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BIOGRAPHY OF PHILIPPINE PRESIDENTS

EMILIO AGUINALDO

QUICK FACTS NAME: Emilio Aguinaldo OCCUPATION: General, World Leader BIRTH DATE: March 23,1869 DEATH DATE: February 06, 1964 EDUCATION: University of Santo Toms PLACE OF BIRTH: Cavite, Philippines PLACE OF DEATH: Manila, Philippines BEST KNOWN FOR Filipino leader Emilio Aguinaldo finally lived to see his country achieve independence after fighting off both the Spanish and the Americans. Revolutionary leader Emilio Aguinaldo was born March 23, 1869 in Cavite, Philippines. In 1898 he achieved independence of the Philippines from Spain and was elected the first president of the new republic under the Malolos Congress. He also led the Philippine-American War against U.S. resistance to Philippine independence. He died of a heart attack on February 6, 1964 in Quezon City, Philippines. EARLY LIFE Emilio Aguinaldo was born March 23, 1869 in Kawit, Cavite Province, Philippines. Nicknamed Miong, he was the seventh of eight children. His parents were of Chinese and Tagalog descent. His father, Carlos, died when Aguinaldo was just nine years old. Widowed, his mother, Trinidad, sent him to attend public school in Manila. After graduating from the University of Santo Thomas in Manila, Aguinaldo returned home to Kawit, where he developed a growing awareness of Filipino frustration with Spanish colonial rule. While serving as the head of barter in Manila, he joined the Pilar Lodge chapter of the Freemasonry in 1895. The Freemasonry was a government- and church-banned resistance group. It was through his role as municipal captain of this fraternity that Aguinaldo met Andres Bonifacio, a key figure in the fight to overthrow Spanish rule. INDEPENDENCE FROM SPAIN Eager to fight for the cause of Philippine independence, in 1895 Aguinaldo took up with a secret society of revolutionaries headed by fellow lodge member Andres Bonifacio. When a rival faction executed Bonifacio in 1897, Aguinaldo assumed total leadership of the revolution against Spain. By December 1897, Aguinaldo had managed to reach the Truce of Biak-na-Bato with Spain. He and his rebels agreed to a surrendering of arms and accepted exile to Hong Kong in exchange for

amnesty, indemnity and liberal reform. However, neither side kept up their end of the bargain. The Spanish government did not deliver in full all that was promised, and the rebels did not truly surrender arms. In fact, Aguinaldo's revolutionaries used some of Spain's financial compensation to purchase additional arms for the resistance. From Hong Kong, Aguinaldo also made arrangements to assist Americans fighting against Spain in the Spanish-American War. As neither peace nor independence had been achieved, in 1898 Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines to resume his rebellion against Spanish rule. Back in Cavite, Aguinaldo forcibly set up a provisional dictatorship. After meeting with the Malolos Congress and drafting a constitution for a new republic, on June 12, 1898, Aguinaldo at last declared Philippine independence. Announced from his home town of Kawit, Aguinaldo's proclamation put an end to four centuries of Philippine oppression under Spanish Colonial rule. In January of the next year, dressed in a white suit at Barasoain Church in Malolos City, Aguinaldo was sworn in as the first president of the new, self-governed Philippine republic. PHILIPPINE-AMERICAN WAR The United States, however, was not eager to accept the Philippines' new government. While the U.S. and Spain had been fighting the Spanish-American War, the Philippines had been ceded by Spain to the United States in the Treaty of Paris in December 1898. Just two weeks after Aguinaldo's inauguration, an American sentry killed a Philippine soldier stationed at the San Juan Bridge, in a gesture of resistance against the newfound Philippine independence. On February 4, 1899, the Philippine-American War exploded into action. Aguinaldo's revolutionaries quickly resorted to guerilla tactics, resulting in one of the bloodiest wars in American history, but in little direct progress for Aguinaldo and his cause. Concerning the apparent futility of his efforts in war, Aguinaldo said, "I saw my own soldiers die without affecting future events." After three years at war, Aguinaldo was captured by American General Frederick Funston on March 23, 1901. After swearing an oath of allegiance to the United States, on April 19, 1901, Aguinaldo officially declared peace with the United States. By this time, the United States was ready support Philippine independence. Friendly relations, along with an American civil government, were established. Aguinaldo retreated to a private life as a farmer but never forgot the men who fought alongside him. In their honor, he would later establish the Veterans of the Revolution, an organization that arranged their pensions, as well as affordable payment plans for land purchases. Aguinaldo took another stab at politics when he ran for presidency in 1935 against Manuel Quezon but lost. In 1950 he became a presidential advisor on the Council of State. DEATH Emilio Aguinaldo died of a heart attack at Veterans Memorial Hospital in Quezon City, Philippines, on February 6, 1964. 2. MANUEL L. QUEZON QUICK FACTS NAME: Manuel Luis Quezon OCCUPATION: Activist, World Leader BIRTH DATE: August 19,1878 DEATH DATE: August 01, 1944 EDUCATION: University of Santo Tomas

