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ORGANIC FARMING RESEARCH CENTRE ZARS, NAVILE, SHIMOGA

Analysis of Liquid manures and their use

Dr. N. Deva Kumar


Professor of Agronomy

University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore

Preparation of Beejamrutha
Cow dung

Cow urine

Lime water

Water Soil

Preparation of Jeevamrutha

Soil Water

Jaggery Cow dung

Pulse flour Cow urine

Preparation of Panchagavya
Ghee Jaggery Cow urine

Curd

Cow dung

Banana Coconut

Milk

Analytical studies of Beejamrutha Jeevamrutha and Panchagavya

Nutrient contents of Beejamrutha

Samples Beejamrutha Cow dung (desi) Cow urine (desi)

Content in Per cent N 2.38 0.70 1.67 P K pH 8.02 8.08 8.16


Mn Cu

0.127 0.485 0.285 0.231 0.112 2.544

16 9.33 6.3

36 3.60 20.00

Nutrient contents of Jeevamrutha

Samples Jeevamrutha Jaggery Flour Cow dung (desi) Cow urine (desi)

Content in Per cent N 1.40 0.84 1.47 0.70 1.67 P K pH 4.92 6.37 6.70 8.08 8.16 Mn 46 9.1 12.6 9.33 6.3 Cu 51 28.80 12.40 3.60 20.00 0.104 0.084 0.209 0.290 0.622 0.910 0.285 0.231 0.112 2.544

Micro nutrients contents of beejamrutha and jeevamrutha Content in ppm Nutrient Zn Cu Mn Fe Beejamurtha (fresh) 18 36 16 168 Jeevamrutha (7 days old) 12 51 46 318

Copper and manganese content of jeevamrutha Content in ppm Cu 51.00 35.70 25.20 16.00 Mn 46.00 26.10 15.10 13.60

Days after preparation (DAP) 7 10 13 16

Microbial studies of beejamrutha and jeevamrutha

Bacteria

Fungi

Actinomycetes

Microorganisms Bacteria (105) Fungi (104) Actinomycetes (103) N- fixers (103) P- solubilizers (103)

Beejamrutha (First day) 523 17 8 46 50

Jeevamrutha (10th DAP) 825 47 9 55 54

Microbial studies

Highest colony forming units (CFUs) of microbes in beejamrutha were recorded on first day after preparation (DAP)

Bacterial count (mostly N fixers) was almost double than cow dung Actinomycetes Fungi, actinomycetes, N-fixers and P-solublisers count was less than cow dung
Highest colony forming units (CFUs) of microbes in jeevamrutha were recorded between 9th to 12th DAP Maximum bacterial and N-fixers observed at 11th and 12th DAP count was N-fixers

P- solublisers, fungal and actinomycetes count was more at 9th DAP


13th DAP there was a reduction in the microbial count

P-solubilisers

Microbial studies of Beejamrutha


700

600

Microbial population (CFU's)

500

Bacteria (x 105) Fungi (x 104) Actinomycetes (x 103) N-fixers (x 103) P-solubilisers (x 103)

400

300

200

100

0 1 2

Days after preperation (DAP)

Fig 5. Microbial population of beejamrutha at different Fig 1. Microbial population of beejamrutha at different days after preparation days after preperation

Microbial studies of jeevamrutha


900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Bacteria (x 105) Fungi (x 104) Actinomycetes (x 103) N-fixers (x 103) P-solubilisers (x 103)

Microbial population (CFU's)

Days after preperation (DAP)

