonance in orchestral groups and combination of different tone qualities.


of
of the respective

In

comparing the resonance

groups of sound-

sustaining instruments
clusions:
In the

we

arrive at the following approximate con-

most resonant group, the brass, the strongest instruments


In loud

are the trumpets, trombones and tuba.


are only one-half as strong,
1

passages the horns

Trumpet

Trombone

Tuba

=
as

2 Horns.

Wood-wind
the horns,
in
1

instruments, in prte passages, are twice

weak as

Horn

= 2 Clarinets = 2 Oboes = 2 Flutes


all

2 Bassoons; but,

piano passages,

wind-instruments,

wood

or brass are of fairly equal balance.

more difficult to establish a comparison in resonance between wood-wind and strings, as everything depends on the number of the
It

is

latter, but, in

an orchestra
in

of

medium
is

formation,

it

may be

taken for
{all

granted that
151

piano passages, the whole of one department

Violins or all 2!ii Violins etc.)


I

equivalent in strength to one wind

instrument, (Violins

Flute
I

etc.),

and, in jorte passages, to two


1

wind instruments,
It

(Violins
to

= 2 Flutes =

Oboe

Clarinet, etc.).
of
little

is

still

harder

form a comparison with instruments

sustaining power, for too great a diversity in production and emission


of

sound

exists.

The combined

force of groups of sustained resonance


col legno, the

easily

overpowers the strings played pizz. or


softly,

piano

played

or the celesta.

As

regards the glockenspiel, bells,

and

xylophone, their emphatic tone will easily prevail over other groups in
combination.

The same may be

said of the kettle-drums with their

ringing, resounding quality, and also of other subsidiary instruments.

The

influence of the timbre of one group on another

is

noticeable

when
timbre

the groups are doubled; for instance,


is

when

the

wood-wind
to the

closely allied to the strings

on the one hand, and

brass on the other.

Re-inforcing both, the wind thickens the strings

34

and softens the


brass,

brass.

The

strings

do not blend so well with the


side,

and when the two groups are placed side by


distinctly.

each

is

heard too
in

The combination

of the three different

timbres

unison produces a rich, mellow and coherent tone.


All,

or several wind instruments in combination will absorb one


of.

department

added

strings:

2
or: 2

Fl.

Ob.

+2 +2

Ob.
CI.

+ Vni + Violas,
I,

or: 2 CI."

4- 2 Fag. 4-

'Cellos.

One department
produces
a

of

strings

added
q^uality,

to

the

wood-wind

in

unison
still

sweet coherent

the

wood-wind timbre

predominating; but the addition of one wind instrument


part
latter,

to all

or

of

the strings in

unison, only thickens the resonance of the


lost in the process:
II

the

wood-wind timbre being

Vni

or: Violas

+ Vni + 'Cellos
distinct

-f

1
1

Ob.,
CI.

or: 'Cellos -j- D. basses

+ +

F^g-

Muted
two tone
strings

strings

do not combine so well with wood-wind, as the


remain

qualities

and separate.

Uniting plucked

and percussion with instruments

of sustained

resonance

results in the following:

wind instruments, wood and


strings,

brass, strengthen

and

clarify

pizzicato

harp,

kettle-drums
of
relief

and

percussion

generally, the latter lending

a touch

to

the tone of the

wood-wind.

Uniting plucked strings and percussion with

bowed

instruments does not produce such a satisfactory blend, both qualities

being heard independently.


with percussion alone,
is

The combination

of

plucked strings

excellent; the

two blend

perfectly,

and the

consequent increase

in

resonance yields an admirable


exists

effect.

The
flute

relationship

which

between string harmonics and the

or piccolo constitutes a link between the two groups in the

upper range of the orchestra.

Moreover, the timbre of the viola


the middle register of the bassoon the clarinet; hence, in the

may be

vaguely compared

to

and the lowest compass


orchestral

of of

medium

range,

point

contact

is

established between the

quartet of strings

and the wood-wind.


the connection between

The bassoon and horn provide


wind and
brass, these

wood-

two instruments being somewhat analogous

in character

35

its

when

played piano or mezzo- forte; the flute also, in


the

lowest

register,

recalls
in

pianissimo trumpet

tone.

Stopped

and muted notes


instrument.

horns and trumpets are similar

in quality to

the oboe and Eng. horn, and blend tolerably well with the latter

Concluding

this survey of orchestral

groups

add a few remarks

which seem

to

me

of special importance.

The
groups

principal part in
of sustained

music

is

undertaken by three instrumental

resonance, representing the three primary eleInstruments of


little

ments, melody,

harmony and rhythm.

sustaining

power, though sometimes used independently, are chiefly employed


for

ornament and colour; instruments producing indeterminate sounds


melodic or harmonic
part,

play no

their functions

being purely

rhythmical.

By glancing
ducing
will
definite,

at the

order in which the six orchestral groups are

placed, strings, wood-wind, brass, plucked strings, percussion pro-

and those producing

indefinite sounds, the reader


art of

be able

to

determine the part played by each in the

orchestration, from the secondary standpoint of colour

and expression.

As regards expression, the

strings

come
group

first,

and the expressive

capacity of the other groups diminishes in the above order, colour

being the only attribute of the

last

of percussion instruments.

The same order obtains from


orchestration.

the standpoint of general effect in


strings
for

We

can

listen

to

an almost indefinite

period of time without getting


{vide

tired,

so varied are their characteristics


suites,

the

number

of string quartets,

serenades

etc.

written

for strings alone).

The

addition of a single group of strings will

add

lustre to a

passage for wind instruments.

On

the other hand,

the quality of

wind instruments soon becomes wearisome; the same


and also percussion
at

may be

said of plucked strings,

of every kind
in orchestral

which should only be employed


composition.
It

reasonable intervals

cannot be denied that the constant use of compound timbres,

in pair's, in three's etc. eliminates characteristics of tone,

and proof simple,

duces a

dull,

neutral texture, whereas the

employment

elementary combinations gives


'" '="'"-

infinitely greater

scope for variety

7 (20)

June 1908.

Chapter

II.

MELODY.

Whether

it

be long or

short, a simple

theme or a melodic phrase,

melody should always stand out in relief from the accompaniment. This may be done by artificial or natural means; artificially, when the question of tone quality does not come into consideration, and
the

melody

is

detached by means of strongly accentuated dynamic

shades; naturally, by selection and contrast of timbres, strengthening


of

resonance by doubling,

tripling, etc., or

crossing of parts (violon-

cellos
flutes,

above the violas and

violins, clarinets or
etc.).

oboes above the

bassoons above the clarinets


in

Melody planned
fact

the upper parts stands

out from the very

of position

alone,

and

likewise, to
In the

a less degree

when

it

is

situated in the
it

low

register.

middle

of the orchestral

range

is

not so prominent and the methods referred to above

come

into operation.
(in

They may
sixths)

also be

employed

for

two part melody

thirds

and

and

for polyphonic writing.

Melody
Instances of the

in stringed instruments.
are
the
in-

melodic use of stringed instruments


will

numerable.
sent treatise.
in tone

The reader
of

find

many examples
of

in

predull

With the exception


little

the double basses,

and
with

flexibility,

chiefly

employed

in

unison or in
in-

octaves

the

violoncellos,

is

each of the other stringed


qualified to

struments, taken independently,


sibility for the

assume

full

respon-

melodic

line.


Melody

37

and an extra-high compass


sometimes
to the 2ni Viofuller

a) Violins.
in the soprano-alto register

usually falls to the lot of the


lins

151 Violins,

or to both

in

unison, a process

which produces

re-

sonance without impairing quality

of tone.

Examples:
The Tsar's Bride
dramatic character.
las
[84j.

Pianissimo melody (Vnil)


parts; the Violincellos

of a troubled,

Harmonic accompaniment

(Vn?-!!

and Vio-

tremolando

middle
70
.

forming the bass).

Antar, before
dini piano.

Descending melodic phrase, Vn^I con sor-

No.

1.

Sheherazade

2iil

movement B

piano melody (Vnil)

graceful in character.

Antar

12

Light graceful melody, oriental in style; a dance


sord.),

measure (Vnil con


quality of tone.

the

mutes producing a

dull

ethereal

No.
No.

2. 3.

The Legend

of the Invisible City of Kiiesh [283

Spanish Capriccio [T\.

Vni

in

the

upper

register

doubling the high register of the wood-wind.

Choice resonance.

b) Violas.

Melody

in the alto-tenor register

and a

still

higher compass

is

assigned to the violas.

Cantabile melodies however

are not so

frequently written for violas as for violins and 'cellos, partly be-

cause the viola tone


short
characteristic

is

slightly nasal in quality

and better

fitted for

phrases, partly because the


is

number

of viola

players in an orchestra
las are generally

smaller.

Melodies confided

to the vio-

doubled by other strings or by the wood-wind.

Examples:
No.
4.

Pan

Voyevoda, duet in Act

II

145

long cantabile

melody
No.
5. 6.

in the violas, dolce, in

unison with the mezzo soprano voice.


193
.

The Golden Cockerel


Sadko.

Flowing cantabile.

No.

Symphonic tableau 12.


in

Muted

violas.

short

dance theme, piano

D\> major.

(The same theme in Eng. horn


in the
6i!i

38

is

^ene

of the

opera Sadko

slightly

more

penetrating

in tone).

c) Violoncellos.
Violoncellos, representing the tenor-bass range

an extra-high

compass are more


melody than with

often entrusted with tense passionate cantabile


distinctive figures or rapid

phrases.

Such me-

lodies are usually laid out for the top string

(A) which possesses

a wonderfully rich "chest" quality.

Examples:
Antar
Antar
[56 [63

Cantabile on the

string.

The same melody

in

Dl> maj. on the

D
A

string

(doubled by the bassoons).

No.

7.

Pan Voyevoda

134

nocturne,

"Moonlight".

broad
violins

melody

dolce ed espressivo, afterwards doubled

by the

first

an octave higher.
No.
8.

Snegourotchka

231

At the

fifth

bar, a

melody on the

string cantabile ed espressivo, imitating the first clarinet.

No.

9.

Snegourotchka

[274J.

Melodic phrase with embellishments.

d)

Double basses.
-{-

Owing
and
its

to its

register basso profondo


the

still

lower compass,
little

muffled resonance,

double bass

is

capable of

broad cantabile phrases and only in unison or


'cellos.

in octaves with the of

In

my own

compositions there

is

no phrase

any im-

portance given to the double bass without the support of 'cellos


or bassoons.

Examples:
*No.
first

10.

Legend

of

Kitesh

306

Double bass solo, doubled


This example

by the double bassoon, an instance


of

later by the bassoon.

affords

the rare use of the alto clef (in the last

few notes).
*No.
11.

The Golden Cockerel

120

D. basses + D- bassoons.


Vnil
no
Vnill.

39

Grouping
a)
-j-

in unison.
that this

It

goes without saying


it

combination

entails

alteration in colour;

gains in power and richness of


of players,

tone by reason of the increased

number

and

is

usually
of the

attended by doubling of the melody in

some departments
that
of

wood-wind.

The

large

number

of violins prevents the

wood-wind
the string

predominating,

and the tone quality remains

quartet, enriched

and amplified.

Examples:
No. 12. Sfieherazade, beginning of the third movement, Cantabile
for

Vnil and

I!

on the

string, then

on the A.

The

May

Night, overture
later

Quick piano melody, beginning

cantabile and divided

in octaves (vnsn]^) with florid

em-

bellishment.

No.
b)

13.

The Golden Cockerel


-j-

no

Vnil +
of
is

II

muted
and
and
violas

Violins

Violas.

The

combination

violins

presents no special characteristics, as in the preceding case.


violins

The

remain predominant, and the resonance

rich

full.

Examples:
No. 14.
cantabile

Sadko

[2O8J.

Vnil + + Violas
II

(G

string).

Quiet

melody pp,

in

unison with the altos and tenors of the

chorus.

The Golden Cockerel


c)

142

Same

combination.
full

Violas

'Cellos.

Produces

a rich

resonance, the 'cello

quality predominating.

Examples:
No. 15.
'Cellos

Snegourotchka |T].

Apparition
of

of Spring.

Violas

-[-

4" Eng. horn. The same melody, mezzo-forte cantabile as


its

in

Ex. 9; but in a brighter key, a third higher,


brilliant

resonance
horn

and

tense.

The addition
to

the Eng.

is more makes no

essential

differer'ce
rest.

the

compound

tone; the 'cellos stand out

above the
No. 16.

The Golden Cockerel [t^.

Violas

+ 'Cellos

muted.

40
d) Violins -)- 'Cellos.

combination similar

to the
is

preceding

one.

The

'cello

tone prevails and the resonance

fuller.

Examples:
Nr. 17.

Snegourotchka
Vni11

|288|

"Spring descends upon the lake."

Vni.

'Cellos -f Eng. horn.


is

The same cantabile as


in the
Still

in

Ex.9, and 15.

The Eng. horn

absorbed

musical texture, the

principal colour being that of the 'cellos.

more powerful
of

in

resonance.
No.
18.

The

May

Night.

Act

III

[T].

Chorus

Roussdlki.

The combination

of the solo 'cello

with the violins gives the latter

a touch of the 'cello timbre.


e) Vn51

-j-

-|-

Violas
is

-f- 'Cellos.

Combining
of

violins, violas

and
an

'cellos in
this

unison

not possible except in the alto-tenor register;


full

process unites the

resonance

the instruments into

ensemble of complex quality, very tense and powerful in forte passages, extremely full

and rich

in piano.

Examples:
No. 19.

Sheherazade, 2ni

movement
[adj.

Energetic phrase

//.

Mlada, Lithuanian dance, before

Mlada,

Act.

III.

40

Cleopatra's dance.
basses.

Cantabile embellished

in oriental fashion.
f)

Violoncellos

-|- E^-

combination

of rich full reso-

nance, used occasionally for nhrases in the very low register.

Examples:
No. 20.
character.

Sadko
Legend

260|.

persistent

forte

figure,

severe

in

No. 21.

of

Kitesh

[240]

A pianissimo phrase,

sinister

and horrible

in charaqter.

Stringed instruments doubling in octaves.


a)

Vnil and
is

Vn^-ll in octaves.

This
figures,

a very

common

process used for


in

all

k.nds of melodic
It

in

particular those

the very high register.

has

al-

ready been stated that the

. string diminishes

in fulness of tone


the higher
it

41

become
of

ascends from the limits of the soprano voice. More-

over, melodic figures in the very high register of the violins

too isolated from the rest of the ensemble unless doubled in octaves.

Such doubling secures expression,


timbre.

fulness of tone

and firmness

The reader
a

will

find

numerous examples

of violins in

octaves;
phrases.

few are added below, chiefly broad and expressive

Examples :
No. 22.

The Tsar's Bride


|206|
.

166

Cantabile, piano

The Tsar's Bride


is

Cantabile, mezzo-piano; the lower part

in

unison with the soprano voice.

Sheherazade,
cantabile (the

3^ movement [T[. Cantabile same as Ex. 12).


of

in

major; dolce and

No. 23.

The Legend

Tsar Saltan

\221j.

Melody with

reite-

rated notes, dolce, espress. e cantabile.

Sadko, Symphonic tableau


phrase pianissimo, given
(cf.

12

yUf-iJ]

muted,

short dance
the violins

first

to

the

violas,

thei; to

Ex.

6).

No. 24.
its

Sadko, opera

207

Perhaps

an

unique example of

kind; violins playing in the very extremity of the high register.


Note.

This passage

is

difficult

but nevertheless quite playable.

One

or two

desks
all

of the Isl Violins are sufficient to

double the melody in the upper octave,


In this
will

the other 151 Violins can play the octave below.

way

the piercing

quality of the highest notes will

be diminished, the melody

acquire a clearer

and more pleasant sound, and the expressive tone quality of the lower octave will be strengthened.
*

The Golden Cockerel

156 165

Antar,
No. 25.

1-^

movement

11
III

Ivan the Terrible, Act

[63

b) Violins divisi in octaves.


First

and second

violins divided in

two parts and progressing

in

octaves will deprive the melody of resonance, since the

number

of players is

diminished by

half,

the consequences being specially

noticeable in small orchestras.

Nevertheless the method can be

used occasionally when the strings are doubled by the wood-wind,

and when the melody

falls

in

a sufficiently high register.


Snegourotchka

42

mezzo-forte espressivo.
Partial

Examples.

\^.

vns'iij

doubling of Coupava's song


the melody.

(Sopr.).

One

flute

and one oboe double

No. 26.

Snegourotchka
in

[^. Chorus of Flowers vn\""-f fi i] ^


earlier

Pianissimo cantabile
chorus (Sopr.
I),

two octaves, progressing with the women's

and given out


Violins

by the Eng. horn. The

flute

and

all

the

l^i

except two play in the lower octave, the

two solo
ciently

violins, only, in the upper.

The

solo desk will be suffi-

prominent owing

to the

general pianissimo.

c) Violins

and Violas

in octaves. in octaves

First
is

and second Violins progressing with the Violas


especially

common method,
to

when

the lower octave in


string

the

melody happens

go below the open G . VniOorlin,, ^


^'

on the

violins.

Violas

Example:
Snegourotchka
ry

[TaT] , finale of

Act
-,

1.

Quick melody, piano.


I

Vni

2-

+ in
J^

Violas

^"^ 3- Vnlll

Vnl

+ ViolasJ^The
first

These two distributions are not exactly the same.


second
give the lower part a fuller and

should be used to obtain greater brilliance in the upper part, the


to

more

cantabile quality.

Examples:
No. 27.
passage,

Sadko, before
forte,

[TsT].

yfjj^'s^

"]

8.

Quick

animated

introducing reiterated notes.


[Ta?],

No. 28.

Snegourotchka

finale to Act

vSl n +

vioiasj

Cantabile phrase, transmitted to the flute and clarinet


d) Violas

(cf.

Ex. 8).

and Violoncellos

in octaves.

Of special use when the Violins are otherwise employed.

Example:
*

Legend of Kitesh

[so],

cSios]

^'

^^^^^^^ ^y bassoons.

e) Violins

and Violoncellos

in octaves.

Used

in
.4

very expressive passages where the 'cellos have to play


or

on the

strings.

This method produces a


it

more resonant

tone than the preceding one; instances of

are frequent.


No. 29.
origin.

43

Cantabile
of

Examples:
^nfar
[43].

-y^"|l/^+V"^"]8.

Eastern

Sheherazade,
forte
*

S'-^

movement
(cf.

[hI.

X."^,'

] 8. CellosJ

Cantabile mezzo-

appassionato

Ex.

1).

No. 30. Shererazade, 3'A movement, before [p]


'] 8-

^[]J

,J

^ -cenos] ^
8.

and ^liios

The
|i34| ,
first

first

arrangement

is

rarely found.

Pan Voyevoda
bile

nocturne "Moonlight"
to 'cellos
III

^q'^I^^

Canta-

melody given

alone

(cf.

Ex.

7).
8-

The

Mcy

Night, Act

|b,c,d]

^0^,0+^"-"]

forte

me-

lodic phrase.

f)

Violoncellos and Double basses in octaves.


is

The bass
it

usually constructed in this manner.

Examples

of

are to be found everywhere.


simplified in

Sometimes the double bass


'cello part.

part

is

comparison with the

Example:
Snegourotchka [9], Fairy Spring's Aria.
g) Violas

and Double basses


otherwise employed.

in octaves.
is

This

combination

seldom arises and

only

used when the

'cellos are

Example:
No. 31.

Legend

of Kitesh

223

h) Parts progressing in octaves,

each part doubled

in unison.
allotted-

Melodies situated in the middle orchestral range


to 151

may be

and
is

22^ Vni, in octaves with Violas

and

'Cellos.

This arrange-

ment

constantly found, and produces a beautiful quality of tone,


in character.

somewhat severe

Examples:
Snegoarotchka\^,
doubled
in the
feol, [65]

and

[is].

The same melody, played

twice pianissimo, not doubled, then twice (mezzo-forte and forte),

wood-wind.

~
Mlada, Act
piano theme.
II,

44

A
lively

the beginning of the Lithuanian dance.

Ivan the

Terrible,
It

Act
of

II

28

Note

I.

may be

use to point out that melodies lying in

the extreme upper


5t!L

register, e. g. those

exceeding the middle


whilst

of the

octave,
in

are generally doubled an octave below,


the

those

situated
l2l

extreme low register (below the middle of the

octave) are doubled an octave higher.

Examples:
Sadko
Note
kind
is

[207j (cf. Ex. 24).

II.

Progression in octaves of divided strings of the same


Violas I Violas ir'
D. basses 11 D. basses IlJ

generally to be avoided:
'Cellos 'Cellos
I
<j

'

^'

for,

in

such cases the parts are played on strings which do not


is

correspond, and unity of tone


not apply to violins.

impaired.

This, however, does

Note III.

The following

distribution is occasionally found:

Violas D. basses

+ 'Cellos + 'Cellos

I]
'

IlJ

Melody
a)

in

double octaves.
be used for
full

Vni I ] 8 a or vni. ViolasJ 'CellosJ


I]

Vns

Vni in

nig may

cantabile melodies

extremely tense in character, and in forte passages for choice.

Example:
No. 32.
Violas

Antar
8

65

Vni Vni
I

8.

11

Violas

+ 'CellosJ

^*

II ] Vni I ] 8 b) 'Cellos 'Cellos] g or 'Cellos 1 8 or Violas D. bassesj D. basses D. basses J II

Vns

+ +

+ + Violas

are employed
into play,

when

the low register of each instrument in brought


to suit

and also

phrases of a rough and severe character.

Examples:
Legend
No. 33.
of Kitesh

66

opening of the
[2j5j.

2iii

Act.

Snegourotchka

Tumblers' dance.

Note.

45

8 g
1

The

lack of balance in the distribution:

Vni

+11

+ Violas]
J
for, in

'Cellos D. basses
is

not of any great importance,


of

such cases, the


of the other,

partial har-

monics

one octave support the tone

and

vice versa.

Doubling
Vni
1

in three
1

and four octaves.

Vnlll

18
\
I

The distribution
only

violas 'Cellos D. basses

is

^ 8

very seldom found, and as a rule,

when supported by wind

instruments.

Examples:

The Legend
*

of Kitesh
4i!i

150

(allargando)
at the

Sheherazade,

movement, commercing
Vnil
Vns
II

lO'iibar.

Violas 'Cellos D. basses

\ ^ * \ ]

Melody
In

in thirds

and

sixths.
it

confiding a melody in thirds to the strings

is

frequently

necessary to use the same quality of tone in both parts, but in the
case of a melody in sixths different timbres
writing thirds doubled in octaves, the
first

may be

employed.

In

and second

violins should

be used.

In spite of the difference in the quantity of players, the

thirds will not


in

sound unequal.
'cello

The same arrangement may obtain


but
it

the

viola

and

groups,

is

useless in the case of

melody

in sixths.

Examples:
No. 34.
*

Legend

of Kitesh

Legend

of Kitesh

gI
"i

Vn|,}

^Jv.)^

^j g

Vni

ViolasJ

IS Vns

n
8 (Ex. 31).
1

Cf. also Legend of Kitesh

223

liii / Vni

Vns

Vni
Distribution in octaves, thirds,

II

\ , -^
;

and

sixths is usually regulated

by

the normal register of the respective instruments, so as to avoid

46
any suggestion
balance.
of

may be
example

mannerism

resulting from the disturbance of

But such a departure from the recognised order

permitted in special cases.

For instance,
is

in the following

of writing in sixths the upper part

allotted
this

to the 'cellos, the

lower part to the violins on the

G string;

arrangement produces

a quality of tone distinctly original in character.

ExampleNo. 35.

Spanish Capriccio

'Cellos

Vnil

+ IlJ^-

Melody
*The choice
melody
is

in

the wood-wind.
characteristic
qualities,

of

instruments for

and expressive

based on their distinctive

discussed minutely
is left

in the foregoing chapter.

To a

large extent the question


taste.

to

the orchestrator s

own

personal

Only the best methods

of

using the wood-wind in unison or octaves, and distributing a melody


in thirds, sixths

and mixed

intervals,

from the standpoint


in this

of reso-

nance and tone quality


work.
in

will

be indicated

section of the
to

Examples

of the use of solo

wood-wind are

be found

any score; the following are

typical instances:

Examples
1.

of solo

wood-wind:
No. 36.

Piccolo: Serbian Fantasia


[54]
.

Tsar Saltan

216

Snegourotchka
2.

Flute: Antar [T|; Servilia

80

Snegourotchka
163

79

183

Fairy Tale [l]; The Cht^stmas Night

No. 37.

Sheherazade,

4^ movement,

before [ajn(F/. a 2 in the low register).

F/ufe (double tonguing):

Pan Voyevoda
Legend

72

Sheherazade, 4ln moveIII,

ment, after |T]; No. 38.


3. 4.

Ivan the Terrible, Act


of Kitesh [44].

after

10

Bass

flute:

No. 39.

Oboe: No. 40. Sheherazade,

2ii^

movement
[so];

[a]; The

May
112

Nighty
239

Act HI

Kk

No. 41.

Snegourotchka
(cf.

Snegourotchka

The Tsar's Bride


Cockerel
5.

[m\
[97"
.

Ex. 284), No. 42 and 43.

The Golden

57

and

Eng.horn: Snegourotchkaf^, [283


No. 45.

(cf.

Ex. 26); No. 44. Spanish


61

Capriccio

The Golden Cockerel


6.
7.

47
II

Small Clarinet: No.

46.

Mlada, Act

[33];

M/flda, Act

III

[37].

Clarinet: Serbian Fantasia [g]; Spanish. Capriccio [a]; 5ne[90], [99], [224],

gourotchka

[227],

[231]

(cf.

Ex. 8); T/i^

May
97

Night,

Act

I,

before

Sheherazade, 3i^
203

movement

>^

Ffliry

To/e

[m]; T/ie Tsar's


register,
8.
9.
cf.

5nd^ |^,

The Golden Cockerel

(lowest

Ex. 43).
48.

Bass clarinet: No. 47 and


Bassoon: Antar
[59];

Snegourotchka 243 and [246-

2'47

No. 49.
(cf.
III,

Vera Scheloga

[36];

Sheherazade,

2n^ movement, beginning


249
;

Ex. 40); No. 50.


after [29];
cf.

The Golden Cockerel

No. 51. Mlada, Act

also Ex. 78.


84
289
;

10.

Double bassoon: Legend


~\-

of Kitesh, before
solo).

cf.

also

Ex. 10 (D. bassoon

D. bass
of

The normal order

wood-wind instruments and


is

that

which

produces the most natural resonance

the following: Flutes, Oboes,


full

Clarinets, Bassoons (the order used in orchestral

scores).

De-

parture from this natural order, e.g. placing bassoons above clarinets

and oboes, or

flutes

below oboes and

clarinets,

and especially

below the bassoons, creates a far-fetched, unnatural tone, useful,


however,
in

certain

cases to attain

certain

special

effects.

do

not advise the student to

make

too free a use of this proceeding.

Combination
The combination
of

in unison.
in unison

two different wood-wind instruments

yields the following tone qualities:


a)

Flute

-\-

Oboe.

quality fuller than that of the flute, sweeter

than that of the oboe.


in

Played
in

softly,

the flute will predominate


register.

the

low,

the

oboe

the

upper

Example: No.

52.

Snegourotchka
b) Flute

|TT3~|.

+ Clarinet.
1;

quality fuller than that of the flute, duller

than that of the clarinet.

The

flute will

predominate

in the lower,

the clarinet in the higher register.

Examples: No. 53.

Legend

of

Kitesh

330

also

339


lis]
(Ex.
.

48

[os], [to], [iT]

Cf. also

Legend

of

Kitesh

2 Ob.

+3

CI.

199201).

d) Flute

+ Oboe + Clarinet.
in

Very

full in quality.

The

flute pre-

dominates

the low register,

the oboe in the middle, and the


*

clarinet in the high compass.


[58] (2 Fl.
e)

Examples: Mlada, Act I [T];


CI.).

Sadko

+ 2 Ob. -f Small Bassoon + Clarinet, Very


Bassoon
-f-

full quality.

The gloomy character


after [49] .

of the clarinet prevails in the

lower

register, the sickly quality of


II,

the bassoon in the higher.


f)

Example: Mlada, Act

Oboe, and

g) Bassoon

+ Flute.
/

The combinations
and Bassoon
certain
-\-

and

g,

as well as Bassoon

+ Clarinet

-{-

Oboe,

Clarinet
tutti,

Flute are very seldom found except in

orchestral

where they produce increased resonance


But in such combinations,
to

without creating a fresh atmosphere.


the range of which
third
is

practically restricted

the limits of the

octave,

the low notes of the flute will predominate in the


this register,

lower third of

and the high notes

of the

bassoon

in

the middle third.

The

clarinet,

weak

in the

middle compass

will

not stand out prominently in this particular combination.


h)
rare.

Bassoon -\- Clarinet -\- Oboe -j- Flute. This combination

is

equally

\
j

The colour

is

rich,

and

difficult

to

define in words.

The

tone of each instrument will be separated from the others


or less in the

more

manner

detailed above.

Examples: Russian Easter


;

Fite, the beginning; No. 55. Snegourotchka |30i|

The

May

Night,

Act

III

Oqq
of

The process

combining two or more

qualities of tone is unison,

while endowing the music with greaterresonance,sweetness and power,


possesses the disadvantage of restricting the variety of colour and expression.

Individual timbres lose their characteristics

when

associated

with others.

Hence such combinations should be handled with


Phrases or melodies demanding diversity of ex-

extreme care.

pression alone should be entrusted to solo instruments of simple timbres.

The same

applies to the coupling of two instruments of the

same

kind, such as 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons.


of tone will lose

The

quality

nothing of

its

individuality,

and

will

gain in power,

but

its

capacity for expression will be diminished accordingly.

An

as a solo than

49

and freedom when used


of

instrument enjoys greater independence

when

it

is

doubled.

The use
in loud
is

doubling and

mixed timbres
soft

is

naturally

more frequent

passages than in

ones, also

where expression and colour

broad rather than

individual or intimate in character.


I

cannot refrain from mentioning


all

how

greatly

dislike jlhe

method

of dupli-

cating
out of

the wood-wind, in

order to balance a group of strings, reinforced


I

all

reason, to suit the ever-growing dimensions of concert halls.


that, artistically

am

convinced
concert

speaking, a limit should be set to the size of both


at

room and orchestra. The music performed must be specially composed on a plan of its own be considered here.

these super-concerts
subject which cannot

Combination

in octaves.

When

the

melody
rFl.

is

entrusted to two

wood-wind instruments
is: CI.

in octaves, the usual

arrangement producing natural resonance


Fl.
PI.

Ob.
CI.

LOb.

CI.

Fag.

Ob. Fag.

Fag.J
in

la ^
octaves
is

The combination

of flute

and bassoon

fare

on

account of the widely separated registers of the two instruments.


Deviation from the natural order, such
as

placing the bassoon


flute

above the
etc.,

clarinet

or oboe, the

clarinet

above the oboe or

creates an

unnatural resonance occasioned by the confusion

of registers, the instrument of lower

compass playing

in its

high

register

and vice

versa.

The lack

of

proper relationship between

the different tone qualities then

becomes apparent.

Examples:
No. 56.

Spanish Capriccio [o]


Snegourotchka \2m\
Sheherazade,
3i^

No. 57.

q^J

8.

^n^^homj^-

*No. 58.

movement [e]

^]-] 8.

5arf/^^[l!3-Eng.horn]8-

Pan Voyevoda
Tsar Saltan
No. 59.
39

[T]

^[-J
ci.
-I

8.

Fag.J
[ao]

Vera Scheloga

pig.]^'
of the
etc., if

likewise any

number

of

examples

in the scores of various

composers.

The use
2
flutes,

of

two instruments

same colour

in octaves, e. g.

2 clarinets or 2 bassoons

not exactly to be avoided


is

50

certainly not to

in different registers will not

be recommended, as the instruments, playing correspond one with the other. Nesafely

vertheless this

method may be

employed when stringed

in-

struments, arco or pizzicato double the two

wind, and especially in the

members of the woodmiddle compass. The process is most

satisfactory for repeated notes or sustained passages.

Examples:
The
*

May

Night, Act
[T59]

|T|

g;,}]
3,

8.

Sadko, after

Servilia, after [21]

gj;

,[]

doubled by
8

pizz. strings.

^^|;

jj]

-f

pizz. strings.
in octaves,
Flute Alto Fl.
e. g.

Instruments of the
f.

same branch playing


Ob. Eng. horn
effect.

fFag. LC-Fag.

CI.

Small
Clar.

cl.

Picc.1
Fl.

Cl.

basso

always produce a good

Examples:
Snegourotchka

\^

pj'^''']

8 (cf. Ex. 15).


8.

The Tsar's Bride


Tsar Saltan
Sadko, after
[2T6]
[59]

[Tii]

^j"']
^i-]

^j|=''-]

8 (cf. Ex. 36).

S^^"
[240]

Legend of Kitesh

c%g]
before

^ (cf- Ex. 21).

No
As
in

60.

Mlada, Act

III,

[44]

^^-^
it

j^^

8.

in the strings,

so in the wood-wind
in

is

advisable to double

octaves

any melody situated

the

extremely high or low

compass; an octave lower


the second.

in the first case,

an octave higher
flute,

in

Thus the piccolo

will

be doubled by the

oboe

or clarinet an octaVe lower; the double bassoon will be doubled

by bassoon, clarinet or bass clarinet an octave higher.


a fPicc.
Pice.

Picc.1 ^
Cl.

Lf1.
^ [Fag.
Lc-Fag-.

Ob.
CI.

JFagr.

Bass Fag.

cl.

Cl.

Fag.

~|

Fag.

Bass

cl.

Fag.

Bass

cl.J

Examples.
*

Tsar Saltan

39

Pice"! ^ Ob. J
II,

*No. 61.

Mlada, Act

Lithuanian dance

[iFI

Small
^jf^:,

cl.J

,1 8

Sadko[i50\-^^^%,^,]8.
*

51

in

Mixed

qualities

of tone

may be employed
holding good.

doubling in oc-

taves, the

above remarks

still

Examples

Pan Voyevoda
No. 62.

[T34]

Servilia

-g [m] -

j] ^'^. horn] ^ (cf. Ex. 7).


\

g;

+ f^^_ ,^^

No. 63.
.M/arf.,

The Tsar's Bride

[120]

Fi-

J + Ob^^ ^^^ ^

8.

^^^

J8

ActIII0-S:i^rssci.]^
Doubling
in

two, three and four octaves.

In rules, In

such cases the student should follow the above-mentioned

and should take care not


Fl.

to infringe the natural


Fl.

order:

Ob.
ci.

Fi.

18

3 octaves: Ob.
Cl.
Fl.

Ci.

Ob.
Fag.J'

Fag-.

Fag.

]8
8.

In

4 octaves:

^l]8
Fag.]

Mixed timbres may also be employed.

Examples:
No. 64.

Spanish Capriccio [p]


Pice.

melody
1 i

in

4 octaves:

2 Fl. 2 Ob.

C1.J
J

*
8.

Fag.

The Tsar's Bride


*

[l4i

melody
2 Gl.

in

3 octaves.
]8

Legend

of Kitesh

212

Bass cl. 1 D. bassoonJ

*No. 65.
Pice.

Antar,
also
'

(l5i version) 3:^

movement, the beginning

+2F1.]8
Cl.]

2 Ob. -4- 2 2 Fag.'


octaves).

J8;

melody

in

4 octaves (piccolo in the upper

Fl.

*Mlada, Act
No. 66.

III,

after

42

18
^^

Eng. horn)

Sheherazade, 3i^ movement


of

'

Q
'

Pice.] 8 Ci. 1^
Cl.
Ill

8-

Examples
in

melody doubled

in five

octaves are extremely rare;


4'

such cases the strings participate

in the process.

52

and
sixths.

Melody
Melodic progression
instruments
of in

in thirds
thirds

and sixths demands either two


(2
Fl.,

the

same colour
Fl.

2 Ob., 2

CI.,

2 Fag.), or
of register:

instruments of different colours in


FI.

the normal order


Ob. 1 3 Fag.J
(6).