PLACE OF BIRTH: Baler, Philippines PLACE OF DEATH: Saranac Lake, New York BEST KNOWN FOR Manuel Quezon was leader of the Filipino independence movement and first president of the Philippine Commonwealth in 1935. Manuel Quezon was governor of Tayabas province before being elected a representative in 1907 to the newly established Philippine Assembly. In 1909 Quezon was appointed resident commissioner for the Philippines, entitled to speak, but not vote, in the U.S. House of Representatives; during his years in Washington, he fought for a speedy grant of independence by the U.S., which happened in 1935. MANUEL L. QUEZON y Molina was the first president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. He is considered the second President of the Philippines, after Emilio Aguinaldo (whose administration did not receive international recognition at the time and is not considered the first president by the United States; (August 19, 1878 August 1, 1944). Manuel Luis Quezon was born on August 19, 1878 in Baler, Tayabas (now Quezon), to Lucio Quezon, a native of Paco, Manila and Maria Dolores Molina. He studied law at the University of Sto. Tomas and passed the bar examinations in 1903. He became the fiscal of his home province and was soon elected governor.In the 1907 election, he ran for the Philippine Assembly under the Nacionalista Party, won by a large majority, and became the majority floor leader.In 1909, he was elected Resident Commissioner to Washington D.C., a post he held until 1916. His most significant achievement was the passage of the Jones Act that provided for the grant of Philippine independence.He was elected senator in 1916 and eventually became Senate President. He headed the first Independence Mission to the U.S. Congress, and brought home the Tydings-McDuffie Independence Law in 1934.The Star of Baler shone as the First President of the Commonwealth after his brilliant performance as the First Senate President. He was steadfast in his vision to deliver the masses from the shackles of colonialism which intensified his efforts to secure independence for his country. Such vision culminated in the establishment of political stability within the framework of the 1935 Constitution, the formulation of policies to ensure the social well-being of the people, and the adjustment of the national economy to the challenges of independent nationhood. He was a dynamic Filipino leader and a true friend of the poor and the oppressed whom he loved and cared so well. Quezon is one of the most illustrious sons our country has ever produced.Quezon was married to Aurora Aragon and had four children. He died on August 1, 1944 in Saranac Lake, New York. 3. JOSE P. LAUREL Era: Third President of the Philippines President of the Second Republic Personal Details Born: March 9, 1891 Tanauan, Batangas Died: November 6, 1959 Tanauan, Batangas Jose Paciano Laurel (b. March 9, 1891, Tanauan, Luzon, Phil.--d. Nov. 6, 1959, Manila), president of the Philippines (1943-45), during the Japanese occupation of World War II. After receiving law degrees from the University of the Philippines (1915) and from Yale University (1920), he was elected to the Philippine Senate in 1925 and appointed associate justice of the Supreme Court in 1936.

After the Pearl Harbor attack, Laurel stayed in Manila after President Manuel Quezon escaped first to Bataan and then to the United States. He offered his services to the Japanese; and because of his criticism of U.S. rule of the Philippines he held a series of high posts in 1942-43, climaxing in his selection as president in 1943. Twice in that year he was shot by Philippine guerrillas but recovered. In July 1946 he was charged with 132 counts of treason but was never brought to trial; he shared in the general amnesty in April 1948. As the Nationalist Party's nominee for the presidency of the Republic of the Philippines in 1949, he was narrowly defeated by the incumbent president, Elpidio Quirino, nominee of the Liberal Party. Elected to the Senate in 1951, Laurel helped to persuade Ramn Magsaysay, then secretary of defense, to desert the Liberals and join the Nationalists. When Magsaysay became president, Laurel headed an economic mission that in 1955 negotiated an agreement to improve economic relations with the United States. He retired from public life in 1957. 4. SERGIO OSMEA

