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BIOGRAPHY OF PHILIPPINE PRESIDENTS

EMILIO AGUINALDO

QUICK FACTS NAME: Emilio Aguinaldo OCCUPATION: General, World Leader BIRTH DATE: March 23,1869 DEATH DATE: February 06, 1964 EDUCATION: University of Santo Tomás PLACE OF BIRTH: Cavite, Philippines PLACE OF DEATH: Manila, Philippines BEST KNOWN FOR Filipino leader Emilio Aguinaldo finally lived to see his country achieve independence after fighting off both the Spanish and the Americans. Revolutionary leader Emilio Aguinaldo was born March 23, 1869 in Cavite, Philippines. In 1898 he achieved independence of the Philippines from Spain and was elected the first president of the new republic under the Malolos Congress. He also led the Philippine-American War against U.S. resistance to Philippine independence. He died of a heart attack on February 6, 1964 in Quezon City, Philippines. EARLY LIFE Emilio Aguinaldo was born March 23, 1869 in Kawit, Cavite Province, Philippines. Nicknamed Miong, he was the seventh of eight children. His parents were of Chinese and Tagalog descent. His father, Carlos, died when Aguinaldo was just nine years old. Widowed, his mother, Trinidad, sent him to attend public school in Manila. After graduating from the University of Santo Thomas in Manila, Aguinaldo returned home to Kawit, where he developed a growing awareness of Filipino frustration with Spanish colonial rule. While serving as the head of barter in Manila, he joined the Pilar Lodge chapter of the Freemasonry in 1895. The Freemasonry was a government- and church-banned resistance group. It was through his role as municipal captain of this fraternity that Aguinaldo met Andres Bonifacio, a key figure in the fight to overthrow Spanish rule. INDEPENDENCE FROM SPAIN Eager to fight for the cause of Philippine independence, in 1895 Aguinaldo took up with a secret society of revolutionaries headed by fellow lodge member Andres Bonifacio. When a rival faction executed Bonifacio in 1897, Aguinaldo assumed total leadership of the revolution against Spain. By December 1897, Aguinaldo had managed to reach the Truce of Biak-na-Bato with Spain. He and his rebels agreed to a surrendering of arms and accepted exile to Hong Kong in exchange for

QUEZON QUICK FACTS NAME: Manuel Luis Quezon OCCUPATION: Activist. the Philippines had been ceded by Spain to the United States in the Treaty of Paris in December 1898. was not eager to accept the Philippines' new government. and the rebels did not truly surrender arms. In 1950 he became a presidential advisor on the Council of State. Aguinaldo's proclamation put an end to four centuries of Philippine oppression under Spanish Colonial rule. Aguinaldo said. As neither peace nor independence had been achieved. PHILIPPINE-AMERICAN WAR The United States.S. and Spain had been fighting the Spanish-American War.1878 DEATH DATE: August 01.amnesty. MANUEL L. indemnity and liberal reform. 2. Friendly relations. In January of the next year. dressed in a white suit at Barasoain Church in Malolos City. Announced from his home town of Kawit. 1944 EDUCATION: University of Santo Tomas . However. in a gesture of resistance against the newfound Philippine independence. In their honor. 1898. on February 6. After meeting with the Malolos Congress and drafting a constitution for a new republic. While the U. By this time. the Philippine-American War exploded into action. Aguinaldo was captured by American General Frederick Funston on March 23. an American sentry killed a Philippine soldier stationed at the San Juan Bridge." After three years at war. The Spanish government did not deliver in full all that was promised. as well as affordable payment plans for land purchases. however. on April 19. Aguinaldo's revolutionaries quickly resorted to guerilla tactics. neither side kept up their end of the bargain. Aguinaldo was sworn in as the first president of the new. Philippines. 1899. Just two weeks after Aguinaldo's inauguration. World Leader BIRTH DATE: August 19. Aguinaldo retreated to a private life as a farmer but never forgot the men who fought alongside him. were established. From Hong Kong. Aguinaldo's revolutionaries used some of Spain's financial compensation to purchase additional arms for the resistance. 1901. on June 12. Aguinaldo at last declared Philippine independence. On February 4. Aguinaldo forcibly set up a provisional dictatorship. along with an American civil government. 1964. DEATH Emilio Aguinaldo died of a heart attack at Veterans Memorial Hospital in Quezon City. In fact. Aguinaldo also made arrangements to assist Americans fighting against Spain in the Spanish-American War. Aguinaldo officially declared peace with the United States. "I saw my own soldiers die without affecting future events. Back in Cavite. 1901. After swearing an oath of allegiance to the United States. an organization that arranged their pensions. but in little direct progress for Aguinaldo and his cause. the United States was ready support Philippine independence. he would later establish the Veterans of the Revolution. resulting in one of the bloodiest wars in American history. in 1898 Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines to resume his rebellion against Spanish rule. Concerning the apparent futility of his efforts in war. self-governed Philippine republic. Aguinaldo took another stab at politics when he ran for presidency in 1935 against Manuel Quezon but lost.