Ob.
Cl.

Cl.

Ob.
If

CI.

Fag.
p,';

this

order

is

inverted,
is

e. g. p,^'

q.^'] 3

(6),

a strained and

forced resonance

created.

For progressions

in thirds, the best


is

method, from the standpoint of equality in tone

to

use instru-

ments

of

the
of

same kind

in pairs;

for progressions in sixths insuitable,

struments

different kinds are

more
fifths

but both courses


for progressions

are good and useful. They


in

may

also be

employed

thirds

and

sixths,

example:

^
24
III

or thirds,

and

sixths mixed,

as for

ei

Examples:
Legend
of Kitesh

different

wind instruments
3.

in turn.

The

May
1

Night, Act

[g\
(6).

g;]

SadkO
No. 67.
thirds

79-280

^[;]

Spanish Capriccio, before


sixths.

various wood-wind in

and

Servilia [228]

^];]

3 and

^j;]

3.

The Golden Cockerel


SadkO
43

[232]

\ ^'^ J

6.

All

wood-wind
parts

in turn,

simple timbres.
thirds

When

the

doubled
is

progress

in

or

sixths,

the

following method

advisable:
^^)
(f.
'"

Fl.

R+obJ ^ + Ob.] ,
Fl. Fl.

t G1-] ^ Ob. + F1.1 ^


f1:
...

^^^
,..

^*''"

^' ""^^ ^'

In the case of tripling the following

arrangement may be adopted:

+ Ob. + C1.1 3 + Ob. + Cl.J ^

^^'

^^

Ob. Ob.

+2 +2

Fl.-]

...
"^

Cl.J

^^'

^^'^'

Examples:
* *

No. 68.

The Christmas Night


of Kitesh

[Tst]

gj; +

g[;]

3.

Legend

[202-203J

different

mixed timbres.

53

Apart from the obvious distribution:

Thirds and sixths together.

j FFfPiiFfF
Upper
Middle

Fl.

Ob.
CI.
,

Ob. or
CI.

there are certain

Fag.

complicated methods which involve doubling:


part.

Lower

+ Ob. +
Ob.
Fl.

FI.

+C1.
CI.

The following
racter:

is

a complex instance somewhat vague in cha-

,,
No. 69.

Legend ^

of Kitesh \35\ '


I

'

Ob. Ob.
ci.

+ Ci.

PU
and
Fl.

+0b.

Ob.

Melody
The
natural scale,

in

the brass^
was:

the only

one which brass instruments had

at their disposal prior to the invention of valves


2

3*
T5

i^

^>

to ("' '^

:i

- giving, in

^^

two part harmony:

With the help

of rhythm, these

component

parts

have given

rise to

a whole series of themes and phrases

named

fanfares, trumpet calls

or flourishes, best adapted to the character of brass insfruments.


In
is

modern music, thanks


possible in
it

tp the introduction of valves, this scale

now

all

keys for every chromatic brass instrument,


to

without

being necessary

change the key, and the addition

of

a few notes foreign to the natural scale has enriched the possibilities

of these

flourishes

and

fanfares,

and endowed them with

greater variety of expression.

These phrases,

either as solos, or in

two or three parts, fall specially to

the lot of the trumpets

trombones.

The

full,

clear,

and horns, but they may also be given to the ringing notes of the middle and upper
to figures of this

register of horns

and trumpets are best suited

description.

Scrvilia
20

54

Examples:

Trumpets.

The Christinas
Trumpets.

Night[^

[T|

Horn, Trumpets.
[45]

Verra Scheloga, be^nnning of Overture, and after

Horn,

Ivan the Terrible, Act


Snegoiirotchka [T55]

III

Cornet.

^- Trumpets.
an-d

No. 70.

Legend

of Kitesh [^s]

elsewhere.

3 Trumpets,

4 Horns.

Pan Voyevoda
*

191

2 Trombones, Trumpet.
20

The Golden Cockerel

2 Horns and J{Z^^^^]

(^f.

fur-

ther on).

After

fanfare

figures,

those

melodies best suited

to

the

brass

quality are

those of an
in the

unmodulated diatonic character, rousing


in the

and triumphant

major key, dark and gloomy

minor.

Examples
No. 71.

Sadko

[342]
181

Trumpet.

Sadko, before
No. 72.

Trombones
71
-

(cf.

Ex. 27).

Snegourotchka

Trumpet.

Russian Easter Fete

Trombone.
use
in the

Spanish Capriccio
and stopped notes
3 Horns a
(cf.

Alternative
Ex. 44).
II,

horn of open

Jvan the Terrible, Act


little
II

before [It]

Bass

trumpet,

and

further on.
33

Mlada, Act

Bass trumpet
poetic
in

(cf.

Ex. 46).

The genial and

tone

of

the

horn

in

piano

passages

affords greater scope

the choice of melodies and phrases that

may be

entrusted to this instrument.

Examples:
The

May

Night, Overture
.

[T3].

The Christmas Night |T|


Snegourotchka
86

Pan Voyevoda

37

No. 73. Antar 40


less suitable to

S5

much
brass instruments.

Melodies involving chromatic or enharmonic writing are


the character of

Nevertheless

such melodies

may sometimes be

allotted to the brass, as in the


Italian realists,

music

of

Wagner, and the modern

who

however,

carry the proceeding to extremes.


of a fanfare, although
larly beautiful

Vigonrous phrases in the form

introducing chromatic notes sound singu-

on the brass.

Example:
No. 74.
Sheherazade, 22i
rule,

movement D

As a general

brass instruments lack the capacity to express

passion or geniality.

Phrases charged with these sentiments be-

come

sickly

and

insipid

when

confided to the brass. Energetic power,

free or restrained, simplicity


qualities of this group.

and eloquence

constitute the valuable

Brass
As, from

in unison, in octaves,^ thirds

and

sixths.

its

very nature, the brass

is

not called upon to realise

a wide range of expression, kindred instruments of one group

may be employed
of 3

solo,

as well as in unison.
in

The combination
met
with,

trombones or 4 horns

unison

is

frequently

and

produces extreme power and resonance of tone.

Examples:
Snegourotchka
Snegourotchka

[J]
199

4 Horns 4 Horns
of
411i

(cf.

Ex. 15).

and 2 Trumpets.

Sadko
No. 75. No. 76.

175

1, 2,

3 Trumpets.
3 Trombones.
III

Sadko

[aosj (1)

The

May

Night, beginning of Act

(cf.

1, 2, 3,

4 Horns.

Legend
No. 77.

of Kitesh,

end

Act

4 Horns
p.

Ex. 70).

Sheherazade,

movement

204
(cf.

3 Trombones.

Mlada; Lithuanian dance


(1)

6 Horns

Ex. 61).

The composer has emen ded the score


to
,

in the following
fifth

manner: from

the
after

fifth

the ninth bar after

305

and also from the

to the ninth bar

306

the three clarinets play in unison, the trumpet being


in

marked
is

forte

instead of fortissimo;

the example, the

first of

these passages

corrected

according

to the

composer's altoration.

(Editor's note.)


Owing
to

56

of the

the resonant

power

of the entire group, the equality

and even gradation

of tone

between the dark colour

deep

compass and the bright


brass

quality of

the upper register, the use of


in

instruments of the

same kind

octaves, thirds or sixths

invariably leads to satisfactory results.

For the same reason the


different

employment
Trumpet 2 Horns
is

of

brass

instruments

of

kinds,

arranged

according to normal order


Trumpet

of register:

Trombone

Trombone Tuba

Trombones Trombone -f- Tuba


2

2 Trumpets 2 Trombones

Horns Tuba
2

likewise successful whether the instruments are doubled or not.


reliable, is to

Another possible method, though not so

combine

horns (above) with trombones, exclusively in octaves:


2
1

Horns 1 ^ ] e nr ^ Horns Trombone] "' 2 Trombones]

Examples:
Sadko, before

{m}

t-p=;]
.

Snegourotchka

\^ - ^Trllte + Tuba]
111

Ivan the Terrible, Act

[To]

'

^^^S^j;^

+ ^^''='] 8

(cf.

Ex,

38

The Golden Cockerel


Cf. also

[T26]

'\\lZt,V
Trombone! TromboneJ
' (E"- ^^)-

Snegourotchka |32S-^26|

Melody

in different

groups

of

instruments

combined
The combination
This resonance

togethier.

A. Combination of wind and brass in unison.


of a

wood-wind and brass instrument produces

a complex resonance in which the tone of the brass predominates.


is

naturally -more powerful than that of each instru-

ment taken
ment
brass,

separately, but slightly sweeter than the brass instru-

alone.

The tone
and

of the
it,

wood-wind blends with


as
in

that of the

softens

rarefies

the

process

of

combining

two wood-wind instruments


doubling are
trumpet
is

of different colour.
in

Instances of such

fairly

numerous, especially

jorte

passages.

The
-|- CI.,

the instrument most frequently doubled:


Fl.,

Trumpet

Trumpet

+ Ob., Trumpet -f

as well as

Trumpet

-r CI.

+ Ob. +

Fl.;


the horn, less often:

57

may

also

CI., Horn Fag. Trombones and Tuba Trombone -|- Fag., Tuba -f Fag. Combining be doubled:

Horn

the Eng. horn, bass clarinet

and double bassoon with the

brass, in

corresponding registers, presents the same characteristics.

Examples:
Legend
*

of

Kitesh
III,

Mlada, Act
rule,

Trombone + Eng. horn. 3 Trombones + Bass before


[56j

[34]

cl.

As a

the addition of a

wind

to a brass instrument yields

a finer legato effect than

when

the latter instrument plays alone.

B. Combination of wind and brass in octaves.


Doubling the horns
in octaves

by

clarinets,

oboes or

flutes often

replaces the combination


1 1

Trumpet "I ' Horn (or 2 Horns)J

This

is

done when

it

is

a question of introducing a rich tone into


is

the upper octave which the trumpet


If

not capable of imparting.


is

a single horn

is

used, the upper part

allotted to 2 clarinets,

2 oboes, or 2

flutes.

But

it

there are two horns playing the lower

octave in unison, three or four wind instruments will be necessarj'

above, especially in forte passages:


rz Ob. or 2 Cl. or 2 Fl. ^^ ^ Ll Horn

^"

^^

Ob. Horn

2 Cl.-| Cl.l g. 2 Fl. ^' g " 2 Horns

To

double a trumpet in the upper octave three or four


in the top register

wind

instru-

ments are required, but

two

flutes will suffice.

2F1.

2 Fl.

^^^P"Ob
Trumpet.

^
Trumpet.

Wood-wind instruments should

not be used to double a trombone

in the octave above; trumpets are

more

suitable.

Examples
*

of doubling in octaves:

Snegourotchka \n\

Zrit^'']^[18O

Legend

of

Tsar Saltan, before

Y.^.J ^N Horn
Horn

8.

58

Mention should also be made of mixed timbres (wood and brass)


progression in octaves.

in

Examples:
Mlada, Act
III,

beginning of Scene
III,

III

xibaTci^^''
(low register).
unison.

'']

No. 78. Mlada, Act

after [25]

- ISstV'rH^t +7^X00]
35

No. 79. Mlada, Act

III,

before

general

When
octaves,

it it

is is

desired to distribute the


difficult to

melody over three or four

achieve perfect balance of tone.

Examples:
*

Sheherazade,

4 movement,
228

15lli

bar
Pice.

after

fwl
' '

Pice.

1 fi

2 Fi. 2 Ob.j ^ 2 Trumpets J 8.


] \ J

Legend

of

Tsar Saltan

2Fi.

Trumpet

+ 2 0b. + Eng. horn

C.
In

Combination of strings and wind.


this section of the

commencing

work

consider

it

necessary

to
to

lay

down

the following fundamental rules which apply equally

melody, harmony, counterpoint and polyphonic writing.


All

combinations

of

strings

and wood-wind are good; a wind


tone, while
In

instrument

progressing in unison with a stringed instrument inits

creases the resonance of the latter and amplifies

the quality of the strings softens that of the wood-wind.

such

combinations the strings will predominate provided that the two'


instruments are of equal power,
e.

g.

when
If

violins are coupled with

an oboe, a bassoon with the

'cellos.

several

wind instruments

play in unison with one group of strings, the latter will be over-

powered.

As a

rule all combinations refine the characteristics of

each instrument taken separately, the wood-wind losing more than


the strings.

Doubling in unison.

The whose

best and most natural combinations are between instruments


registers correspond the nearest:
FI.

Vni-f
'Cellos

(Bass

fl.,

pice),

Vni+Ob., Vni-hCl.

(small CI.);

Violas 4- Ob. (Eng. horn), Violas

CI.

(Bass

cl.),

'Cellos

+ + Fag.;

CI.,

Violas

+ Fag.

59
D. basses
-\-

Bass

cl.,

D. basses

+ Fag.;
is:

D. basses

-f-

C-fag.

The
of

object of these combinations

a) to obtain a

new

timbre

definite

colour; b) to strengthen

the resonance of the strings;

c) to soften

the quality of the wood-wind.

Examples
Snegourotchka
|~5~|

'Cellos

-f Violas

+ Eng. horn
Cl.

(cf.

Ex. 15).

28J

Violas -f Ob.

[m]
No. 80. No. 81. No. 82.

Vni

Vni I
The

+ Eng. horn, + Ob. + -f + + 'Cellos + Eng. horn


II

II

(cf.

Ex. 17).

May

Night, Act

III

Bb

Sadko

No. 83.
Servilia

Vni+Ob. Violas + Eng. horn. Violas Eng. horn.


-j-

Violas -f Cl.

The Tsar's Bride

[sT]

60 ^J|,j
div.
Fl.
1

']:^i,]B.

166

vSn|Sb.]Mcf.Ex.22).
3
c
8-f-

In three

and four octaves:


93
Violas 2 i 'Cellos 4- 2 Fag.J
I

Servilia

No. 87.

Vns ++ Ob. Vnl vm Kashtchei


105

Pice.
Fi.

la
8.

Shihirazade,

3^

+ Ob. \^ Violas + 'Cellos + 2 Cl. + Eng. horn + Fag.J Vnl + 18 M movement Vm + Ob. 'Cellos + Engl, hornj
ii

-V

Fl.

ii

'

8.

'

Examples

of

melody in thirds and sixths:

s.m/,a0-^';+8S:tg::tvSHNo. 88. No. 89.


Servilia |ni|

126

Strings and wood-wind same combination,


more
is

in thirds.

in thirds

and

sixths.

Kashtchei
It

90

The same.
attention to cases where, of the

is

necessary* to pay

two

parts in octaves, only


to a

one

doubled.

When
it

this

method

is

applied

melody
to

in the

soprano register

is

better to allow the

wood-

wind

progress in octaves, the lower part only being doubled


of the string groups;

by one

p^+YnJ^-

Ob.

(Ci.)

+ Vn J

Examples:
Tsar Saltan

[m\

v^i'i

+7i

+ Ob.] ^

(^f-

^^- 1^)?ceiios

*No.90. Shdhirazade, 4i movement [u]


In the case of
soft

+ 2 Horns]

8-

a melody in the low register demanding a sweet

tone, the violoncellos

and double basses should be made


^*^

to

progress in octaves, the former* doubled by a bassoon, the


not

latter
is

doubled

at

all:

obliged to use this

Sometimes a composer ] ^' d ^"as^ses method on account of the very low register
if

of

the double bass, especially


his orchestral

a double bassoon

is

not included in

scheme.
of

(1)
in

(1)

The process
^' ^^^'^

doubling strings and wood-wind

octaves: y,'
is

8,

Cellos
to

otten used by the classics to obtain balance of tone,

not

be recommended, as the tone quality of the two groups is so widely different. result of the ever-increasing tendency to profusion of colour, this method has recently come into fashion again, notably among the younger French

As a

composers.

(Editor's note.)

61

+ Fa,g. g + Fag.]
1

Example:
No. 91.

Tsar Saltan

92

Violas 'Cellos

D. Basses

^
1

D. Combination of strings and brass.

Owing
tone, the

to the dissimilarity

between the quality


in

of string

and brass

combination of these two groups

unison can never


of strings

yield such a perfect blend as that

produced by the union

and wood-wind.
in unison,

When

a brass and a stringed instrument progress

each can be heard separately, but the instruments in

each group which can be combined with the greatest amount of


success are those whose respective registers correspond the most
nearly; Violin

+ Trumpet; Viola + Horn;


effects).

^^^^^,^^

+ jibf "''

(^^r

heavy massive

The combination

of

horns and

'cellos, frequently

employed, pro-

duces a beautifully blended,

soft quality of tone.

Examples:
Tsar Saltan
*

29

No. 92.

The

Vnil + + Horn. Violas Golden Cockerel


II

98

con sord.

+ Horn.

E. Combination of the three groups.

The combination of members of the three groups in unison is more common, the presence of the wood-wind imparting a fuller and more evenly blended tone. The question as to which group will predominate in timbre depends upon the number of instruments
employed.
in

The most

natural combinations,
(Fr., CI.) -f-

and those most generally


'Cellos)

use are: Vni-[- Ob.

Trumpet; Violas (or

CI.

(Eng. horn)

+ Horn;
effect.

D.talses

+ 2 Fag. + 3 Trombones ^- Tuba.

Such groupings are used


a heavy piano

for preference in loud passages or for

Examples:
No. 9394.

Snegourotchka [218] and [2T9]


I

Vni

+ +
II

CI.

+ Horn

and Vni

II -}- CI.

+ Trumpet.


Violas

62

Servilia

No. 95.

+ Trombones g Ex. i2). + Trombone + Bass 8 D, basses + Tuba + Fag. 'Cellos + Violas + Fag. + Trombone Snegourotchka 325
168
'Cellos
Cl.J
J

(cf.

D. basses

-|-

Fag.

-f-

Tuba

Pan
pet.

Voyevoda [224] -

Vni+
23

Fag.

+ Horn + Vn. + +2
CI. -|[66]

CI. -j

Trum-

(Stopped notes in the brass.)

Mlada, Act
*No.96.

III,

after

Violas
III,

Bass trumpet

Ivan the Terrible, Act


Bass CI. D. basses

before
,,

-\-

1 + Horn + G-fag. + TubaJ


41!i

Ivan the Terrible, Overture,

bar after [T]


Fag.

Violas

'Cellos

+ Eng.

horn

+2

CI.

+ Bass

CI.

+2

+ 4 Horns.

(The melody

simplified in the horns.)

Chapter

III.

HARMONY.

General observations.
The
art of orchestration

demands a

beautiful

and well-balanced
Moreover,
of

distribution of

chords forming the harmonic texture.

transparence, accuracy and purity in the

movement

each part

are essential conditions

if

satisfactory resonance is to

be obtained.

No

perfection in resonance

can accrue from faulty progression

of parts.
Note.
selecting-

There are people


well,
is

who

consider orchestration simply as the


if

art of

instruments and tone qualities, believing that


it

an orchestral score

does not sound


parts,
of
in

entirely
is

due

to the

choice of instruments and timbres.

But unsatisfactory resonance

outcome of faulty handling of and such a composition will continue to sound badly whatever choice instruments is made. So, on the other hand, it often happens that a passage which the chords are properly distributed, and the progression of parts
often solely the
if

correctly handled, will sound equally well

played by strings, wood-wind or brass.

The composer should


sketch, there exist
of

picture

to

himself the exact harmonic


If,

formation of the piece he intends to orchestrate.

in his

rough

any uncertainty as he
is

to the

number
this at

or

movement
It

harmonic

parts,

advised
to

to settle

once.
to

is

likewise
struction

essential

for

him

form a clear idea as


of the

the con-

and musical elements

piece,

and

to

realise the

exact nature and limitations of the themes, phrases and ideas he


is

going

to

employ.

Every transition from one order of harmonic

writing to another, from four-part


part
of a

harmony

to three, or

from

five-

harmony

to

unison

etc.,

must coincide with the introduction

new

idea, a fresh

theme or phrase; otherwise the orchestraunforeseen and insurmountable


difficul-

tor will encounter

many


ties.

64

may
parts

For example,

if,

during a passage written in four parts a chord


is

in five-part

harmony

introduced, a fresh instrument must needs


fifth

be added
easily

to play this particular

part,

and

this addition

damage

the resonance of the chord in question, and render

the

resolution of a discord or the correct progression of

impossible.

Number
parts;
this

of

harmonic parts
only to
single

Duplication.
is

In the very large majority of cases

harmony
chords

written in four

applies

not

or

succession

of them, but also to the formation of the

harmonic
5, 6,

basis.

Harmony
is

which
usually

at

first

sight

appears to comprise

7 and 8 parts,

only tour part

harmony with

extra parts added.

These

additions are nothing

more than the

duplication in the adjacent

upper octave of one or more


original

of the three

upper parts forming the


lower octave only.

harmony, the bass being doubled


will explain

in the

The following diagrams


A. Close part writing
Four part harmony.

my

meaning:

Duplication of

part.

Duplication of 2 parts.

Duplication of 3 parts.

*^
A>
<>

ft

^
xr

TT

&

"

s
1

ft ^

B. Widely-divided part-writing.
Pour part harmony.
i

Duplication of

part.

Duplication of 2 parts.

65

ms
Bad:

On

account of the distance between the bass and the three other

parts, only partial

dupHcation

is

possible.

g
Good:
Note.

[t

;;"i

^ 4 ^=^
'

^m

Notes

in

unison resulting from correct duplication need not be avoided,

for although the tone in such cases is not absolutely uniform, the ear will
satisfied with the correct progression of parts.

be

Consecutive octaves between the upper parts are not permissible:

Bad:

:^

Consecutive

fifths

resulting
in

from the duplication

of the

three

upper parts moving

chords of sixths are of no importance:

Good:

The bass
be doubled

of
in

an inversion of the dominant chord should never

any

of the

upper parts:

m
Good:

-o^

t^z

^
XT
4
3

~w
Bad:

..

S
XT
4
8

Se-

This applies also to other chords of the seventh and diminished


seventh:


Bad:

66

#
S
rules of

:^
Good:

m
harmony cpncerning sustained and pedal passages
As regards passing
is

The

apply with equal force to 'orchestral writing.

and auxiliary
in rapid

notes, ecliappees,

considerable licence

permitted

passages of different texture:

One

textuce:
II

rrrrrifrr

different one:

One
texture:

different

one:

certain

figure

and

its

essentials^

in

simplified

form,

may

proceed concurrently, as in the following example:

One

texture:

different

one:

third:

^ ^
effective

Upper and inner pedal notes are more

on the orchestra

than in pianoforte or chamber music, owing to the greater variety


of tone colour:

-w


In

67

of

Vol.

II

of

the present

work many examples

the

above

methods

will

be found.

Distribution of notes in chords.

The normal order

of

sounds or the natural harmonic scale:

'A

':

i'.

<
may
It

serve as a guide to the orchestral arrangement of chords.

will

be seen that the widely-spaced intervals

lie

in

the lower

part of the scale, gradually


is

becoming

closer as the upper register

approached:

*
m
The bass should
to

3fe
=S=

rarely

lie

at
it

a greater distance than an octave


(tenor harmony).
It

from the part directly above

is

necessary

make

sure that the harmonic notes are not lacking in the upper

parts:

m
To be avoided:

ran
=&:

Sz S=

P
The use
of

sixths

in

the

upper

parts,

and the practice

of

doubling the upper note in octaves are sometimes effective methods:

^
=S:

8=

O y

" t\


When

68

correct progression increases the distance between the

top and bottom notes of the upper parts, this does not matter:

Good:

i^w4
g
bad
to
fill

But

it

would be

distinctly

in the

second chord

this:

^
Not good:

,(>ta

B=^

SIE

-k^

S
Hence
chords,
it

follows that the distribution of intermediate parts

is

question of the greatest importance.


the

Nothing
of

is

worse than wriiing

upper and

lower parts

which are separated by

wide, empty intervals, especially in forte passages; in piano passages

such distribution

may be

possible.

Progression

in

contrary motion,

the upper and lower parts diverging by degrees gives rise to the

gradual addition of extra parts occupying the middle register:

i
Schematic

,1

i
t

Example:

TT

jj

ff

m
When
by one:

C2

il

the voices converge, the middle parts are eliminated one

Schematic

f.

^^
f

-r

Example:

69

resonance
this
of

String harmony.
It

is

an incontrovertible rule that the

different
will

harmonic parts must be equally balanced, but


less

balance

be

noticeable

in

short

sharp chords than in those which are

connected and sustained.


rately.

Both these cases

will

be studied sepaof

In the first case, in order to increase the

number

harmonic

parts, each instrument in the string group

may be

provided with
In the

double notes or chords of three and four notes.


case,

second

the resources are limited to double notes aniSy or division

of parts.

A.

Short chords.

Chords

of

three or four notes can only be

executed rapidly on the strings.


Note.
It

is

true that the


this,

two upper notes-

of a

chord can be sustained and


will

held a long- time;


later.

however, involves complications and

be considered

Short chords, arco, only sound well

when played

forte (sf),

and

when

they can be supported by wind instruments.

In the execution

of double notes

and chords

of three

and four notes on the

strings,

balance, perfect distribution


parts are of

of

tone,

and correct progression

of

minor importance.
the resonance
of*

What must be

considered before

everything

is

the chords themselves, and the degree

of ease with

which they can be played. Those comprising notes on the


Chords played on several strings
violins

gut strings are the most powerful.


are usually assigned to isi and

2^

and

violas, the different


to

notes being divided between

them according

ease in execution

and the demands and

of resonance.

On

account

of its

low register the

'cello is rarely called


is

upon

to play

chords on three or four strings,

usually allotted the lowest note of the chord in

company

with the double bass.

Chords on the
it

latter

instrument are even

more uncommon, but


string.

may

supply the octave on an uncovered

Examples:
No. 97.
*

Snegourotchka[^;

cf.

also before [ho]


67).

and before

[200]

Spanish Capriccio, before [V] (cf. Ex.

Sheherazade,

2^ movement

\V\

(cf.

Ex. 19.)
i4i
|

*No. 98.

Tsar Saltan

[Tis]; cf. also

and before

182


Isolated chords

70

melodic figure
in the

may be added

to a

upper

part, accentuating, sforzando, certain

rhythmical moments.

Example:
No. 99. Snegourotchka, before
126
;

cf.

also 326

B.

Sustained

and tremolando

chords.

Chords

sustained

for

a shorter or longer period of time, or tremolando passages, often

used as a substitute, demand perfect balance of tone.


granted that the different

Taking

for

members

of the

string

group are equal

in power, the parts being written according to the usual order of

register,

(cf.

Chap.

I),

it

is

patent that a passage in close four-part

harmony, with the bass

in octaves will also

be uniformly resonant.
to
fill

When
middle

it

is

necessary to

introduce

notes

up the empty

register, the

upper parts being farther distant from the bass,

doubled notes on the violins or violas should be used, or on both


instruments together.

The method

of dividing strings,
in

which

is

sometimes adopted, should be avoided


parts of the chord will

such cases, as certain


will not; but,

be divided and others

on the
written

other hand,
entirely for

if

a passage in six and seven-part


divided in the

harmony be

strings

same manner,
e.g.,

the balance of

tone will be completely satisfactory,


H5v <Hv. Hi
..

/Vnil (vnil

/VnsII ^^\Vnill
/Violas
\
I

'^'

Violas

II

If

the

harmony

in

the three upper parts, thus strengthened,

is

written for divided strings, the 'cellos and basses, playing


will

non

divisi

prove a

trifle

heavy; their tone must therefore be eased, either


of players.

by marking the parts down or reducing the number


In the case of sustained

chords or

forte

tremolando on two strings,

the progression of parts

is

not always according to rule, the intervals


to play.

chosen being those which are the easiest

Examples:
No. 100. No. 101.

The Christmas Night


i6i

Full divisi

[210] -Vijf^^3^;;;:} 4 part harmony

No. 102. Snegourotchka

71

Four-part

|i 87 188|

harmony,

Vn?.

I,

Vni II, Violas and

Violoncellos.

[243]

4 Solo

'cellos divisi.

Sheherazade,
(cf.

2^

movement, beginning.
Chords on
-

4 D. bass

soli

div.

Ex. 40).
179
all

The Tsar's Bride


No. 103.

strings

(cf.

Ex. 243).

Legend

of Kitesh

Harmonic
(cf.

basis in the strings.

240

[283J

Ex. Harmonic
(cf.

21).

basis in the strings

Ex.

2).

No. 104.

The Golden

Basis the Cockerel \J] Undulating rhythm


in

strings.
in the

[T25]

strings as

harmonic basis
of the

(cf.

Ex. 271).
is

In a forte or sfp chord,

where one or two


example:

upper notes

held, either sustained or tremolando, the balance of tone

must

still

be maintained, as

in the following

Vnil

*
$

J
P
p^
sfp

fr f^ f

Vnill

Violas

D. basses

^ ^ w ^
sfp

Wood-wind harmony.
Before entering upon this section of the work
the reader of the general principles laid
the chapter.
I

would remind
beginning of

down

in the

Harmonic texture, composed


simple or contrapuntal

of plain chords or ornamental designs,

must possess a resonance equally distributed throughout. This may be obtained by the following means:
in character,


1.

72

to

Instruments forming chords must be used continuously in the


say they must be

same way during a given passage, that is doubled or not throughout, except when one
is

of the

harmonic parts

to

be made prominent:
;i

Ob

2 Fi \

To be avoided:

:|::^ciar.42 Fag

^ j

r^"^""

^ ''1
2 01

2.

The normal order

of register

must be followed, except

in the

case of crossing
later on:

or enclosure of parts,

which

will

be discussed

To be avoided:

i^

i^Ig"

"

^^
to

3.

Corresponding or adjacent registers should be made

co-

incide except for certain colour effects:

^1fi
To be avoided:
(

The second

ft>Q^ro

flute will sound loo the oboes too piercing.

weak and

4.

Concords

(octaves, thirds

and

sixths)

and not discords


to

(fifths,

fourths,

seconds and

sevenths), should

be given

instruments of
tc

the

same kind or

colour, except

when

discords are

be empha-

sised.

This rule should be specially observed in writing for the


its

oboe with

penetrating quality of tone:

To be avoided:

ffi

Ci.[^

o^^

"^*^
-

Four-part and three-part harmony.


Harmonic writing
two points and b) instruments
C-fag.
for

the

wood-wind may be considered from


3
2 Ob., Eng. horn, 3

of view: a) instruments in pairs, 2F1., 2 0b., 2 CI., 2 Fag.;


in three's,
Fl.,

CI.,

2 Fag.,

A.

In pairs.

There are three ways

of

distribution:

1.

Super-

position or overlaying (strictly

following the normal order of register),


2.

73

The
last

Crossing,

and

3.

Enclosure of parts.

two methods

involve a certain disturbance of the natural order of register:

Overlaying.

Crossing.

Enclosure.

In

choosing one of these three methods the following points


a) the register of a particular isolated

must not be forgotten:


the soft and

chord;

weak

register of

an instrument should not be coupled

with the powerful and piercing range of another:


Overlaying.

Crossing.

Enclosure.

^fr^
Oboe
too piercing

notes of the flute too weak

Low

Bassoon too
prominent,

b) In a succession of chords the general progression of parts

must be considered; one tone


stationary

quality should
parts:

be devoted

to

the

and another

to the

moving

When
be

chords are in widely-divided four-part harmony notes

may

allotted in pairs to

two

different tone qualities,

adhering to the

normal order

of register:

Good:

etc.

^parAny
other distribution will result unquestionably in a grievous

lack of relationship between registers:

To be avoided:

etc.


If

74

it

one tone quality

is

to

be enclosed,

must be between two

different timbres:
Fl.

Ob.

o
^CF

Good:

/Fag-

FnnjT":^
Fag

m
Fl.^ Ob.n
(Jl.o
Still

etc.

It

is

possible to lend four distinct timbres to a chord in widely-

divided four-part harmony, though such a chord will possess no

uniformity in colour; but the higher the registers of the different

instruments

are placed,
.

the

less

perceptible

becomes

the space

which separates them:


Fl

Fl. -
.

i
The use

Ub

Cl-

L'l.

Fag. TJ

Ka .
Better
better

Fairlygood

of four different timbres in close four-part

harmony

is

to be avoided, as the respective registers will not correspond:

Fae/*^

75

way
of their

The use
amount
to

of

crossing and enclosure of parts (which in a

the

same

thing)

must depend on the manner

progression:
Enclosure
;

-Q^
^ef=m^

^^

.T^

ij

u. [

^^Oh

^^

Wood-wind in three's. Here the distribution of chords in close three-part harmony is self-evident; any grouping of three instruments of the same timbre is sure to sound well:
B.

]3F1.

05;

] Clai

il^'-'^s
t'l

fr

Fl.picc.

;]2 Fl.
also:

m
'^

^s^f;

^^
Cor.ingl.
i

CI. pice.

fe ^s^Gj;

Fl.c-alto

'.:::;

&j^!!^!
C-fag-.

Overlaying of parts
close
four-part

is

the best

method

to of

follow in writing
the

harmony; three instruments


instrument of another.

same timbre
and the

with a fourth
parts

Crossing and enclosure of


of timbres

may

also

be employed.

Correspondence

progression of remote /parts must be kept in mind:

-Fag

FaF^

The method

of using three instruments of the

same timbre

in

widely-divided three-part

harmony

is

inferior:

3 Fl

Fl

5P6^

Sil-: " Ob.


Better

CI.

o-i

C I.

=3=^^

;]aF a g.

-^
"Fa{-.
Better

Not good

Better

Not good

Better

76
But
if

of

the third instrument


cl.,

is

low register (Bass

Fl.,

Eng.

horn, Bass

or C-fag.), the resonance will be satisfactory:

3^
*y

Cl

3=eC basbu

31] a Kgg.
"

Crfag.

* Coringl.

^^
$^
^ la

3:*:Bz
Fl. t%alt

In

chords of four-part harmony, three instruments of th^ same

timbre should be combined with a fourth instrument of another:

5 Cor. ingl.

:]^^--^II

(Jl-basGO C-fag-.
>

:]

i Cl.

Ob.
etc.

Cl-ba^o-

Uor. ing-l Cl

Harmony
are

in several parts.

In writing chords of 5, 6, 7

and 8 part-harmony, whether they


the

independent,
follow

or

constitute

harmonic
in

basis,

the student
chapter,

should

the

principles

outlined

the

previous

dealing with the progression of wood-wind instruments in octaves.

As
of

the

5%

6111,

711i

and
the

811i

notes are only duplications in octaves

lower notes

of

real

harmony
of

(in

parts),

instruments

should be chosen which combine amongst themselves to give the


best
octaves.

The process

crossing and

enclosure of parts

may
A.

also

be used.
in pairs (close distribution):

Wood-wind

In

widely-divided

harmony chords

in

several parts are to

be

avoided as they will entail both close and extended writing:

Note. In the majority of cases this distribution upper harmonic parts have a special melodic duty is discussed above.

is

employed when the


perform

t>vo

to

this question


B.

77

Wood-wind

in three's:

m
^m ifm^

Fl
cji.
II

Q13 Ob
r

bl a

o'

Corittfri^

Fa^.

Fl.

3F1
*^Cor.ingl.
* >:>-aff.[g'

i m
z=:

H CI.
CI. basso LSSO

a
l\-\

a Ob.
etc.

Gh

< Cor, ingl.

ocibasso"

33 j 2 Fag.
C- fag.

Myaff.
C-faff.

Overlaying of parts
with
close
three-part

is

the most satisfactory

method
parts
to

in
is

dealing
not

harmony.

Crossing

of

so

favourable,

as octaves will

be produced contrary

the natural

order of register:

(mayag.r* ^Gf

Here the arrangement

I j^
a

is

bad.

CTClar.

Duplication of timbres.
A.
If

the

wood-wind

is

in

pairs

it

is

good plan

to

mix

the

doubled timbres as

much
2F1.

as possible:

2
|

..^0^-2
^

J^ob.cnRiviu. |ot>ioi'^^^]|n^nri]>i}l|
Excellent

^2F1
also:

=mm-ObT
[^^jal^ag-

i-Ffc=E^^3=3=0^

2Cl.[--]2Fag.