MicrobialFig. 4. Microbial populaton of jeevamrutha at different afterafter population of jeevamrutha at different days days preparation

preperation

Microbial studies of Panchagavya

1200

1000

Bacteria Fungi Actinomycetes P-solubilizers N-fixers

800

600

s U F C
400 200 0

Microbial population of panchagavya at different days after preparation

h t 0 h t 5 h t 6 h t 7 h t 8 h t 9 h t 0 1 h t 1 h t 2 1 h t 3 1 h t 4 1 h t 5 1 h t 6 1 h t 7 1 h t 8 1 h t 9 1 t s 0 2 d n 1 2 d n 2 d r 3 2 h t 4 2 h t 5 2 h t 6 2 h t 7 2 h t 8 2 h t 9 2 h t 0 3

DAYS

Use of Liquid manures in Rice and Fieldbean

Seedling treatment

Beejamrutha

Panchagavya

Cow urine

Biofertilizers

Application of jeevamrutha

Spraying of panchagavya at different stages of crop growth

Mulching at different crop growth stages

Different stages of crop growth

Effect of organic farming and Palekar method of cultivation on yield of paddy


70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Khairf 2007-08 Summer 2007-08 Kharif 2008-09
a h / q d l e i Y

Palekar method Organic Farming

Seasons

Effect of organic farming and Palekar method on straw yield of paddy

70 60 50 40 30
a h / q d l e i Y

Palekar method Organic Farming

20 10 0 Kharif 2007-08 Summer 2007-08 Kharif 2007-08

Seasons

Effect of panchagavya on paddy yield


60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Kharif 2007-08 Summer 2007-08 Kharif 2008-09
Without With

a h / q d l e i Y

Seasons

Effect of panchagvya on paddy straw yield


70 60 50 40 30
d l e i Y q a h /

Without With

20 10 0 Khairf 200708 Summer 2007-08 Kharif 2008-09

Seasons

Effect of seedling treatment on paddy yield


60

50

40

Liquid bio-f ertilizers Panchagavya Beejamrutha Cow urine Control

30
a h / q d l e i Y

20

10

0 Kharif 2007-08 Summer 2007- Khairf 2008-09 08 Treatments

Effect of Panchagavya on yield of field bean

Pachagavya Sl Concentration No (%) 1 2 3 4 5 0 3 6 9 12

Yield % (Q/ha) increase 6.35 7.41 7.51 8.05 8.00 16.73 18.34 26.77 25.97

Effect of jeevamrutha on yield of field bean

Sl No 1 2 3 4 5

Jeevamrutha ( l / ac) 0 200 300 400 500

Yield % (Q / ha) increase 4.27 4.92 5.08 5.43 6.00 15.38 18.92 27.29 40.63

Table 1. Effect of panchagavya on paddy


2007-08 Kharif Treatments Yield Percent increase Yield Percent increase Yield Percent increase Summer 2008-09 Kharif

Grain yield (q / ha) With Panchagavya Without With Panchagavya Without 48.7 45.8 6.3 50.8 46.8 8.6 45.4 40.4 12.4 -

Straw yield (q / ha) 55.4 50.25 10.24 60.2 51.9 16.0 47.4 43.9 7.1 -

Table 2. Effect of seedling treatment on paddy yield (q / ha)

2007-08 Kharif Treatments Yield Liquid bio-fertilizers Panchagavya Beejamrutha Cow urine Control 49.0 48.2 46.6 46.4 45.9 Percent increase 6.7 5.0 1.57 1.1 Summer Yield 51.2 50.9 48.2 47.9 45.7 Percent increase 12 11.4 5.5 4.8 -

2008-09 Kharif Yield 45.2 45.1 41 41.3 41.9 Percent increase 7.9 7.6 -

Table 3. Effect of organic farming and Palekar method of cultivation 2007-08 Treatments Kharif Yield Percent decrease Summer Yield Percent decrease 2008-09 Kharif Yield Percent decrease

Grain yield (q / ha) Palekar method Organic Farming Palekar method Organic Farming 41.2 53.3 22.7 37.5 60.0 37.5 39.9 45.9 13.1 -