which happened in 1935. he fought for a speedy grant of independence by the U. He died on August 1. QUEZON y Molina was the first president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. Congress. Batangas Died: November 6. a native of Paco. Quezon is one of the most illustrious sons our country has ever produced. Manuel Luis Quezon was born on August 19. . entitled to speak. president of the Philippines (1943-45). and became the majority floor leader. Such vision culminated in the establishment of political stability within the framework of the 1935 Constitution.. Philippines PLACE OF DEATH: Saranac Lake. in the U. Tayabas (now Quezon). but not vote.Quezon was married to Aurora Aragon and had four children. and brought home the Tydings-McDuffie Independence Law in 1934.The “ Star of Baler “ shone as the First President of the Commonwealth after his brilliant performance as the First Senate President. He is considered the second President of the Philippines. he was elected to the Philippine Senate in 1925 and appointed associate justice of the Supreme Court in 1936.PLACE OF BIRTH: Baler.--d. March 9. He was a dynamic Filipino leader and a true friend of the poor and the oppressed whom he loved and cared so well. After receiving law degrees from the University of the Philippines (1915) and from Yale University (1920). Manila and Maria Dolores Molina.In 1909. Tanauan. House of Representatives. 6. 1944 in Saranac Lake. after Emilio Aguinaldo (whose administration did not receive international recognition at the time and is not considered the first president by the United States. 1891. (August 19. Tomas and passed the bar examinations in 1903. JOSE P. New York. Manila). In 1909 Quezon was appointed resident commissioner for the Philippines. His most significant achievement was the passage of the Jones Act that provided for the grant of Philippine independence. Batangas Jose Paciano Laurel (b. won by a large majority. Luzon. He studied law at the University of Sto. to Lucio Quezon. 3.S. Manuel Quezon was governor of Tayabas province before being elected a representative in 1907 to the newly established Philippine Assembly.He was elected senator in 1916 and eventually became Senate President.In the 1907 election. 1959. LAUREL Era: Third President of the Philippines President of the Second Republic Personal Details Born: March 9. MANUEL L. Phil. Nov. 1944). 1891 Tanauan. New York BEST KNOWN FOR Manuel Quezon was leader of the Filipino independence movement and first president of the Philippine Commonwealth in 1935.. He headed the first Independence Mission to the U.S. and the adjustment of the national economy to the challenges of independent nationhood. He was steadfast in his vision to deliver the masses from the shackles of colonialism which intensified his efforts to secure independence for his country. 1959 Tanauan. He became the fiscal of his home province and was soon elected governor. during the Japanese occupation of World War II. 1878 – August 1. the formulation of policies to ensure the social well-being of the people.C. a post he held until 1916. he was elected Resident Commissioner to Washington D. he ran for the Philippine Assembly under the Nacionalista Party. 1878 in Baler. during his years in Washington.S.

SERGIO OSMEÑA Era: Fourth President of the Philippines Second President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines Personal Details Born: September 9. Elected to the Senate in 1951. when he was defeated by Manuel Roxas. climaxing in his selection as president in 1943. The following year Osmeña became vice president. D. Laurel headed an economic mission that in 1955 negotiated an agreement to improve economic relations with the United States. however.S. In 1907 he was elected delegate to the Philippine National Assembly and founded the Nationalist Party.C. but Quezon differed with Osmeña over the bill's provision to retain U. when the government was in exile in Washington. who became the first president of the independent Republic of the Philippines. Philippine independence leader and statesman. then secretary of defense. and because of his criticism of U. colonial administration appointed him governor of the province of Cebu and fiscal (district attorney) for the provinces of Cebu and Negros Oriental. Laurel helped to persuade Ramón Magsaysay. rule of the Philippines he held a series of high posts in 1942-43. He retired from public life in 1957. military bases after independence.C. Osmeña received a law degree from the University of Santo Tomás. Twice elected vice-president of the commonwealth (1935 and 1941).S. Two years later he was elected governor of Cebu. Laurel stayed in Manila after President Manuel Quezon escaped first to Bataan and then to the United States. to desert the Liberals and join the Nationalists. He was.After the Pearl Harbor attack. He was also editor of a Spanish newspaper. he was elected to the first Philippine assembly. He was the founder of the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista) and president of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946. When Magsaysay became president. In 1933 he went to Washington. Osmeña remained leader of the Nationalists until 1921. defeated (1946) in the first elections of an independent Philippines. Manila. in Cebu City. In 1904 the U. when he was succeeded by Manuel Quezon. who had joined him in a coalition.. Osmeña became president. was superseded by the Tydings-McDuffie Act of March 1934. with Quezon as president. and later served as senator from Cebu. 1961 Veteran Memorial Hospital. vetoed by the Philippine Assembly. Osmeña headed several missions to the United States to argue for Philippine independence and was instrumental in gaining commonwealth status for the Philippines in 1935. Sergio (1878-1961). On the death of Quezon in August 1944. 4. In July 1946 he was charged with 132 counts of treason but was never brought to trial. D. He offered his services to the Japanese. making the Philippines a commonwealth with a large measure of independence. to secure passage of the Hare-Hawes-Cutting independence bill. in 1903. he served until his election to the Senate in 1923. Twice in that year he was shot by Philippine guerrillas but recovered. He served as president until the elections of April 1946. . he shared in the general amnesty in April 1948. which came to dominate Philippine political life. 1878 Cebu City. As the Nationalist Party's nominee for the presidency of the Republic of the Philippines in 1949. Trained as a lawyer. Made speaker of the House of Representatives in 1916. The bill. nominee of the Liberal Party. Elpidio Quirino. Philippines Died: October 19.S. born on Cebu. El Nuevo Día. he was narrowly defeated by the incumbent president. He remained vice president during the Japanese occupation. Quezon City Osmeña. he became president of the government in exile when President Manuel Quezon died in 1944. became its speaker (1907-1916).