In

chords of four-part harmony the classical method

may be

adopted:
.2 0b.

llifej
:s:cf;


In this case,

78

in the flute is fairly powerful,

though the high

C
in

the resonance of the


duplication
of

G and E
flute

the oboes

is

softened by the

the

2^

and
is

1^1 clarinet,

while the

in

the

2^

clarinets (not doubled)


In

feeble in comparison with the other

notes.

any case the two extreme parts are the thinnest and
tone,

weakest
B.

in

the intermediate parts the fullest and strongest.


in
three's

Wood -wind

admit of perfectly balanced mixed

timbres in chords of three-part harmony:


3FI.30b.,

3Faff 3C1.

3F1.3C1.

3 0b.3Cl.
I

SOb.SFaR-.

m]

[jiin

1f

These timbres may even originate from three-fold duplication;


30b.3Cl.3Fag-

^ffi /'
I

^^^F=^^

^^

3Fl.30b.3Cl.

^^
in

Remarks.
1.

Modern

orchestrators

do not allow any void

the interto

mediate parts

in writing close

harmony;

it

was permitted

some

extent by the classics:

a.

*
For
this

&.

i
effect especially in forte passages.
is

jt

These empty spaces create a bad


reason widely-divided

harmony, which

fundamentally

based on the extension of


only in piano passages.
in all
2.

intervals,

can be used but seldom and


is

Close writing
to the

the

more

frequent form

harmony devoted
As a general

wood-wind,

forte or

piano.

rule a chord of greatly extended

range and

in

several parts is distributed according to the order of the natural


scale,

with wide intervals (octaves and sixths), in the bass part,

lesser intervals (fifths

and fourths)

in

the middle,

and close

inter-

nals (3nli or 211^) in the upper register:

79

c*.

M
*
'

Fl.picc.

3 Fi

]j;o^
Co r-inR'T^

^5^

M
I^]

2 Fl.
s^es;
^JfCf

B3 2F1
!.}

Ob

ffi -Gi,

'3

3 Faff

^ayn

(c.

Koff.

Xf C.-fag-.

3.

In of
is

many

cases correct progression of parts


In

demands

that

one
ear
of

them should be temporarily doubled.

such cases the

reconciled to the brief overthrow of balance for the sake


is

a single part, and

thankful for the logical accuracy of the


will
illustrate

progression.

The following example


sx

my

meanings

m i m
In the

iS:

t**h

^
of this

itnn^

^
is

second bar
of

example the
of

doubled in unison
to

on account
doubled
4.

the

proximity

the three

upper parts

their

corresponding parts an octave lower.


in

In the

fourth bar the

is

unison in both groups.


of the

The formation

harmonic

basis,

which

is

essentially in

four parts, does not by any


alone.
pizz.

means devolve upon


bass
part
is

the

wood-wind
arco or

One More

of the parts is often devoted to the strings,

frequently

the

treated

separately,

the
to

chords of greater value in the three upper parts being allotted


the

wood- wind.
in the in

Then,

if

the upper part

is

assigned to a group

of strings, there remairls

nothing for the wind except the sustained


parts.

harmony harmony

two middle

In the first case the three-part

the

wood-wind should form an independent whole,

receiving no assistance from the bass; in this

manner

intervals of

open fourths and


is
full

fifths will

be obviated.

In

the second

case

it

desirable to
tone,

provide the intermediate parts with a moderately

choosing no other intervals except seconds, sevenths,


use of wood-wind in

thirds or sixths.
All that

has been said with regard

to the

the formation of harmony, and the division of simple and

mixed

80

In short

timbres applies with equal force to sustained chords, or harmonic


progressions interchanging rapidly with staccato chords.
chords, separated by rests of

some importance,
It

the arrangement

and

division of timbres is not so perceptible to the ear,

and pro-

gression of parts attracts less attention.

would be

useless, nay,

impossible to examine the countless combinations of tone colour,


all

the varieties of duplication and distribution of chords.

It

has

been

my aim

to

denote the fundamental principles upon which to


to

work, and to indicate the general rules

be followed. Once having


little

mastered these,
full

if

the student devote a


listen

time to the study of

scores,

and

to

them on the

orchestra,

he

will

soon

when certain methods should be used and when to adopt others. The pupil is advised, generally, to write for wood-wind
learn
in its

normal order
is

of distribution,

to take

heed

that

each

parti-

cular chord

composed

entirely either of duplicated or non-dupli-

cated parts,
to use the

(except in certain cases resulting from progression),


of crossing
is

methods
of

and enclosure and


finally

of timbres with full


to

knowledge
attention

what he

doing,

concentrate

his

on close part-writing.

Examples
a)

of

wood-wind harmony:

Independent chords.

No. 105.

The Christmas Night [hs]


CI.,

2 Fag.
CI.

No. 106.
ing of parts).

beginning Ob.,

Fag. (cross-

Snegourotchka

*No. 107.
No. 108.
No. 109.
distribution.
* *

5Lbar. 2 2 Fag. Ex. Snegourotchka [T^ Pice, 2 (tremolando) 2 2 Ob. (high Shdherazade, beginning Total wood-wind
79

\^

CI.,

Fag.
Ob.,
(cf.

136).

Fl.

[2041

Fl.,

register).

in different

Russian Easter Fite [a]


Tsar Saltan
[45] Ob., 2

3
,

Fl.

tremolando

(cf.

Ex. 176).

Fag.
lis

No. 110. No. 111.

Tsar Saltan, before

115

mixed
of

timbres

and other similar passages


effect

very

sweet

wood-wind

in three's.

[nT]

- 2 Ob.,

2 Fag.

81

Sadko, Symphonic Tableau [T]


*

in

Ob., 2
CI.

CI.,

Fag.

Sadko, Opera [T]

Eng. horn, 2 before [T] Total


72

wood-wind.
three-part

No. 112.

Sadko

Chords

harmony; simple

and mixed timbres


*No.
113.

The Tsar's Bride


Legend

[126] Full

wind.

*No. 114.

of Kitesfi, before

90
I

Enclosure

of parts

(Ob.
No. 115.
before

in the

high register),

161

Wind and
except

brass

alternately.

No. 116.

[T67]

Fag.

Full

wind

oboe,

with chorus.

Legend
*

of Kitesh [269]

125

Fl.,

CI.,

The Golden Cockerel

Various wind instruments, 4 part

harmony
218

(cf.

Ex. 271).
C-fag;;
cf.

Ob., Eng. horn, Fag., also [254]


.

No. 117.

The Golden Cockerel, before

[235]

Mixed

timbre;

2 Fag. form the bass,


b)

Harmonic basis (sometimes joined by the

horns).
(cf.

The

May
68

Night, Act

III

[T]

2 Fag., Eng. horn

Ex. 18).

Antar

3 Flutes.

Snegourotchka

[Tst]

CI.,

high register,
Fl.,

before [so]

CI.,

Fag.

2 Ob., 2 Fag.
2

274

low

register
CI.,

(cf.

Ex.

9).

283

Fl.,

Eng. horn,

Fag.

(cf.

Ex. 26).

No. 118.

Snegourotchka

|292|

Widely-divided harmony
in the

and

doubling of parts
No. 119.

[3 18-31 9

wind.

2 Flutes.
Fag. (sustained note in
(cf.

Shihirazade, 2i^ movement [T]

2
CI.

CI.,

the horn)

Ex.

1).

The Christmas Night [T]

Sadko \T\
No. 120.

CI.,

Bass

cl.,

Fag., C-fag.
Cl.,

Sadko

[49]

Ob., 2

Horn, Fag.
289, 290).

Cl. (cf. Ex.


No. 121.
No. 122.

82
Fag.

CI.,

Sadko [ni]

CI.,

195-196]
80
166

CI.,

Bass

cl.

The Tsar's Bride

Fag.
in

harmonic parts
Fag.
80
Fl.
Fl.,

motion,

Fl.

and

Servilia
*

59

Cl. (cf. Ex. 22. Cl. (low. register),

No. 123.

Kashiche'i the Immortal

Ob., Fag muted.

*No. 124.

Legend

of Kitesh

52 55

68

Fag.

Ob.

(cf.

Ex. 197).
(cf.

Eng. horn, Fag., C-fag.


Ex. 199).

No. 124.

118

niixed timbre: 2 Ob., Eng.

horn and 3

Cl.

136

harmonic parts

in

motion:

before

Fl.,

Fl.

(low register)

and 2
223

Cl.
(cf.
cl.

Ob., Cl.

Ex. 31).

No. 125.

247

Cl.,

Bass

273

Eng. horn, 2
cl..

Cl.

and Bass
2 Fag.

Fag.
CI.,

* *

No. 126.

355

No. 127.

The Golden Cockerel

Eng. horn, muted, Bass


Cl.,
cl..

Fag., C-fag.
Fl.,
cl.

4041

Bass

cl.,

Fag.;

Cl.;

Cl.,

Bass

No. 128.

[156]

harmonic
Fl.

parts in motion:
Cl.

and

Harmony

in

the brass.

Here, as in the wood-wind, part writing should be of the close

order with no empty spaces in the intervals.

Four-part writing.
It

is

evident that the quartet of horns presents every facility for

four-part

harmony, perfectly balanced

in

tone,

without doubling

the bass in octaves:

83

Note. In the diagrams of the present section the actual sounds of horns and trumpets are given, as in a piano score, for the sake of simplicity.

When

it

is

found necessary to double the bass in octaves, the

too resonant trombone and tuba are seldom used, the duplication

being effected by the bassoon, as explained further on. The quartet


of

trombones and tuba


third

is

not often employed in close four-part

harmony; the
in octaves,

trombone and. the tuba usually form the bass


allotted to the

and the three upper parts are generally

two remaining trombones reinforced by a trumpet or two horns


in unison, so as to obtain a perfect

balance of tone:

g
Tuba
I

2Corni (ITr-ba)

Tuba

or

^.

Tuba

have often adopted the following combination of brass instruit

ments, and consider

eminently satisfactory: 2 horns and tuba to


given
to the

form the bass

in octaves, the three other parts


3 Tr-bni zsrt
**
'-i

trombones:

m
In the

Uorin

(beautiful full resonance).

Tuba
higher registers, four-part harmony, of which the two upper

parts are given to the trumpets,

may be completed by two

trom-

bones or four horns


-ni

in pairs:

3^TI^.b0

84
or
in

progression:

Three-part writing.
The best combination
If

is

trombones, horns, or trumpets

in three's.

the

instruments

are

mixed the
^

number
rt-.

of

horns should be

doubled:
.

2 Cor

paXnib ni
y
.

ff^qg

a Tr-b e
^4Coi

etc.

2 Cor.

Writing

in several parts.
used' the

When
doubled:

the

whole group

is

number

of

horns should be

g Tr-be

^ j

I
Tub.i

l''--bo C

!JTp.boC

,] 4

C orTii

4 Corn

U]4 Co m
rT|
.'^

Hl '<' V- W^^
i

** 2 CornT
etc.

1.3Tr-bni
3E

i
Tuba
five-part

^TftrbfH-

Tr-bm

f"U-Tfe}HH| _a

333

^
six,

Tuba

Tuba

In

seven,

or

harmony

certain

instruments

must

be omitted:
1

Tp-bn

ti

^m 4 Co r ni

\\]

A T p . be

=a^r-bc

"o -a-t^^fm
l^

llTr.bni

3 Tp-bf
-

Hr^l-^H rf l>-t>m

Tuba

Tuba

ti
]

Tuba

a Tr-hc-

Ji >1 .

U Tp.b S^
etc.

^ ITorni

.,

n
*^

>-biio

ffi

'-hn

Tuba

Tuba

Discords of the seventh or second are preferably entrusted


instruments of different tone colour:

to

85

TITf-lio

i
3 Tr-bni

;*

rp- b o

[8 L

-TT

4Corni

"J
4Corni
3Tr.bD( Bl

Tuba

Tuba

When
pairs.

such chords are


it

written

for

an

orchestra

which only

includes two trumpets,


In

is

impossible for the horns to proceed in

such cases the following arrangement

may

obtain, the

horns being marked one degree louder than the other instruments,
to

secure balance of tone:


15Tp.bc

m g.]4Lorn=T^
"^

f i^ I
2 Tr-bni

Tuba/-

The same method


in

.should be followed

whenever the use

of

horns

pairs fails to

produce satisfactory tone.


occupied by the horns
the

When

chords of widely-divided harmony are distributed through-

out several

harmonic

registers, the register

need not be doubled; the arrangement

of

chord

will

re-

semble that of a chorale written for double or triple choir.


example:

For

Tuba
Tuba

zPJ

Duplication in the brass.


Duplication in the brass group
is

most frequently effected by placing

a chord for horns side by side with the

same chord
of the

written tor

trumpets or trombones.
sifies

The

soft

round quality

horns inten-

the tone, and moderates the penetrating timbre of the trum-

pets

and trombones:

86
^TTT

4 Cop.

a Tr-b

^m

^i

T
Tu b a

T r-b

*'

Uior.

*
a Tr-bni

i
;"tU'!;'[85]1^^-

Similar juxtaposition of trumpets and trombones:

3Tr-be

wm

is

not so

common,

as this unites

tiie

two most powerful agents

in the

group.
is

In

handling an orchestra the brass

frequently

employed
activity

to sus-

tain notes in

two or three octaves;

this

sphere of

must not

be ignored.

The

tenuto

is

generally given to two trumpets, or to

two or four horns,

in the octave, (in

double octaves). The octave

is

sometimes formed by trumpets and horns acting together:


2Tr-he
2 Corni 4 Corni
1

Tr-ba

fe
The trombone with
combinations.
its

wry

-2Cor"rr

ponderous tone rarely takes part


notes
in

in

such

Sustained

double

octaves

are

usually

apportioned thus:
=^Tf; U'lVbo

it^OPMI

The imperfect balance


note
is

arising from the duplication of the middle

compensated

for

by the mixture

of timbres,

which lends

some

unity to the chord.

Examples
a)

of

harmony

in the brass:

Independent chords:
[j^J

Snegourotchka

Trombones, 2 Horns.
in different

[140]

3 Trombones, 2 Horns. Chords

groups alternately

|i7i
I

(cf.

Ex. 244).
(cf.Ex.97).

255

Full brass; further

on 3Trombones

Horns

(stopped).


No. 129.

87

28^

Snegourotchka, before

289

4
+

Horns.

Full brass.
of parts).

*Sadko, before [T]


No. 130.

Sadko

|i75|

brass (enclosure Mixed timbres


Full

(juxtaposition)

3 Horns

3 Trpmpets.

before [aas]
191

Full brass except Tuba.

No. 131. No. 132.

193

(Full brass).

The Christmas Night, before \m\


Full

muted

brass.

,,181

4 Horns + 3 Trombones

+ Tuba
* *

(cf.

Ex. 237).
178

The Tsar's Bride


No. 133.

Strings and brass alternately (cf.Ex.242).


102
7'-lL

Tsar Saltan

bar.

II,

2 Trumpets, 2 Trom-

bones

-(-

4 Horns (juxtaposition).
thicHly scored
(cf.

Table of chords No.


* *
II

Full

brass,

at the

end

of Vol.

Ex. 12).

Servilia

154

Various brass instruments.


130

Legend

of Kitesh

3 Trumpets,
199
115

Trombone and Tuba.

No. 134.
*

Legend

of Kitesh

Short chords (juxtaposition).

No. 135.

The Golden Cockerel


basis:

Horns, Trombones

(en-

closure),
b)

Harmonic

No. 136.

Snegourotchka

[t?], 6t!i bar.

4 Horns.
soft

231

3 Trombones,
H

and sweet

(cf.

Ex. 8).

Antar

64-65

4 Horns; later 3 Trombones

(cf.

Ex. 32).

Harmony
Wind and
of placing a in

in

combined groups.

A. Combination of wind and brass.


brass instruments

may be combined by

the

method

chord

in

one timbre side by side with the same chord


of the three

another timbre, or by any

methods already described:

overlaying, crossing and enclosure of parts.

1.

In unison (juxtaposition or contrast of tone qualities).

This class of combination possesses the


nations in the melodic line
the brass, softens
it

(cf.
its

Chap.

II).

same features Wood-wind

as combireinforces

and reduces

characteristic qualities.

Arrange-

ments such as the following are possible:


2 Trumpets

3 Trumpets
Also

+2 +3

Fl.;
Fl.;

2 Trumpets

+2
+3

Ob.

2 Trumpets

+2

CI.

3 Trumpets

Ob.

3 Trumpets -f 3

CI.

2 Fl

i
S
as well as:
2 Tr.be
!S

etc.

C'orni -

+ 2 Fag.; 3 Horns + 3 Fag.; 2 Horns -f 2 Fag. + 2


2 Horns
CI. etc.

+2 3 Horns + 3
2 Horns
Fag., or

CI.;

CI.;

and:

The combination 3 Trombones -|- 3


are very rare.

3 Trombones

-{-

CI.

chord scored for

full

brass doubled by the

same chords scored

for full

wood-wind

(in pairs)

produces a magnificent and uniform tone.

Examples:
Snegourotchka 315
Ex. 236).

2 Horns + 2
50
142

CI.

and 2 Horns-f 2 Ob.


2 Fag.
full

(cf.

No. 141. No. 142.

The Tsar's Bride

4 Horns + 2 Juxtaposition

CI.,

of

wind

and

brass.
II

Ivan the Terrible, Act


Table of chords
No. 143.
II,

[sol

Juxtaposition
[Tas]

and enclosure

(cf.

Ex.

8).

The Christmas Night

4 Horns

-|- Fl., CI.,

Fag.

89

-[-

No. 144. Sadko, before [79]

Horn, Trumpet

doubled wood(1).

wind
No. 145.

[242]

Full brass

Legend of Kitesh, beginning


also

[5] Ex.

+ Horn, Trombones -f
F1.,

CI.

CI.,

Fag.

(cf.

24^).
of Kitesh
|_ioJ

No. 146.

Legend

324

*No. 147.

The Golden Cockerel


or

Eng. horn, 2 Fag. + 4 Horns non Full brass wind. [2^ - Horn + ct "^^^
CI.,
-|^^

legato

legato.

Stopped

muted notes

in

trumpets and horns resemble the

oboe and Eng. horn

in quality; the

combination of these instruments

produces a magnificent tone.

Examples:
No. 148. Russian Easter Fete,
register)
*

p. 11.

Horn
Full

(-t).

Trumpets (low

+ Ob.,

CI.

The Christmas Night, before


Tsar Saltan
[129]

[T54]

muted brass

-|-

wind.

*No. 149.

2 Ob., Eng. horn,

+ 3 Trumpets
bottom).

muted
*No. 150.

[TaT], 171I1 bar.

Same combination with


added horns.

(3 CI. at the

No. 151.

Antar \T\

Ob.,
is

Eng. horn, 2 Fag.

+4

Horns

(+).

beautiful dark tone

derived from the combination of middle

notes in stopped horns and deep notes in the clarinet:

^
If

+
.'Jl'oi-.[^g] iJClar.

bassoons are substituted for clarinets the

effect loses part of

its

character.

Examples :
*Kashtchei the /m/wr/a/

The Christmas
*

Mlada, Act
(cf.

III

|_i9j

2 Ob., 2 + 4 Horns 2 Fag. + 3 Horns Fag. + 3 Horns 249 Night, 3 Horns + 3 Fag. and 3 Horns +
[29], 11 lH bar.

CI.

(+).

107

6ili

bar.

CI.,

(+).

p.

CI.,

(+).

{+)

(+)

3 Ob.
(1)

Ex. 259).

In

the

full

score a misprint occurs

in the clarinet part;

it

is

corrected

in the

example.

(Editor's note.)


2.
It

90

Overlaying (superposition), crossing, enclosure of parts.

has already been stated that the bassoon and horn are the
of reconciling the
to

two instruments best capable

groups of wood-

wind and

brass.

Four-part

harmony given

two bassoons and

two horns, especially in soft passages, yields a finely-balanced tone


recalling the effect of a quartet of horns, but possessing slightly

greater transparence.

In forte passages the

horns overwhelm the

bassoons, and

it

is

wiser to employ four horns alone. In the former


is

case crossing of parts

to

be recommended

for the purposes of

blend, the concords being given to the horns, the discords to the

bassoons:
and not:

2Fngrsi
^J

^^'^''-

Bassoons
process
is

may

also be written inside the horns, but the inverse

not to be recommended:
2Cor.rqQ.i2 Faff

The same
of the flutes,
ful

insetting of parts

may be used

for sustained

trumpet

notes in octaves. In soft passages, thirds played in the low register

sometimes combined with


effect
it

clarinets,

produce a beautiIn

mysterious

between trumpets
is

in octaves.

a chain of

consecutive chords
to the brass, the

advisable to entrust the stationary parts


parts to the

moving

wood-wind.
should rarely be set
in the

Clarinets,

on account

of their tone quality

inside the horns, but, in the Upper register,

and

higher har-

monic
by

parts,

a chord of four horns, (piano),

clarinets as effectively as

by oboes or

may be completed flutes; the bassoon may

then double the base an octave below:

3 Clar. ou 3 Olx ott 3 Fli

4 Corni

m
Played
forte,

the horns are

more powerful than

the wood-wind;

balance

may be

established by doubling the upper harmonic parts:

91
2

Ob

Fag-

Examples:
a) Superposition.
*

Sadko, Symphonic Tableau [[] Fl., Ob., before [u] 2 Fi., CI., Horns,
,

CI.,

Horn

(basis).

final
*

chord
Fl.,

Fl.,

CI.,

Horn.

Antar

|^2]

CI.,

Horns
Fl.,

(basis).

No. 152.
* *
*

Antar

[se]

Snegourotchka

|30o|

4 Horns

(basis).

Full

wind and horns.


and
4^-^

Sheherazade

Final chords of liL


[jT]

movements.
later

Russian Easter Fete

Fl.,

CI.,

Horn;

trumpets and

trombones
*

in juxtaposition (cf.

Ex. 248).
,

No. 153.

The Christmas Night [2i2]

lOiH bar.

Wind and Horns;


CI.

trumpets and trombones added


later.

215
*

FI.+ 3

3 Horns

],.

Sadko, Opera

165

Juxtaposition ana Superposition.

No. 154. Sadko [ass]

Same

distribution.

No. 155. Servilia \n\

' " +20^;.

O157

*No. 156. Legend of Kitesh, before

3 Flutes, 3 Trombones.
(cf.

final

chord

Table

III

of chords,

Ex. 15).

*TheGolden Cockerel, before


4 Horns.
b) Crossing.
*

|2i9|

Mixed timbre

of

wood-wind,

The Christmas Night, before

[si]

Horn., Fag.

[Tot]

Clar., Horn.,

Fag.

Legend

of

Tsar Saltan, before 62


220

Horn., Fag.

*
(cf.

The Golden Cockerel


Ex. 232).

3 Trombones,

Fag.,

C-fag.

No. 157 Antar, before [io]

Wood-wind, Horns, then Trumpets.

92
c)

33
.

Enclosure:
I

No. 158. Ivan the Terrible, Act

Flutes within horns; later

horns within bassoons.


No. 159. Snegourotchka [Tsa]

Trumpet
Fl.,

2 CI.
Fagr.

Trumpet

*Sadko, symphonic tableau


*

+ 4 Horns
CI.
CI.

+ Fag.
oboes
within, trumpets

Antar before

37

Fag.
2 Horns (+)
CI.

*Sadko, Opera
(cf.

105

Harmonic

basis;

Ex. 260).

*
*

No. 160.

Sadko, Opera, before

[T55]

Flutes

within trumpets.

The Tsar's Bride,


Table
Jll

end

of Overture

Bassoons within horns

(cf.

of chords, Ex. 14).

*Nr. 161.

Tsar Saltan

so
[59]

Trumpets within wood-wind doubled.

No. 162.
within horns.

Flutes

within

trumpets;

clarinets

*Nr. 163.
trumpets.

Legend

of Kitesh [82]

Oboes and

clarinets within

The

relationship

which has been shown

to exist

between stopped

horns and oboe or Eng. horn authorizes the simultaneous use of


these instruments in one and the

same chord, played p or

sfp:

i ^P
*

rflii Ob.
f

Uo r ooH^

Examples:
The Christmas Night
123
[ts]

3 Horns (+) + Oboe.


Ob., Eng. horn,

The Tsar's Bride


*

Horn (+)

(cf.

Ex. 240).

Legend of Kitesh

244

CI.,

Fl.,

+ 2 Ob., Eng. horn, 3 Horn (+).


2 Ob., Eng. horn 1 ' 3 Horns (+) J

*Nr. 164. Legend of Kitesh, before [255]

*Cf.also Tsar Saltan, before


If

[TIs]

2FL'^2Vag.

C^^- l^^)flutes,

trumpets and trombones take part in a chord,


clarinets are better

oboes

and

used

to

form the harmonic part above the


the arrangement:

trumpets.

The following should be

93


No. 170.

94

of

Sadko, Opera 244


1

Chord
,

widely extended range;

bassoons
[T42]

at the limit of
cf.

low compass.

[239]

also [3] (Ex. 86).

The Tsar's Bride


Antar
65

[T79] (cf. Ex. 243).

Alternation of notes in horns and


(cf.

wood-wind on

trombone chords

Ex. 32).
It

General observations.

is

not always possible to secure proper

balance in scoring for

full

wood-wind.

For instance,
is

in a suc-

cession of chords where the melodic position


ing,

constantly chang-

distribution

is

subordinate to

correct progression of parts.

In practice, however, any inequaHty of tone

may be

counterbalanced

by the following acoustic phenomenon:

in every

chord the parts


in

in octaves strengthen one another, the harmonic sounds

the

lowest register coinciding with r.nd supporting those in the highest.


In spite of this fact
it

rests entirely with the orchestrator to obtain


difficult

the best possible balance of tone; in

cases this

may be

secured by judicious dynamic grading, marking the wood-wind one

degree louder than the brass.

B. Combination of strings and wind.


1.

We

frequently meet with the combination of strings and

wood-

wind

in the light of

comparison

of

one timbre with another, either


Apart from

in long sustained notes, or tremolando in the strings.

the complete or partial doubling of the string quartet (two methods


frequently
used),

the

general and most natural arrangement

is:

Ob.(Ci.)

+ Vnidiv.;

^[^J;

+ 'Cellos -f Violas

div.,

etc.

Examples:
*
* *
*

Sadko, Symphonic lableau before [T], andjT],


Sheherazade,
l5i

9*-l?

bar.
Fl.),

movement M 6 Vni

soli

-[-

2 Ob. (2
(cf.

CI.

Antar |T]
No. 171.

String quartet divisi


[sTl

Antar

Vni

wood-wind

Ex. 151).
(florid

II,

Violas div.

Fl.,

Horn

accompanifnent
*

in the Clar.).

Legeu:' of Kitesh

295

the same;

rhythmic motion in the


Rx. 213).

wind, sustained harmony in the strings

(cf.


2.

95

affinity in

Owing

to the

complete absence of any


is

tone

quality,

the combination of strings with brass

seldom employed

in juxta-

position, crossing, or enclosure of parts.

The

first

method may be used however when the harmony


is

is

formed by the strings tremolando, and the brass


sustaining chords,
also

employed

in

when

the strings play short disconnected

chords, sforzando.
the splendid
effect

Another possible exception


of

may be mentioned;
'cellos.

horns doubled by divided violas or

Examples:
[242J of chords, Ex. 6).

Snegourotchka

Full brass

+ strings fr^/no/and(?(cf.l5L Table


div.,
-f-

Legend

of Kitesfi, before
[34]

*Sadko, Opera, before


'Cellos div. (1).

the same (Horn, Trumpet +). Horn + Violas Trombones


240

C.

Combination of the three groups.


wood-wind and brass instruments, produces a full, round and firm tone.
of strings,

The combination
set side

by

side,

Examples:
No. 172.

The Tsar's Bride, before [hsJ


final

Ob.,
+
(cf.

Fag.

Horns

Strmgs.
I

chord

Table
Ex.
5).

of chords,

*No. 173. Sadko, end of


of the
10,
18).
151,

I2i

tableau
(cf.

short chords.
I

Last chords
II,

31^

and

711i

tableaux

Table

and

III,

Vol.

Ex. 9,

*No. 174. The Christmas Night


tremolo strings.

[22J

W^ind + Brass csord.


Table
III

-\-

Legend

of Kitesh

[mj
end

(cf.

Ex. 250).
(cf.

Snegourotchka

of opera,

in Vol.

II,

Ex. 17)

and a host

of other examples.

(1)

splendid example of the combination of strings and brass


introduction to the 2jl^ scene of the
411l

may be

found

in the

act of " Khovanstchina"

by Moussorgsky, orchestrated by Rimsky-Korsakov.

(Editor's note.)


General Observations.
is

96

of tone

Balance and correct distribution


in dealing with

much more important


is

long sustained chords or

those of rhythmic design; in the case of short, disconnected chords

resonance

a minor consideration, but one which should not be

entirely neglected.
I

have endeavoured
I

to

outline

the

general

principles

to

be

followed, but

do not profess
in

to deal with all the countless cases


I

which may

arise
of

the

course of orchestration.

have given a
I

few examples

well-sounding chords; for further information


full

advise the reader to study

scores with care,

as
the

this

is

the

only

method

to

acquire

perfect

knowledge

of

distribution

and doubling

of various instruments.

Chapter

IV.

COMPOSITION OF THE ORCHESTRA.

Different

ways

of orchestrating

the same music.

There are times when the general tone, character and atmosphere of a passage, or a given
to one,

moment

in

an orchestral work point

and only one particular manner

of scoring.

The following

simple example will

serve for explanation.


call is

Take a short phrase


harmony.
There

where a

flourish or fanfare

given out above a tremolando


in
is

accompaniment, with or without change

no

doubt that any orchestrator would assign the tremolo

to the strings this for

and the fanfare

to a trumpet,

never vice versa.

But taking

granted, the composer or orchestrator


Is
it

may

still

be

left

in

doubt.

the fanfare flourish suitable to the range of a trumpet?

Should

be written for two or three trumpets

in unison, or

doubled by

other instruments?

damaging
endeavour
If

the
to

Can any of these methods be employed without musical meaning? These are questions which I shall
answer.
is

the phrase
to the

too low in register for the trumpets

it

should
if

be given
phrase
in
is

horns (instruments
it

allied to the trumpet);

the

too high

may be

entrusted to the oboes and clarinets

unison, this

combination

possessing the

closest

resemblance

to the

trumpet tone both in character and power.

The question
a

whether one trumpet or two should be employed must be decided

by the degree

of

power
is

to

be vested

in

the given passage.

If

big sonorous effect


tripled,

required the instruments

may be
(1

doubled,

or even multiplied by four; in the opposite case one solo

brass instrument, or two of the wood-wind will suffice

The question whether the tremolo

in

Ob. -f 1 CI.). the strings should be supported


by sustained harmony
in view. in tiie

98

the purpose
intentions beforehand,

wood-wind depends upon


his

A composer

realises

others

who
the

orchestrate his music can only proceed by conjecture.

Should

the composer desire to establish a strongly-marked difference between

harmonic basis and the melodic outline


to obtain

it

is

better

not to

employ wood-wind harmony, but


by
f

proper balance of tone


of expression,
full

carefully distributing his


//.
If,

dynamic marks

pp, p,

and

on the contrary, the composer desires a

round

tone as harmonic basis and less


parts, the

show

of brilliance in the
is to

harmonic

use of harmony

in the

wood-wind
to the

be recommended.

The following may serve as a guide


in fullness

scoring of wood-wind

chords: the harmonic basis should differ from the melody not only

and

intensity of tone, but also in colour.

If

the fanfare

figure

is allotted to

the brass (trumpets or horns) the


if

harmony should

be given

to the

wood-wind;

the phrase

is

given to the wood-wind

(oboes and clarinets) the harmony should be entrusted to the horns.

To
his

solve

all

these questions successfully a composer must have

full

knowledge

of the

purpose he has

in view,

and those who orchestrate

work should be permeated with his intentions. Here the question


what should those intentions be?
a composer This
is

arises,

more

difficult

subject.

The aim
work,
to

of

is

closely allied to the form


of
its

of

his

the aesthetic

meaning

every

moment and

phrase

considered apart, and in relation to the composition as a whole.

The choice
portant
to

of

an orchestral scheme depends on the musical matter,


It

the colouring of preceding and subsequent passages.

is

im-

determine whether a given passage

is

a complement
after,

to or a contrast with
it

what goes before and comes


in the

whether

forms a climax or merely a step


It

general march of musical


all

thought.

would be impossible
work.

to

examine

such possible

types of relationship, or to consider the role played by each passage

quoted
to

in the present

The reader
in their

is

therefore advised not


to study

pay too much attention


their bearing

to the

examples given, but

them
full

and

on the context
I

proper place in the

scores.

Nevertheless

shall touch

upon a few

of these points in

the course of the following outline.

To begin

with,

young and
by reading

inexperienced composers do not always possess a clear idea of

what they wish

to do.

They can improve

in this direction

good scores and by repeatedly


they concentrate the
after

99

The search
is

listening to an orchestra, provided

mind

to the fullest possible extent.

extravagant and daring

effects

in

orchesfration

quite a

different thing

from mere caprice; the

will to achieve is not sufficient;

there are certain things which should not be achieved.

The simplest musical

ideas,

melodic phrases in unison and

octaves, or repeated throughout several octaves, chords, of

which
of

no single part has any melodic meaning are scored

in various

ways according
one idea
recurs.
will

to

register,

dynamic

effect

and the quality


In

expression or tone colour that

may be
in

desired.

many

cases,

be orchestrated
I

a different

Later on

shall frequently

way every time it touch upon this more compli-

cated question.

Examples:
*

Snegourotchka 58

65

and before [as]

sustained note
etc.;

in unison.

There are fewer possible ways


ideas,

of scoring

more complex musical


sometimes

harmonico-melodic phrases, polyphonic designs

there are but two methods to be followed, for each of the primary

elements in music, melody, harmony, and counterpoint possesses


its

own

special requirements, regulating the choice of instruments

and tone colour.

The most complicated musical ideas sometimes

admit of only one manner of scoring, with a few hardly noticeable


variations
structure
1

in

detail.

To

the

following example, very simple in

add an

alternative

method

of scoring:

Example
No. 175. *b)

is

Vera Scheloga, before

|^

a)

actual

orchestration,

another method.

It

obvious that the method b) will produce satisfactory tone.


31^

But a

and

4ili

way

of scoring

would be

less succes'sfui,

and a
For

continuation of this process would soon lead to the ridiculous.


instance
if

the chords

were

given to the brass the


recitative
If

whole passage
in

would sound neavy, and the soprano


middle register would

the low

and
the

be overpowered.

the

sharp
7*

in

100
double basses were played arco by
'cellos
to

and basses together

it

would sound clumsy,


effect

if

it

were given
if

the bassoons a comic


it

would be produced, and


etc.
. .

played by the brass

would

sound rough and coarse,

The object of scoring the


is

same musical phrase

in different

ways
each

to

obtain variety

either in tone colour or resonance.

In

case the composer may

resort to the inversion of the

normal order
in

of instruments, duplication of parts, or the

two processes
In the

com-

bination.

The

first of

these
I

is

not always feasible.

preceding

sections of the

book

have

tried to explain the characteristics of

each instrument and the part which each group of instruments


plays in the orchestra.

Moreover many methods

of

doubling are

to

be avoided; these

have mentioned, while there are also some

instruments which cannot be combined owing to the great difference


in their peculiarities. of

Therefore, as regards the general composition


student

the

orchestra,

the

should be guided by the general

principles laid

The best ways


is

down means of

in the earlier stages of the present

work.

orchestrating the

same musical
complete or

idea in various

by the adaptation of the musical matter.


a)

This can be
partial
c)

done by the following operations:


the whole range by the

trans-

ference into other octaves; b) repetition in a different key;


of

extension

addition of octaves to the upper and

lower parts; d) alteration of details (the most frequent method);


e) variation of the

general dynamic scheme,

e.

g.

repeating a phrase

piano, which has already been played forte.

These operations are always successful


orchestral colour.

in

producing variety of

Examples.
No. 176, 177.