Straw yield (q / ha) 50.1 55.6 9.9 46.8 65.5 28.5 42.0 49.4 15.0 -

Table 1. Effect of seedling treatment, panchagavya application and organic farming systems of cultivation on grain and straw yield of paddy Kharif paddy (2007-08) Grain yield (Kg / ha) Panchagavya Spray (P) With (P1) With out (P2) Mean Organic Farming systems (F) System I (F1) 4222.5 4007.5 4115.0 F-test F P Fx P * NS NS S.Em+ 123.6 123.6 174.8 System II (F2) 5517.0 5144.8 5330.9 C.D at 5% 342.6 Mean 4869.7 4576.1 Straw yield ( Kg / ha) Organic Farming systems (F) System I (F1) 5442.5 4575.6 5009.0 F-test * * NS
F2 : Without Palekars method

System II (F2) 5641.0 5475.8 5558.4 C.D at 5% 412.2 412.2 -

Mean 5541.8 5025.7

S.Em+ 148.7 148.7 210.3

F1 : Palekars method

Cont.
Seedling treatments (S) Grain yield (Kg / ha) Organic Farming systems (F) System I (F1) 3918.60 4084.00 4249.40 4073.50 4249.40 4115.00 F-test S FxS NS NS S.Em+ 195.4 276.3 System II (F2) 5252.3 5242.0 5035.2 5572.8 5512.1 5330.9 C.D at 5% Mean 4585.4 4663.0 4642.3 4823.2 4900.8 Straw yield ( Kg / ha) Organic Farming systems (F) System I (F1) 4787.0 4363.1 4915.1 5221.3 5759.0 5009.1 F-test * NS S.Em+ 235.1 332.5 System II (F2) 5614.2 4787.6 5914.0 6017.3 5459.0 5558.4 C.D at 5 % 651.7 Mean 5200.6 4575.3 5414.6 5619.3 5609.0

S1 control S2 beejamrutha S3 cow urine S4 panchagavya S5 liquid biofertilizers Mean

Effect of seedling treatment, Panchagavya application and organic farming systems of cultivation on grain and straw yield of Paddy
Summer paddy (2007-08)
Grain yield (q/ha) Panchagavya Sprays (P) With (P1) With out (P2) Mean Organic Farming systems (F) System I (F1) 38.88 36.15 37.52 F-test F P Fx P ** ** NS S.Ed+ 1.06 1.06 2.36 SystemII (F2) 62.65 57.43 60.04 C.D at 5 % 2.93 2.93 Mean 50.77 46.79 Straw yield (q/ha) Organic Farming systems (F) System I (F1) 52.90 40.70 46.80 F-test ** ** *
F2 : Without Palekars method

System II (F2) 67.50 63.00 65.50 C.D at 5 % 3.10 3.10 4.40

Mean 60.20 51.90

S.Ed+ 1.12 1.12 1.50

F1 : Palekars method

Cont Grain yield (q/ha) Seedling treatments Organic Farming systems (F) System I (F1) 35.07 37.13 37.07 38.87 39.46 37.52 F-test S.Ed+ SystemII Mean (F2) 56.30 59.33 58.73 62.92 62.92 60.00 C.D at 5 % 45.70 48.20 47.90 50.90 51.20 Straw yield (q/ha) Organic Farming systems (F) System I (F1) 45.90 42.30 47.40 46.20 52.20 46.80 F-test S.Ed+ System II (F2) 68.50 61.90 59.80 71.30 65.30 65.30 C.D at 5 % 4.9 Mean 57.20 52.10 53.60 58.80 58.60

S1 control S2 beejamrutha S3 cow urine S4 panchagavya S5 liquid biofertilizers Mean