after the establishment of Commonwealth of the Philippines. Manuel Acuña Roxas (January 1. MANUEL ROXAS QUICK FACTS NAME: Manuel Roxas OCCUPATION: World Leader BIRTH DATE: January 01. 6. Roxas ran for president as the nominee of the liberal wing of the Nacionalista Party. In 1945. Ilocos Sur. In 1921. Roxas won 54 percent of the vote. He served as president from the granting of independence in 1946 until his abrupt death in 1948. Roxas did not finish his term that was expected to end by 1950 because he died of myocardial infarction. Roxas had two siblings. Philippines PLACE OF DEATH: Quezon City. he was elected to the House of Representatives.5. 1948 EDUCATION: University of the Philippines PLACE OF BIRTH: Capiz. the legislators elected in 1941 chose Roxas as Senate President. He was also a member of the college's first ever graduating class in 1913. Philippines PLACE OF DEATH: Clark Field. Roxas became a member of the unicameral National Assembly and from 1938 till 1941. Philippines BEST KNOWN FOR Manuel Roxas was a political leader and first president (1946–48) of the independent Republic of the Philippines. lasting 1 year 10 months and 18 days. Philippines BEST KNOWN FOR Elpidio Quirino (1890–1956) was the second president of the Independent Republic of the Philippines. when the Congress of the Philippines was convened. 1946. and the Liberal Party won a majority in the legislature. 1892 DEATH DATE: April 15. In the Philippine national elections of 1946. In the same year he was elected House Speaker. 1946 to July 4. 1892 – April 15. He joined University of Manila for his education and then later he did law at the University of the Philippines College of Law. from his subsequent election on May 28. Vigan High School PLACE OF BIRTH: Vigan. . Roxas served as the President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines in a brief period. died before he was born. 1948) was the first president of the independent Third Republic of the Philippines and fifth president overall. his brother Mamerto Roxas. When the Philippines gained independence from the United States on July 4. Gerardo Acuna Roxas. His term as president of the Philippines was also the third shortest. he became the first president of the new republic. Manila. ELPIDIO QUIRINO QUICK FACTS NAME:Elpidio Quirino OCCUPATION: World Leader BIRTH DATE: November 16. 1946. In 1935. 1956 EDUCATION: University of the Philippines. Manuel Roxas' father. 1890 DEATH DATE: February 28. Quezon's cabinet. he served as the Secretary of Finance in President Manuel L. In 1946 election. and sister Margarita Roxas.

instituted by members of the rival Nationalist Party. he attempted to improve social. Quirino oversaw postwar reconstruction. He entered law school at the University of the Philippines. Quirino was often justly accused by Filipino nationalists of placing American interests above Filipino ones. graduating in 1915. He then served as vice president under Manuel Roxas. For six years. Quirino was also one of the drafters of the Philippine constitution. Young Elpidio graduated from elementary school in nearby Caoayan. Defense Secretary Ramon Magsaysay angrily resigned over Quirino’s alleged corruption and joined the opposition Nationalist Party. His mother was Dona Gregoria Mendoza Rivera Quirino. 1890. He was captured by Japanese military police and imprisoned. under Quirino’s successor Ramon Magsaysay. PROFILE Elpidio Quirino was born on November 16. Although successful to a degree in these areas. he was elected to the Philippine House of Representatives. the Philippines were captured by Japanese imperial forces. son and two daughters were killed by Japanese forces as they fled their home during the Battle of Manila in early 1945. and Manuel Roxas was elected president. he was exonerated of all charges. Elpidio Quirino was elected to the Philippine Congress in 1919. where he began his rise through the Philippine government. In 1925. After the war. D. on Luzon Island in the Philippines. His wife. He also established relations with Western and Asian countries. Quirino became president. Don Mariano Quirino. but his administration suffered from corruption. Elpidio Quirino ran for reelection in 1953 despite his poor health. The Huk rebellion wasn’t suppressed until 1954. Elpidio Quirino refused to join the Japanese-sponsored “puppet government” of Jose Laurel and instead went underground.Born in 1890.. In 1931 Elpidio Quirino was reelected to the Senate. 1956 . helping secure the Tydings-McDuffie Act. Elpidio became a barrio (rural village) teacher while studying at Vigan High School. which set the timetable for Philippine independence from the United States. Elpidio Quirino retired to private life and died of a heart attack in February 29. His father. economic and agrarian conditions. Quirino soon faced impeachment. but after several months. and in 1934 he served as a member of the Philippine Independence mission to Washington. elections were held in April 1946. As president. which was approved in May 1935. in the small city of Vigan. with Quirino as vice president. Advanced beyond his years. Anticipating the country’s impending independence. he was elected to the Philippine Senate and was quickly given Senate committee appointments. In 1919. Quirino had two goals: reconstructing the nation and restoring the faith and confidence of the people. Quirino failed to act aggressively in implementing many of the needed reforms. under suspicion of widespread election fraud and intimidation. Further. He was part of the independence mission to Washington that freed the Philippines from American control in 1934. Charges ranged from nepotism to misappropriation of funds. Elpidio Quirino was reelected president in November 1949. Elpidio Quirino became the leader of the majority Liberal Party and president pro tempore of the Senate. was a warden at a provincial jail. When President Roxas unexpectedly died in April 1948. However. Elpidio Quirino moved to Manila and graduated from Manila High School in 1911 and then passed the civil service exam. In April 1942. He would go on to defeat Quirino in the general election. When he took office. Quirino appointed Defense Secretary Ramon Magsaysay to suppress the insurrection.C. becoming president upon Roxas' death in 1948. Quirino’s administration faced a serious threat from the Communist-led Hukbalahap (Huk) movement. and served as secretary to Senate President Manuel Quezon.