Russian Easter Fete


158

and [c],
^

The Christmas Nighty

and

179

No. 178181. The Tsar's Bride, Overture: beginning, |T|,p2~|,[T[.

Sadko 99-101 and 305307


No. 182186.

(cf.

Ex. 289, 290, and 75).


17

Tsar Saltan

14
181

'0,

No.

187189

*No. 192

101

195.

Sheherazade, 1- movement

beginning of the

fl//gro[A],|T], [m].

31^

movement

beginning |T]. [T]


62

*No. 196198.
*

Legend

of Kitesh
,

55

56

No.

199-201

68

70

84
294

(Cf. also Ex. 213, 214.

Legend

of Kitesh

and

312

.)

*No.

202 203.
of

The Golden Cockerel


scoring the

229

233

The process
ways
and
is

same

or similar ideas in different

the source of

numerous musical operations, crescendo, dimiqualities, variation of

nuendo, interchange of tone


incidentally throws

tone colour

etc.,

new

light

upon the fundamental composition

of the orchestra.

Full Tutti.
The word
tutti

generally

means

the

simultaneous use of
relatively,

all

instruments, but the

word

"all" is

used

and

it

must not

be inferred that every single instrument must necessarily be employed


to
I

form a

tutti.

In

order to siinpHfy the following illustrations


into

will divide the

word

two

classes, full tutti


is

and partial

tutti^

independently of whether the orchestra

constructed in pairs,
I

in three's, or

a larger number of instrumentSv


all

call full tutti the

combination of
partial tutti
part,
I

melodic groups,
in

strings, wind,

and

brass.

By

mean passages

which the brass group only takes

whether two horns or two trumpets participate alone, or

whether two horns are combined with one or three trombones,


without tuba, trumpets, or the two remaining horns,
r4 Horns,
etc.:
-i

....
"-....

2 Horns 2 Horns or 2 Trumpets, or 3 Trombones

etc.
J

In both species of tutti full

wood-wind may be employed or


of the passage.

not,

according

to the register

and musical context


it

For

instance, in the extreme high register

may be

essential to include

the piccolo; in the low register flutes will be unnecessary, and yet

the passage can


harp,

still

be

called tutti.
of

The

inclusion of kettle-drums,

and other instruments

little

sustaining power, as of the


discussion.

percussion in general, does not

come under

102

the
it

The
of

variety of orchestral operations increases with


tutti,

instruments forming a
it

in
all

fact,

so great does
1

number become
to

that

is

impossible to consider
full

combinations.
tutti,

can only give

a few examples of

and

partial

and leave the reader


examples
fall is

draw

his

own

conclusions.
of full

Some

of these

under the

double heading
that the tutti, is

and

partial tutti,

and the student

reminded
in

used essentially

in forte

and fortissimo, rarely

pianissimo and piano passages.

Examples:

Snegourotchka^^ and
231

62]

Partial

and

full

Tufli,
(cf.

Partial Tutti, without the trumpets


[JFa]

Ex. 8).

No. 204.

Snegourotchka

Full Tutti.

125^6]
Sadko |1],
No.
[223],

Full Tutti
(cf.

and chorus (cf. Ex.8).

239
173

Full Tutti
177

Ex. 86).
diffe-

205206.

Sadko

Full Tutti with chorus,


Full

rently scored.
-No.

207208. The Christmas Night [m\ and [m]


[T|

Tutti,

orchestrated in different ways, with and without chorus.


*

The Tsar's Bride, Overture [T|


141

[2]
Tutti.

Full

and

partial Tutti

(cf.

Ex. 179181).

Full

177

Pan Voyevoda
*Antar
*

186
(cf.

and

188

Full Tutti.

65

Ex. 32).
cf.

No. 209.

Sheherazade, 3il movement [m];

also 1^1

movement

[a], [e], [h]; 2si movement [k], [p], [r]; 3i^ movement [g],

[o]

41I1

movement \g\, [p], [w] and

farther

on

to

[T| (No. 193,

194, 19, 66, 77).


* *

Spanish Capriccio[B\,
Russian Easter Fete [f]
,

0, 0, 0, 0' [x^
[T|
,
|

(cf.

Ex. 3).

before [T], [y], up to the end.

*j!^ Symphony, lH movement [p],

R T
|

[x]

2ii^

movement

[a]
*

[] 4'A movement [a]


;

\~h

Sadko, Symphonic tableau


111

2024

*Mlada, Act
*

[12] (cf. Ex. 258).

For examples

of Tutti chords, see special

Tables at the end of Vol. II.

103

Tuiii in the wind.


In

many

cases the wood-wind and brass groups can form a


for

tutti
is

by themselves
effected

periods of varying length.

Sometimes

this

by the wood-wind alone, but n.ore frequently with the


At other times the horns are found alone without

support of horns.

the wood-wind, and, lastly, a tutti


of

may be comprised
The

of instruments

each group in varying numbers.


rest of the percussion is quite
call

addition of kettle-drums
constitutes

and the
the

common and

what

Germans

"Janitscharenmusik", or Turkish infantry music.

Violoncellos

and

double basses

playing
to

more or

less

impor(tutti),

tant pizz. notes are often

added

wood-wind instruments

likewise the remainder of the strings and the harps; this process

renders the sustained notes in the wood-wind more

distinct.

Tutti
of

passages in

wood-wind and horns do not produce any great amount


on the other hand
tutti

power

in jorte passages, but,

in the brass

groups alone

may

attain

an extraordinary volume

of tone.

In the

following examples the formation of pedal notes by strings or wood-

wind

in

no way

alters the

general character of the Tutti:

Examples:
No.

210 211.
14

Snegourotclika
,

149

I5i

(compare)

Tsar Saltan

17

26

(cf.

Ex.
.

182184)

Pan Voyevoda
No. 212.
*

[57],

[Tse],

[262]

Ivan the Terrible, Act

II

[lo];

cf.

also Act.

Ill

[T].

No.

213 214.

Legend

of Kitesh [294], [3T2] (compare).


cf.

* *

No. 2 15.

The Golden Cockerel [He];


Ex. 65).

also

|^

and

[sT].

Antar

[37] (cf.

TuUi pizzicato.
The
kind of
quartet
of

strings

(pizzicato),

reinforced

occasionally by

the harp and piano, may, in certain cases constitute a particular


tutti,

which can only

attain

any great degree


this

of strength
is of

by support from the wood-wind. Without


power, though
still

support

it

medium

fairly brilliant in

quality.

104

Examples:
No. 2 16.
*
*

Snegourotchka,hefor&

128
;

cf.

also 153
also [u]

and before 305 and |T|.


cf.also

No. 217.

Russian Easter Fete

cf.

Spanish Caphccio[A], [c], before [s], before [p];


[Ts].

(Ex. 56).

Mlada, Act
'

II

Sadko
Legend

220

(cf.

Ex. 295).

*
*

of Kitesh [Toi].
Tlie

No. 218.

May

Night, Act

i,

The Mayor's Song

combi"

nation of strings, arco and pizz.

Tutti in one,
It

two and three


moderately
of
full

parts.

often

happens

that a

orchestral ensemble exeparts, in

cutes a passage

composed

one or two harmonic


call for

unison

or in octaves.

Such melodic phrases

more or
or, in

less

simple

orchestration with the usual


writing,

doubling of parts,

ornamental

admit of contrast

in

tone colouring, occasionally with the

addition of sustained notes.

Examples:
Snegourotchka, before \\^_
174
,

[176].

The Tsar's Bride

120121
215

(cf.

Ex. 63).

The Golden Cockerel


*

No.

219221.

Legend

of Kitesh

142

144

147

3 part

Tutti,

with different scoring.


of

Legend

Kitesh [Tas], |i39|

Tutti in

one part

Soli in the strings.


Although, in any orchestral piece, numerous instances are to be

found of melodies and phrases entrusted to a solo wind instrument


(generally the
first

of

each group, wood-wind or brass), solos for


Whilst

stringed instruments, on the other hand, are extremely rare.

the 1^ violin and the solo viola


practically
ist

I5i 'cello

are fairly frequently used in this manner,


is

seldom found, and a solo on the double bass

unknown.

Phrases demanding particular individuality

105

beyond
the

of expression are entrusted to solo instrumenta; likewise passages


that

require

extraordinary

technique,

scope of the
of the solo
Difficult

orchestral rank

and

file.

The comparatively weak tone

instrument necessitates

light,

transparent accompaniment.

virtuoso solos should not be written, as they attract too


tion to a particular instrument.

much

atten-

Solo stringed instruments are also

used when vigourous

expression

and technical

facility

are

not

required, but simply in order to obtain that singular difference in

colour which exists between a solo stringed instrument and strings


in

unison.

Two

solo instruments can be coupled together,

e.

g.

2 Violins

soli, etc.

and

in very rare cases a quartet of solo strings

may be

employed.

Examples
Violin solo:

No. 222223.

Snegourotchka

54

275

The

May

Night, pp.
I

6478.
III,

Mlada, Act

52

Act

before

19

*A
*

Fairy Tale |w|.


12i

Sheherazade,

movement

also the passages at the

start of
*
*

each movement.

Spanish Capriccio
No. 224.

and the cadence on


310

p. 38.

Legend

of Kitesh

- Vn. solo, on harmonic basis

of strings sul ponticello

and wood-wind.

Snegourotchka
Viola solo:

274

,2792

Vni

soli

(cf.

Ex. 9)

No. 225.

Snegourotchka
137

212

Sadko
*

No. 226.

The Golden Cockerel

163

cf.

also

174

177|.

Violoncello solo.

Snegourotchka

[Tst] (cf. Ex. 102)

The Christmas Night, before


Mlada, Act
*
III

29

36
[Ttt], [Tso] (cf. Ex.

The Golden Cockerel

229)

Double bass

106

a special instance

solo.
II

No. 227. Mlada, Act


string is tuned

|To-i^

where the

first

down.

Solo quartet:

The Christmas Night


*

222

Vn., Viola, 'Cello, D. bass.

No. 228.

Tsar Saltan 248

Vn.

I,

Vn.

II,

Viola, 'Cello.

*The case
wind
in

of a solo stringed instrument

doubled by the woodobject


is

unison must not be forgotten.

The

to

attain

great purity and abundance of tone, without impairing the timbre


of the solo instrument (especially in the high

and low

registers),

or to produce a certain highly-coloured

effect.

Examples:
*
*

Mlada, Act U

52

Vn. +
212
67

Fl.;

ActIV

31

Viol.

F1.

4- Harp.
Ex. 153).

The Christmas Night

2yni+
Bass
Vn.
cl.

Fl.

4- Small
2 Violas
(cf.

CI. (cf.

Pan Voyevoda
Legend
of Kitesh

2 Vni + 2 Ob.;
306

+2

CI.

+ C-fag.

Ex. 10).

309
*
*

+
^

FI.

No. 229. The Golden Cockerel As shown in Chap. II, 2 Vni

Vn. -f Pice;
in the

'Cello

+ Bass

cl.

soli

or Violin solo -f

Fl. (Pice.)

are

often sufficient to double a

melody

upper

register.

Examples
Sadko
*

207 ]

cf.

Chap.

II,

p.

42 and Ex. 24.


p.

No. 230

Russian Easter File,

32

Solo violins

(in

har-

monies).
*

No. 231.

Legend

of Kitesh [297]

2 Solo

violins

-f Pice.

Limits of orchestral range.


It

is

seldom that the entire orchestral conception


6i!i

is

centred

in
still
1

the upper register of the orchestra (the Sit and

octaves),

more
and
effect.

rarely
1)

is

it

focussed wholly in the lowest range (octaves


of

where the proximity

harmonic

intervals creates a

bad

In the first case the flutes

and piccolo should be used along

with the upper notes of the violins, soli or divisi; in the second


clarinet,
first

107

case the double bassoon and the low notes of the bassoons, bass
horns, trombones and tuba are brought into play.
brilliant colour, the

The
dark

method gives

second combination

is

and gloomy.

The contrary would be fundamentally impossible.


Examnles:

Pan Voyevoda
Servilia

122

[m],

low
SiH bar. (cf. Ex. 62)
register.

No. 232. The Golden Cockerel


*
*

220

cf.

also [iis] ,

219

Snegourotchka, before

25

Legend
No. 233.

of Kitesh, before

34

high
register.

The Golden Cockerel [na], \nT\


Shiherazade,
2!i^

No. 234.

movement

pp.

5962
seldom be widely
filled
in, for this

The upper and lower


is

parts of a passage can

separated without the intermediate octaves being


contrary to the
first

principles of proper distribution of chords.

Nevertheless the unusual resonance thus produced serves for strange

and grotesque

effects.

In

the

first

of the following

examples the

piccolo figure doubled by the harp and the sparkling notes of the
glockenspiel
is
is

set

about four octaves apart from the bass, which

assigned to a single Double bass and Tuba. But in the 3i^ octave,
fifths
in.

the augmented fourths and diminished


to
fill

the two flutes help

up the intermediate space and lessen the distance between


extreme
parts,

the two

thus forming

some

sort of link

between

them.

The general

effect is fanciful.

Examples.
No. 235. Snegourotchka
*

255

No. 236.

315 274

5iJi

and
Ex.

611i

bars,

(cf.

9).

Fairy Tale [a].


179
,

The Golden Cockerel

9*li

bar.

(cf.

Ex. 229)

Transference

of
is

passages and phrases.


one instrument
to

phrase or a figure
In

often transferred from

another.

order to connect the phrases on each instrument in


with the
first

108

is

the best possible way, the last note of each part

made

to coincide
is

note of the following one.


is

This method

used for

passages the range of which

too wide to

be performed on any

one instrument, or when


different timbres.

it

is

desired to divide a phrase into two

Examples :
*

Snegourotchka

|i37|

The melody
to the flute
I9i

is

transferred from the violins


clarinet
(cf.

and

Ex. 28).
'cello.

before
57

Pan Voyevoda

Solo Solo Trombones Trumpets; Horn Ob.


violin
is
it.

-|- CI.

A
ment

similar operation

used in scoring passages covering the

entire orchestral scale, or a great portion of


is

When

one

instru-

on the point

of

completing

its

allotted part, another instru-

ment takes up the passage,


to

starting

on one or two notes

common

both parts, and so on.

This division must be carried out to

ensure the balance of the whole passage.

Examples:
Snegourotchka
36
,

38
190

I3i

Strings.

The Tsar's Bride

Wood-wind
Ex. 112).
|_i80j

Sadko

72
[223]

Strings Strings.

(cf.

The Christmas Night, before


(cf.
*

Strings,

wind and chorus

Ex. 132).

No. 237.
Servilia

The Christmas Night, before

|_i8j

Shing

figure.

[m]

[29], Sin bar.

Strings Ex. Ob.


(cf.
,,

88).
Fl.;

No. 238.

The Golden

Bass Fag. Cockerel, before \V\ Wood-wind. [5] Fag. Eng. horn (+
CI.
cl..

'Cellos

piiz^.
*-

Chords
1.

of different

tone quality used alternately.


is to

The most usual

practice

employ chords on

different

groups

of

instruments

alternately.

In

dealing with

chords in different
of parts,

registers care should

be taken that the progression

though

broken

in

passing from one group to another, remains as regular


as
to
if

109

tfiis

there were no leap from octave to octave;

applies specially

chromatic passages in order to avoid false relation.

Examples :
No. 239.

Ivan the Terrible, Act

II

29

No.
*

240 241. The No. 242 243.

Tsar's Bride

No. 245.

110

Examples
Snegourotchka
[3T3] .

[ho]

(cf.

Ex. 244).

A
*

Fairy Tale [v].

Sheherazade,

2^ movement [d]
41I1

(cf.

Ex. 74).

movement
cf.

p.

221.

No. 246. Servilia [223];

also [44].
(cf.

The Christmas Night

[lesj

Ex. 143).

No. 247. The Tsar's Bride, before [205


* *

No. 248. No.

Russian Easter Fete [p]


Legend

249 250.

of Kitesh [\, [^67]

Repetition of phrases, imitation, echo.


As regards choice
the law of register.
it

of timbre, phrases in imitation are subject to

When

a phrase

is

imitated in the upper register

should be given to an instrument of higher range and vice versa.


this rule is

If

ignored an unnatural effect will be produced, as


in
its

when
lower

the

clarinet

upper range replies


rule

to

the

oboe

in the

compass

etc.

The same

must be

follov/ed in

dealing with

phrases, actually different, but similar in character; repeated phrases


of different character should
to each.

be scored

in a

manner most

suitable

Examples:

The Tsar's Bride


Legend

[T57], [TeTj

of Kitesh |4 0-4i

No. 251.
In

Spanish Capriccio
that
of
is

echo phrases,
in

to

say

imitation

entailing not only

decrease

volume

tone but also an effect of distance,


first,

the

second instrument should be weaker than the


should possess

but the two

brass following the


effect.

some sort of affinity. An echo given to muted same phrase not muted produces this distant
suited to echo a

Muted trumpets are eminently

theme

in

the oboes; flutes also

may

imitate clarinets

and oboes

successfully.

A wood-wind

instrument cannot be used to echo the strings, or


vice versa,

Ill

Imitation in

on account

of the dissimilarity in timbre.

octaves (with a decrease in resonance) creates an effect resembling

an echo.

Examples:
Ivan
the Terrible,

Act

111

\T\.

No. 252.
*

Sadko

[264

Spanish Capriccio

This example
(c.

is

not precisely an

echo but resembles one


*

in

character
before

Ex. 44).

Sheherazade,

41ii

movement

Sforzando-piano and piano^sforzando chords.


Besides the natural dynamic process of obtaining these marks
of

expression,

process which

depends upon the player, they

may
a)

also be produced

by

artificial

means

of orchestration.

At the

moment when
it

the

wood-wind begins a piano chord,

the strings attack


either

sforzando, a
In

compound chord

for preference,

arco or pizz.
at the

the opposite

case the sf in the

strings

must occur
is

end
for

of the

wood-wind chord.
and the second

The
for

first

method

also

employed

a sf-dim.,

a cresc.-sf.

effect.

b)

It

is

not so effective, and therefore less frequent to give the


to

notes of sustained value


the wood-wind.
In

the strings, and the short chords to


is

such cases the tenuto chord

played tremo-

lando on the strings.

Examples:
Vera Scheloga, before
No. 253.
fas],

ffl,

W^
|~1

bar.

Legend

of Kitesh, before

5-16
bar.

Sheherazade, 2"^ movement, |T],

1411^

Method
In

of

emphasising certain notes and chords.

order to stress or emphasise a certain note or chord, besides

the

marks

of expression

==

and

sj,

chords of

2, 3,

and 4 notes

can be inserted into the melodic progression by the instruments


of

the string quartet, each

playing a single note; short notes

in

the

wood-wind may

also be used as well as a chain of three or


wind.

112

woodvery

four grace noles, in the form of a scale, either in strings or

These unstressed notes


a kind of

(anacrusis), generally written

small, form
less

upward

glide, the

downward

direction being

common.

As a

rule they are connected to the

main note by

slur.

In the strings they should not lead up to chords of three


this

or four notes, as

would be awkward

for the

bow.

Examples:
No. 254.

The Tsar's Bride

142

Anacrusis

in the strings

*No. 255.

Sheherazade, 2n^ movement [c]

Short pizz. chords.


Short wind chords
(cf.

[p]

Ex. 19).

Crescendo and diminuendo.


Short crescendi and diminuendi are generally produced by natural

dynamic means; when prolonged, they are obtained by


devices.

this

method combined with other orchestral


the brass
is

After the strings,

the group most facile in producing

dynamic shades
brilliant

of expression, glorifying crescendo

chords into the most

sforzando climaxes.

Clarinets specialise in diminuendo effects

and
Pro-

are capable of decreasing their tone to a breath (morendo).

longed orchestral crescendi are obtained by the gradual addition


of

other instruments in the following order: strings, wood-wind,

brass.
of the

Diminuendo
of
this

effects

are accomplished by the elimination

instruments in the reverse order (brass, wood-wind, strings).

The scope

work does not lend

itself

to the quotation of

prolonged crescendo and diminuendo passages.


ferred, therefore, to the full scores:
*

The reader

is

re-

Sheherazade, pp.

57, 9296, 192200.

Antar

51

The Christmas Night

183

Sadko

165-166

*The Tsar's Bride

so-si
shorter
crescendi

Many examples
found
in Vol.
II.

of

and diminuendi

will

be

113

Diverging and converging progressions.


In the majority of cases,

diverging and converging progressions

simply consist in the gradual ascent of the three upper parts, with
the

bass

descending.
is

The distance separating


first,

the bass from the

other parts

trifhng at

and grows by degrees.

On

the other
first

hand, in converging progressions, the three upper parts, at


far distant

so

from the bass, gradually approach


involve

it.

Sometimes these
in

progressions

an increase or a
filled

decrease

tone.

The

intermediate intervals are


parts

up by the introduction
so
that

of fresh

as

the

distance widens,
In

the

upper parts become


tripled

doubled or trebled.

converging progressions the

and

doubled parts are simplified, as the duplicating instruments cease


to play.

Moreover,

if

the

harmony allows
is

it,

the group in the

middle region which remains stationary

the group to be retained,

or else the sustained note which guarantees unity in the operation.

Below, the reader

will find

double examples of both descriptions.


1.

The
the

first

pair represents a diverging progression,

piano, in which

human

voice takes part;

2.

a purely orchestral crescendo.


firstly

The

second depicts two similar diverging progressions,


crescendo, secondly dim.,

a gradual

during which the strings become more


to play.

and more divided as the wind instruments cease


accompanies the apparition
of Mlada, Ex. 259,

Ex. 258.

its

disappearance.

The atmosphere and colouring are weird and


pair of

fanciful.

The

third
In

examples forms instances


(Ex. 260) Princess
in

of

converging progressions.
relates

the
sea.

first

Volkhova

the

wonders

of the

Then

the middle of a powerful orchestral crescendo

the

Sea-King appears (Ex. 261).

Both examples include a sustained

stationary chord of the diminished seventh.

The handling

of

such

progressions requires the greatest care.

Examples:
No. 256257. No. 258259. No. 260261.

The Tsar's Bride


Mlada, Act
III

[T02]

and
[To].

[Tot].

[12]

and

Sadko
Ex. 112).
.

105

and

119

Sadko

[72j (cf.

before |315


*No. 262.
Note.

114

(cf.

*The Christmas Night, beginning

Ex. 106).

Antar, end of 3:^ movement.


sustained note between the diverging parts does not
to

always allow the empty space

be more complety

filled

up.

Example:
No. 263.

The Golden Cockerel, before

[Toe]

Tone quality as a harmonic


ilarmonic basis.
Melodic design comprising notes foreign
or grace notes, embellishments
outline should proceed at the
to essential
etc.,

force.

to the

harmony, passing
florid

does not permit that a

same time

with another one, reduced

and fundamental notes:


Melodic design.

*
If,

Fundamental notes.

^^ ^^
m
is

in the

above example, the upper part

transposed an octave

lower, the discordant effect produced by the contact of appogiaturas

and fundamental notes


is

will

be diminished; the quicker the

passage
But
it

played the less harsh the effect will be, and vice versa.
ill-advised to lay
of

would be

down any hard and


There
is

fast rule

as

to the permissible length

these notes.

no doubt that
are

the harmonic notes, the thirds of the fundamental one (E)

more prominent from


to the
if

their

proximity with the notes extraneous


of parts is increased (for instance,

harmony.

If

the

number
since,

the melodic figure

is in

thirds, sixths etc.), the question


to

becomes

still

more complicated,
for

the original

harmonic scheme,

chords with different root bases are added, producing false relation.
Nevertheless,
the
solution
of

such problems,
importance:

orchestration
difference
of

provides
timbres.

an

element of the greatest

The greater
less

the dissimilarity in timbre

between the har-

monic basis on the one hand and the melodic design on the
other,

the

discordant the notes extraneous

to

the

harmony

will sound.

115

is

The

best examjJle of this

to

be found between the


the
difference
of

human
and

voice

and the orchestra,

next

comes

timbres between the groups of strings, wood-wind, plucked strings


percussion
instruments.

Less

important

differences

occur

between wood-wind and brass;

in thes6

two groups, therefore, the

harmonic basis generally remains an octave removed from the


melodic design, and should be of inferior dynamic power.

Examples
No. 264.

of

harmonic basis in chords:

Pan
111

Voyevoda, Introduction.
(cf.

Legend

of Kitesh, Introduction
10

also Ex. 125 and

140).

*Mlada, Act

The harmonic
case
it

basis

may be ornamental

in character, in

which

should

move independently

of the concurrent

melodic design.

Examples:
*No.
(of.

265 266.

Tsar Saltan [103-10 4 1,

[m\ \m],
,

162-165

below).
in character

Chords the most widely opposed


on the chord

may be used on

a simple, stationary harmonic basis, a basis, founded, for example,


of ihe tonic or

diminished sevenih.

Examples
No. 267.

Legend
basis.

of Kitesh

326-328

Wood-wind and harps

on a string

No. 268-269.

Kashtche'i the
II,

Immortal

[ss], [43].

No. 270.
No. 271.

Mlada, Act

before Q?],
[T25]

[is]'

The Golden Cockerel

Chords
fifth).

0of the

diminished

seventh, on arpeggio basis (augmented

The

effect

of

alternating

harmony produced between two menote,

lodic figures,

e. g.

one transmitting a

held in

abeyance, to

the other, or the simultaneous progression of a figure in


tation
to

augmen-

and diminution

the ear

when

the

becomes comprehensible and pleasant iied harmony is different. fundamental si^


etc.
i

8*

34


Use
of percussion

117

instruments for rhythrii


colour.
executes
a

and
Whenever some
figure, percussion

portion of the orchestra

rhythmic

instruments should always be employed concurrently.

An

insignificant and playful

rhythm is suitable to the triangle, tambourine,


a vigourous and straightforward rhythm

castanets and side drum,

may be

given to the bass drum, cymbals and gong.

The strokes
to the

on these instruments should almost invariably correspond

strong beats of the bar, highly-accented syncopated notes or disconnected sforzandi.

The

triangle, side

drum and tambourine

are capable of
is

various rhythmic figures.

Sometimes the percussion


the two groups

used sepa-

rately, independently of any other group of instruments.

The brass and wood-wind are


most
satisfactorily
triangle, side

which combine the

with percussion from the standpoint of colour.

The

drum, and tambourine go best with harmony

in

the upper
lower.

register; cymbals, bass

drum and gong

with

harmony

in the

The following are

the combinations most generally employed:


trills in

tremolo on the triangle and tambourine with


violins;
sticks,

wood-wind and

tremolo on the side drum, or cymbals struck with

drum

and sustained chords on trumpets and horns; tremolo on the

bass drum or the gong with chords on trombones or low sustained


notes on 'cellos and double basses.
the bass drum, cymbals,
It

must not be forgotten

that

gong and
to

a tremolo

on the side drum,


tutti.

played fortissimo,

is

sufficient

overpower any orchestral

*The reader
in

will find instances of the

use of percussion instruments


of

any

full

score,

and

in

several examples

the present work.

Examples:
*

Sheherazade pp. 107

119, also many passages


Ex. 73, 29).

in 4'^

movement:

Antar
*

[40],

[43]

(cf.

in

Spanish capriccio [p] (cf. Ex. 64); the cadences to be studied the 4^ movement, where they are accompanied by various perRussian Easter Fete [k]

cussion instruments.
*
"

(cf.

Ex. 217).

The Tsar's Bride[m\.


Legend
of Kitesh
7i
1

96- 197
72

"The

Battle of Kerj^metz".

Pan Voyevoda

118

Economy
the
full

in orchestral colour.
itself

Neither musical feeling nor the ear

can stand, for long,


together.

resources

of

the

orchestra

combined

The

favourite

group

of instruments is the strings, then follow in order

the wood-wind, brass, kettle-drums, harps, pizzicato effects, and lastly


the percussion, also, in point of order, triangle, cymbals, big drum,
side drum, tambourine, gong.

Further removed stand the celesta,

glockenspiel

and xylophone, which instruments, though melodic,


said of the piano and castanets.

are too characteristic in timbre to be employed over frequently.

The same may be


national

quantity of

instruments

not

included

in

the

present

work may be

incorporated into the orchestra; such are the guitar, the domra,
zither,

mandoline, the oriental tambourine, small tambourine

etc.

These instruments are employed from time


aesthetic purposes.

to time for descriptive-

These instruments are most frequently used


order.

in the

above-named

A group

of

instruments which has been silent for


its

some

time gains fresh interest upon trumpets

reappearance.
tacet

The trombones,
long periods, the
all

and tuba are occasionally


is

for

percussion
but
in

seldom employed, and practically never


or
in

together,

single instruments
in

two's

and

three's.

In

national

dances or music
used more
freely.

ballad style, percussion instruments

may be

After a long rest the re-entry of the horns,

trombones and tuba


of tone, either

should coincide with some characteristic intensity

pp
a
of

or //; piano and forte re-entries are less successful, while re-

introducing these instruments mezzo-forte or mezzo-piano produces


colourless and

common-place
any piece

effect.

This remark
it

is

capable

wider application.
or finish

For the same reasons


of
in

is

not

good

to

commence
illustrating

scope of the musical examples

music either mf or mp. The this work does not permit of

by quotation the use

of

economy

in orchestral colour,

nor the re-entry of instruments thrown into prominence by prolonged


rests.

The reader must examine these questions

in full scores.

Chapter V.
COMBINATION OF THE HUMAN VOICE WITH ORCHESTRA. THE STAGE BAND.

Orchestral accompaniment of solo voices.


General remarks.
In

accompanying the voice orchestral scoring should be


for the singer to

light

enough
of

make
is

free use of
of

all

the

dynamic shades

expression

without
full

hardness

tone.

In

overflowing lyrical

moments, where

voice

required, the singer should be well

supported by the orchestra.

Opera singing may be divided

into

two general

classes, lyric

singing and declamation or recitative.

The

full,

round, legato aria

affords greater facility for tone production


recitative,

than florid

music or

and the more movement and rhythmic


part, the

detail contained

in the vocal

greater freedom and liberty must there be


In

given

to

the

voice.

such a case the

latter

should

not

be

doubled by the orchestra, neither should rhythmical figures be written


for

any instrument corresponding with those

in the vocal part.

In
in

accompanying the voice the composer should bear these points

mind before turning

his attention to the choice of orchestral colour.

confused, heavy accompaniment will overpower the singer; an


is

accompaniment which
and one which
In to
is

too simple in character will lack interest,


will not sustain the voice sufficiently.
is

too
it

weak
is

modern opera

rare that orchestral writing


It

confined

accompaniment pure and simple.


musical idea,
often

frequently happens that the


in

principal

complex

character, is contained

in the orchestra.

Th? voice may then be


for

said to form the


interest.
It

accom-

paniment,

exchanging musical

literary

becomes


subordinate
to

120

it

the

orchestra,

as though

were an extra
is

part^

subsequently added as an after-thought. But

it

evident that great

care must be taken with orchestral writing in such cases.

The

scoring must not be so heavy or complicated as to drown the


voice and prevent the words from being heard, thereby breaking
the thread of the text, and leaving the musical imagery unexplained,

Certain

moments may
a voice
of
if

require great volume of orchestral tone, so

great

that

even

phenomenal power
is

is

incapable

of

being heard.

Even

the singer

audible, such unequal struggles


inartistic,

between voice and orchestra are most


should reserve his
orchestral
silent,

and the composer


intervals

outbursts

for the

during

which the voice

is

distributing the

singer's phrases

and

pauses in a free and natural manner, according to the sense of


the words.
it

If

a prolonged forte passage occurs in the orchestra

may be used

concurrently with action on the stage.

All artificial

reduction of tone contrary to the true feeling of a passage, the sole


object being to allow the voice to

come

through, should be strictly


its

avoided, as
It

it

deprives orchestral writing of

distinctive brilliance.

must also be remembered that too great a


tone

disparity in

volume

of

between

purely

orchestral

passages

and those which


Therefore,

accompany the voice

create an
is

inartistic

comparison.

when

the

orchestra

strengthened by the use of wood-wind in


in large

three's or four's,

and brass

numbers, the division of tone

and colour must be manipulated


In

skillfully

and with the greatest


music

care.

previous sections

have frequently stated

that the structure


itself.

of the orchestra is closely related to the


of a vocal

The scoring
mnaner, and,
well written

work proves

this relationship in a striking

indeed,

it

may be

stipulated

that only that

which

is

can be well orchestrated.

Transparence of accompaniment.
The group
one
of strings
is

Harmony.
medium and
the

the most transparent

the

least likely to

overpower the voice.

Then come

wood-

wind and the

brass, the latter in the following order: horns, trom-

bones, trumpets.

A
more

combination

of

strings, pizz.,

and the harp

forms a setting eminently favourable for the voice.


rule a singer is
easily

As a general

overpowered by long sustained notes


Strings doubled in the

than by short detached ones.

wood-wmd


liable to

121

easily

and brass, and brass doubled by wood-wind are combinations

drown

the singer.

This

may be done even more

by tremolando

in the kettle-drums

and other percussion instruments,


Doubling

which, even by themselves are capable of overpowering any other


orchestral

group of instruments.

of

wood-wind and
be avoided,

horns, and the use of two clarinets, two oboes or two horns in

unison

to

form

one harmonic part

is

likewise

to

as such combinations will have a similar effect on the voice.

The

frequent use of long sustained notes in the double basses

is

another

course unfavourable to the


with the

singer; these

notes

in

combination
effect.

human

voice produce a peculiar throbbing

Juxtaposition of strings and

wood-wind which overweights


nevertheless be employed
in
if

legato

or declamatory singing
the groups forms

may

one

of

the

harmony
design,,

sustained notes and the other


for

executes

melodic

when,

instance

the

sustaining

instruments are clarinet, and bassoon, or bassoon and horn, and the

melodic design
case,

is

entrusted to violins or violas


is

or

in the opposite

when

the

harmony

given to violas and 'cellos divisi, and

the harmonic figure to the clarinets.

Sustained harmony in the register of the second octave to the

middle of the third does not overpower women's voices, as these


develop
voices,

outside

this

range;

neither

is

it

too

heavy for men's


itself

which although opening out within the range


in

sound
rule

an octave higher, as

the

case of the tenor voice.

As a

women's voices
with

suffer

more than men's when they come

in contact

harmony
in

in

a register similar to their own. Taken separately,

and used

moderation, each group of orchestral instruments


to

may

be considered favourable
of

each type of voice. But the combination

two or three groups cannot be so considered unless they each


full

play an independent part and are not united together at

strength.

Incessant four-part
will

harmony
of

is to

be deprecated.
of

Satisfactory results
is

be obtained when the number


with

harmonic parts

gradually

decreased,
the

some

them sustaining

pedal, notes,
is

and when

harmony, interspersed with necessary pauses

confined to

the limits of

one octave, distributed over several octaves, or dupli-

cated in the higher register.

These manipulations allow the composer


aid;
in

to

come

to the singer's

voice-modulations,

when

the singer passes from the can-


tabile

122
the

to

the

declamatory

style,
is

composer may reduce or


support the voice by a

eliminate

some harmony which


diminishes,

found to be too heavy as the

vocal

tone

and

conversely,

fuller orchestral

tone in broad phrases and climaxes.

Ornamental writing and polyphonic accompaniment should never

be too

intricate in character, entailing the

use of an unnecessary

number
chance

of instruments.

Some

complicated figures are better partially


little

entrusted to pizz. strings and harp, as this combination has


of

overpowering the voice.

Some examples

of

accompanying

an aria are given below.

Examples:
The Tsar's Bride, Lykow's supplementary Aria (Act
1619
No. 277.
*
III).

Griasnov's Aria.

Snegoiirotchka

45

Snegourotchka
(cf.

187188

212213

the two Cavatinas of Tsar

Berendey

extracts, Ex. 102, 225).


143

No. 278. Sadko

204-206
*

The

Venetian's Song.
(cf.

Legend

of Kitesh [39-41

222-2231
163

Ex. 31).