S FxS

NS NS
F1 : Palekars method

1.67 2.36

* NS

1.77 2.50

F2 : Without Palekars method

Effect of seedling treatment, Panchagavya application and organic farming systems of cultivation on grain and straw yield of Paddy
Kharif paddy (2007-08) Grain yield (q/ha) Panchagavya Sprays (P) With (P1) With out (P2) Mean Organic Farming systems (F) System I (F1) 38.88 36.15 37.52 F-test F P Fx P ** ** NS S.Ed+ 1.06 1.06 2.36 SystemII (F2) 62.65 57.43 60.04 C.D at 5 % 2.93 2.93 Mean 50.77 46.79 Straw yield (q/ha) Organic Farming systems (F) System I (F1) 52.90 40.70 46.80 F-test ** ** * S.Ed+ 1.12 1.12 1.50 System II (F2) 67.50 63.00 65.50 C.D at 5 % 3.10 3.10 4.40 Mean 60.20 51.90

F1 : Palekars method

F2 : Without Palekars method

Cont Grain yield (q/ha) Seedling treatments Organic Farming systems (F) System I (F1) 35.07 37.13 37.07 38.87 39.46 37.52 F-test S.Ed+ SystemII Mean (F2) 56.30 59.33 58.73 62.92 62.92 60.00 C.D at 5 % 45.70 48.20 47.90 50.90 51.20 Straw yield (q/ha) Organic Farming systems (F) System I (F1) 45.90 42.30 47.40 46.20 52.20 46.80 F-test S.Ed+ System II (F2) 68.50 61.90 59.80 71.30 65.30 65.30 C.D at 5 % 4.9 Mean 57.20 52.10 53.60 58.80 58.60

S1 control S2 beejamrutha S3 cow urine S4 panchagavya S5 liquid biofertilizers Mean

S FxS

NS NS
F1 : Palekars method

1.67 2.36

* NS

1.77 2.50

F2 : Without Palekars method

Effect of seedling treatment, panchagavya application and organic farming systems of cultivation on transplanted paddy
Kharif paddy (2008-09) Grain yield (q/ha) Panchagavya Sprays (P) With (P1) With out (P2) Mean Organic Farming systems (F) System I (F1) 42.00 37.80 39.90 F-test F P Fx P ** ** NS S.Ed+ 0.80 0.80 1.00 SystemII (F2) 48.80 43.00 45.90 C.D at 5 % 2.13 2.13 Mean 45.40 40.40 Straw yield (q/ha) Organic Farming systems (F) System I (F1) 44.70 39.30 42.0 F-test ** ** NS S.Ed+ 1.11 1.11 1.57 System II (F2) 50.20 48.60 49.4 C.D at 5 % 3.00 3.10 Mean 47.40 43.90

F1 : Palekars method

F2 : Without Palekars method

Cont Grain yield (q/ha) Seedling treatments Organic Farming systems (F) System I (F1) 39.00 38.50 38.80 41.60 41.80 39.90 F-test S.Ed+ SystemII Mean (F2) 44.90 43.50 43.70 48.60 48.60 45.90 C.D at 5 % 41.90 41.00 41.30 45.10 45.20 Straw yield (q/ha) Organic Farming systems (F) System I (F1) 40.60 38.10 40.70 42.40 48.00 42.00 F-test S.Ed+ System II (F2) 49.90 43.60 51.20 53.40 49.20 49.40 C.D at 5 % 4.85 Mean 45.20 40.80 45.90 47.80 48.70

S1 control S2 beejamrutha S3 cow urine S4 panchagavya S5 liquid biofertilizers Mean

S FxS

NS NS
F1 : Palekars method

1.21 0.80

* NS

1.75 2.48

F2 : Without Palekars method

Effect of seedling treatment, panchagavya application and organic farming systems of cultivation on transplanted Paddy
Paddy grain yield (kg/ha) Treatments With out FYM (Only Jeevamrutha) 3507 3769 3707 3887 3946 3763 With out Jeevamrutha With FYM 5630 5933 5873 6292 6254 5996 Yield increase (%) 60.5 57.4 58.4 61.9 58.5 59.3

Control Beejamrutha Cow urine Panchagavya Liquid biofertilizers Mean