had called for the overthrow of the government. he was chairman of the House National Defense Committee. where he received a bachelor's degree in commerce. He was promoted to captain. Philippines President Elpidio Quirino appointed Magsaysay secretary of defense to deal with the threat of the Huks. a city in the Philippines. Philippines AKA: Ramon Magsaysay NICKNAME: "Idol of the Masses" BEST KNOWN FOR Ramon Magsaysay became the third president of the Philippines in 1953. From then until 1953. Magsaysay reformed the army. Ramon Magsaysay was the third president of the Philippines (1953–57). later charging the Quirino Administration with corruption and incompetence. Magsaysay did manage to enact agrarian reform. on August 31. In 1950. 1907 DEATH DATE: March 17. THE PRESIDENCY Although Magsaysay was a liberal. and . During both terms. Magsaysay carried out one of the most effective anti-guerrilla campaigns in modern history. He died in his country in 1957. the Huks were no longer a serious threat. José Rizal College. RAMON MAGSAYSAY QUICK FACTS NAME: Ramon del Fierro Magsaysay OCCUPATION: World Leader BIRTH DATE: August 31. and was later re-elected to a second term. by 1953. 1957 EDUCATION: University of the Philippines. dismissing many officers and emphasizing mobility and adaptability in combat operations against the Huk guerrillas—tactics that he had learned in his own guerrilla efforts against the Japanese in World War II. giving some 90.500 indigent families for settlement/farming purposes. EARLY LIFE Ramon Magsaysay was born Ramon del Fierro Magsaysay in Iba.7. and Magsaysay prevailed. LEADING MILITARY REFORM Magsaysay was elected to the Philippine House of Representatives in 1946. and was involved in clearing the Zambales coast of the Japanese before to the landing of American forces there. 1907. After attending the University of the Philippines. 1907. whose leader. Born in the Philippines on August 31. best known for successfully defeating the communist-led Hukbalahap (Huk) movement in his country and his popular appeal. He also set up a process to hear and address citizen grievances. the Nacionalista Party backed him for the presidency against Quirino in the 1953 elections. Institute of Commerce PLACE OF BIRTH: Iba. Unfortunately. Magsaysay joined the motor pool of the 31st Infantry Division of the Philippine army. He promised reform in nearly every segment of Filipino life. 1953. Luis Taruc. but he was often thwarted by a congress that only represented the interests of the wealthy. and he resigned on February 28. At the start of World War II. Philippines PLACE OF DEATH: Balamban. Magsaysay's sweeping measures had made many enemies for him within the government. Magsaysay transferred to the Institute of Commerce at José Rizal College (1928-1932).000 acres to 4. and is credited with restoring law and order during the Philippine crisis of the 1950s.

scoring an impressive victory running for congressman representing the third district of Bohol. García was born in Talibon. he was referred to in the Philippines as the "Idol of the Masses. policy in the . Bohol Died: June 14. He started his political career in 1925. Ramon Magsaysay's term came to an abrupt end on March 17. CARLOS P. 1957. killing Magsaysay and 24 other passengers. orator. to Policronio García and Ambrosia Polistico (who were both natives of Bangued.maintained a reputation for incorruptibility throughout his presidency. García as chairman of the Philippine delegation attacked communist promises in Asia and defended the U. He became famous for his poetry in Bohol. all of which went a long way toward ensuring his popularity." was established in 1957. leading to an agreement in April 1954. then took his secondary education in Cebu Provincial High School. He became the eighthPresident of the Philippines. 1896 Talibon. Bohol. García was the running mate of Ramón Magsaysay in the presidential election of 1953. 1896 – June 14. he opened formal reparation negotiations in an effort to end the nineyear technical state of war between Japan and the Philippines. 1971 Quezon City Carlos Polistico García (November 4. He was among the top ten in the bar examination. with his father serving as a municipal mayor for four terms. and afterward. Negros Oriental. and later studied at the Philippine Law School (now Philippine College of Criminology) where he earned his law degree in 1923. for four years concurrently serving as vice president. He was appointed Secretary of Foreign Affairs by President Ramón Magsaysay. During the Geneva Conference on Korean unification and other Asian problems. where he earned the nickname "Prince of Visayan Poets" and the "Bard from Bohol". Rather than practice law right away. In the spirit of Ramon Magsaysay's leadership. An estimated 5 million people attended Magsaysay's burial on March 31. He was elected for another term in 1928 and served until 1931." In his honor. he pursued his college education at Silliman University in Dumaguete City. He was elected governor of Bohol in 1933 but served only until 1941 when he successfully ran for the Philippine Senate but his term cut short during World War II. GARCIA Era: Eighth President of the Philippines Fourth President of the Third Republic Personal Details Born: November 4. the award recognizes integrity and courage among individuals and organizations in Asia. He took the post when Congress convened in 1945 after the Philippines was liberated from the Japanese. considered "Asia's Nobel Prize. 1957.S. when his presidential plane crashed. 1971) was a Filipino teacher. As secretary of foreign affairs. public official. political economist and guerrilla leader. Initially. Abra). he worked as a teacher for two years at Bohol Provincial High School. Sadly. García grew up with politics. the Ramon Magsaysay Award. 8. poet. lawyer. He acquired his primary education in his native Talibon.