The Golden Cockerel


singing which

153-157
limits

Florid

volume

of

tone

requires

a light
dupli-

accompaniment, simple
cation of instruments.

in outline

and colour, involving no

'Examples:
No. 279. Snegourotchka 42-48
-

Snegourotchka's Aria (Prologue),

Fragment.

"Sadko
*

195197

Hindoo Song
45-50

(cf.

Ex. 122).

The Christmas Night

Oxana's Aria.

The Golden Cockerel |i3i 136|

Aria

of

Queen Shemakha.

Doubling voices

in the orchestra.
(in

Melodic doubling of voices by orchestral instruments


or octaves)
is

unison

of frequent occurrence, but incessant duplication for of time

an extended period
missible
in

should

be avoided;
natural

it

is

only perin

isolated

phrases.

The most

duplication

unison of womens' voices


is

123

violins, violas, clarinets


'cellos,

performed by

and oboes;
horns.

that

of

mens' voices by

violas,

bassoons and upper


register.

Doubling

in octaves is usually

done

in the

Trombones and trumpets overpower


for this purpose.

the voice and cannot be used

Uninterrupted or too frequent duplication should


of

be avoided, not only because the operation deprives the singer


full

freedom

of

expression,

but

also

because

it

replaces

by a
voice.

mixed timbre the rare


Doubling,

characteristic qualities of the


to

human

when

limited
it

few special phrases supports the


It

voice and endows


ki tempo; to
is

with beauty and colour.


in

is

only suitable
lib.

apply

it,

unison or octaves to a passage ad.

both ineffective and dangerous.

Examples:
Snegourotchka 5052

Snegourotchka's Arietta
Cradle-song
(cf.

(cf.

Ex. 41).

Sadko 1^09 3ii\


Besides the

Volkhova's
of

Ex. 81).

question

doubling the voice for the object of

colour there are instances


a phrase, allotted in
its

when

the singer executes only part of

entirely to

an orchestral instrument.

Example:
Vera Scheloga
Lyrical
[so], [aa] (cf.

Ex. 49).
for the

climaxes,

a plena voce, or dramatic passages


its

voice situated outside


dically

normal range should be supported meloin the register in

and harmonically by the orchestra,


is

which

the

voice

placed.

The culminating

point

in

such

passages

often coincides with the entry or sudden attack of the

trombones

or other brass instruments, or by a rush of strings.


the accompaniment in this

Strengthening

manner

will soften the tone of the voice

Examples
No. 280.
Servilia

The Tsar's Bride


[1 26-127

[206].

232

No. 281.

Sadko

[314

Vera Scheloga

[^Tj.

If

124

and outline
it

the culminating point

is

soft in colour

is

better

left

unsupported

in

the orchestra, but sometimes the wood-wind,

sustaining such passages with light transparent melody or

harmony

may produce an

entrancing

effect.

Examples:
Snegourotchka
[Tss],

[sis] (cf. Ex. 119).

No. 282.
It

The Tsar's Bride \2u]

is

common

practice to support voices in concerted


duplication;
this

numbers

by harmony and

operation

makes

for accuracy
etc.

and

brilliance

when

applied to duets, trios, quartets

Examples:
Snegourotchka [^92^293]

Duet
(cf.

(cf.

Ex. 118).

Sadko
No. 283.

99-101

Duet

Ex. 289
169 117

and

290).

The Tsar's Bride

sextet.

quartet.

Legend

of

Kitesh [341]

quartet

and sextet

(cf.

Ex. 305).

The

beautiful effect

produced by a solo instrument accompanying


In

a cantabile aria cannot be denied.

such cases the instruments


'cello,

used are generally the


Eng. horn,
clar.,

violin, viola,
clar.,

and

or the

flute,

oboe,

bass

bassoon, horn and harp.

The accom-

paniment

is

often contrapuntal or

composed

of

polyphonic designs.

The solo instrument


ciated

either plays alone or as the leading melodic


In

voice in the ensemble.

combination with the voice, or asso-

with

some

action

on

the

stage,

solo

instrument

is

powerful expedient for musical characterisation.


description are numerous.

Instances of this

Examples

Soprano and oboe Ex. Contralto and Eng. horn. Baritone and bass No. 284. Soprano, The Tsar's Bride The Golden Cockerel Soprano and viola
Snegourotchka

[50j
~97J
(cf.

41).

"243]

[245]

clar. (cf. Ex.

4748)-

[Tos]

'cello

and oboe.
Ex. 226).

163

(cf.


It

125

is

is

comparetively rare for percussion instruments to take part


voice.

in

accompanying the

The

triangle

occasionally used, the

cymbals

less frequently.

An accompaniment may be formed by

figure or a tremolo

on the kettle-drums.

Examples:
Snegourolchka
[97],

[224),

[^

(Lell's

m and

3il songs).

Tsar Saltan, before [?].


161

handled with greater regard


the action

126

words, and
refer the reader to operatic full

to its relationship to the

on the

stage.

This tlass of orchestration can only be


I

studied from lengthy examples.

scores and content myself with giving one or short instances:

Examples:
No. 287.

Snegourotchka

16

No. 288.

The Tsar's Bride

124125
similar from a musical point

The following double examples,

a vieW; show different methods of handling an orchestra from the


standpoint of accompaniment to the voice, and the
tutti

form.

Examples:
No.

28929 1

Sadko |99 ioi| and 305-307 (compare also Ex. 75).


1

Vera Scheloga |3-7| and

28

Care should be taken not


panying singers
in the wings.

to

score too heavily

when accom-

Examples:
*No. 292.
*

Sadko
of Kitesh

316

318
,

320

Legend

286-289

304

305

Orchestral accompaniment of the chorus.


The chorus, possessing much greater unity and power than the solo voice, does not demand such careful handling in the accompaniment.

On

the contrary, too great a refinement of orchestral

treatment will prove harmful to the resonance of the chorus. As

a general rule orchestration of choral works follows the rules

laid

down
marks
the

for purely instrumental scoring.


of expression

It

is

obvious that dynamic

must correspond

in

both bodies, but doubling


of

one orchestral group with another and coupling instruments

same kind

in

unison (2 Ob., 2
if

CI.,

4 Horns, 3 Trombones
to

etc.)

are both possible operations,

performed according

the rein-

quirements of the musical context.


struments
is

Doubling choral parts by


In cantabile

generally a good plan.

passages such

duplication

127
in

and the design more

may be melodic
in the

character,

ornamental

orchestra than in the chorus.

Examples:
Ivan the Terrible, Act
II

|3-6|

Act

III

66-69
1

The

May

Night, Act

[x^y]; Act
147-153
1

III
[

I-Ee
31-36

Ddd Ft!

Snegourotchka [6i-73j,

323-328

Mlada, Act

II

22-3T], [45-63

Act IV
115123

The Christmas Night

59-61
1

SadkO

37-39

I,

50-53

I,

[7986
270273

173

177

187

189

218221

233

The Tsar's Bride 2930


Tsar Saltan 6771
9193
167

40-42

50-59

141

133145

207208

Legend

of Kitesh

177-178

The Golden Cockerel

237-238
instances

262-264
of

The

reader will

find

choral

accompaniment
work.

in

many examples relating


In

to other sections of the

the

case

of

solitary
is

exclamations or phrases in
It

recitative,

melodic doubling
the voice simply

not always suitable.

is

better to support

by harmonic duplication.

The

repetition of notes

required

by declamation

forming no

fundamental part

of the rhythmical structure of a

phrase or chord

should not be reproduced in the orchestra; the melodic or har-

monic basis alone should be doubled.


structure
of a choral

Sometimes the rhythmical


comparison with
its

phrase

is

simplified in

orchestral duplication.

Examples :
No. 293. No. 294.

The Tsar's Bride


Ivan
the

[96],
I,

Terrible, Act

before

[ts].

Choral passages, the musical context of which


itself,

is

complete in

forming a chorus a capella often remains undoubled by the

orchestra,

accompanied solely by sustained notes or an indepen-

dent polyphonic figure.


No. 295.
*

128

Examples:

Sadko
207

[219].

Tsar Saltan

Legend

of Kttesh

167

(cf.

Ex. 116).

The Golden Cockerel


Heavier scoring
is

236
for

required for a mixed chorus;


still

a male
for

voice chorus the orchestration should be lighter;

more so

women's voices
for scenic

alone.

In scoring a certain

passage the composer

should not lose sight of the


conditions

number

of choristers

he

is

employing,
that
figure.

may

necessitate a reduction

of

The approximate number should be marked


a basis upon which
to

in the full score as

work.

Examples:
No. 296.
*

Ivan the Terrible, Act


17

II

37

Sadko

voice and chorus, of the

129

such cases the soloist should

same

timbre, or mixed chorus, creates


In

a certain amount of

difficulty.

sing in a higher register than the chorus, the former a plena voce,
the latter piano.

The

soloist should stand as

near to the footlights


should be

as

possible; the chorus up-stage.


soloist,

The

orchestration

adapted to the

not (o the chorus.

Examples :
"

No. 298.

Snegourotchka
Act

143
II

Ivan the Terrible.

[st]

(cf.

Ex. 296).
is

When
distinctly.

the chorus sings in the wings the soloist

always heard

Examples
Ivan the Terrible, Act
*
I

2526
Ccc

The

May

Night, Act
111

III

*Sadko

[T02] ,

Instruments on the stage and in the wings.


The use
distant
of instruments

on the stage or
Giovanni,

in the

wings dates from


in

times
In the

(Mozart,

Don

string

orchestra

Act

I,

finale).

middle

of last

century orchestras of brass instruments,

or brass and wood-wind combined,


stage
(Glinka, Meyerbeer,

made
and

their

appearance on the

Gounod
this

others).

More modern

composers have abandoned

clumsy

practice, not only unfor-

tunate from the spectators' point of view, but also detrimental to the mediaeval or legendary setting of the majority of operas.

Only

those stage instruments are

now used which


is

suit the

scene and

surroundings in which the opera


in

laid.

As regards instruments
the

the wings,

invisible to

the

audience,

question

is

simple.

Nevertheless, for the musician of today the choice of these instru-

ments must be regulated by aesthetic

considerations of greater

importance than those governing the selection of a military band.

The instruments are played


of

in the

wings, those visible on the stage

are only for ornament. Sometimes stage-instruments

may be replicas

those

common

to

the period which the opera represents, (the

sacred horns in Mlada, for example). The orchestral accompaniment


9


must vary
in

130

impossible to
illustrate the

power according
in

to the characteristics of the instruis

ments played

the wings.

It

use

of all the instruments mentioned below, and to outline suitable accompaniments. I can only give a few examples and refer the

reader once again to the passages in the


a)

full

scores.

Trumpets:
Servilia
*

12

25

Legend

of Kitesh
139

53

55

60

*Tsar Saltan

and further on.

b) Horns, in the form of hunting horns:

Pan Voyevoda 3839


c)

Trombones, leaving the orchestra

to

go on the

stage;

Pan Voyevoda
d) Cornets:

|i9i|

Ivan the Terrible, Act


e)

III

[T], [T].
in various keys):

Sacred horns (natural brass instruments

Mlada, Act
f)

II,

pp. 179 onwards.

Small clarinets and piccolos:


No.

299 300. Mlada,

Act

III

37

g) Pipes of Pan:

instruments,

specially
lips.

made, with many holes

which are passed over the


sharp, G, A),

These particular pipes proflat,

duce a special enharmonic scale {B

C,

flat,

E flat,

E,

which has the


(cf.

effect of a glissando:

Mlada, Act

III

\m\, [43]

Ex. 300).

h) Harp, reproducing the effect of an aeolian harp:

Kashtchei the Immortal


i)

[32]

and further on

(cf.

Ex. 268, 269).

Lyres.
to

Instruments specially

made and tuned


Ex. 300).

so as to be able

perform a glissando chord of the diminished seventh:


III

Mlada, Act
k) Pianoforte,

[39],

43

(cf.

grand or upright:

Mozart and Salieri 2223


1)

Gong, imitathig a church


Ivan the Terrible, Act
I

bell:

67

and

farther on.


Tsar Saltan
n)
139

131

imitate

m) Bass Drum (without cymbals)


and
in
later.

to

the

sound

of

camion:

Small kettle-drum,

flat

(3iil

octave):

Mlada, Act

III

[41]

and

later (cf. Ex. 60).

0) Bells in various keys:

Sadko

[T28]

and

139

No. 301.
323
*

Legend
later.

of Kitesh [78?]

and

further on.

See also

[241],

and

Tsar Saltan

[T39]

and further

on.

p)

Organ:
No. 302. Sadko
[^ 99-30o]
.

Wood-w^ind and strings are comparitively seldom used on the


stage or in the wings.
in
this

In

Russian opera the strings are employed


in a splendidly
:

racteristic

way by Rubinstein {GoriouchaJ^ and manner by Serov (Hostile Power)


clarinet
is

cha-

in the latter

opera

the

flat

used

to

imitate

the

fife

in

the

Carnival

procession. (1)

(1)

Mention should be made of the happy use of a small orchestra


(2 pice, 2
cl.,

in the

wings
in

2 horns,
II,

tro mbone,
I.

tambourine, 4 Vni, 2 violas,

D-bass)

The

May

Night, Act

Sc.

IjVl-Pj.

(Editor's note.)

Chapter VI (Supplementary).
VOICES.

Technical Terms.
Among
all

the confused terms employed in singing to denote

the compass, register and character of the


four which

human

voice, there are

may be
of

said to represent elemental types:

soprano,
to

alto or contralto, tenor

and bass.

These names are used

denote

the

composition
to
etc.)

the

chorus with sub-divisions of


the parts must be divided.
of

firsts

and
I,

secondSj

determine

how

(Sopr.

Sopr.

II

While the range

an instrument

is

exactly governed

by

its

construction, the ^compass of the voice,


of

on the other hand,


It

depends on the individuality

the singer.

is

therefore im-

possible to define the exact limits of each of these vocal types.

When

it

is

a question of dividing choristers into


the

I2I

and 2^

parts,

those with
vice versa.

higher voices

are classed

among

the firsts

and

Besides the principal terms mentioned above, the

names mezzo-

soprano (between sop. and


bass) are also employed.
Note.
In

alto),

and baritone (between tenor and

the chorus mezzo-sopranos


211^

are

classed with

2^

sopranos or

lii altos, baritones with

tenors or

first

basses, according to quality and

timbre of voice.

Apart from these denominations which represent the six principal solo voices, a quantity of others are in use to denote either

compass, timbre or technique,

such as

hght soprano,

soprano

^iusto, lyric soprano, dramatic soprano, light tenor, tenorino-altino,

bary ton-martin, lyric tenor, dramatic tenor, basso cantante ("singing


bass"),

basso profondo (deep bass)

etc.

To

this lengthy list

must

be added
(between
If

133

of

the
lyric

term

mezzo- car attere,

intermediate

character

and dramatic soprano,

for example).
it

we

try to

discover the real meaning of these designations

soon becomes apparent that they are derived from widely different
sources

for instance, "light

soprano" implies

agility

and mobility
strong dra-

in the voice;

"dramatic tenor", the power


basso

to express

matic feeling;

profondo signifies great resonance in the

deep

register.
of
all

Minute examination
of

the methods of attack and emission


to

sound

lies

within the province of the singing master and

enumerate them here would only perplex the student.


applies to the position

The same

and exact
in

limits

of register

(chest voice,

middle and head voice


falsetto

women;
of a
its

chest voice, mixed voice and

in

men).

The work

teacher of singing consists in

equalising
transition

the voice

throughout

whole compass, so
on
all

that the

from one register

to another,

the vowels,

may be

accomplished imperceptibly.
flexible.

Some

voices are naturally even and


faults in breathing,

The professor

of singing

must correct

determine the range of the voice and place


increase
its

it,

equalise

its

tone,

flexibility, instruct

as to the pronunciation of vowels,


etc.

modulation from one grade of expression to another,


poser should

A com-

be able

to

rely

upon

flexible

and equal voices


for a
it

without having to trouble himself as to the abilities or defects of


individual singers.
particular artist,
In

these days a part

is

seldom written

and composers and

librettists

do not

find

ne-

cessary to entrust a certain role to fioriture singers, another to

heavy dramatic voices.

Poetic and artistic considerations

demand

greater variety of resource in the study of opera or vocal music


in general.

Soloists.

Range and
I

register.
F.

advise the composer

to

be guided by Table

which gives

the approximate range of the six principal solo voices.

bracket

under the notes defines the normal octave, the register


the voice
is

in

which

generally used.

Within these limits the composer

may

write freely without

fear of hardening or tiring the voice.

The normal octave


tative; the

134

and
reci-

applies aJso to declamatory singing


it

notes above

are exceptional

and should be used


Employing voices

for

the culminating points of a passage or for climaxes, the notes

below, for the

fall

or decline of a melody.

in

unusual registers for long periods of time will weary both singer

and
brief

listener,

but

these

registers

may

occasionally

be used for

intervals

so as not to confine the voice too strictly to one


to illustrate

octave.

few examples are added

melody

in different

types of voices.

Examples:

The Tsar's Bride

02- 109
18

(for extracts cf. Ex. 256, 280,

284)

Marfa's Aria (Soprano).

Snegomotchka

(cf.

I26

Griaznov's Aria (Baritone).


of Lell. (Contralto).

The 3 songs

Sadko [46^49]
[T

extract, Ex. 120)

Sadko's Aria (Tenor).

29-131I

(cf.

Lioubava's Aria (Mezzo-sopr.).


extract, Ex. 131)

[1 9119 3]

Bass Aria.

Vocalisation.

good vocal melody should contain notes


values,

of

at

least

three

different

minims,

crotchets
etc.).
it

and

quavers
in

(or

crotchets,

quavers and semiquavers


is

Monotony
is

rhythmic construction

unsuited. to vocal

melody;
cases.

applicable to instrumental music,

but

only
of

in

certain

Cantabile-

melody

requires

fair

number
occur
at

long notes, and a change of syllable in a word should

moment when
Owing
to

the voice quits a long sustained note.

Short, single notes,

changing

wHh

every syllable produce a har-

monious

effect.

the requirements of diction, extended

melodic figures sung legato on one syllable must be used with


care on the part of the composer;
to

perform these the singer


flexibility

must

possess
possibility

greater

command
all

ov^r

and technique.
is

The
in

of taking

breath in the right place


vocal writing.

one

of the

conditions essential to

Breath cannot be taken

the middle of a word, sometimes not even during the course

of

a sentence or phrase in the text; hence the voice part must


rests.

be suitably interspersed with

135

Voices.

Table F.

Chorus
Soprano.

Contralto.

Tenor.

Bass.
except

Soloists:

Tenor.

Baritone.

scept


Note.
It

136

some words upon which


the

must be remembered

that there are

voice

These words may be nouns, pronouns, numerals, prepositions, conjunctions and other parts of It would be impossible and ridiculous, for instance, to write a speech. sustained note on such words as "who", "he" etc. The voice may dwell on certain words which, so to speak, possess some poetical colour (1).

may

not dwell, or sing more than one or two notes.

Examples:
No. 303.

Sadko
"

[iae]

Sadko's Aria (Tenor).

r^09-3ii] (8ee extract, Ex. 81). Volkhova's Cradle

Song
Snegourotchka

(Soprano).
Spring's Aria (Mezzo-sopr.).

[V]

Fairy

187188

212213 (see extracts, Ex. 102 and 225)


of

[247]

the two Cavatinas Tsar Berendey (Tenor). Miskir's Aria (Baritone).


Vowels.

As regards
and
in the

vocalisation

on one

syllable,

on long sustained notes


is

high register, the choice of vowels

a matter of

some
lips

importance.
in

The
The
i,

difference in the position of the

mouth and
is

forming the open vowel a and the closed vowel ou


series of vowels
e,

apparent
of

to everyone.

from the point

of

view

open

sounds

is:

a,
is

o,

u.

In
it

women's voices the


is

easiest

vowel on

high notes

a,

for

men

o.

The vowel

softens the pene-

trating quality of the top notes of a bass voice,

and the vowel a

adds
florid

to the

extension of range in the very lowest compass. Lengthy

passages are often written on the interjection ah, or simply

that

Here the author approaches a question so well known to the Russians does not require any further elucidation for their guidance. But a whole book would have to be written to form a compendium of practical rules on this subject, and to point out the errors which nearly all French composers openly commit even those who are famous for their sense of diction and literary style. We can only conclude that the question has come to be considered of minor importance in France, perhaps on account of the lack of definite stress on the syllables of words, which is characteristic of the French language. It is not within the translator's province to discuss the question of French versification or to elaborate the excellent maxims laid down by Rimsky-Korsakov, the first, among many, to touch upon this delicate and important subject.
(1)
it

(Translator's note.)


on the vowel
a.

137
the restrictions

Owing

to

imposed by

literary

and dramatic laws, the composer can only follow the above rules
to a limited extent.

Examples:
Snegourotchka
No. 304.
[293],
[83] .

|318-319|

(cf.

Ex. 119).

Sadko

Flexibility.

Voices possess the greatest amount of


octave.

flexibility in their

normal

Women's

voices are

types, the higher voice is the

more supple than men's, but in all more agile, sopranos in women, the
florid

tenor voice in men.

Although capable 6f performing

and

complicated figures, different varieties of phrasing and the rapid

change from staccato


flexible

to legato, the

human
In

voice

is

infinitely less

than a musical instrument.

passages of any rapidity,

diatonic scales

and arpeggios

in thirds

come

easiest to the voice.

Intervals bigger than

fourths in quick succession

and chromatic

scales are extremely difficult

Skips of an octave or more starting


Preparation should
it

from a short note should always be avoided.

precede any extremely high note either by leading up to


or by the clear leap of a fourth,
the voice
fifth

gradually,

or octave; but sometimes

may

attack a high note without

any due preparation.

Examples:
Snegourotchka

4648

(cf.

extract, Ex.

279)

Snegourotchka's

Aria (Soprano).

9697

Lell's first

song

(Contralto).

Sadko

196193

(cf.

extract, Ex. 122)

Hindoo song (Tenor).

203206

Venetian

song

(Baritone).

Pan Voyevoda 2026

Maria's cradle song (Sopr).

Colour and character of voices.


The colouring
of the voice,

whether

it

be

brilliant or dull,

sombre

or sonorous depends upon the individual singer, and the composer

has no need to consider

it.

The

chief question

is

interpretation

and may be solved by the judicious choice

of artists.

From

the


into

138

may be
divided

point of view of flexibility and expression voices

two

classes, lyric

and dramatic.

The

latter is

more powerful

and

of greater range, the

former possesses more suppleness and

elasticity

and

is

more

readily disposed to different shades of exis

pression.

Granted that the rare combination of the two classes

the composer's ideal, he should nevertheless be content to follow the

main

artistic

purpose which he has set out the achieve.

In in

complicated

and important works the composer should bear

mind
over,

the characteristic^ of the various voices he employs; moreif

he use two voices

of the

same

calibre,

e. g.

2 Sopranos

or 2 Tenors, he should discriminate between the range and register


of their respective parts, writing for

one

slightly higher than the


of

other.

It

is

no rare occurence
a modified extent.
roles

to

meet with voices

an

inter-

mediate

character
to

(mezzo-carattere)

combining the

qualities

of

each type

To such voices
characteristics

the
of

composer
class,

may

assign

demanding the
and
lyric

each

especially secondary roles.


suitable to the dramatic
to give

At the present day, besides the roles


type of voice,
it

is

customary

prominence

to

those demanding some

special qualifications,

voices of a certain tenderness or power, a specified range or degree


of flexibility

attributes decided

by the

artistic object in
is

view.

In

casting

secondary and minor roles the composer


less exacting
the
first

advised to
technique.

employ a medium range and


Note.
After Meyerbeer,

demands on

who was

to write

for a special type of

heavy mezzo-soprano and baritone, Richard Wagoner created a type of powerful dramatic soprano, of extensive rang^e, combining^ the quality and scope of the

soprano and mezzo-soprano voices; likewise a similar type of tenor, possessing


the attributes and
that voices shall

be equally

that singers shall

and baritone together. To demand and resonant in the high and low register, be endowed with a super-poweriul breathing apparatus and

compass

of the tenor

brilliant

an extraordinary faculty for resistance tO fatigue (Siegfried, Parsifal, Tristan, Briinhilda, Kundry, Isolda), is to exact something little short of the miraculous. Such voices are to be found, but there are some singers with excellent though
not phenominal vocal powers, who, by the constant pursuit of Wagnerian parts endeavour to increase their range and volume, and only succeed in depriving the voice of correct intonation, beauty of tone, and all subtlety of nuances. I believe that less exacting demands and greater perception of what is required, skilful and judicious use of the high and low registers of the voice, a proper understanding of cantabile writing combined with orchestration which

from an

never overpowers the vocal part will be of greater service to the composer, artistic point of view, than the more elaborate methods of Richard

Wagner.

139

Voices in combination.
Treating solo voices in a polyphonico-harmonic
best

manner

is

the

method

of preserving their individual character in ensembles.

distribution

which

is

wholly harmonic or entirely polyphonic


plan,

is

seldom found.
simplifies the

The first movement of

largely

used in

choral

writing,

the voices too greatly, eliminating their


is

melodic character; the second method


disturbing to the ear.

wearisome and somewhat


to the

As a general rule the voices are arranged according


of

law

normal

register.

Crossing of parts
of

is

rare and should only be

done with the intention

emphasising the melody in the ascending


e. g.

voices above those adjacent in register,


contralto, the

the tenor part above


etc.

mezzo-soprano above the soprano,

Duet.
to the proper movement of parts are those of two voices related within an octave 8 [?P^-, ^^^'^^',

The combinations most conducive

gat"**

Movement
will

in tenths, sixths, thirds or octaves (the last very


if

seldom)

always produce satisfactory ensemble, and


it

the parts progress


that

polyphonically,

need

not

happen

frequently

they

are

separated by

more than a

tenth,

or that undesirable crossing of

parts will result.

Examples :
Sadko 99-101
Servilla
143

Ivan

the

Sopr. and Tenor Sopr. and Tenor. 4850 Sopr. Terrible, Act
I
.

(cf.

Ex. 289, 290).

and Tenor.

Kashtchei the Immortal 6264


Voices related in
fifths

Mezzo-sopr. and Baritone.


[I^p^Iq,
is

and

fourths, 5

4 [j^^^'', 5 [[" Bass.

should progress nearer to one another;


in tenths,

it

rare for

them

to

move

common

in sixths

and

thirds; they

may
at

also proceed in

unison.

The two voices are seldom separated

a greater distance

than ah octave, and certain cases will require crossing of parts,

which, however, should only be for periods of short duration.

Snegourotchka
263264

140

Alto.

Examples :

Soprano and

The Christmas Night


Legend
of Kitesh

7880

Alto and Tenor.

338

Tenor and Bass.

Voices related in thirds;


^ rSopr. "^LM.-sopr.
M.-sopr,
'

Ten.

Bar.

C.-alto

'Bass' Bass'
sixths,

may move

in unison, in thirds

and

and admit very largely

of the crossing of parts.

Separation by
is

more than an octave must

only be momentary, and

generally to be avoided.

Examples :
*

The Tsar's Bride


Tsar Saltan

[T74]

Sopr. and Mezzo-sopr.

56

Sopr. and Mezzo-sopr.


intervals approach-

In the case of voices related in twelfths

12

[l^^s

ing one another do not create a good

effect, for this

transplants the

deeper voice into the upper register and vice versa.


unison
is

Singing in

no longer

possible,

and

thirds
is

are to be avoided; the

use of sixths, tenths and thirteenths


will

recommended.
twelfth

The voices
of

often
is

be separated by more than a

and crossing

parts

out of the question.

Example :
*

Tsar Saltan

254 255
is fairly

Relationship in tenths 10 [|^P'- or ^^^^^'

common. The

explanations given above are also applicable in this case.

Example :
Snegourotchka 291-300
(cf.

extract, Ex. 118) Sopr.

and Bar.

The use
unison and

of similar voices in pairs: g^PJ*


thirds.

!fg[['

entails singing in
sixth,

They should
is

rarely

be separated beyond a

but crossing of parts


of tone

inevitable, as otherwise the resultant

volume

would be too weak.


Note.

141

Other possible combinations: ^'^f^^

TeJf'"^'

ca" *or no special

remarks.

Examples:

The

May

Night, Act

pp.

5964

Mezzo-sopr. and Tenor.

*Sadko

322324

Mezzo-sopr. and Tenor.

As a general
a

rule, writing for


is

two voices

is

only successful

when

the progression of parts

clear,

when

discords are prepared by


of conveniently separated

common
fifths,

note,

or are the outcome

movement and
perfect

correctly resolved.

Emply

intervals of fourths

and

elevenths and twelfths should be avoided

on the strong
If,

beats of a bar, especially on notes of

some

value.

however,

one

of the voices

assumes a melodic character, the other forming


style,
it

the harmonic accompaniment in declamatory


solutely necessary to avoid the intervals
Note.
It is

is

not ab-

mentioned above.

not within the scope of the present work to consider the writing:

This question must be left to the professor remains to be noted that the human voice accompanied by the orchestra is always heard independently as something apart, something: complete in itself. For this reason a composer may never rely on the orchestra to fill up an empty space or correct a fault in the handling
of vocal parts in closer detail. of free counterpoint.
It

of voices.

All the rules of

harmony and counterpoint, down


which
is

to the last detail,

must be applied accompaniment.

to vocal writing,

never dependent upon orchestral

Trios, quartets etc


All that

has been said regarding the relationship of voices in

duet applies with equal force to the combination of three, four,


five

or

more

voices.

An

ensemble of several voices

is

seldom

purely polyphonic; as a rule, although


cally,

some

parts

move

polyphoniis

progression in thirds, sixths, tenths and thirteenths

used

for the remainder.

Declamation for some voices on notes forming


This variety of simultaneous move-

the

harmony

is

also possible.

ment
and

of vocal parts renders the

comprehension

of the total effect

less difficult for the ear,

and sanctions the

distribution oT distinctive

suitable figures or tone colouring to certain voices with other

figures 'or timbres

which may be proceeding

at the

same

time.

The

skilful

arrangement of pauses and re-entries

facilitates

the

understanding of the whole, and gives desirable prominence to


detail.

142

Examples :
Snegourotchka
[267]

Trio, Finale to Act

III.

The Tsar's Bride

116 118
168171

Quartet in Act
Sextet in Act
III.

II.

III (cf.

extract, Ex. 283).

Servilia

149-15 2]
of

Quintet in Act
is

The movement
cally treated.

solo voices

seldonr purely harmonic in

character with predominance given to the upper voices homophoni-

The blending
employed
etc.

of all the parts into

an harmonic whole,

without any distinctive predominant feature in any one part (as in


a chorale)
prayers,
is

for
If

songs or ensembles

in traditional style,

hymns,
Sopr.

this

method

is

adopted for the quartet

of voices,

yg
Bass

it

will

be noted that widely-spaced part writing

is

the most natural and suitable form (especially in forte passages),


four

as the

voices

can sing together

in

their

proper registers

(low, middle

and high), while,


a given

in close part writing they in

may

find

themselves
foreign.
it

at

moment
to

registers,

which are
as,

entirely

But both methods should be employed,

otherwise,

would be impossible

guarantee equality in even the shortest

succession of chords.

Examples :
Snegourotchka
No. 305.
178

Hymn

of

Tsar Berendey's subjects.

Legend
half

of Kitesh

341

The second

of the last

example

is

an instance

of six-part
rest

harmonic writing; the upper voice stands out prominently, the


form a kind of accompaniment.

Chorus.
Range and
The range
of
soloists.

register.
slightly

of

choral voices

is

more

limited

than that

The

exceptional register

may be
The

considered as two

notes above and below the normal octave.


still

dotted lines extended

further indicate the limits upon which a composer


full

may

rely

in

very exceptional cases, as every

chorus must contain a few


voices of
the solo voice in character.

143

in this respect

more than average compass,


In

approaching

many

choruses on& or two bass


still

singers

may be found who

are able to go

lower than the


.

limit of the exceptional


Note.

range (they are called octavists)

(l)

can only be used when the whole chorus

These uncommonly deep notes must be moderately well sustained and is sing^in^ quite piano; they are

hardly applicable except in unaccompanied choruses (a capella).

The

difference in range

between the

"firsts"

and "seconds"

in

each type

may

be fixed as follows: the normal octave and the

exceptionally low register should

be

allotted to the "seconds", the

same octave and the exceptionally high register to The composition of the chorus is approximately
a
full

the

"firsts".

as follows: for
alt.,

chorus, 32 singers to each of the 4 parts sopr.,

ten.

and

bass; for a chorus of

medium

size,

from 16

to 20, of

and

for a small
will often

chorus from 8 to 10 singers.

The number

women
"firsts"

predominate, and more voices are given to the


"seconds".

than to the

On
divided

account of stage requirements a chorus


into

may have
This
is

to

be

two or even three separate


especially

parts.

a great

disadvantage,

with a small

chorus, as each

chorister

becomes more or

less a soloist.

The methods
the

of writing for operatic chorus are very

numerous.

Besides the primary harmonico-polyphonic arrangement, containing

whole musical

idea, the voices

may be made may

to enter separately,

singing or declaiming phrases of varying length; they


in

may

progress

unison or in octaves; one vocal part

repeat certain notes

or the

whole chorus
(the

reiterate

certain chords;

one melodic part

may predominate
ing

upper part for preference), the others formisolated

an

harmonic
given
to

accompaniment;

exclamatory phrases
it,

may be
and

the whole chorus or to certain portions of

finally,

the enUre chorus

may be

treated in a purely

harmonic
handling

manner

in chords, with the essential,

melodic design allotted to


of

the orchestra.

Having outlined the principal methods

the chorus,

advise the reader to study vocal and orchestral scores

where he
(1)

will find

many

illustrations

impossible to deal with here.

Contrebasses voices as they are called

when mentioned

in

French works

are peculiar to Russia, in which country they are plentiful.


(Translator's note.)


There
exists

144

natural

another most important operation, the division of

the chorus into different groups.


divide
it

The most

method

is to

into

men's chorus and women's chorus.


altos, tenors

Less frequent
altos

combinations are
tenors.

and basses, or sopranos,


to

and

There remains yet another point

be considered, the subMen's and women's


alternate
either

division of each part into two's

and

three's.

choruses, considered as distinct unities

may

one
have

with the other, or with the principal chorus.

For

this

reason subI

division increases the possibilities of choral writing, and, as

already remarked,

it

is

only by the

study of choral works that

the student will acquire mastery over this branch of composition, the fundamental principles of which can only by faintly outlined
in the course of the present

work.

Melody.
Melody
is

more
and

limited

in

the chorus than in the solo voice,


Choristers' voices are

both as regards range as well as mobility.


less

"settled"

not

so

highly

trained

as

those
in

of

soloists.

Sometimes solo and choral melody are similar


and technique, but more often the
variety of rhythm, restricted as
it

point of range

latter is

lacking in freedom and

is to

the repetition of short phrases,

while the solo voice demands broader melodic outline and greater

freedom

in construction.

In this respect choral

melody more

closely

resembles instrumental melody.

Pauses for taking breath are not

so important with chorus singers as with soloists; the former do


not need to breathe
rest
all

together and each singer


obviating the
of suitable

may

take a slight

from time

to time, thus

necessity for sudden

complete silences.

The question

vowels

is

likewise of

secondary importance.

The change from notes


syllables

of short value to long, vocalisation

on

and others questions mentioned above are equally applicbut in a minor degree.

able to choral melody,

Not more than

two or three notes should be written on one syllable except for


fanciful

and whimsical

effects.

Example:
No. 306.

The Golden Cockerel

[262];

see also before [T23].


A.

145

Mixed chorus.
in unison.
is

Chorus
The simplest and most
and
altos,

natural combination of voices

sopranos

or

tenors

and basses.
tone,

These combinations produce


to give

ample and vigourous


prominence
to a

and the mixed timbres serve


upper or bass
parts.

melody

in the

In practice

the other voices are often divided to thicken the harmony.

The

combination of altos and tenors produces a peculiar mixed tone


quality,

somewhat

bizarre

and seldom used.

Examples :
Snegourotcfika
64

Sadko

\m]

(cf.

Ex. 14).

Progression in octaves.
The most
tenors 8
brilliant

beautiful
altos

and natural combinations are sopranos and


8

[fg^"^',

and basses

produce a tone both [sasses' *^^y


of sopranos

and powerful. Progression


is

and

altos,

or tenors

and basses

seldom practised.

Though

the latter combinations


alone, they can only

may occur
be used
gister
in

in choruses for

women and men

in

melodies of restricted length.

The

difference of reof the

which the voices move does not permit

same

balance of tone obtained by voices of a distinctive kind.

Examples
Snegourotchka

60
113

6i

Carnival

Procession.

Wedding

Ce'-emony.

Sadko

[^

Chorus

of Guests, 151 Tableau.

Dividing kindred voices in octaves

is

seldom done,

[g^pj; n

etc.,

except perhaps in the basses [l^sles IP ^^" *^ progression of parts demand it, or it is required to double the bass part in octaves.

Examples:
Ivan the Terrible, Act
III

[68]

Final

chorus

(cf.

Ex. 312).

Sadko

341

Final

chorus.
10

146

women s

beautifully

round tone results from doubling men's and

voices in octaves 8

[fX+Bas3.
Example:

Snegourotchka 323
Brilliance

Final chorus.
is

and vigour
"1^

achieved

when sopranos and

altos pro-

gress In thirds doubled in octaves by tenors and basses also in


thirds: 8
Sopr, Altos

r
Examples :
24

I3 Ten. -BassesJ

Mlada, Act

Act

II,

before

31

The Golden Cockerel

235

On

the rare occasions

when

the whole chorus progresses in


is:

double octaves the usual arrangement


Sopr.

+ Altos

"1

tj

rSopr.

^ fTen. J

**'

or else [Altos

+ Ten.
Basses

"I

'

[Basses

Examples
Snegourotchka
[31 9j.

Sadko

[182] .

Voices fdioisi); harmonic use of the mixed chorus.

is

The purely harmonic progression more natural and resonant when

of

a four-part mixed chorus

the

harmony
is

is of

the widely

divided order, so that the volume of tone

equally distributed

throughout.

Example:
No. 307.

Sadko

144

Beginning

of 3i^ tableau.

To secure

a well-balanced forte chord in close part writing the


is

following distribution

recommended:
rSopr. I LSopr. II Altos [Ten. I [Ten. II

rSasses [Basses

II.


Three harmonic parts

147

sopranos and
altos)

in the high register (2

are doubled an octave lower by 2 tenors and the \^ basses.

The
the

lower part

is

undertaken by the 2i^ basses.


isl

In this

manner

tenors sing in the soprano octave, the

basses in the alto octave

and the 2^ basses are independent.

Examples :
Snegourotchka
327
20

Mlada, Act

II

End the Procession


of
II

work;

of Princes.

Ivan the Terrible, Act

(cf.
|_19J

Ex. 212).

Division of parts can be adopted

when one

of

them

is

entrusted

with a melody, the remainder forming a sufficiently

full

accom-

paniment.

The choice

of parts to

be divided depends upon the


is

range of the upper one.

When

a harmonic-melodic phrase
it

repeated in different keys and registers,


distribute the parts

may be

necessary to

and divide them

in

another manner, so as to
illustration
I

maintain

proper choral balance.

As an

give two

extracts of identical musical context, the

second {F major) being


In the first

a third higher than the


altos

first

{D major).

example the

are added to the sopranos to strengthen the melody; the


In the

tenors and basses divisi form the harmony.


the

second example

melody being a

third

higher

may be

given to the sopranos

alone; the altos therefore take part in the harmony, and conse-

quently the lower parts are divided in a different way.

Examples:
Sadko
1

173

and

[ittJ (cf. Ex.


[Tso].

205 and 206); compare also the

same music
No.

in

G major

309 310.

Ivan the Terrible, Act


is

77

Example 307
In
is

an instance of widely-spaced four-part writing

forming the harmonic basis, with the melodic idea in the orchestra.

Example 308, the same

in

musical context, the melodic figure

given to the sopranos, and

among

the other parts which form

the

harmony

the tenors are divided.

Example :
No. 308.

Sadko

[T52]

10*

In

148

many

polyphonic writing exceeding 4 part harmony the voices should


to obtain the

be divided so as

necessary number of actual parts.


as three different parts,

One

part

may be

divided into as
etc.

3 sopranos, 3 altos

Examples
No. 3 12.
Servilia

Ivan the Terrible, Act


233

III

[59]

Final

chorus.

Final
1

chorus.

Mlada, Act IV
In

35-36

Final

chorus.
for

fugato

writing
is

and fugal imitation

mixed chorus the

distribution

generally in four parts, but this

number may be

increased for cumulative effects as in the example quoted. In such


cases the composer should be careful as to the arrangement of
the final chord, the summit and climax of the passage.
After the

entry of the last of the voices the progression 0/ such a passage

should be handled with a view to the tone of the

final chord.

The treatment should be such


if

that

concords produced by divided


full

voices or different groups of voices retain their


the final chord be a discord
of crossing of parts.
its

valu6; and

effect

may be
is

heightened by

means
in

The reader

advised to examine

carefully the

progression of parts leading up to the final chord

each of the examples given above, paying special attention to


Crossing of parts must not
of choral parts follows

the distribution of these final chords.

be

effected at

random.

The arrangement

the natural order of register and can only be altered for short

spaces of time to give momentary prominence to some melodic


or declamatory phrase.

Examples:
Ivan the Terrible, Act
I

[79],

Act

II

\T\, Act

III

67

B. Men's chorus
Sopr
Sopr. Altos

and women's chorus.


be either
Ten. Ten.
I

In writing a three-part female chorus the division should


I

11

or

Sopr. Altos Altos

Ten.

I;
II

the

same

for

men:

II

or Bass
Bass

I.
II

The choice

Bass
is to

of distribution

depends upon which voice


is to

predominate, or the
of divid-

register in

which the group

be placed.

The manner

ing the parts

149

at
will.

may

change, one following the other

In

four-part^ harmonic writing the


Sopr. Sopr. Altos Altos
I

method
II
I

of division is self-evident:

Ten. Ten.

II
I

II

Bass Bass

II

To give prominence

to

a melody in the middle part in three-

part harmony, the following


Sopr. Sopr. Altos
If,
I

method may be adopted:


Ten.
I

II
II

-f Altos

I,

or Ten.

II
II

+ Bass

I.

Bass

in three-part writing, the

melody has

to stand out in the

upper

part, the

harmony may be

either widely-divided or close.

Examples:
Ivan the Terrible, Act
Sadko, before |i8il
No. 311.
In
I

25-26

23-31
(cf.

(Women's
Ex. 27).

chorus).

Sadko

Men's chorus 270-272 Women's


1

chorus.
is

four-part choral writing close


will

harmony

preferable, other-

wise the upper part


of the

be

in too

high a register and the range

bottom part too low.

Examples:
Sadko
17

Male chorus.
II

Ivan the Terrible, Act


Distribution
in

3638
is

Female chorus

(cf.

Ex. 296).

two parts which

generally polyphonic does

not call for any special remarks; the


in unison.

same may be

said of chorus

Examples
Sadko
50

Male chorus.
of Act
III
I

Mlada, beginning

Ivan the Terrible, Act


Servilia
If

1315

Female chorus.

26
in a purely

male and female choruses are Handled


to secure

harmonic
the only

manner

close part writing should be adopted.

This

is

way

proper balance of tone in chords given to voices


of the

150

in three parts are

same

kind.

Successions of chords
in

more
is

frequent

than

those

four;

sometimes a

series

of

chords

practicable only in two parts.

Examples:
Snegourotcfika
19

Chorus

of Birds.
of

281285
In fugato writing,

Chorus

Flowers

(cf.

Ex. 26).

and fugal imitation

in three parts, allotted to


is

a chorus composed of voices of one kind, the principal subject

given to two

parts, the counter subject to one; by this

method

the doubled themes will stand out to better advantage.

Examples:
Sadko [20-21
2930

*The

Tsar's Bride

Male and female choruses, apart from the part they play as
individual unities,

may be

introduced as separate groups in mixed

choruses alternating with the whole ensemble.

Example:
Snegourotchka
Ex. 166).
198

Hymn

of Tsar

Berendey's Subjects

(cf.

As a general
harmonic
register,

rule

a female chorus does not contain the real

bass

part

when
voice.

this

part

is

situated

in

the

low

so that no octaves are formed between the real bass

and the lower choral

Harmony

in a chorus for

women

is

generally given to the three upper parts, the lower part acting as

accompanying
the
fourth's

bass.
of

It

will

be noticed that
of

this rule

may

lead to

employment
and

chords

the

sixth

and empty consecutive


In

fifth's

which should be avoided.


is

example No. 311


of the bass

{Sadko
part;

270), this

remedied by the high position


(i)

later
still

an empty interval

occurs, but only for a


interval
In Ex.
is is

moment,
the

and

farther

on another such
(f).

avoided by the union


[saj)

of all the voices in the octave

No. 304 {Sadko

harmonic bass

in the

low register
it

carefully omitted,

but

when

transferred to the upper register

is

doubled.

151

the

conclude

the

present

chapter with

following necessary

observations:
1.

The operation
factors

of dividing voices

undoubtedly weakens their

resonance, and as the reader will have observed, one of the principal
in

good orchestration
But
in

is

equal balance

of

tone in
is

the distribution of chords.

choral writing the question

somewhat

different.

The

orchestra, even after repeated rehearsal

always plays from music; the operatic chorus, on -the other hand,
sings by heart.
instructions

The chorus master can

carry out the composer's


in

as to the division of parts

one way or another,


to

varying and adjusting the

number
and

of

singers

each

part.

By

manipulating some shade of expression he can maintain a balance


of

tone

between

divided

undivided

voices.

In

orchestral
of timbres,

material the composer has to handle a great

number

widely different in character and volume of tone.


there are but four qualities.

In the

chorus

A
It

chorus moving about the stage


of

cannot

convey varying shades

expression

so

exactly

as an

orchestra seated at the desk.


that

may
some

therefore be safely

assumed
of

composer
and

is

entitled

to

licence in the question

dividing choral parts; dealing with the orchestra involves greater


foresight
2.

care.

In trying to obtain equal

balance

in

writing three-part choruses


to the

for

male or female chorus

have often resorted

method

of

doubling the middle part as recommended on

p. 149.

The chorus

master

is

at

liberty

to

equalise the chorus by transfering voices


In

from one part


I

to another.

choruses divided into three parts

have noticed

that chorus masters are in the habit of giving the


I,

upper part

to Sopr.

or Ten.
I

I,

and the two lower parts

to Sopr.

II

and Ten.
balance

II

divided.

consider this arrangement unsound, as the

of
is

parts

can never be equal.

The

attention

of

chorus

masters

called to the necessity of strengthening middle parts, for

the expedient of giving prominence to the upper part concerns

melody alone and leaves harmony out


3.

of the question.
is

Skilful

management

of choral

parts

a fairly safe guarantee

of

clear

and satisfactory performance.

Miscalculations in writing

are a great hindrance to study, and the most experienced chorus

may come

to

grief

through faulty progression of


is

parts.

If

the

progression of parts

correct,

if

discords are properly prepared,


uncommon

152

of the

sudden and remote modulations, even

harshest and most

kind will be comparatively simple and This


is

may be
know
it
1

ap-

proached with some degree of confidence.

a fact which
well

composers do not always bear

in

mind, but singers


full.

and appreciate

its

importance to the

As an instance

quote

the very difficult modulation which occurs in Ex. No. 169 {Sadko
302
).
I

doubt whether

it

could be sung

if

written in any other


is

way.

Careful endeavour on the part of a composer

better than

useless struggle inflicted

upon the performer.


July

3m

(Aug.

13!!i)

)05.

PART

II

EXAMPLES

N? 1. "Sheherazade/' 2^^ movement. N91.Sheherazade," 2"!^ mouvement.

J)

144.

rt

Ci.(.A)

\^

^ \^

r^^

-^ J)

Viol.
Il.div.

P grazioso
P'^i
<t

j/iiT j"1

Hi-

T^~r^

^m a^ ^
V-c.

vie.

^3 ^s

^^

e C-b. pizz.

#^^ ^ ^

Viol.


J,
Fl.

m m
Faff.
It

^EEL^
^F^-

p
^Viol.
r
v-k-.

^="^
B

* ^^
jocco

^
JL-ir
p-

i
f^

j^s^
i

-s^
i

m ^
^^
ph^
i

t^l

i^

iB-"
I
11/

;^
arco

S S 3
C.{j

V^c. yj>^

r*^

/>^ ro

~p

=^

n Isempre pizz. w^

p^ e ^ ^^ s ^s s ^ ^^ ^ ^
piuf

>ces^

pp pp r p

*
i

^2335

ptu-^-

JT3

rin^

fW^ rri

"^

^
inU^j

i^
parte

V-c.

i jjjj

4^ ^
ffi

i-^I^^Jj^
=^^^r
-z=?:L::r:5=r
'if

C-b.

^ ^s :^SS 4
?3E
s^
?A

y/ ly

.y

5/"

vr

^7^^
if

N9 2. ''The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh! N9 2.Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej'/ *'- ^^ Cl.(B^
I.

\\\\\\\\
-chdes
vers mo,

JnJ'.^f
-

me pour

un ca

res-sant

sa

lut,

^^f.

-f

f^^

N?3.

N?

3.

"Spanish Cwpriccio/' Capriccio Espagnol!'

Jail

j)

J-^

i'

r%

J.-

-i

N94.

"Pan Voyevoda."
Pan
le

N9
fl45]

4.

Voievodet'

Lento.

J :58.

N?5.

N9

5.

''The Golden Cockerel: Le Coq d'Or."


jl93l Andantino.
J.=

96.

vie.

N?6.

N9
/

"Sadko," symphonic tableau (p. 2{ij. 6. Sadko',' tableau symphonique (p. 28),

Allegretto. J.138. ClAB)

10
Fl

a2

N?^.

'^Pan Voyevoda," nocturne

N9

7.

Pan

le

Voievode," nocturne.

Lento. J: 58.
c; lA)

.I.U.III

rz

N?8.

"Snegourotchka.'
e pass^ionato. Jrsa.

N9 8.Sniegourotchka'.'
Andante maestoso
Fl.

a2_

N?9.
N*? 9.

"Snegourotchka:'
Sniegourotchka'.'

N9 10. "The Legend of


N?
10.

the i7ivisible city

of Kitesh':
15

Legende de

la ville invisible

de Kitej."

t^ J-66
Ob.

-^*'-

PP
Lapparition

C'wniprendsbien. o bel-le

fi

-an-ceei

et

at-tachea mespro-pos

leiirpoids.

tran.

^ N? 11.
N9
11.,,

''The Golden Cockerel:

Le Coq

d'Or."

11201 (alia breve.

J=5o)

12. ^^Sheherazade," S'K!^ movement (commencement). 12.Sheherazade'/3"Q^ mouvement (debut). Andantino quasi allegretto. J= 52.

N9

N<?

Viol.

le

II

unis.

sulG

J^JJJTJJ
K"
r p
'

J-

^il
p
> 1

JJ

3et

^
pp

SI ^

/oc(3 cresc.

N? 13,
N9
13.

Golden Cockerel" mLc Coq d' Or "(p. 87).


''The

(p.

87).

17

(Andantino. J =88.)

Do'ii^a'^'^

chu de

nous rap-])or

terdes chants.

ve .

V1

2 Fl.e Fl.picc

20

2 Fl. e Fl.picc

,,<

j'

V-le>

^
Cockerel''
(p.

^^

J^TP/tf:

"The Golden
88.)

as).

N9l6.,,Le Coq
(Andantino. J =
Ob.

d'Or"(p.88;.

N? 17.
N?
17.

''Snegourotchka/' Sniegourotchka ."


69.

21

12881 Andante. J. 2 Fi.e Fl. pice.

*^J

22

4Ccr.

t
/

^LU

Timp,

Campanelli.

^i fgrf
i

Arpa.

!^
Viol.Ie
II unis.

^^^

^3

Ob.

^
^
ii
Cor.

^E
r

Cingl.

L-f '^

^
^^
B

^
4
/

Faff.

Timp.

Camjpanelli.

24

,'

A^Cor.

I
Tim p.
^^^

rr

Cainpaiielli

fe

N? 18.
N9

18.,,

''The May Night/' Act III. La Nuit de Mai',' 3'^^ acte.

Z^

'^Allegretio quasi
C.ing-l.

andantinoj

Noschantsvontoharmerlejeunehom-rae, nos

ri

resfbntftiirleneil-

JT]
Nousai- nionsje-ge
Viol. I.
-

s)

res

U^ om

J) bres. ajou- ersousuiiciel eI

";) j\s^

^J)J)

J
toi
-

U'
le

i^

yc.soio.

mm mm
C-b.

Altri V-c.

m^
V r

m ^ r}
y
j

J.

^v

j^

'

26

iV? 19.

''Sheherazade," 2^d movement.


2"!^ mouvement.

N9l9.Sheherazade','

p
/

y. 152 Fl.picc

N9 20. "Sadko."
N9 20.Sadko."
J:112.

27

N9 21. "The Legend of the


N? 2l.Legende de

invisible city

of Kitesht

2^

la ville invisible de Kitejf

Mais, vol-ci

de

ja

la

mort

pro

ohe.

de

Ten

fer

les pei-nes

cru

el

le.'^I

>

-Viol.

I.

2H

N9

22. ''The

Tsar's Bride"

N9 22. La Fiancee du Tsar."

N9 23. "The Legend of Tsar


No23.Legende duTsar

Saltan:
Z\)

Saltan:'

go

N?

24. '"Stidko"

(p.

336).

N?24.Sadko"(p.336\

iti.

Va

voir

la belle

et

gTandc

ci

te,

ta-ohe

de_voir

le

do-g'e_puis-

Ten.

Va
I 1 I

]0
I

^
Bassi^
'

f"

Il7i
grande

cj
ci
-

Va
Mt

voir

la belle

et

r te,

ii

tj

^f ^^^

Qj

^^1

-te.

A Ve

iii

se

tu

d ois

al

ler,

Sad-ko!

Arpa e Pianiuo.

^^^ ^^^

N9 25. "Ivan
63
Fl.I.

N? 25.

La

the Terrible/' Act HI. Pskovitaine," 8"ie acto.

31

Moderate,

(alia breve.)

32

N? 26. "Snegourotchka" N9 26.;,Sniegourotchka."


[288

83

Alti.

Dans

des yeux,bl6u- et,

ra

yon

iJ

ii i

'

i.

Viol. soli.

rrnrn

if f

m N9

"SaTiko" (p. 296). 27. S^dko"(p.296). (Allegro alia marcia. J=i3a.)


27.

CorJU IV

m
j^j

28.

"STiegourotchka/'
I

fJBTl

N9 28- Sniegourotchka.

^j-,

"

85

Misguir.

l,j

yii'if
'

r
-

pie

res,

y
un

pr
modeste

'f pfp"
et

I"

r^P^
pu-di
-

p^
que-

cmin-tif

re-g-ard.

<
^^'''"""
.

flp

^
^

3g

Viol.

^*

^
Yf-lF

S^<lf^ ^
V-le.

jv V-c. e C-b
Iil>
fl

^ ^^

86

N9 29. "Antar." NP 29. Antar."


[48] (Allegro risoluto.)
Plcc.

N? 30. "Sheherazade/'
N? 30. Sheherazade"

8"}

3^^ movement mouvement

(p.

131).

87

(p.i3i).

TT^/i^

N9 SI. "The Legend of the


N9
12231
31.

invisible city

of KitesA.

89

Legende de

la ville invisible

de Kitej"

Je doD-ne4tiis tout le

sang demesvei

nes vo

Ion -tier &) et

ma vie,,

omonbien-ai

CT9$0ifOC0

4U

N9

32. "Antar: N? 32.Antar."

Adagio.

41

N9 33. ''Snegourotchka/
^^
12151

N9 33.Sniegourotchka"
Vivace. J=
iso.
Tlmp.

N9
***

34. '^The

Legend of the

invisible city

N9

34.,,

Legende de

la ville invisible

of Kitesh: de Kitejf'

S^

Andante

tranquillo. J: 5.

Jour

et

luiit

chez nousle

saint

of - fioe

est chan-te

san.s

re

N? 35.

''Spanish Capriccio."

43

N9 35. Capriccio Espagnol."

N? 36. ''The Legend of Tsar Saltan. N? 36. Leg:ende duTsar Saltan"


Andante.
J
=

18161

66.

Fl. pice. Solo.

Fl.pioc.e Fl.I.

N?
PI

''Sheherazade/' 4'A movement (p. 140). N9 37. Sheherazadey4"l^ mouvement ip.iiOj.


37.

45
3

Vivo.

J = J. = 88.

^
**

PP

N?
Fl.picc.e

38.

''Ivan the Terrible/' Act


3"}*-'

III

(p.

236).

N? 38. La Pskovitaine''
2 Fl.gr.

acte (p. 236 j.

46
Fl. piece

2 Fl.gr.

Arpa.

i 1*

^^

^^m

iy? 39. "The Legend of the itwisible city of Kitesh. N9 39. Leg-ende de la ville invisible de Kitej."
[441
J. = 60.

47

Pl.o -alto (Py.

Fl.c-alto.

jr
Cl.

rrr

basso.

^
iii

^T*rJj

^^
^^ ^
se- ment.

^
f'
Fevr.

1
i'ip!

i,h

pj
chan

Ji J.
-

J
dans

d^
les

te

bois

mer-

^ ^
veil
-

leu

'^^M
V-le div
j

3S

jF^

^h r"vrj^p
V-c.

iJMT^P

^^ ^ ^^ s ^
^
C-b.

48

N?
N'.*

40. ^'Sheherazade," 2nd movement 40. wSheherazader 2"} mouvement

(p. (p.

43).

43)

Andantino.
Fa*?. 1. Solo.

n2. Capriccioso, quasi recitando


*^ =

^^^^

^^ry^Ji^

-^^

>

dolcc ed esprcss
III.
**C':/n sord.

**

^^*-

N9

41.

"Snegourotchka/'

49

N? 41 .jjSniegourotchka'/
Larghetto. J-zso.
Ob.I.Solo

dolce
Snieff.

dolce assai

Jeconnaisjeoon

nals,

ma

me

re,

tous

les

chants

P
les

Piipde

rt.\^
-

m
te,

plus beaux.

Le

ohant.

Pa

lou

et

qui

monte

et rit

au

ciel

d'e-te

Et

le

plain -tif

ap-

^A^^i

-pel

du

cy

gne

sur

I'ioau

dor-man

te

de

.l^B-tang

^^

42. "The Golden Cockerel" (p. 75). 42.Le Coq d'Or"(p.75). N9

N9

Andantino

N9
Fl.I

"The Golden Cockerel" (p. N9 43. Le Coq d'0r"{p.ii9).


43.

119).

Andantino.

J = 88.

IVarco

N?

44. "Spanish Capriccio" N9 44. Capriccio Espagnol'.'

51

Cor. ingl. Solo

2V? 45. ''The Golden Cockerel: N9 45.Le Coq d'Or."


[l]

Larghetto assai.

j]= *

Dodon. L^oiselier du roi apporte une perruche verte, attachee a un anneau par une chaine

Dodon

Elle chante, fait

claquer sa lang^e,

siffle.

52

iV? 46.

""Mlada,"' Act II (f.206)


2"?^ acte
(p.

N9 46. Mlada;'
(Al)egro vivo.)
Cl.picc.(D\^
.

206).

fi^s.

L L

N9
N?

47.

"Snegourotchka''

47. Sniegourotchka!' I^gi Moder ato assai. w. so

^^N^.VioLTILeV-le.

<

J Mod

p P P r?
-

pvant

p p p

^^^
ma

ame

e-tait Joyeusea

de teoonnai-tre,

vie

heureuse e-tait sans

lar-Tne8,sansangi(^sHeeteanssouf-fVan

ce.

^4

'

N9
12461

48.

"Snegouroicihia,.

N9 48. Sniegourotchkaf'
Maestoso.
basso (b)
Cl.

53

Trem-bledonc, en-ftuiti c'est vrai, je suis ter-ri-ble.

Oui,

je veux

pu-nir

Tof-

n^y

bl--.

f^

t^

jm
'

^'

^
/

^
=Ri

'Tlr
le

i-

p V

u^-P^
Et

P
en
-

P
fin

r?
ven
-

-fen- se qui m'a fait

rougir

front-

me voir

-ge

hon de ma "Vera Scheloga.'' N9 N9 49. La Borarine Vera Chelogaf


de

ma

douleur et

49.

Andantino.
Fag. I- Solo

J88.

'

/K

a H

Ah, ten.assat, teu.assat

je
i

ne puis

comrpren-dre.

J
Viol.
11.

'jt^t/

m. ^^

ten.assai

^^ ^^

54 N9 50. 'The Golden Cockerel " NO 50 Le Coq d'Or'' (p. 330>


F1.I.II.

(^.330).

%%.

%\

N9
N?

51
51.

"Mlada," Act UI Mlada" S^e actr


,

(p.
(p.

359)
859).

55

(Meno mo890.) Solo. ^.


.

>^-.-,ii-

^L-

56

'-'Snegourotchkaf ,,Sniegourotchka" 52. [i (Moderate).

N9

52.

Par

mi vous,6jeu-nes fil-lesine

ca-ohoz vous pas

niaKou-pa-va

bien

ai

me-e'

Fl.eOb.unis.

Fag:

m.

^^

-^

JPJ'v/

^=^

CoroNous ne

te don-ne-rons

pas

notre a -mi-

e!

Nous ne

te don-ne-rons

pas

ta Kou-pa-va!

N9
Fl.MI. a

53.

''The

Legend of the

invisible city

M9 53. ,,Legende de la (Moderate assai. J x 72.)


2

villc invisible

of Kitesh" (p. 49i)* de Kitej" (p.49i).

57

son
Rassi.

nent

flu

tu^,

g'ouss-li!

''Snegourotchka " (p. 133) N9 54.Sniegourotchka" (p t3H) Animato.


N*^ 54.

Voi-ei

de Por:pre-nez,niu.sbel-les fil-les.

Je

siiis

joyeuxde vous pa-yer ran-(^on


58

N9 55. "Snegourotchka " (p. 866) N9 55. Sniegourotchka" (p.sfis).


Fi.pioo/Alleflfro <Jri26).

eFi.i

^fr>

^ ^^^E>
^

--N^!

'

N9 56. ''bpanish Capriccio." N?56. Capriccio Espagncl!'


iWI

N9
N9

57.

"Snegourotchka"
Sniegourotchka"

(p.306).

09

57.

fp.306V

Allegro con anima.

ppp

sc"

^ fantome de Snieg'ourotchka se montre dans la foret.

60

NP 58.
_(J..6a>

''Sheherazade," 3rd movement.


3"1^'

N9 58. Sheherazade*'

mouvement.

^^'''riff'nril

rTt-ti^ r^-^ni

r^^

Fui.j-j^^jj^
'pM. r Cii;

rri-iT-i
^

iT^^rni
rww[j:x;

mr ru3^
"

N9

59.

'"Vera Scheloga''

NO 59.La Boiarine Vera Cheloga."


Moderate assai.
>CM(A )^^
J.
96.

61

Je ne fus pas heureuse, mais resig-ne-e,

Ivan Semenitoh m'aai-mee a la fo4i-e

N9 60. "Mlada," Ad UI (p. 389). N9 60. MladaV 3 acte (p. 389). Andante quasi allegretto.
-Timp.picc

62

N9
N9

61. "Mlckda," Act JJ (j>. 205). 61. Mlada',' 2"2 acte ,p..205K

(Allegro vivo.)
Cor. unis.

vA Fl.picc

Solo

%mmm^f ^

JV? 62.

"Serviliar

Servilia!' Iggi Andante. J = 7a.

N9 62.

lueur roug-e; dans un broiiillard parait


Piatti.
I

le

spectre d'une

vieille-

KP-

'/

-^

/f.

Le Spectre.

soiirdement

Quidoncinae-voquee ?

ful ponticeilo

^
Bride"
65

N9
.
,

63.

''The Tsar's
J.- 48.

N9 63. La Fiancee du Tsar."

Elol Adagio.
.IFl.eOb.T.

N9 64. "Spanish Capriccio"


*

(p. 57).

N9 64. Capriccio Espagnol" Fl>icc.ea \. ' ^^,- ^,

^p 57).
J,

66

N? 65.

'"Aniar," isj version, 3V^ movement (commencement).


(debut).

N9 65. Antar," premiere version, 3"1 mouvement Allegro risoluto.


Fl. pice.

N? 66. "Sheherazade,"
N? 66. Sheherazacle*/

S^J^

movement.

3"'.^mouveinent.

67

N? 67. "Spanish Capriccio"


N9 67. nCapriccio Espagnol"
Fi.ploc.
tri

(p.79).
cp 79).

69

jy /eroce

2V? 6S.

''The

Christmas Night

N9 68. La Nuit de Noel!'

Arpafip

^^ ^^ ^^
'

^
f

,1

vie

QuVUe
iAUi.

est

dou-ce, re

pe-tee

dans Tombre

paisse

des^

.val

Ions!

N?

69.

"The Legend of the

invisible city

gg N9 69. Leg-ende de

la ville invisible

of Kitesh: de Kitej."

71

Nuit

et

joui'

c'est

un

o)iaiit

nier-veil

leux<

tres

^V-le

arca_

7ii

N?

70.

''The

Legend of the

invisible city

N9 70. jjLegende de
1651

la ville invisible

of Kite sh: de Kitej."

^^^^ usim
3 Tr-bni.

LLi.r

m^

rfTrrxCr

74

N9 7L "Sadkor
N? 71.Sadkol'

f34a] Allegro. i-.wi.

roi tout
Vioi.u. tr

puissant, roi cru-el


tr

lesiners> tu ifa-vais
tr

toi

qu'u-in> t/Ctc

on bois.

***

iV? 7^.

"SnegourotchkaP N? 72. Sniegourotchka!'


J=iaf.

^ ^ ^
Ob.
C1.(BJ
I
i.

Allegro.

jirt iij

J1 r

m
p

Fag

^
*=:5-rf

Ji

a m A :zI
j:

1
|>^'H"pM'J'lr^
Ten Le ruisseau murmu-rt

^^^ a

i fl i^
JL

fl

JH

#
^ ^^
la,

s
J
-

lerucherbourdoii

P
le

f'ii'O

lr?>^^
chantons en-semble

ne,

sais'jn nou-vel

le.

Le ruisseau murtnu-i*e,

rucherbourdon

ne,

chantons en semble
-

Bassi.

\/,

^
IT Hl

*.

m^

la saison nou-vel

le

N?

73.

''Antar" 3rd movement


8"^*^

N9 73. Antar;*
Allegro.

mouvement

75

FI.I.Solo

N*^
Ob.

14. '"Shehera zade ," ^^.^ movement 74. nShehcrazadeJ' ii"l'' mouvem^^i.t Molto moderato.

{p.

51).

(V-si

recit.

morvndo

'^^

N9 75. "Sadko" N? 75. Sadko"


(Allegro
Fl.I.e Ob.I.II.

(p.

498).

(p.498).

J-:6e alia

breve.)

as

8CHA)a8

rrrfrrrrrfi

Tr-be.(A^

r ^M ^^ ffl^^ ^^^
r^r Tijc

nr

'r|i^'r^rp'r

FFFFFPFFFFPF
Ir

3 Tr bni.
i

glF^ t{^'

r'

-^r

77

N9 76. 'The May Night." Act III fcommencememt). N? 76. Le Nuit de Mai(' 8 acte (debut).
Fi.

Molto andante.

^i^

M
PP-

^m

Ob.

pp-

^*
C1.(A)

PP-

t
CoriE)

xc

p^

^m m^ ^^ m
aS
pIV.

1
con sord

m^ ^^ ^
'7

*f?P

78

N9

77. "Sheherazade" N? 77. Sheherazade('

4^^ movement
4".^
J-

(p.

04).
(p.

mouvement
:6o

204).

Allegro non troppo maestoso.


y

^FLpicc.

^^
^"""S; //

Timp. .ff^

Tamb
no.
pice,

If
6
ft

Tamb. 4

Piatti.fs

Crissa

'"^^

:^=:

Cor.

:^
a 2 maestoso

:Si

^^
Triang".
Piatti.

Tr-bni.*^^ Tuba, a-'maestos.

tk

^^
ECg r
^

^rEEBT -^-^

Cassa.

^rrrrrf

'

<

-^

N? 78. "Mlada," Act UI Xp.350). N? 78. MladaV 3"} acte (p. 350)
(Allegro non troppo.)

81

^A

2 C1.(B)

Du

milieu de la ronde infemnle surg'it Tchernobog, sous la

forme

d'un bone et avec

sacour;

derriere
v.-l.

lui

Kachtchei aveo ses goussli , Tcherv, Topeletz,Tchouma et Morena.


ir\

tt\

Jb^

82

N9

79. "Mlada," Act III N9 79. Mlada;' 3"! arte

(p.

370)

(p.sro).

Sostenuto e maestoso.

Viens,ap-pa-rais'.

Sorsdc

la iiuit

d&t!

ten<ps!

Toi qu''a-doraientle.s roi.s

lesp.itres.

N9
|bj

80. "The May Night," Act HI. N? 80. La Nuit de Mai;* 8"} acte

88

(Andantino animato!)

Doux

zephyr,

tu

pas-ses

comme

un

bavser

sur

les

per

ven-ches

C^

'^^^

'

C^

^"^

'

^"^

^^^

'

P^

^^

^
3551

f Ymsi.

"Sadkor

N?81.Sadkol'
(Andante. /= 76.)

Arpe. Dors pai

si

ble,

her

be

ten

dre.

Her

be

ver

te

mousse de

soie

Arpe

Tes chants on

se

duit

mon

coeur,

Tons

ils

ont

ra

vi

men

ame

N?

82. '-'Sadko."

N9 82. Sadko'/
153 (Andante.
3F1.
J=7.)

85

V
^

dim.
.

PP

Sadko.

Sur

le

lac naent en b&nde des cyynes blaocs et des canards gris.

8 Fl
-^
/I

/^^ i^

)t.

^ ^ i^ i^^ i^ i^ ^ i^

i'i

H(>

N? 83. ''Sadkor N9 83. Sadk.o."


1123]

Andante.

Choeur

i^OAl ti. A lti.


1

^^yg"^^ blancs, ^^Js"*'^ "'^"cs,


J! g7iesblanca,et

aans dans

lea coulisses) couiissesj


,

K.

1^
V-Ie.

'

(
-

li^^^^^-l
mou-et
-

J),iJ

J'J

ll^

'^J-'

^'

''ll'l
lac!

^^''

Cy

tes grises, re- toumonsiplongeons dans le

arco

N9 84. ''The Legend of Tsar Saltan" N9 84. Legenae duTsar Saltan" (p 54j,
(Allegretto alia raarcla. j:9.)

(p.

54).

87

N9
Fi.

85.

"Ivan the Terrible," overture


ouverture

(deginning).

N9 85. La Pskovitaine"
Maestoso.

(debut).

90

N9
|3|

86.

"Sadko."
el.:44.)

N?86. Sadko!'
(L argo.

N9
N9
Fi
ice

87.

87.

"Kashtchei the Immortal." pKachtchei I'lmmortei:*


IJQ zJ

9i
calmando

con tuttaforza ed espressione e poco rubato

creso.
Viol.

jfcon tuttaforza ed espressione

poco rubato

sfdim.

na

N? 88. '^Servilia." N9 88. Servilia(*

Bi| Allegro

N9

89.

"Servilia."
Servilial'

93

N? 89.

Lento.J=52.

Cor.

'

'

^^

<

bj

<

^h

ij'j

*13)^

N9

90.

''Sheherazade/' 4'*

part.

95

N9 90. Sheherazade,"
'Vivo. J. 8&>fu|
=

4"l^ partie.

96

Fl.pieo

97
Pl.picc

V-le.

^
^m
C-b.

^=#

* ^^ ^

flo

N?
N9
.pico.

91.