1910. known as SEATO. 1910 Lubao. Chief Justice Ricardo Paras. 28. After his failed re–election bid. which was designed to solve the centuries-old land tenancy problem. The convention delegates elected him as the President of the Convention. the son of poor tenant farmers. helped him continue his education. Macapagal (1910-1997) was the fifth president of the Republic of the Philippines. Macapagal entered the University of Santo Tomas in Manila. Pampanga Died: April 21. 1954. he acted on the Bohlen–Serrano Agreement which shortened the lease of the US Bases from 99 years to 25 years and made it renewable after every five years. where he received an associate in arts degree in 1932. Macapagal was constantly forced to interrupt his schooling for lack of funds. He also received a doctorate in economics in 1957. of the Supreme Court.Having been immediately notified of the tragedy. His brother-in-law Rogelio de la Rosa. He was instrumental in initiating and executing the Land Reform Code. On June 1. In 1941 Macapagal worked as legal assistant to President Quezon and as professor of law in the . In a speech on May 7. which led to the development of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization. Diosdado Macapagal was born on Sept. At the time of the sudden death of President Ramon Magsaysay. just days after his election. the principal cause of the Communist guerrilla movement in central Luzon. 9. and doctor of laws degree in 1947. García repeated the Philippine stand for nationalism and opposition of communism. García was elected delegate of the 1971 Constitutional Convention. 1971. with whom he acted in and produced Tagalog operettas. García was heading the Philippine delegation to the SEATO conference then being held at Canberra. García died from a fatal heart attack. on June 14. 1971. the day of the fall of Dien Bien Phu. Diosdado Macapagal. 1997 Makati City Diosdado P. García retired to Tagbilaran to live as a private citizen. During his administration. However. Vice President and Foreign Affairs Secretary Carlos P. He was succeeded as president of the Convention by his former Vice President. DIOSDADO MACAPAGAL Era: Ninth President of the Philippines Fifth President of the Third Republic Personal Details Born: September 28. President García's first actions dealt with the declaration of a period of mourning for the whole nation and the burial ceremonies for the late Chief-Executive Magsaysay. receiving his bachelor of laws degree in 1936. was at hand to administer the oath of office. Meanwhile he worked part time with the Bureau of Lands. Australia. In 1929 he entered the University of the Philippines. Upon his arrival he directly repaired to Malacañan Palace to assume the duties of President.Far East. García acted as chairman of the eight-nation Southeast Asian Security Conference held in Manila in September 1954. Vice President García enplaned back for Manila. García became the first president to have his remains lie in-state at the Manila Cathedral and the first president to be buried at the Libingan ng mga Bayani. his master of laws degree in 1941.

Carlos P. He canceled the inaugural ball and issued a decree forbidding any member of his family or of his wife's to participate in any business deals with the government. as chairman of the Philippine UN delegation. Dictator BIRTH DATE: September 11. 1989 EDUCATION: University of the Philippines PLACE OF BIRTH: Sarrat. July 4 was the date the Philippines were declared independent by the United States after World War II. Garcia. In November 1957 Macapagal was elected vice president. 14. He lost his bid for re-election in 1965 to Ferdinand Marcos. Filipino revolutionaries had declared independence from Spain on June 12. He changed the date that Filipinos celebrate their independence to June 12 from July 4. In 1953 he was the only Liberal party member to win reelection. Macapagal became president on Nov. 1961. He was 86.University of Santo Tomas. In 1898. undemocratic regime. He died in Manila on April 21. Philippines PLACE OF DEATH: Honolulu. when. he conducted a debate with Soviet foreign minister Andrei Vishinsky.940 more votes than the total received by the elected president. He dismissed corrupt officials and started court action against those who could not explain their sudden acquisition of wealth. FERDINAND MARCOS QUICK FACTS NAME: Ferninand Marcos OCCUPATION: Lawyer. . In his inaugural statement he declared: "I shall be president not only of the rich but more so of the poor. In 1946 Macapagal served as assistant and then as chief of the legal division in the Department of Foreign Affairs. the presidential residence. 1997 of heart failure. We must help bridge the wide gap between the poor man and the man of wealth. who ruled for the next 20 years. but by raising the poor towards the more abundant life. defeating Garcia. not by pulling down the rich to his level as Communism desires. In 1949 he was elected representative of the first district of Pampanga Province on the ticket of the Liberal party. receiving 116. 1917 DEATH DATE: September 28. Ferdinand Marcos was the president of the Philippines from 1966 to 1986. Macapagal attained worldwide distinction in 1951. to all the citizens. 10." With his naivetéand paternalistic attitude. In 1948 he was second secretary to the Philippine embassy in Washington and in 1949 became counselor on legal affairs and treatises in the Department of Foreign Affairs. Hawaii BEST KNOWN FOR Known for running a corrupt. Macapagal vowed to open Malakanyang Palace.

" by which private businesses were seized by the government and handed over to friends and relatives of regime members. These acts were akin to Marcos’ stateimposed "crony capitalism. he was studying for the bar exam and became a trial lawyer in Manila subsequent to the acquittal. during which leftists took to the streets to demonstrate against both American involvement in Philippine affairs and the increasingly apparent dictatorial style of Ferdinand Marcos. government archives that he actually played little or no part in anti-Japanese activities during World War II. and on September 20. 1935. Massive crowd violence. however. At the end of the expensive and bitter campaign. Marcos was reelected in 1969. becoming the first Filipino president to serve a second term. 1965. were prominent traits of his second campaign. these acts would eventually lead to economic troubles for the Philippines and further civil unrest. His father. ASCENSION TO THE PRESIDENCY After failing to attain the Liberal Party’s nomination for president. Ferdinand.000 pairs of shoes and several Manhattan skyscrapers). . Marcos prevailed and was inaugurated on December 30. was a Filipino politician. but it was revealed in U. Imelda. Ferdinand Marcos became the president of the Philippines in 1966. became a powerful figure after martial law was decreed in 1972. EARLY LIFE Ferdinand Marcos went to school in Manila and later attended law school at the University of the Philippines. later claiming that he had been a leader in the Filipino guerrilla resistance movement. Mariano and Ferdinand’s brother and brother-in-law were tried for the assassination. the day after Julio Nalundasan defeated Mariano Marcos for a seat in the National Assembly (for the second time). a move he had previously opposed as a Philippine senator. vote buying and fraud on Marcos’ part. In 1959. What arose from the campaign unrest became known as the First Quarter Storm. when the American government granted the Philippines independence on July 4. Ferdinand Marcos served as an officer with the Philippine armed forces. His first presidential term is notable mostly for his decision to send troops into the fray of the Vietnam War. STATE OF THE REGIME AND DOWNFALL Ferdinand Marcos' wife. Nalundasan was shot and killed in his home. Mariano Marcos. a position he would hold until he ran for and won the presidency in 1965. Indicative of the entire Marcos administration. These claims were a principal element in his subsequent political success. Remarkably.S. and Ferdinand and his brother-in-law were found guilty of the murder. Ferdinand argued their case on appeal to the Philippine Supreme Court and won acquittal a year later. 1946. a member of the Philippine House of Representatives (1949-1959) and a member of the Philippine Senate (1959-1965). ENTERING POLITICS During World War II.A lawyer. which was funded with $56 million from the Philippine treasury. while Marcos was preparing his case. Ferdinand Marcos ran as the Nationalist Party candidate. Marcos ran and was twice elected as representative to his district and served from 1949 to 1959. when his people rose against his dictatorial rule and he fled. often appointing her relatives to lucrative governmental and industrial positions (while accumulating upward of 1. a post he held until 1986. the Philippine Congress was created. Marcos took a seat in the Philippine Senate. At the end of the war.

Philippines BEST KNOWN FOR Corazon Aquino was the 11th president (and first female president) of the Philippines. By the early 1980s. and Imelda was acquitted of all charges and was allowed to return to the Philippines the following year. Philippines PLACE OF DEATH: Makati. emerged as a formidable opponent and became the presidential candidate of the opposition. Vincent College PLACE OF BIRTH: Tarlac. on August 21. To this end. his family and his associates had embezzled billions of dollars from the Philippine economy through various corrupt practices. although it has since been suggested that Marcos or even his wife had ordered the killing.Marcos' later years in power were marred by widespread government corruption (which turned out to be the central legacy of his regime). An independent commission appointed by Marcos concluded a year later that high military officers were responsible for Aquino's assassination. 1933. Corazon Aquino. She restored democracy after the long dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos. Her husband had been an opponent of Ferdinand Marcos and was assassinated upon returning from exile. the widow of Benigno Aquino. Maria Corazon Aquino was born January 25. Marcos was discredited at home and abroad. 1983. he was shot dead by his military escort as he stepped off the plane in Manila. and a tense standoff ensued between his supporters and those of Corazon Aquino. with mixed results. . Benigno Aquino Jr. on February 25.S. Marcos. however. economic stagnation. change was coming to the Philippines. Philippines. but it was quickly revealed that his victory was only ensured through massive voting fraud carried out by his supporters. 1986. but Ferdinand died in 1989. To quiet the opposition and reassert his position of power. The assassination was seen as the work of the government and ignited massive countrywide protests. 2009 EDUCATION: Mount St. With his health failing and support for his regime fading fast.S. Corazon Aquino became the unified opposition's presidential candidate. managed to defeat Aquino and retain the presidency. Ferdinand Marcos went into exile in Hawaii. Unfortunately. a widening economic gap between the rich and poor and the growth of a communist guerrilla uprising. and served as president. CORAZON AQUINO QUICK FACTS NAME: Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco-Aquino OCCUPATION: World Leader BIRTH DATE: January 25. returned from his long exile to offer the Philippine people a new face of hope. Also contributing to Marcos' downfall was the resolution signed in 1985 by 56 assemblymen calling for his impeachment for allegedly diverting U. When Marcos unexpectedly called for elections in 1986. Evidence was later uncovered showing that Marcos. government subsequently indicted Marcos and his wife on racketeering charges. The U. aid to his personal coffers. Marcos called for presidential elections to be held in 1986. As word spread of the rigged election.193 DEATH DATE: August 01. in Tarlac. She took office after Marcos fled the country. with the United States urging him on. until 1992. 11.

FINAL YEARS Aquino did not go quietly into retirement. when he was killed by two soldiers soon after arriving. UNLIKELY POLITICAL CAREERS After three years in exile. including Benigno Aquino. She graduated from the College of Mount St. Marcos' administration was marred by corruption. Marcos unexpectedly called for presidential elections in February 1986. first in Philadelphia and later in New York City. 1933. Benigno Aquino returned to the Philippines on August 21. When she narrowly lost the election. The army. Marcos' opposition chose Aquino as their candidate. who spent seven years in jail before being permitted to relocate with his family to the United States in 1980. In 1972 Marcos declared martial law. and was succeeded by her former defense secretary. with a bachelor's degree in both French and mathematics. prompting Marcos to seek exile in Hawaii. senator. That same year. he quickly established himself as one of the country's brightest young leaders. an ambitious young journalist who also came from a family with considerable wealth. Elected to the presidency in 1965. With Corazon at his side. Fidel Ramos. . soon declared support for Aquino. Quickly. he was elected mayor. Vincent in New York in 1953. The opposition coalesced around Corazon Aquino. Corazon Aquino stood by her husband's side. then governor and. she ran a think tank on non-violence and periodically helped lead street protests against the policies of endorsed by her successors. finally. in the Tarlac Province to a wealthy political and banking family. effectively stripping his citizens of their democratic rights and arresting key opposition leaders. During his time in prison.. she was named TIME magazine's Woman of the Year. keeping his profile alive and passing his notes on to the press. playing the role of the supportive wife. During her six years as the country's president. Along the way. She attended school in Manila until the age of 13. and would go on to have five children together: one son and four daughters. In 1992 she left office. 1983. Aquino served as the bridge between Benigno and the outside world. While she gracefully dealt with her husband's death. With international pressure bearing down on his administration. Instead. Over the span of just two decades. Aquino fended off coup attempts by Marcos supporters. and then the defense minister. becoming the first female president of the Philippines. Upon returning to the Philippines. Aquino and her supporters challenged the results. human rights violations and political repression. Marcos was presumed to be behind the killing.EARLY YEARS Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco was born January 25. she enrolled in law school in Manila. 1986. Marco's fortunes began to turn. The couple married in 1954. then finished her education in the United States. where she met Benigno Aquino. Aquino evolved into a national symbol of reform. Jr. Benigno soon abandoned a career in journalism for politics. and Benigno's assassination set off a wave of protests against Marcos' administration. Aquino was sworn into office on February 25. he challenged the rule of the country's president. Ferdinand Marcos. and struggled to address her country's economic problems.