''The

Legend of Tsar Saltan!


duTsar
Saltan!'
a poco

91. Leg:ende

(Andante) animando povo

Nouspleuron8,noslarjnes

rem

pli-ront

lesmers, co\i-vri-ront les

H
h

Jili)Ji|L'i'i^ ^
champs
fleu-ris.

^^
^
ii

^
*

j>

j>

i)

m
B

^^ ^^

CJlfEr^

^S

;
JV? 92.

"The Golden Cockerel/' N9 92.LeCoq d'Or."


An(iantino. J = 88

99

|g8l

N?

93. ^'Snegourotchka" N? 93. Sniegourotchka"

tf^

Faff.

a2

^ i^ TT ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ #^
(p. (p-

269).
269)

^"^

f r

L^f

i^S^U fr^r

'

^r
VioMellnnis.

uu u
'

c; 'r

'

uwuw

h-HH-.
r

r
100

N9

94.

'^negourotchka''

(p.

271).

N9 94. v.Sniegourotchka"

(p. 27i).

Lj
kViol.Iell unis

'

'

L-T

'

Fap.

n n
i'
I

ri

r3

^=^=^

IP
Tanib-no.
/

n"T^
LJ
L-f
'

^
LJ

'

Viol.

e II nnis

N9
^9

95.

"Snegourotchka."
101

95. Sniegourotchka."

(MlCAllegro.^)
aFi.picc

dim

loa
i Fl. pic

diiH

ff

dim.

N9
F}-

96. "Ivan the Terrible," ActUI (p. sis). N? 96. La Pskovitaine," 8"] acte (p.aiS).

103

(Moderato alia breve)

allarg. poco

Epargxie,epargiieaumoinsrnafil

104

NO
N9

97.

"Snegourdtchka."

97. Sniegourotchkal* Grave e raaesioso. w=60.

Im]
Fl.

a2

N9 98. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan: N9 98. Legende du Tsar Saltan'.'


(Maestoso con moto. J- 84.)
Fl.picc.

105

11351

106
PI

picc.

N? 99. "Snegourotchka" (p.us) N9 99. ,,Sniegourotchka" (p.iw).


Animato
assai.

107

J. 126.

Mai
1^

heu

v Viol../ :^
II.

reu- se,

mal- heu

reu

se

Vous

ton

tes

^
P

"P

108

^^ ^^^- '"^^^ Christmas Night NPIOG. La Nuit de Noel"


Andante.

4A

"

J -72.

'

"The Christmas Night." N9lOi: La Nun de Noel."


iOl.

^?

109

1210

Andante.

J)- 112.

Sopr. I.

]'''
I

Sopr.II.

La

sa^van

? m
-

W=:7=m^

r
Jia-da,

p^i'^JIeEr.^
.

5^

ce

Ko

Ko

lia-d^

la

jenne est la

^^
Alti
I.

J La

iJ^JjuP j
s'a-van
-

J>
-

i^

ce

Ko

lia-da.

J Ko

ij'rj
-

J'
la.

lia-da

jeuiie est lu

Alti

La
II.

s"a-van

ce

Ko

lia-da

Ko

lia-da

la

fcl=

La

s'a

van

ce

^^ ^^
Kx>
-

lia

da

no

sur
Sour.
II.

uii

trai

nc-axi.bien

pa -re.

siir

nil

trai

-,

neau

bi

gur-re!

....

siir

uii

trai

Altl

neau

bi

fcfe

I
AIti
II.

^
-

prnr- re

la

'

7*

'

d
-

La

voi

la.

sur

un trai-nt-aii

bi

^
-

g'ar

rn

voi

la

sur

un

trai -neau

bi

gar - re

IK

m
V-e.

J
div.

j^^J

J_j^j
-J

^
^

^^p
e
I

Jr-^.

f^
C-b.
v'i*j H
i

f
V j

^1

^^

N?
H,87|

i02. "Snegourotchka." N9102. Snieg:ourotchka!'

111

Andantino. j.66

u
Fi.

"

N9
**2
[s]

103. "The Legend of the invisible rityof Kitesh! 103 Legende de la viUe invisible de Kitej N?
.

(Larghetto. J

= sa)

pp'

"

^ N?

-r

C=/

Golden Cockerel^ N?104.Le Coqd^Or."


104. ''The
go.

ilJ

[4] (Lento. J =

N?

105. "The Christmas Night" (p. JS47). N?105.La Nuit de Noel" (p. 347).

Adagio.

N?
N9

106.

106.

"The Christmas Night," La Nuit de Noel" Prelude.


_,

Prelude.

113

Adagio. M.M.J=B6.

flxsTi^

N9
*1*

107.

N9

107.

""Snegourotchka/* SniegourotchkaV

fi97l(J.fr6)

Wr

t/J v|

LLJ

1
1

iV? no.

N9

110.

"The Legend of Tsar Saltan " (p.i97). Legende du Tsar Saltan" (p.i97).
=

115

(Allegro. J

126)

Voix des

e.sprits

dans

les airs (6-10

Tenors dans la coulisse)

i ^

"m
Gvi
-

r
oni
-

Pv^Pir
phe!

'Qh
tous!

Mai - lieur a nous Voix du niagicien (6-10 Basses dans la coulisse)


-

don tri

^^
Ah,
je de
-

y-le.

con sord.

***
iilSI

Ul. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan." N9 HI. LeVende du Tsar Saltan f

A?

Andante. J u.
rLpico.J

^3

De

la

mer sort V Oiseau-cyj^e,

qu^ illuminent les

rayons I'unaires

1^

N? m. "Sadko," (ofemnf of Uu 2*i tableau). N9112. Sadkor (debut du 2 me tableau). GS Andante. JrTs.
3F1.

La

rive du lac Ilmen^


I.

une ^rande pierre blanohe. Claire

nuifc d'*et6;

Le ordissantdelalune

*>

117

a son

dcclin. Parait

Sadko:

il

s''asseoit

sur une pierre, tenant a la main ses goussli.

N?
118
|126|
Fl.

113.

''The Tsar's Bride'.'

N9113. LaFiancee duTsar." Alleffro nontroppo. J = u

^
ingl.

P M
i

P f
^

^p
ff

tttt

^
i/

to^'^r^
"r^ r
'

ry^

iTf\ T . p

%Cor.

^*

'rrV

C1.(B>

S
S
<

W^
Faf
*>i

|iiiii ^[^

r'
Bomeli (du dedans)

p |"r^r^*rttr'i^ff ^t=.^
Lioubacha.
^

^^i
ff

^^p
Qui

p
114.

p r
-

ft-appe-i

ci?

Tu ver-ras

^^^
ft

JV',

si tu ouvrt-s.

y^ ^
(p.

N9
N9

114.

'The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh" Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej " (p. 127).
= J20.)

127).

(Allegro. J

Qui

nous

don

ne

du

pain

Est un

bon

sou

ve

rain.

N?
(J
.

Its.

''The

Legend of the

invisible city

of Kitesh"

(f.257).

N9 115. Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej" fp.257)


92)

il9

N?
N9

tie.

116.

"The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh'.' Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej."
J
= 92^

(Moderato assai.

120

N? U7. ''The Golden Cockerel" N? 117. ,.Le Coq d'Or" (p. 315).
fJ
:

(p.

3is).

120)

riten.

poco

"Snegourotchka, ^ N? N9118. Snie^ourotchka(' i^ (Allegro. 1=


118.
76)

Mais non^

au

pres

de

toi

Ta

mour

m'e-veil -le

la

vi

Ton bras vail- lant


Misg-.

in'o-treint,

mon

front s'ap-puie

ton

paule

N?
N9
13181

119.

119.

"Snegourotchkat Sniegourotchka?
J.= sa)

121

(Larghetto.

.ci.(B)^'

^-^h j
I.

,k 1^"":

fe
rftp:

^
ir

:^

^-"Tj.

/-^^
1

^ ^^ ^"TJiJ
T^
I

^-

^
r^

'f^

-f^

r^^Tr-TJ^

122

N9 120. "Sadko." N9 120. Sadko."


("And ante.
c)-:.:52.)_

^
Sadko.
Et.

Ifc

Tw^.

rircfCf-Tr
par-tout ou
,j

ir-^r
nionde
'ii -

r
tier

rr
Son

-rai,dana

le

co n

sord.

123
II.III.a2

morendo
Sadko.

j'

r
riches

>

r
Vpiis

r.

r
-

f
lu
-

r
er

r fre
jiisqua

vieii-drez sa

div.

ifjjiinTm jiiiiiiiiiji

p cresc

125

,o

N9
NO
.Ob.

121. 121.

"Sadko."
Sadko:'
^ = \yi.

Allegro non troppo. I. .,

N9
-/* aOb

122.

"Sadko."

127

N9122.Sadko'.' (And amino. J =84.)

k'

M-^

'

clH^

'cM

'cEdJ ciDlr dlrLr


i '

128

Fl.I.soIo.

L'Indou.

^m

jj j.? fl-"Cf
D\i
-

"
i

r1'fa-etf^

nevoiy ra-vis- san

N9
N9

123.

"Kashtche'i the

Immortal"

(p.

119)

123. Kachtchei

rimmortel"

ip.119).

129

fOb'Con sord.

JV? 124.

"The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh/* N9124. Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej"
(Poco larghetto. J. -68.)

K2I

130

2^ "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh" N? 125. Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej" (p.39;^).
jy

(p.89^).

Larghetto alia breve. 4^ s*-

PP
V-le.

con sord

PP
V-c.I.

c,^sord.

^K ^P s^m
^^^ ^
^
(p.5i7),

^
PP

'>t^,;

nnr^n^nn\is!^
aa 80g4^

PP V-cDeC-b.
(s yn

^
y

N9 126. "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh" N9126. Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej" (p.si?),
(Moderato
J =96.) Cor, ingl. con sord.
.

Ts

ppp
Fi^VTonia.

Fleu

ri

^m
tous

pa

reils

au

pal-mier,

>

PP

131
PI.
I.

II

Com

me monteandiantbarmcj

ni

eux

d'ir

re-els

oiseauXiChanteurs

du

del

Arpa

II

6n:ut,ret>,mi|>,fatt,sol{|,la,si)(

glias.

N9
*32
ja]

127.

"The Golden Cockerel."


J
=

N9127. Le Coq d'Or!*


(Le nto.
6o)

N?
I
:

128.

''The

Golden

Cockerel?^

Noi28.,.Le Coq d'Or."

133

Larffhetto. (J=52) animando pochissimo

Pour me

la

Iral

chir

la

peau

.je

mas-

per

g^e

(U-

ro

se

e.

rtsv.poco

ia4

N?

129.

''Snegourotchka"
J

(p.950). (p.a5u>.

N9 129.Sniegourotchka"
(Andante.
--

ea*

135

N?
575]
f

130.

"Sadkor
w.

N9130.Sadko."
Allegro. J

Le poisson pris au
Triang-.jfr'^

fili-t

se traiisf'ornie en im linpot dor qui sfMiniUe

.ni

soleil.

crcsc. molto

'^^
^Viol..v/'
II

k=^
!^
cresc. niolto

>

V-c.e C-b.

137

N?
191l

131.

"Sadkor
I

N9131. Saclko"
(Andante nontroppo.
J
=

84.'

Va

giics

en hur-lant as

sie-gent nos

ri

va

ges

et

blan-ches

de

co-lere at-

aS

-f"quentnob rochers! Mab hont sur laiiiarplanentiiosrofssauvag\s E-coutantleurs>chantssansbrpnchor

...w

N^

1S2.

N':'132.
Fl.picc.%

''The Christmas Night" La Nuit dc Noel" (p.au'.t)

(p.

309).

m h=w
Alii.

Hou-ln.u-lioii-hou

liCiii^.ou

ho\i-liou4iuu-hou^)oul!i;ti

ItuiI

^"^^

Ten

Hon

^^^^^S
hon-hoii-hoii-hou-Jiouhou- hou!

Sf^S:

m
Hou

^,=^i:^
._

^.=^-^=^m

B-tssi.//"

>

buu-lioii-hoii-Jioii-lioii-liuiiliip.i-liou-lu.u-lioii-hoii lion!

^il

m^^^^^s^^
hou-hoii-lioulioii-how-hou'.

^^^

Hou

^^^^3^???

I,|

139

N? 133. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan^ N9l33.Legende du Tsar Saltan."


S(Maestoso.
Fl.picc

<

63.)

140
Fl.picc. e

2F1.

141

N9 134. ''The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh!' N9 134. Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej."
Ii99| (Allegro. J
.

isa)

'Tr be/

marcato

^(c-altaF) secco_

4
ifti.

rpvp
t

pvpv
*ecfo

Tr-bni.
sii=

"s
Piatti

^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^
[J

yP?

P Y

XpytigvTv

[^^P>P^ ^^p->^

^^
yl> ft ^
ft
j[

^ ^^
Pyft^Y

ry^
J

^RF=^
i

Jyj

^
J

iJ

iV? i55. "The Golden Cockerel" N9l35.Le Coq d'Or" (p. us).

(p.

143).

(Moderate. J
C-Far.

5o.)

V^^J
Ccr.ill.rV.

I?

I.J V

V P V

ViJ

Jv

P Vi.J>^ J^v P V

pizz.

142

N?

136. ''Snegourotchka" N9l36.Sniegourotchka"

(p.

97)

(p. 97).

Adagio. Recit.

Bon-nes pens, ve-nezet vo-vez

tous>cet-te mer-veil-le!

(Sniegourotc-hka se montre'i

"6

.<*#!;>

CORO- (Tons s'approchent

dii

tronc d'arbre)

Sopr.

)Fi
j-

N9 137. "Servilia N9137. Serviliaf' (Alle gro maestosoJ

143
Piu lento, d
a 2
-.

io>.

144

JV'P/^A "The Legend of Tsar ^Saltanr Leffende NO 138. Legende du Tsar Saltan!'

Moderate assai.

84

I. II.

con sord.

N?
Il58|

139.

"The Legend of

the invisible city

of Kitesh"

N9139. Legende de
Maestoso.

la ville invisible

de Kitej."

145

N?
ci.miCa)

140.

"The Legend of the


52.)

N9140. ,,Legende de

la ville invisible

invisible city of Kitesh: de Kitej"

|248| (Larghetto alia breve, jl:

^
146

N9 141. ''The Tsar's Bride! N9141.,.La Fiancee du Tsar.'


=

|50| Allegretio. J Cl\B)

ii2.

^
N
'or.
'

^^ a
Fag-.

Ps m
JDl!

aa m
rt
i

do^'Jt
dim.

/:^;^

f=

fnf

w*
^^^^

5^ rr 1^
J

T-

^^ S^ ^ rr
aim

a^E
dim.

r^

CORO
/f. Jy^

bopr. Aiti. Sopr. Alti.

^
'

mm *'
J

r
hou
blon vert q\u

R
grim
-

r
pe.

Sur Ten.

les

bords

du

clair ruis

le

^
les

^m
N?

Sur Bassi.

bords

du

clair ruis

^
(p.S47).

le

hou

blon vert qui

grim

pe.

^^-

142. "The Tsar's Bride" N9142. La Fiancee du Tsar"

(p.7;.

^Moderate, j;

86.)

N? 143 ''The Christmas Ntjorht/' N9l43.La Nuit de Noel'.'


'

147

165|

Adagio.

-.

56

Fl.I. II.

dim.
"*

poro a

*)A defkut, clochettes; sur le celesta, jouer

poco a 1' octave

inferieure,oniettmt la premiere note IN.dn


Feed.)

^ A Fl.picc.

I
Fl.I.
ill.

1 W
"^^

"^

1
//*;

1
smorx

i
smorz.

ii
^Cor.

T^

^^
>

hi

f
8-

w^l-.fejf:jzffe
jjzi:,j^Lo^^j^

tsi ^^^E^^EE=^Et

I^^M^Ti

m
Arpe.
4

MIee^
1

di?n.

poco a poco

M M
I

^E^
4r

.'iol.I. -tr

^^
*
1^

<9

**
<2

2VJ01.*'

^-

^=^

^^^N9 144. ''Sadko" (p. 121) woodwind alone). N?144. Sadko" fp. \2\\ instruments a vent
(Andante. J:
72.)

seuls).

dim.

if? 145. ''Sadko."


.

,N9145. Sadko!'
J
=

l242jAndantino.

66.

N9
[IS

146.

''The

Legend of

the invisible city

of

Kiteshf'

NO 146. ^^Legende de
Fl.picc.

la ville invisible de Kitej."


J =62.)

149

(Larghetto alia breve.

150 iV? i4t


.

"The Golden Cockerel^


=

N9147. Le Coq d'Or"


'

[233] Allegro alia marcia. J

120.)

iV? 148.

"Russian Easter Fete"' (p.H). N?148.La Grande Paque Russe" (p.ii).


(J
.-

objAndante lugubre.

so)

N9149. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan!* N9149. ,,Legende du Tsar Saltan'/


129

151

(Moderate assai. J:

84.)

Lalumiere augmente. Les rayons du jour per9ant

les

brumes du matin revelent

la ville de Ledenetz.

V-c.e C-b.

ty

^=^
PP

N? 150. ''The Legend of Tsar Saltan" (p.;Si9). N9 150. L^gen(le du Tsar Saltan" (p. 219).
PL*leo.Fl.I

CampangUi.

J
f
I'

'

^^

i'""^'[iijjTi^

giF jfn iLiutujIiiLrtiif

pisz.

N9

iSl

"Antar"
158

N?151.Antar."
(Allegro.)

154

N^

152.

"Antar:

N9l52.Antar."

,pl, (Adagio.)

N? 153. ''The Christmas Night'' (p. 376). N9l53.La Nuit de Noel" (p.37K).
Andante, tenuto
ass'ai.

155

156

p cresc.
(Un
soleil

rouge se montre a travers lea brouillards

places')

2 Viol

cresc

157
PiU mOSSO.
Fl.picc.

i)l44. (J:

72.)

158
,Fi.piccr

m
Cl.picc.'^
n.
Fag-.

A
f

A-i D

N?

154.

''Sadko."

N?154.Sadkof'

159

Gloireau

bon

vieil-lard,

gloire

ce

bien

fai

teur.

N9
3 Fl

155.

"Servilia

N9155. Servilia!'
J
:

72.

leo
FI.I.

N*^ 156. *'The

Legend of
J:a)

N9156. Legende de
(Andante mistico.

la ville invisible

the invisible city of Kite sh" de Kitej" (p 2f>2)


ritcn.

(p.

252).

molto

N9
""fi.

158.

''Ivan the Terrible," Act

J.

N9l58.La Pskovitaine"
Adagio.

161

acte.

Je

voiis

par-leTai(lupreuxpa>la-din Oo-ri-nia,

du

ser-pent cru

el,

Tou-

^
I
Tr-be.

poco

cresc.

JlJ-

^n. e mor

"Wze:=: cresc. poco

%
jCE

dm. e

mor.

J^-^

dim.e mor.

^^

162

iS9. "Snegourotchka" (p. 28). N?159.Sniegourotchka" (p. 228).

(Allegro moderato.)

^^^

^
i

m
^
pp

N9

160.

"Sadko"

(p.231)

N?160.Sadko".(p.28i). ^; (Allegro non troppo.)

Les devins (mysterieusement)

Sur con sord.


I

lamer, sur

To-ce-an,

dansune

"le

mys

te-ri-eu-se

fleu-

'

Les devins.

k''

J
rit

J
la

-^^
i

J^

J_ 4viv^
ue
nieurtpas.

J^
la

,1

^_

y J'

J'

for-ce qui

force

^ ne-pui-sable

j^

N?
Ob.

161.

"The Legend of Tsar Saltan"


(p.

(p.

so).

N9161.Legende du Tsar Saltan"


(Allegro. Jiiae)

80).

168

f^_f
Platti.

r f _f_p r

gjLA^ e-jL^

f r

^ f

f r

r r r

Ha

ha

hii

ha

ha

ha

ha

ha

ha

ha

ha

ha

ha

ha

ha

ha!

J? 162. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan'' N9l62.Legende du Tsar Saltan" (p. 9a).
Fi.

(p.92).

(Andante. Jzea)

N? 163. "The Legend of the invisible _ N9163. Legende de la ville invisible de


,

city

of Kiteshi

Kitej"

O b. Allegro. J-.\zo.

IQA N9 J64. "The Legend of the invisible city of KitesH' (f.ioo). N9164. jjLegende dela ville invisible de Kitej" (p.40o>.

lis

sont de

ve-nus sol- dais du

Christ,

des mar-tyrs s^en-

ri-du

ra Tar

N? 165. "The May Night/' Act I (p. 105). [Eg N9165. La Nuit de Mai" lJacte (p.ios).
T^Jv. (Allegretto.)

>

i/p

N9

166. ''Snegourotchka: N9166. Sniegourotchka!'

166

Maestoso.
rI.II.

<J: 69.

a 2

166
tit\r

N9
\

167.

"The Christmas Night/


J

N9167. La Nuit de Noel"


\

Andante.

=72.

^S
3
*
Fl.

-"pp-

^
a

a
ft

n.iil. 111I

"

fi:

^
ob. n.
//l^Clar.

pp-

iX^sr.

a
:^^^

=1

=8=

picc.(D)

TT

^2 Cl.(B)

N? 168. ''Sadkor N9168. Sadkof'


(Andantino.
J=

167

66.)

15

168

cresc.

dtm.

169.

"Sadko"
66.

(p.

49^)

N9169. Sadko"(p.492).
(Andante. J:

169

170

N9 no, "SadkoP
N9l70.Sadko!'
12441 ( Andantino. J.= c&)

171

172

N?

171.

"Antar!

N9171. ,.Antar

^
N9
01.

N9

172.

"The Tsar's Bride"


Fiancee du Tsar"
J
c

(p.J852).
(

172. La (Moderate.

p.

252V

9G.)

^^^^

ir

Fair

z?

^^ '^^^^4^^:^,^^^:^-^

^ w
7-

yVt

i i

173. ''Sadko'' {f.ii2).

ITS

N9173.Sadko"(p.ii8V
rVivace.)
Fl.picc.

179
P-J^

N?

"The Christmas Night." N9174. La Nuit de Noel"


174.

ri.pie,

ri

N?
Ob.

1759 "Vera Scheloga" (p. 49). N?175.a. La BoiarineVera Cheloga"(p.49).


pten. ass at

176
Lento.

quel

mal

heur'

Oi- seau^pourquoi

te

tai

re?

Je cherche en

Vera.

vain,

ne trou-ve pas

ma

rou-te,

je.

ne sais plus que faire,

et je

m?e-ga-re.

N
"

175? Another possible

orchestration.

N9 175. b.
Vera.

Autre orchestration possible.

Lento.
hi-l
-

J^ J^
quel
rT\

iiJ'

J^ J^

J'

J^

i I

p
tai
-

iiJw
re?

JO

J^

mal

heurl
t^n.

0i-8eau,poxirquoi te

Je cherche en

assai

vain,

ne trou-ve

pats

ma

rou-te,

je ne sais plus quefaire,

et je m'e- ga-re.

N? m. "Russian Easter Fete"


176
(Lento mistico.
J

(p. 5).

^9176. La Grande Paque Russe'*


=84^

(p.5).

AViol.soli.

N9

177.

''Russian Easter Fete"

(p. 9).

N9177.
Fl.l

>,La Grancle Paque (Lento mistico. J = 84.) timile

Russe"

(p.9)

177

^^^

N9

178,

"The Tsar's Bride"


=

(p.i-s).
(p. 1-2).

N9178. La Fiancee du Tsar"


Jlj^Allegrro. J
108.)

N?
NO

179. ''The
108.)

Tsar's Bride:

179. (Allegro.

La Fiancee du Tsan"
--

^ \^rf^ ^^^^

"The Tsar's Bride." N9180. La Fiancee du Tsar."

N9

179

180.

m (Allegro. J Fl.picc.

102.)


N9
180
[2]

181. ''The Tsar's Bride!' N9181. La Fiancee du Tsarf'

(Allegro. J

-.

102)

N9
RH

182. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan.' N? 182. Legende du Tsar Saltanf


:

Modei'ato alia marcia. w

88.

'

l;

"
r

" 'c;
^

"

"

"

t
r

t
^

u
r

'" r r

lj
r

Vr

N?

183. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan/ N9183. Leg:ende du Tsar Saltan"

181

Moderate allamarcia.
Fl.picc.

J -88.

<?/

1^2
ljS[
f
I

"The Legend of Tsar Saltan. Legende du Tsar Saltan" N9184.

184.

Allegretto alia marcia.


plcc.

96.

J33-

J5L

^ .n
p

\m

.JD .

IT m jn . 1
.

n\m

J!L

J^f
'

^f
r

"The Legend of Tsar Saltan." N? N9185. Legende du Tsar Saltan!'


185.

Allegretto alia marcia.


Fl.picc.ezri.

96.

n areata

N?

186. "The Legend of Tsur Saltan. N9l86.Legende du Tsar Saltan."

183

(Allegretto alia marcia. J- 96^

N9

187.

"The Legend of Tsar Saltan"

(p.soey

N9187. Legende du Tsar Saltan" 'psoei.


4Cor(Allegro tempestoso. J- 132)

-va

ge

tren

te

trois

puis

sants guT

j-rts

^^^

N9

188.

''The

Legend of Tsar Saltan"


(py*ii).

(p.

4f).

N?188.Leg:ende du Tsar Saltan"


(Allegro animate. *-i44.y

/
Tr-bni. e

Tuba

m^
ATimp

rmrm n
i

HJ

N?

189.

"The Legend of Tsar Saltan"


Saltan''^ (p.367).
.)

(p.

367).

185

N9189. Legende du Tsar


(Allegr o. J- 132


186

Cor.

f-

-^

Tr-bni.

eTuba.

Timp.

Cassa.

ir

Viol.

II

N9

190. "Ivan the Terrible," overtun. N9190. La Pskovitaine"ouverture.

187

la (Allegro.)
^Cl.l(A).Sol(

N?

191.

'Ivan the Terrible,"


5,

overture.

N9191. La Pskovitaine" ouverture.


(Allegro)

188

N? 192. 'Sheherazade" ($.5) N9l92.Sheherazade" (p.S).


(Alleg ro non tr oppa
J..56.)

i^? 193.

"Sheherazade"

(p.a)

N9193. Sheherazade"

(p,8).

^^

CAlIegTo non troppo. J.-56)


''Sheherazade" (p. 19). N'M94.Sheherazacle" fpiw).
194.
[S]
^,

N?

^Allegro non troppo. d..


*^
''c-^

Fl.picc.

>

189

56.) tf

^?
190

195. "Sheherazade" (f. 38-89). N?195.Sheherazade" (p. 38-39).

(Allegro non troppo. d.-56)

N?

196.

''The

Legend of the
J -60.)

invisible city

of Kiteshr

N9196. Legende de
(Poco larghetto.

IM

la ville invisible

de

Kitejl'

192

NO

igf rrj^ Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh.' N?l97. Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej!'
(Poco larghetto. J-6o)

NP

'The Legend of the inmisible city of Kitesh!' N?198. jiLeg^ende dela ville invisible de Kitej"
(Poco
lararhetto. J. 60.

m.

193

N9

'The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh*' N9199. Legende delSi ville invisible de Kitej"
199;
^

(Allegro. ^.120.)

^
i

iV*i"T

J
I

i;_^

'~rj i

i"T

f^

194

"The Legend of the invisible city of Kiteshi N9 200. vLegendc de la ville invisible de Kitej'/

N?

200.

[7q1 (Alle gro. Jriao.)

i^? ^i. ^T^te Legend ofihe N9 201. Legende de la ville


(Alleg ro J-120J

invisible city

of Kitesh."

invisible de KitejV

N9 202. "The Golden Cockerel'' (p. 298-299). N9202.Le Coq d'Or" ^p. 2i<H-y9^,.
Fl.picc.

195

(Allegro alia marcia. J-120.J ^

^96

N?203.Le Coq d'Or"


ri.pico

^ ^^

"The Qolden Cockerel^*

(p.

SOB-ssol

(p.ao9-8io>.

N9 204. ''Snegourotchka'' N?204. Sniegourotchka"


(Vivace. J-I60.)
Fl. pice

197
67). ip 2K7..
(p.

N9
198
I173]
I!"!.

205. "Sadko." N9 205. Sadko:'

Allegro. J..66.

piece 2 Fl.

N?
.

206. ''Sadko."

N9 206.Sadkof'
Allegro. d..G6.

199

11771
Fl.

piece 2F1.

200
|184|

N^

207. ''The Christmas Night." N9 207. La Nuit de Noel!'

Allegro non troppo, alia polacca.

ij^lhi

pMj^^^^i^i^^^. ir

201

n,r

cresc.

N?
202
|lg(-|

208. ''The

Christmas Night."

NO 208.
(AUegTo
a

.,La Nuit de Noel'.' non troppo, alia polacca.j

Fl.piccjB-

^ a

^f^

Bassi

chaai-tez, trom-pet

tes,

flu

tes

dan3

la nuit

ou

point

l^u-

;203

209. ''Sheherazade"

(p.

123)

N? 209. Sheherazade"

205

(p 123.)

Andantino, allargando assal.

I.

Solo

206

colla parte

N?

210.

''Snegourotchka"

(p.

176-177).

N9 210. Sniegourotchka"
Risoluto ed animato.
Fl.e Ob.

(p.i7e-i77.)

<^= loo.

'^

fcrr^'
^JnJ
i

ircrr*"
J
I

ir* "
\

r^i-

^^
i^jb^
^
de
la

e rr crrri;

Ar-j
g__oiOier,

,^j
fa
-

^^^1 ^i ,^ ^
-

la

rou

che

cla

nieur

de la guerre et

^ ^p

poco af>oco dimr

ba

tail

208

N?
N9

211.

211.

''Snegourotchka" (p. 179-180). Sniegourotchka" (p.i7y-i80).

(Animate.)

a2

C1.(A)

^r -r f^

i^7/li ^

r "-f

r r

ii^^i^M

^
f.

Faa

^'
a^2

^^
ff

Cor.

^
j|j

'

Cj
I

>

i
Tr-be.(B)

'"'II

J-IJTl

Tr-bni. e Tuba.

I^M ^ -^^ I ^^=^f ^^ ^


ff.

JPJ

jj

^
^J

or
.a^

-^J

Timp.

Ten. I

^^

^^-^

^ ^

Z09

it h'^f r
ii

^>
r

^f

r
,

rr7 ^^
5=
r

^f ^f

f f f f
r r r

cresc.

r
''=

cresc.

Y'T
h^iif

Cl.

i_i!Lii. rr r" r
I

Lf

r
\

S^

Fag-.

f\

^m rW

210
[l9|

N? 212. "Ivan the Terrible," Act U. N9 212^. La Pskovitaine," 2^ ax:te.


Allegro moderato maestoso.

N?
2&4l

213.

''The

Legend of the

invisible city

of Kitesh:

N9 213. Leg-ende de
Andante non

la ville invisible de Kitejf

211

troppo. (J = m.)

Du

fond de la clairiere marecag'euse,toute fleurie, s''avance^comme sur la terre

ferme,nma^

du

prince Vsevolod entouree d'une lumiore doree.

II

louche a peine

le sol

212

218

^
C.lngl

***

N? 214. "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh' N9 214. Legende de la ville invisible de Kitejf
Andante non troppo.
J=t'.

fSjg]

F^vrQoia et Tapparition sortent par

le

marais, effleurant a peine

le sol.

PP9

2\? 215.

N9

215. Le

"The Golden Cockerel." Coq d'Or."


.

21S

(Moderate J=

loo.)

pizz
,i
I

'^^Vy3 j J iJ vv JJiyv J

Jv

J JiJ JJ J

J v J#3i j j J J H^44*m4 4H H44H


.

iy!"

2lV\negourotchka"

(p.l4S).

N9

216. Sniegourotchka"(p.i48.) (Animato. W:i26.)

)b.i

He

bien

pre

nez,

sivousrfavezpas hon-te

d'etre enriohis pax lemalheurdesautrea!

r
216 iV?
217. ''Russian Easier Fife.** N9 217. La Grande Pique Russef'
iFl.

[^Triang.

Piatti.

r^
.
i

coUabacchetta da Timpano

fiijj

217

218

N? 218. "The May Night" (p.i40). N9 218. La Nuit de Mai" rp 140.;


Allegro vivo.
2 Fl.picc

N?
ttfljfl

219.

''The

Legend of the

irwisible city

of Kitesh'.

^ N9 219.

Leg-ende de -^T-(Moderato. J=m.)


Fag.IIeC-fa^.

la ville invisible

de

Kitej!'

N9

220, ^'The

Legend of

the invisible city

of

Kitesh'.'

N? 220. Legen(le dc
('Moderate. J; 92.) _a2 j.n.

la ville

invisible dc Kitej!'

219

f^

N?
rrj=i
(

221.

"The Legend of
Jzs-^.)

the invisible city

of

Kitesh."

220 N9 221. Legende dc la


Moderato.

ville invisible

de

Kitej."

N9

222.

"Snegouroichkar
..Snieg-ourotchkal'
= 69.

N? 222.

221
doleiaiimo

IB4I Lento. J
ri. ptcc

FKplcc

N9

223.

''Snegourotchka/'

222 N9 223. Sniegourotchka'/


12751 Adagio. Recit.
Cor.

<

n^^
A-vec
le

jour va com-men-cer

^^J\}^^^
le

regTie

"^'w'

"*"

y "

Du

dieu Ya-ri-

lo,

de I'e-te de

flamme

PourQuoitesBleurs

et que

veux

N9 224. "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh! N9 224. Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej."
Lento mistico. J:6o.

223

N?
224
, ,

225.

''Sne^ourotchka/*
7a.

N9 225. Sniegourotchkal'
Adacrio non troppo, lento e cantabile. ^z

le
,

8o-leil

sur lacol-li-ne

de

crort

len

te_ment,

pa

lit

et

.raeurt

v-i

N?
sss

226. "The Golden Cockerel." N9 226.Le Coq d'Or!'

LaiteinedeCh^

Lento non troppo.


chan-son

Ah!.
Viol.
I.

Viens, la

oal

me null

re

pe

te

la

descoeurs en

II
fT\

unis.

ptzz.

'PifctU.

Allegro moderato
+f

io4

*-H

flS-te.

Tiens,boisce

vin

tout

pe-til-lant, o'est le

sang

.^

de

lX)-ri-ent'.

N9
[li]

227.

miada,"
Mlacia;'

Act n.

N9 227.
Loumir.

2"1- acte

225

(^Andante non troppo.)

(muta sol in fa|)

dolce colla parte

Loumir

Loumir

836

N?^228. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan." N9 228. Legende du Tsar Saltan'.'


Andante.
Fi.

J= 68.

BupalaiB sort la princesse Cypnejdontlasplendeur eclipse ceile du de la main.

soleil.

Tous protegent leurs yeux ""

zz'y

228

N? 229. ''The Golden Cockerel" N9 229. Le Coq d'Or" (p.227.)


Fl.picc

(p. -227).

Z'.^

230

fij.>^3mi,^

'ig

<^i

Cor.

I.

PP

tou

jours,

sans

tre

Celesta.

'1^4
Arpa.

^
;
^

^^
i

H V

Mr

N9 230. "Russian Easter Fete." N? 230. La Grande Paque RusseJ'


Sostenuto e tranquillo.eJzise.
JPl

231

pico

238
12971
Fl.

2^i-

"^^
= 48.)

Legend of the

invisible city

of

Kitesh'.'

N9 231. Legende de
(Andante. J
piece Fl.L

la ville invisible de Kitejl'

Spectre,

tu

parais porter

les traits

deVse-vo

lod

le

che-va

Arpa

I.

div.

2BS
Flpicc

cresc.

poco

284 N9 232. "The Golden Cockerel" N9 232. Le Coq d'Or" (p.a82


).

(f.

282).

(Allegro assai. Jzisz.)


Fl.picc

N?
api

233. "The Golden Cockerel" N9 233. Le Coq d'Or" (p.i4i


).

(p.l4ti}.

Moderate
picc.

(alia breve),

'^.l .

so

N? 234. "Sheherazade" (p. 61). N?234. Sheherazade" (p.ei).