former Prime Minister of Australia. Fidel Ramos’s policies and programmes to foster national reconciliation and unity led to major peace agreements with Muslim separatists. . Pangasinan Fidel Ramos was President of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998. He encouraged the privatization of public entities. His public service spanned a total period of 51 years. the elderly and the handicapped. FIDEL RAMOS Era: Twelfth President of the Philippines Second President of the Fifth Republic Personal Details Born: March 18. Gross National Product averaged 5 percent annually.In 2008. the Philippine economy recovered dramatically. She passed on August 1. Activity after public politics Ramos founded the Ramos Peace and Development Foundation. a non-partisan and non-profit organisation dedicated to the promotion of peace and development in the Philippines and in the larger Asia-Pacific region. which renewed investor confidence in the Philippine economy. health. to include the modernization of public infrastructure through the expanded Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) law. jobs and livelihood. Ramos pushed for the deregulation of key industries and the liberalization of the economy. together with Bob Hawke. 1928 Lingayen. This allowed Fidel Ramos’ government to implement a comprehensive Social Reform Agenda (SRA) that addressed long-standing problems regarding poverty. children and the youth. 2009. former Prime Minister of Japan. agrarian reform and access to equal opportunity. education and skills training. Fidel Ramos served as Secretary of National Defence (1988-1991) and Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (1986-1988) with the rank of General. business and academia in Asia and other continents who are committed to promoting regional economic integration and bringing Asian countries even closer to their development goals. a premier forum for leaders in government. The peace agreement which Ramos brokered with military rebels and the MNLF southern secessionists won for him (together with Chairman Nur Misuari) and the Philippines the coveted 1997 UNESCO Peace Prize . communist insurgents and military rebels. Under his leadership the Philippines experienced a period of political stability and rapid economic growth and expansion. the total inflow of foreign exchange into the country outpaced that of the combined periods of rule of both Presidents Marcos and Aquino. she learned she had colon cancer. housing. environmental protection.the first for Asians. During the years 1993-1997. In 1998. Prior to his election as president. and the average income of the Filipino family grew more during Ramos’ administration than in the preceding two decades. Ramos founded the Boao Forum for Asia (BFA). and Morihiro Hosokawa. 12. As President.

” He also gave himself the nickname “Erap. 1937. To his parents’ grave disappointment. He was awarded Best Actor and Best Film awards by the Filipino Academy of Movie Arts and Science (FAMAS) five times each. his family moved to San Juan. which often entailed playing a poor man seeking justice. Over the course of his prolific film career. Philippines ORIGINALLY: Joseph Ejercito AKA: Erap Estada AKA: Joseph Estrada BEST KNOWN FOR Filipino actor and politician Joseph Estrada served as the thirteenth president of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001. he has acted the lead role in more than 80 films and produced over 70. He was one of 10 children. he stumbled upon an acting role and enjoyed the sense of escapism that acting provided him. In 1998 he became president of the Philippines. Joseph’s parents were wealthy landowners. World Leader BIRTH DATE: April 19. His mother was named Maria Marcelo. After graduating from Ateneo de Manila. on April 19. Producer. During his . “I have been a jeepney driver. In 1992 he ran for vice president and won. but lost to Benigno Aquino III. was a government engineer. Joseph Estrada was born on April 19.” a Spanish term for “pal” spelled backward. Estrada used his popularity with audiences to garner votes in the San Juan mayoral elections. the fledgling actor took the screen name Joseph Estrada. EARLY LIFE Joseph Estrada was born Joseph Marcelo Ejercito in the Tondo district of Manila. Philippines. He served as mayor for 17 years. His parents strongly opposed to the decision and forbade him to use the family name. Estrada dropped out after three years. He ran for re-election in 2010. Estrada’s father.” Estrada said of his many roles.13. Estrada received his primary education at a local Jesuit school called Ateneo de Manila University. he enrolled in engineering courses at the Mapúa Institute of Technology. 1937 (Age: 75) EDUCATION: Mapua Institute of Technology PLACE OF BIRTH: Manila. labor leader. 1937. which has since become a part of metropolitan Manila. during which time he focused largely on education and health care reform. When Joseph was still very young. He was the only one of his siblings not to receive a college diploma. In 1987 Estrada became a national politician when he took a seat in the Philippine Senate. a Communist guerilla. Quickly proving his acting prowess. JOSEPH EJERCITO ESTRADA NAME: Joseph Ejercito Estrada OCCUPATION: Film Actor. Estrada has acted the lead role in more than 80 films made in the Philippines. Instead. In 2001 he was arrested and imprisoned for six years. Over the course of his prolific film career. and has also produced more than 70 movies. POLITICS In 1967. Emilio Ejercito. Philippines. he opted to pursue an acting career in lieu of completing his education. FILM CAREER When Estrada was a young adult. earning him spots in the FAMAS Hall of Fame in both 1981 and 1984. “Estrada” being the Spanish word for “street. in Manila.