(Vivace, scherzando. J 132

285

N9

235. "Snegourotchka" N? 235. Sniegourotchka"

(p.

807).

(p.307).

Moderate.
/J;P'-|t^
.

J-re.

I,,

La

p.^brillent

vision disparait; a sa plaoe on volt un tronc d'artre surlequel deux vers luis&nts conime line paire dyeux

236

N?

236.

''Snegourotchka!J-^ss.)

N9 236.Sniegourotchka."
(Larghetto.

Sniegourotchka.

rr
3Ier
-

pir^pr
du fond du cceur

<

pir'r
pour
-

pr
d'ar-dent

pir
a
-

ci

tant

mour

r^<-

m
m

1^
f
PP

m
PP

Arpa.

m
rn-fif t
.

Viol.I solo.

f fif^
trem.
dlv.

^-

if

Viol.II

arco

V-le.

i.

I.

J'^''

^^
V

1^
^m
2C-b.
soli.

^^ ^P^
PP
pizz.

V-c.

=^^^
PP

i'

N9 237. "The Chrism tis- Night'' N Q237. L a Nuii de Noel" (p.312).

(p.Si^).

237

N?
1i
.

238. "The Golden Cockerel" N0 238. Le Coq d'Or" (p.i9).

(p.

19).

(Andante,
A Wl p tc^

^-.tz)

ggg

N9

239.

''Ivan the Terrible"

Ad U.

N?239. La Pskovitaine,"

2"ie actp.

iV? 240.

fj^
'

"The Tsar's Bridef N9240. La Fiancee du Tsar."


(Allegro moderate.
J mis.)

5'j,

i
Oiii
.

nJ^ J^
elle est

|t|J

i
rose et blanche de
taint..

belle

N?

241.

''The Tsar's Bride'' (f.2io).


fp.^io).

N9 241. La Fiancee du Tsar"


(Allegro moderato. J.
iia;^

2:^9

N?

242. "The Tsar's Bride." N? 242. La Fiance'e du Tsar."


J- 56.

N?

243. "The Tsar's Bride." N? 243. La Fiancee du Tsar.

^Lento.

(Lento.)

N?
^ ^^0

244. '^Snegourotchka."
sostenuto. J

N? 244. Sniegourotchka!'
i

ISy Andante, molto

I I

N?
l313l
^^-;:ji

245. "Sne^ourotchka.*J..)

241

^^ ^^^ Snieg:ourotchka!'
(Andante.

On rayon

brillaot perce les

brume matinale

et

tombe sur Sniegowrotchka.

^2

N9

246. "Serviliar

N9 246.Servilia!'

[g25!(Lento. J=6o.)

N9

m 247.

"The Tsar's Bride" La Fiancee du Tsar" (Adagio J


247.

248

N?

W 248. La Grande Paque Russe!'


lugiibre. J=6o.)

248. ''Russian

Easter Fite."

P] (Andante

244

N? 249. 'The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh: N9 249. Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej!'

245

(Larghetto alia breve. ^-Irea.)


Cl.l.U (A)

^-'

N? 250. "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh.' 246 N? 250. Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej!'
Allegro ^Jr
.

18 8

Com

me monte au

eiel

le

tour-bil-lonl

La pous-sie

re

voi

le

le

so

- leil.

N?

251.

'^Spanish Capriccio/'
Met Sit mo

N9 251. Capriccio Espagnol"

N^

252.

"Sadko"
247

N^>252. ,,Sadko:'
12641 (Allegro non.troppo. J- 112.)
Ob.I.Solo.y

PFP

N9^ 253. ''The


Ob.
I

Legend of the

invisible city

of Kite sh'.
Solo

N9 253. Leffende de

la ville invisible de Kitej."

N?

254. ''The Tsar's Bride" (t.ZAe'H^r}. N? 254. La Fiancee du Tsar'*^ (p. 246-247.)
(Moderate. J =
.)

"
TVr 255.

movement '"Sheherazade," N9 255. Sheherazade;' 2"}" mouvement.


[jpi

2^

249

(^Aiidantino,j)OCO animate.)

N?

256. "The Tsar's Bride/' N9 256. La Fiancee du T^ar


eo.

Molto andante. J =

Nov-gDrod^ansun jardinsu-per.be, sous

les

om-bragesnou8VHion8,en-sein-ble

N?

257.

''The Tsar's
9s.)

Bride"

(f.

186\
).

25qN'^257. La Fiancee duTsar"


(Andante. J =
sirtngentio foco a poeo

(p i<

poco

m N9 258.
258.
IliJ
Fl. pice

''Mlada'/ Act lU. Mlada;' 3"1 acte.

251

Moderate, poco acceler.

^^
(non stacc.)

poco cresc.

I
16 Viol,

mi~n^ni
n
2>P
div.

jjj.;j'jJJ3
poco cresc.
(noil stacc.)

m i^^p
*ff

pqr

^
^ ^^
12 V-c.div.
pizz.

pp poco

^^
cresr.

^
i

ttf'tU ::r

*** ttt-

^^ffr"fr7fg

/?oco creirc.

r.T .r

H C-b.div.

arco

>

^j?

^rt^

^ #^
'

vr

^oco cresc.

/oco cresc.

252
Fl pice.

Con moto
PI. pice.

253

254
.V"

I
259

"Mind a:
IVIlada:' 3"

Act

III

N'>;<J59.
[19!
Fl

acte.

Andante.
I.

1.1.

J.

:i*?!auij

y/)

M.

11

FP
Fl

^^ ^^^
JS
5fe

i
;vv^ ^
-

c-alto

'(Ji

%
Oh.
I.

jj^'

^^^

j?p

i
Ob.
II.

?==^
PP

^^
I^

^^ ^^
pp

J^' r'r jC
l

Ob. c -alto.

m
PP
3 Clar. (B)
3 Fag-.

?^^^

fij-

i'

pp

pp

^M^^

te

^^

Iy^iHH

^^goTr-ba.picc.(Es)

3 Cor. (F) con sord.

Tr-ba.lKB)

/?P

i
Tr-ba.c -altaCF)

^^ ^1 ^^^

/?P

i
^J^Jm^l y\ ;v
-

^^
mir!

L" ombre de Mlada (mi mi que") :..Ce sont les voix prophetiqxies des esprits; ecoute-les!" Voix des esprita lumineux (derriere la scene) Coro.12-16 Soprani.

j-4-/^ij

J'

Ya-ro

r~pv^*' U' Pour toi bien - tot _


I

"

-J'T

''Hi't

^ri'*'

8on-ne-ra I'heu-re.

iJo5

Poco
p'

acceler.

poco

poco

25&
Fl. pice.

N9
,

260.

"Sadko:*
J--

257

N?260.Sadko"
And antino. (MS 1^*1
ee

'W~^-

'

Moderato.
J
=

;i58

N9 261. "Sadko." N?261.Sadko!'


96

Piatti e

Les eaux du lac

Tam-tsin

r
div.
I.

VP

>.^A^A-k< Al p^ P
1 '


3'

agitent; des profondeurs surgit le Roi des Mers

kfcP^

-Lfe p*
1

V^< p'
'

Vp:<A-^< P
P
crresc.

ir

nfv'^tf^t
-

^>e W*ti

IeI
div. V-15.

^ ^ p^ ^S^P
m^

-^

^^P
a

41 i

A ^ffi
#

^ p p
* r
e s
*

-*^
cresc.

% m ^ f
\jsr

unis

S
;i

^
i

C-b.

N? 262. "Aniar N9 262. Antar:'


(Allegro risoluto.)
FLpicc.

259

260

N? 263. "The Golden N9 263. Le Coq d'Or.


-^(AllegroJ

Cockerel.''

"Pan Voyevoda," introduction (p. 3). N9 264. Pan le Voievodel' introduction (p. 3).
264.
(Allegretto. J.: bs)

N9

eresc. molto

2ez

"'^^ Legend of ^ ^^ Legende du TsarTsar N9265.


(J

Saltan.

Saltan!'

set)

rrrrr^rrrrrr^t

rrrfrrrrrrrrrrrrfj

--*-

266. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan." N9 266. Legende du Tsar Saltan."

N9
.^^.

EHJ (Moderato Fl.picc.

^
assai. J
:

268

%\

^^

N9 267. "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh" (p. 4S8). N? 267. Legende de la ville invisible de Kitej" (p.488;.
(Moderato.
J
-

as.)

264

N?

268. "Kashtche'i the

Immortal"

N9 268. Kachtchei Immortel."

im

(Allegretto mossx). Jiize.)

.Cor. inpl.

>

Q j^j ^j

Coro

tdansles coulisses) La te m pete

commence

Gronile

et

souf -

fie,

tour-bil

Ion,

cou

vre

de

tes

blancs flo-cons

Arpa

(harpcs eoliennes)

Cor.

in pi

N?
Fl.picc

269. ''Kashtchei the Immortal/' N9 269. Kachtchei Immortel."

265

[^HCAllegretto mosso. J:

126.)

mf
Arpa(harpe eolienne)

(La scene dircouvre de nuages;furieu8e tempetei

nuit.)

V-le.

m
^

^m ^M ^m ^m
i^ ^

ttJ.
b.

^^s :^

^m

J|.

3ZJ

|.

N9
3F1.

270.
fr

'Idlada"

267
(p.iee)
^

N9 270. Mlada"(p.i66).
tr


268

"Tne Golden Cockerel." Le Coq d'Or." 3^<'Moderato. J:ioo.)


271.

N9

N':>271.

N9
(

272. "The Legend of Tsar Saltan" (p. N9 272. Legende du Tsar Saltan" (p.i79

179).

).

Maestoso, (i:

63 j^

H^ QFl.picc.

^^^
.

^^^-pc

^,_

riten pace.

N? 273. ''The Legend of Tsar Saltan" (p, N9 273. Leg:ende du Tsar Saltan" (p. 2b9).
(Moderate assai. lf')
^l.pJcc.

269).

269

r
270
274. ''The Legend of Tsar Saltanf N9 274. Legende du Tsar Saltan!'
(J
I

gg

(Moderate assai.

J.)"

m
,

^
ff Cor. ingl
Cl.(B)

since.

ff
'*'
.

^
r

^m
^^
p-j
<9'

'fi
t t

fflTJ^

j7
f'"

r^
F P =$?#=

f^'

g'

p.
Cl.basso(B
")

\'

Y
w

\'

^ ^x\\
J
J

Pi
^
Fay.
L/ACor.

J^^'i

ff
a 2

'.^^^^
fj

Ji

Ji

MI.

|s'iii.iy^

i..JJ-Mf fJ_L^
^T^-bc.(B)

jjf jjnfr7n
]

^
Vie
^

Vc.

/ /

'""j.
C-b.

^
Jl^i

f^
^

Qk

J?
-:T-

N9

N9 275. Pan

''Pan Voyevoda/' le Voievode." (Larghetto, J. 7e.)


275.
=

271

272
Quasi
irillo.

278

N?

276.

''The

Christmas Night"
(p.310).

(p,3lo).

N9 276. La Nuit de Noel"


(Allegro assai.
J
.

les.)

^'

gUssando (sons harmonigues

274

N9
[45|
.or. I.

277.

''Sne^ourotchkar

N?277. Sniegourotchka!'
Adagio. J: 50.

soir,

le

soir je

chante

rai _

Jechante-raipoure-g-a^v-er laso-li

tude

Poco piu animato.

les

plus guis de

mes

re- frains.

Le beau

Lei

males ap-pren-

dra.

N?
f\

278.

"Sadko.'
=

275

N9 278. Sadko'.'
(14 3i Adagio. J
56.

poco

cresc.

oya

N? 279. "Snegourotchka." N9 279. Sniegourotchka!'


(Allegretto capriccioso.)
string.

Voi

la icon reve et

mon bon-heur.je ne

piiis

vi- vre sans chan- sons.

uJ P.i^P
i

sT

Pypp
joi
-

Chan4r,voi- la
pizz.

monseulbonheunma

e!

arcccN

N?

280. "The Tsar's Bride." N? 280. La Fiancee du Tsar."


(Larghetto assai. J=60)
^^-r==^r^i

277
f=

ni

i::::^

dim.

N?
(

281.

"Sadko''
-.

(t.516)
(p.sie).

N9 281.Sadko"
^A
Passionate V^
Fi ii.ni.

126.)

27

Etsousles

ri

ves es- carpees je dor-mi- rai

presdelai-me-

Fi

dele

amona-mourjusqu''

dlv.

poco

creac.

g_^Uarsrando.

la

nndes temps.

Oh!

tes cha; ts

di

vins

ont se-dmt

mon

c(Kur,

ra -

vi

inon arae-

co N? 282. "The Tsar's Bride" (p. 361). N9 282. La Fiancee du Tsar" (p.aei).
TLarghetto assai.)
Cl.(B)

281

N?
Cl.(A)

283.

''The

Tsar's Brider
Tsar."
.

N? 283. La Fiancee du (Larghetto. ^ 9Z)

Pourcesbons voeux cent

fois

mer-ci,

Domna Sabourova.
'

_
V

n'

<

Jm

'

-I'

-1^
-

-I

Bon- heur aux a


Douniacha

mants!

Dieu vous ac

cor

de

joie-

Bon-

Sabakine.

Que

Dieu

vous don

ne

d'etre

heu

reux,

sans

Viol
n.

P cantabile

TTTH^^

282

joie!

So-yez

hen

reiix.

toiuours u

iiis.

jV

Lilt WW
fois

mer-ci.

tre

ve-

Dieuvous

ao

oor-de

bon-heiiret

saii

te,

n.ii

mm

283

285
Jlpicc.^

ifP

286
Fill.

N9

284. ''The Tsar's


J.44.)

Brider

S^ (Adagio.

N9 284 La Fiancee du Tsar.

287

All

quels

jours heu-reux.

quy

nous

tions gais,

quaiid

thaque

J^A

V|'<>^' IJ-

cop 8ord

ar

bris-sean a'in-cli-naitvers

nous

quand

les'

che

nee verts

288
|l35l
I

^o

285. ''The Golden Cockerel N9 285. Le Coq d'Or!'


J
=

(Andantino.

76.)

Cor. ingrl

PP
Cl.basso(A).

^
Fa&.
'^'ll"

'til
PP

m
.

mUUL

s a TT
3J
^

jii

^
P'P'^ PP
P
i

^ ^^
3^
ftt

'J^p

^^ feS
rrr^
i

Tamburo
PP.

ifr*

Tambno.
P''^ p

p^'' p'p ''^pp^

'

^>

'p

"

Pp

La Reine do Chemakha.

dolce

*#

Tffp
Vieiit-oii

prrrr
a
la
f; -

p^^pnp r

f^
le

lattendre

ne-tre, loeii at-ten-tif,

coeurtrem-

Arpa./p

ni^

HiM

y^ .s

I.

pizz.

vie.

p izz.

^^^

^^

^^

^m

V-c.

289

ms^J^^t

^^pp>^ [>'p

^''

pp

^<

LR.d.Chem.

-blant?

pei-iie

Ta-t-on vu pa- rai-tre, sait-on charmer rin,ureux a

mant?

290 N 286. "The Tsar's Bride." NV286. La Fiancee du Tsarf


(Lento. J. 63.)
J

aeceler^poco a poco

F!.

cr8C.

Lioubacha.

(EUe pleure)

'''r
Ah!

r pir^t
tout pour
toi-

ir

rl!^>

oui,tout pour toi!

291

ff

S92

iV? 287.

Z'Snegourotchka."

N?287. Sniegourotchka!'
[SI (Allegrro moderate.)
Jf. Cl.(A)
''

Le Printemps

Dans oes fo-rets


,/
V-c.e C-b.' V-c
pizz.

ou

I'ombre est

ter-nel -

le,

au

plus pro -fond

dee

^F
^A^l

^
oiple

^^

^^

Le Pr.

^'^^i'j
bois toujours gla-oes,

J^J^-i'r

^piP'U V^^J^J^
re-tientma
fil -le^

pere en sou pa-lais

je

lavoudraisheu-

colla

parte

sf

pp

^<>

J^

>
je

^^

^p
II

p-

-reused

pM"
-

P
le

Pa -do -re,

faat pour ramourd'el

P me

pp>

'r

sou-mettre

293
LePf.

-ys

et

de

moi-mS

me^

il

ne veutpasaudouxPrintemps de-der la

pla

ce

294
l|24j

N9 288. ''The Tsar's Bride" N9 288. La Fiancee du Tsar."


Agitato. J= 136.

296
>. Pl.l.

jiaibienvul

Mer veye debeaute

des:peuxsaper-be8,

oer> tea

U ^*-

N?

289. "Sadko" N9 289. Sadko."

297

Larghetto. J.

56.

N? 290. "Sadko" N?29G.Sadko"


^

(p.

iso)

(p.iso

(Lar ghetto.

J.= S6^

298

m
chant
le
-

^^ ^^
\a
I^a

Pr

Sadko. Ton

Plei

n'j

d"^

&
-

ger

va

^^^
s'e
-

sur
les
flots.

==:

pnndre

pip
ta
cein
-

P
e
-

P
blou

P
- it

toiles

tiire

dans la

=KiX p^

nuit

do^ce

(colla voce)

-^,hJ?^^-

-;>

,h^

^-

&

'

t-^

f'r^-^

'

N?
20^

291.

i'Sadko!'

N9 291. Sadko!'
(Allegro.
J.: 66.)

299

LaPr.

poco Crete. r

1^
j^
I'll

r-> J
se

.-r

ll
i I
I

I'll

ii

J
ra

Sadko^^ ehants ont '

diiit

mou
f F

coeur,
i I

Tr r
r

f <

f-f iJ r'f ^
se
-

.'"r if 'r
I

n>
fii
ta

comme

ils

ont

i>

u^i^^^ \l_ilAi^
i

vi

tf

^1'

mon ame.

oh

Ta beau-te
V-le.

duit

mou

coeur,

beau-te

ra

vit_

raon arae,

oh

poeo

<

300

^
i ^
LaPr.
bien
-

^^
XT
/fffZ.

ai

me!
ten.

ite^*
bien
-

Sadko.

ai

me!

N9
0* 13181
,

292.

"Sadkor
i^r 104.

301

N9 292. Sadko!'
Andantino.
basso (B)
Cl.

Pau-vre

veii-ve, je

suis par

les

vents

bat

tue et

noy-

-e

par

tou-tes

les

pluies

du

ciel.

Oh, je

suis la

ri

se-e

de

tout

chre

tien,

la

ri

see

de

tous

les

g-ens

de

Men-

b f320]
Lioubach

'

802

'^

293.

''The Tsar's Bride''


120-182.)

(p.

69).

N9 293. La Fiancee du Tsar"


(Allegro. J
,

(p i69).

>

Cl.(3)

tiJ

LL-LJ

l''C

!f^c^ r

lu

''c

!Cr^Dgj

p
V'

Cl.(B)
i

t,
,

jff]
/^li

Fag.
t

'^^

XM
Sopr. e Alti mis, oreso.

U
Sig"
-

J
U

.^'

)|J

Ji.

O
c'est

^p^
sor
-

nons-nous tous,

un

oier!

Basal.

>j,AFN
Viol.I e

j^Mr

jfl^^jnjs

^
i

cresc~moito

cTMc. mo//o

ertfe.

mo/Zo

N? 294. "Ivan the Terrible," Act I (f. in). N9 294. La Pskovitaine'/M'acte ip.ui).
(Allegro.)
Ob.c-a.

303

dim.

304 N?

295.

"Sadko!'
=

N?295. Sadko."
(Allegro. J
Sadko.
126.)

[219

Co lebrousleshautes

voii

tes du fir-

ma-ment. Ce- lebrons

les

bi-

mesde TO

c^--

805
Piii

anim ato.

J =144.

CBoBurll.

Ce-le-bronsleshautesvoutes du fir-mament.Ce-lebronslesa- bT-mesdelO

ce

Ten. Bassi.

306

N?

296. "Ivan the Terrible" Act II. N9 296. La Pskovitaine" 2* acte.


(Allegro.)

Pa - te |Sopr.I diy.

de- Pskov?

Hein,

poco cresc.

quoi?

I|>

ASoorlldiv

If. "*^
i

f
vo
-

yez:

r PPjp pfTn&fiF vers nous


i

sittJUi

fier

coursiersvient un

no

r
-

POM
ble

pre

\f

Mais vo-yez

T~l&p

versnoiissur un

MP- p&f p f irn&f coiireiervientun no


fier

p
-

f
tu

blepreux ve

Wi -tu tfor

bi&Iant. (forbriUantmarcheunno- ble preux ve

- \\i

d'or

brillant, e-olai-


307

'fa-Iv.

"^" " ^^"^ /^^ "*" '

^^^

'

^^^

^^ "'^ ho-tesbien sou-vent lesdi-sent

bon-nes!

Fag.

-lar
1

de!

Et fort bel-le; doc

les fil-les

-ci,pous-sent com-

me

les

mo

8op>

rilles?

Chez

-rsuit

leoiel

nu-a

geux

et

noirimaisil

fron-ce

ses sour

cils

e-pais

308

Fl.pioc

/?N

^^^^

=^=

-f9^

I
=^^
Ts.Iv.

^
^>r

-^^

=^2=

-fg^

^
/C\

V'

p-pppr

greanafoifl[uimporte?P)EUsnousvi-si

Sopr.I.

ta
Clair

p
'^''
*^

^ W
so-leil,qiii

^ ^ ^ ^S ^^ ^^
-

^
F
sur

r*

g
I

p
i

?
et

Pi-

te,

tu ver

ras bien

r\

s
^

nous flaniboie,gloir^a Ifem

pe-reur,auter-ri

ble Tsar!

:j^

r^r^

-^

iJTJ rpJ^

^fe

nu

/TV

SIO jv? 297.

"Sadko"

(p.

157).

N9297. Sadko"
Paff.I.

(p.157).

(Allegro non troppo.

j.: 112,)

Alti

Cygnesblanosdansle^biiis-sons

en

fleur,

dis-persezvousde

plo -yez

vos

ailes

pour oueil^lir

de l^u

be - pi

ne

blanche,par fu-mee au souffle prin

ta

nier.

311

dolce

^ ^
LaR.
Sadko.

pr

PtHt'

rnon bien ai - me!

r mon

p'r

p^
-

^b
^

pre- des - ti

ne

pp pr i^
Vier
-

^
Qui

pr pr
ma beaute?

ji

ge-qiii es

tu done?

es - tu,

V-le.

V-e. I.

dolce

V-c.ne

C-b.

N9
312

298.

"Snegourotchka."

N9 298. Sniegourotchka:'

Et

toi

ri

viere

auxflots

g:Ia-ces

et cal

mes,

m\A

.-

313
Ob. I

Sopr

dors,

en

dors

ma

honte

et

raa

dou

Jeur

Teii.

dans ros

de

raeu-rea

pai-si

bles,

nos

fi)

les

it;

rent

la

hon

cresc.

poco

Ob.

poco acceler.

son

db-ses-poir

tous nous fait pei

ne,

son

d^-ses-

poij*

tous

nousfalt

pel

314

N?

299.

''Mlada/' Act IIL


Snje acte

N?299.Mlada{'
Andante.

^m
Arpa
I.

UJiJiJiJiUiJiJiJiJUJi^
fiW JJJJJ
Arpa n.

^^
Ir.fT

^
^

jjjmj

'^

% JjliJtLr
r

^JliJ^iLr Ll^

Viol.n.div.

816
(eiur

scene)

316
300. "Mladar N9300. Mlada!'

N9

,,

i^=^^^B-:V^^.

n^ufis'deP^est

N? 301. "The Legend of the invisible city of Kitesh." N9301. Leg-ende de la ville invisible de Kitejl*
rci.i ii.(b)

317

ppW
Sampane.

(boffuettes

a tfite d'eponge)

318

N?

302.

"Sadko'.'

N9302. Sadk6"

Ob.(Largo maestoso. J

62.)

^-

Roidesmers tu asohoi-si maJ ton temps pour dan-ser!


IGANO.

Vols la

nier_ est sens des-

gR=;^

^ ^

S
:&

t
W'

3x:

Pedale.

*)Les passa^s en petitea notes ne sejouent que faute d-un or^e.

-BUS

dessous-

Elle ren

ver

se les plus forts vaisseauz.Ce jour in8-me

la

prin-

fc ^^

aE

8
=&:

[8

r legato

J
assai

f^

5E

_J

^^^

-ces

setafille

ra a Nov(fo-rod

poury

de ve-nir unflexivelimpide.TV)i4oen*umta

gouf

fre

noir.

Va chan

ter"

en

ITion

near de

tea

Nov

go-ro-diens.

N
y/ji'i
I.

303. "Sadko" (p.378). N9303. Sadko"(p.3/8).

321

Andante non

troppo. J

88.

322

Et "peutetre au

ciel

Dieu

au

ra

pi-tie

du

nous;

ra-me-nant a

1"^

plo-ree son

heu-reiixe

poux

N?

N9304.

304. ''Sadkor Sadko'.'


J. = 73.)

323

(Allegretto.

324

NP

305. '^The

Legend of the

invisible

dty of

Kite$ht

NO 305. Legende de

la ville invisible

de

Kitej."

(Moderato e maestoso. j=60.)

Vo - yez les oha LePr.Vsevolod.

su

bles

blan

ches>

neig

aux

ra

yons du

so

Vo-yez les Le PrYouri.

cha-su-bles

blan

ches^

neige

aux

ra

yona du

so-

Arpe.iy.

leil

d'^A -

vril,

qui d'a

me-res lar-mes
>*

sont

batgnees,

de tor-rents depleiu^,de.

iM r7 Tr mj frr^v
f'

r
r

r*

r?
T-G^
sont

rr^
-

#^
lar-mes

-1
r-'f
baignees^

r r r

^ ^^

^^
leil

d'A
m

vril,

qui d*a

me -res

de tor.-rentsdepleurs,de

rj

rr

r'r

rf

ir

^r

^M

^m

^ m
^ ^

325

^pizz

326

Alk.

de paix,

qui

sont

pr6 -pa-res

en ee

lieu

pour

toi

Uadol-

de paix.

qui

sont

pre-pa-res

en ce

lieu

pour

toi

Le

Pr.Vs.te

ments

qui

sont

pre -pa-res

en oe

lieu

pour

toi

NP

306.

''The

Golden Cockerel'(p 351).

(p.35i>

N9 306. Le Coq d'Or"


''Andantino. ^.= 96.)

327

328

N9

307.

''Sadko'i

(p.

210)

N9 307. Sadko"
Ob.
jl.i'
I.

(p.2ioK

(Allegro non troppo. j=ii2.j

No308.Sadko" .p228K
Fl.picc.f
idr

O^i-4
Fay-.

^^ ^^^^^^ ^ i ^
Cl.'B)
Cor.

^ J^

^^

t=t*

m
Cl.'Bi

^^s
Ob. I.
Cl.picc. (Es)

-r:

m^
r
J
J

^
1S^

^^
F^^=^

i
F.^-

444 ^H
;,^JTm

jit>r^/^j^i,;f^/rj^
|

J^

JJJ

-r

*!

Tr-be.(B)

T
'^p

T^
^ ^
^

Tr-bni.e Tuba.

^^^^

m
If
Sopr.
.

j^ Cor.

J^p

-tl

J>

<

}>''

f=

y^pi^p^ij) j^^^^
jj-Mais

re-gar-dezdonc, a mes bons


^

a- mis

$
~,

!>"

h h

Kh ^

fv

Ji

Ji Ji J'
||

j> Jv
-

jm.-n>i-ii.i.-ii.i-im Ha- ha-ha - ha-ha

ha- ha-ha-ha

ha

ha-

^S
Re
pizz.

Bassi.

rtfFTT
^^
g-ar

^w ^
Viol.-.
-'^

^
5/"

pizz.

V-Ie.

^^
V-o.

y' ^

^m

C-b

N?

309. "Ivan the Terrible" (p. lie). N9 309. yLa Pskovitaine" (p.ii).

32

(Andante sostenuto.)

Alti.

Or-donne< o ...--....^< w

mal

tre,

et

tous

tes

or- dres

~~^
''tc,

1^

J'

ri

J'

i^

j"-''!-!

v^i

r
mai
-

p
tre

M
et
toiis

^^5 ^
P

se-ront sui

P
tes

P
or- dres

Or-donnCi o

se-ront sui

Bassi.

'Y

}\i
\

(P

[^

-r

fi

t^

330

N?

310.

''Ivan the Terrible"


a
^i,

(p.

in).

N9 310. La Pskovitaine"
Fl.I.III.

(pii7).

Nous som - mes


Bassi.

fai -bles, nous vou- Ions

tre giii-des

par

^HKl

fp

s-

fl

J-'

M^-JLf

N9
aFi

311.

"Sadko" (p.

44/;.

N9 311. Sadko"

(p.44i).

331

(Allegro assai. J. 168.)

Alti.

ne

lot

te

tou

te

pe

ti

te

na-geait, s"a-mu

sant

a tra-

332

N?

312.

''Ivan the Terrible;' Act


acte

lU

(the end).

N9312. La PskovitaineV 8^
(Andante maestoso.)

(fin).

333

Appendix.
1.

Single tutti chords.


isoles en tutti
4.
5,

Appendice. Accords
,Fl.picc. 2-

ii

3.

6.

J\e MoflfiglU
p.i6.

TkeTmr^
Bride,

TkeTuri
Bride,
f.i$9.

Tie r*ar*
Bride, p. 301.

The Taari Bride,


the end

Snegourvlchka,
p. S9J.

Tk* L4gt*d of the mvinble eitp of KiieA,


f.375.

f.i46.

La Null de Mai.
p

La. Fiaii

La

3U
the

cee du

Fiancee du
?

La
cee

Fian-

La Fiancee
du Tsar,
ffn.

du

Sniegourotehka, p.a*-

Le^ende de la
ville invisible de Kitej, p.87S.

Tsar p 2*5
human
voice

T^ar,

28

Tsar, p.soi

or NOTK.IhesediagramM mr* given in tewtikrwe: They do not inelnde perciution itutrument* of indtterminMie mmnd

PJOTA. Ces exemples sont donnes sous forme demi-sehematique, en rondes. lis ne comportent instruments de percussion a sons inddterminesi ni les voix humaineu.

ni les
I

II

ff
Ivan the Terrible,
p. 307.

La Pskovitaine
p.

207.

PV
The Tk Tfar'a (he intrisibfe Bride, end ofoverturt. city of KHesh,
the end.

fff
Snegourotckka,
the end.

The Christmas
Night,
p.

Sadko
the ena.

fff ^hi Legend of


Tsar Saltan,
p.

ff
Servilia, the end.

SSI
Snieproiirotrhka^
fin.

in
Seivilia.
fin.

La Fiancee
du Tsar,
fin

Legende de
la villeimisible de Kitej,
fin.

La

Nuit de Noel,
p. 381.

Sadko,
fl:l.

Legeude du Tsar Saltan,


p 117

de I'ouver-

ture-

CATALOGUESUMMER,
BACH
No. 72, Suite No.
2, in

1933 KALMUS MINIATURE ORCHESTRA SCORES


MOZART
B minor
No. 33, Symphony No. 39, in No. 34, Symphony No. 40, in No. 35, Symphony No. 41, in
(Jupiter),

BEETHOVEN
No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, No. 4, No. 5, No. 6, No. 7, No. 8, No. 57, No. 9, No. 10, No. 11, No. 67, No. 91,
No. 1, op. 21 No. 2, op. 36 No. 3 op. 55 (Eroica) No. 4, op. 60 No. 5, op. 67 No. 6, op. 68 (Pastorale; No. 7, op. 92 No. 8, op. 93 No. 9, op. 125 (Choral) Leonore No. 3, Overture, op. 72a Prometheus, Overture, op. 42 Coriolanus, Overture, op. 62 Epmont, Overture, op. 84
92, 93, Symphonies 1 to 9 complete, bound in halt linen, in 3 voliunes

E
G

flat,

543

minor,

Symphony Symphony Symphony Symphony Symphony Symphony Symphony Svmphony Symphony

SSO

C major

551

MUSSORGSKY

No. 69, Don Juan, Overture, K 492 No. 70, Marriage of Figaro, Overture, K 492 No. 71, Magic Flute, Overture, K 620 No. 80, Serenade, Kleine Nachtrausik, K 525 No. 83, Polonaise from Boris Godunow

RIMSKY-KORSAKOFF*
No.

No. 36, Cappriccio Espa'gnol, op. 34 No. 63, Dance of the Buffoons from "The

n.

Flight of the

Snow-Maiden" Bumble-Bee from "Tsar

BIZET
No. 88, Carmen, Overture No. 89, Carmen, 3 Intermezzi

ROSSINI

Saltan" No. 80, Scheherazade, op. 35 No. 87, Russian Easter, Overture, cm. 36

BORODINE
No. 68, Polovetzjan pances. Prince Igor

BRAHMS
No. 12, Symphony No. 1, op. 68 No. 14, Symphony No. 2, op. 73 No. IS, Symphony No. 3, op. 90 No. 16, Symphony No. 4, op. 98 No. 86, Acaclemic Festival Overture, op. 80 No. 94, Sympboniei complete, botind in half
linen

No. 37, William Tell. Overture ST. SAENS* No. 85, Danse Macabre, op. 40 No. 86, Omphale's Spinning Wheel,

SCHUBERT
STRAUSS. RICHARD*
tNo. 40, Till Eulenspiegel, op. 28 tNo. 75, Death and Transfiguration, tNo. 76, Don Juan. op. 20

op. 31

No. 38, Symphony No. 8 (Unfinished) No. 39, Rosamunde Overture

op.

24

CHABRIER
No. 61, Espafia, Rhapsody

STRAWINSKY*
No. 40, Fire-Bird Suite No. 78, Sacre du Printemps No. 79, Petroushka

DEBUSSY*
No. 17, Afternoon of a Faun No. 73, String Quartet

TSCHAIKOWSKY
No.
No. 58, Symphony No. No. 59, Symphony No. 60, Symphony No.
(Pathetique)
4,
4, in
5,

DVORAK*
No. 18, New World symphony, No. 5, op. 95 No, 90, String Quartet, op. 96 (American;

in

6, in

F E B

minor, op. 36 minor, op. 64 minor, op. 74

DUKAS*
No. 65,

No. 95, Symphonies


in half linen

5,

6 complete, bound
op. 71

The

Sorcerer's Apprentice
in

FRANCK
No.
19,

Symphony

minor
1

GRIEG*
No. 20, Peer Gynt Suite, No.

No. No. No. No. No.

42, Nutcracker Suite,

HAYDN
No. 23, Symphony No. 11, in
(Militaire)

G major
major (London) major

THOMAS No. 64, Mignon, Overture WAGNER

43, Marche Slave, op. 31 44, Cappriccio Italien, op. 45 45, Overture 1812, op. 49 74, Romeo & Juliet, Overture,

Fantasy

No. 24, Symphony No. No. 25, Symphony No. (Surprise)

2, in
6,

D
G

in

IPPOLITOW-IWANOW*
No. 26, Caucasian Sketches

LISZT
No. 29, Les Preludes No. 62, Second Hungarian Rhapsody

MENDELSSOHN
No. 30,

Midsummer

Night's Dream,

Overtures and Preludes No. 46, Lohengrin No. 47, Tannhauser No. 48, Tristan and Isolde No. 49, Meistersinyfcr Miscellaneous Na SO, Ride of the Valkyries No. 51, Wotans Farewell and Fire Magic No. 52, Siegfried Idyll No. 53 Siegfried's Rhine Journey No. 66, Bacchanale (Venusberg) from
,

No. 31, No. 32, Wedding March No. 81, Three Orchestra pieces from Midsummer Night's Dream

Overture Hebrides (Fingal's Cave), Overture

WEBER

Tannhauser

No. 54, Oberon Overture No. 55, Euryanthe Overture No. 56, Freischuetz Overture

E. F.

THIS COLLECTION IS BEING CONTINUED Ka lmus Orchestra Scores, Inc., 209 West 57th Street, New York

This copy must not be sold outside of the United States. t These scores do not have to be turned upside down wtien rcadinp, as they are larger than usual size.

,^OUNO^

fm