and a Ph. former senator Dr. Estrada’s 1998 presidential campaign was centered on this same law-and-order platform. and a Senior Lecturer at the University of the Philippines School of Economics. he improved the country’s tax collection system and worked toward demilitarizing the Philippine government. 14. On April 25. who has served in the Philippine Senate since 2004. GLORIA MACAPAGAL ARROYO QUICK FACTS NAME: GloriaMacapagal Arroyo OCCUPATION: World Leader BIRTH DATE: April 05. After a long and humiliating trial. Before embarking on a political career. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo became the 14th president of the Philippines on 20 January 2001. Estrada won the presidency by a landslide. she was a teacher at Assumption College.D.1947 (Age: 65) EDUCATION: Georgetown University. During Estrada’s administration. University of the Philippines PLACE OF BIRTH: San Juan. an Assistant Professor at the Ateneo de Manila University. Estrada was arrested on charges of plunder that his political adversaries had filed against him. Gloria attended Georgetown University in Washington. DC and was a classmate of former U. President Bill Clinton. She graduated magna cum laude from Assumption College and later earned a Master of Arts degree in Economics from the Ateneo de Manila University. In 1992 Estrada ran for vice president and won. In 2010 he ran for president again but came in second to Benigno Aquino III in the general elections. He retained the position for the next six years. The couple has three children. . Philippines BEST KNOWN FOR Former Filipino president Gloria Macapagal Arroyo was a controversial leader who resisted several military coups. in Economics from the University of the Philippines.S. 2001. including disaster-relief missions and programs that strive to help the poor by eradicating hunger. Estrada led the Presidential Anti-Crime Commission and was responsible for a number of high-profile criminal arrests. Estrada continued to reside—along with his wife.five-year stint in the Senate. Luisa Pimentel—in the Tondo district of Manila where Estrada grew up. Estrada served as chairman of the Committee on Rural Development and Committee on Cultural Communities. in the dust. RECENT YEARS Following his release from prison. She is the daughter of the late President Diosdado Macapagal who served as a reform president from 1961 to 1965 and was fondly known as the "poor boy from Lubao". including their son Jinggoy. Jose de Venecia. As of 2011. Estrada was imprisoned in Tanay for six years and was eventually released based on an unconditional pardon in October of 2007. Estrada has worked for a number of local humanitarian causes. as well as the vice chair of the Committee on Health and Committee on Natural Resources and Ecology. leaving his closest competitor. As vice president. Despite accusations of electoral fraud.

He is a fourth-generation politician. He is the only son of the late Senator Benigno Aquino Jr. steering the garments industry to become the top net dollar earner for the country. Benigno Aquino. rifle team).P. He has four sisters. Victoria Eliza (Viel) Aquino Dee. During her tenure in the Senate. Following street demonstrations. • deputy speaker of the House of Representatives to later become president. whose assassination led to the social unrest which catapulted his mother. Aquino later joined Mondragon Industries Philippines. His great grandfather. the largest mandate in the history of any presidential or vice presidential election. Inc. • President since 1992 who was inaugurated into office without having been Vice President first. 2001. Benigno Simeon “Noynoy” Cojuangco Aquino III was born on February 8.Macapagal-Arroyo entered government service as an Assistant Secretary of the Department of Trade and Industry and later became Executive Director of the Garments and Textile Export Board. 1960 in Manila. 15. Jr.. Maria Elena (Ballsy) Aquino Cruz. He is the third of the five children of Benigno Aquino. • President since Diosdado Macapagal to be elected as the candidate of the Liberal Party. and Kristina Bernadette (Kris) Aquino Yap. BENIGNO AQUINO III QUICK FACTS Benigno S. Servillano Aquino served as a delegate to the Malolos Congress his grandfather. Corazon Cojuangco Aquino to president. • marksman to become president since Ferdinand Marcos (who belonged to the U. she authored 55 laws on economic and social reform and was named outstanding Senator several times. Sr. Inc.. She was elected as Senator during her first try in politics in 1992. the Supreme Court ruled that President Estrada no longer effectively controlled the government and declared the position of president vacant. .Aquino III is the first: • unmarried president in the history of the country. He returned to the Philippines when his father was assassinated in 1983. In 1998 she was elected Vice President of the Philippines with almost 13 million votes. held several legislative positions from 1919–44. He is also the first president since Macapagal not to have changed political parties. working as an assistant of the executive director of PBSP. Aquino had a short tenure as a member of the Philippine Business for Social Progress. She was an outspoken critic of President Joseph Estrada who faced serious corruption allegations. She is the second woman to be swept into the presidency by a peaceful People Power revolution. • president with no children. the highest number of votes in Philippine history. She was re-elected Senator in 1995 with nearly 16 million votes. Aurora Corazon (Pinky) Aquino Abellada. Aquino obtained his Economics degree from the Ateneo de Manila University in 1981 and joined his family in their exile in the United States. and Corazon Aquino. who was then Vice Governor of Tarlac province. Macapagal-Arroyo was sworn in as the 14th president of the Philippines on January 20. as an assistant Retail Sales Supervisor and assistant promotions manager for Nike Philippines.

From 1986 to 1992. In 2007. having been barred from running for re-election to the House due to the term limit. as vice president. He was subsequently re-elected to the House in 2001 and 2004. 2010. On June 9. as the executive assistant for administration from 1993 to 1996. Aquino joined the Intra-Strata Assurance Corporation. on September 9. held on May 10. then Aquino worked as manager for field services from 1996 to 1998. the Congress of the Philippines proclaimed Aquino the winner of the 2010 presidential election. 2010. he was elected to the House of Representatives as Representative of the 2nd district of Tarlac province. 2010. After his mother’s death. From 1993 to 1998. . he was elected to the Senate in the 14th Congress of the Philippines. In 1998. Aquino officially announced he would be a candidate in the 2010 presidential election. 2009. Aquino worked for Central Azucarera de Tarlac.. during the presidency of his mother. a company owned by his uncle Antolin Oreta Jr. Aquino had taken office as the fifteenth President of the Philippines on June 30. the sugar refinery in charge of the Cojuangco-owned Hacienda Luisita. succeeding Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.