Era: Fourth President of the Philippines Second President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines Personal Details Born: September 9, 1878 Cebu City, Philippines Died: October 19, 1961 Veteran Memorial Hospital, Quezon City Osmea, Sergio (1878-1961), Philippine independence leader and statesman, born on Cebu. Trained as a lawyer, he was elected to the first Philippine assembly, became its speaker (1907-1916), and later served as senator from Cebu. Osmea headed several missions to the United States to argue for Philippine independence and was instrumental in gaining commonwealth status for the Philippines in 1935. Twice elected vice-president of the commonwealth (1935 and 1941), he became president of the government in exile when President Manuel Quezon died in 1944. He was, however, defeated (1946) in the first elections of an independent Philippines. He was the founder of the Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista) and president of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946. Osmea received a law degree from the University of Santo Toms, Manila, in 1903. He was also editor of a Spanish newspaper, El Nuevo Da, in Cebu City. In 1904 the U.S. colonial administration appointed him governor of the province of Cebu and fiscal (district attorney) for the provinces of Cebu and Negros Oriental. Two years later he was elected governor of Cebu. In 1907 he was elected delegate to the Philippine National Assembly and founded the Nationalist Party, which came to dominate Philippine political life. Osmea remained leader of the Nationalists until 1921, when he was succeeded by Manuel Quezon, who had joined him in a coalition. Made speaker of the House of Representatives in 1916, he served until his election to the Senate in 1923. In 1933 he went to Washington, D.C., to secure passage of the Hare-Hawes-Cutting independence bill, but Quezon differed with Osmea over the bill's provision to retain U.S. military bases after independence. The bill, vetoed by the Philippine Assembly, was superseded by the Tydings-McDuffie Act of March 1934, making the Philippines a commonwealth with a large measure of independence. The following year Osmea became vice president, with Quezon as president. He remained vice president during the Japanese occupation, when the government was in exile in Washington, D.C. On the death of Quezon in August 1944, Osmea became president. He served as president until the elections of April 1946, when he was defeated by Manuel Roxas, who became the first president of the independent Republic of the Philippines.

5. MANUEL ROXAS QUICK FACTS NAME: Manuel Roxas OCCUPATION: World Leader BIRTH DATE: January 01, 1892 DEATH DATE: April 15, 1948 EDUCATION: University of the Philippines PLACE OF BIRTH: Capiz, Philippines PLACE OF DEATH: Clark Field, Philippines BEST KNOWN FOR Manuel Roxas was a political leader and first president (194648) of the independent Republic of the Philippines. Manuel Acua Roxas (January 1, 1892 April 15, 1948) was the first president of the independent Third Republic of the Philippines and fifth president overall. He served as president from the granting of independence in 1946 until his abrupt death in 1948. His term as president of the Philippines was also the third shortest, lasting 1 year 10 months and 18 days. Manuel Roxas' father, Gerardo Acuna Roxas, died before he was born. Roxas had two siblings, his brother Mamerto Roxas, and sister Margarita Roxas. He joined University of Manila for his education and then later he did law at the University of the Philippines College of Law. He was also a member of the college's first ever graduating class in 1913. In 1921, he was elected to the House of Representatives. In the same year he was elected House Speaker. In 1935, after the establishment of Commonwealth of the Philippines, Roxas became a member of the unicameral National Assembly and from 1938 till 1941, he served as the Secretary of Finance in President Manuel L. Quezon's cabinet. In 1945, when the Congress of the Philippines was convened, the legislators elected in 1941 chose Roxas as Senate President. In the Philippine national elections of 1946, Roxas ran for president as the nominee of the liberal wing of the Nacionalista Party. In 1946 election, Roxas won 54 percent of the vote, and the Liberal Party won a majority in the legislature. When the Philippines gained independence from the United States on July 4, 1946, he became the first president of the new republic. Roxas served as the President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines in a brief period, from his subsequent election on May 28, 1946 to July 4, 1946. Roxas did not finish his term that was expected to end by 1950 because he died of myocardial infarction. 6. ELPIDIO QUIRINO QUICK FACTS NAME:Elpidio Quirino OCCUPATION: World Leader BIRTH DATE: November 16, 1890 DEATH DATE: February 28, 1956 EDUCATION: University of the Philippines, Vigan High School PLACE OF BIRTH: Vigan, Ilocos Sur, Philippines PLACE OF DEATH: Quezon City, Manila, Philippines BEST KNOWN FOR Elpidio Quirino (18901956) was the second president of the Independent Republic of the Philippines.

Born in 1890, Elpidio Quirino was elected to the Philippine Congress in 1919. He was part of the independence mission to Washington that freed the Philippines from American control in 1934. He then served as vice president under Manuel Roxas, becoming president upon Roxas' death in 1948. For six years, Quirino oversaw postwar reconstruction, but his administration suffered from corruption. PROFILE Elpidio Quirino was born on November 16, 1890, in the small city of Vigan, on Luzon Island in the Philippines. His father, Don Mariano Quirino, was a warden at a provincial jail. His mother was Dona Gregoria Mendoza Rivera Quirino. Young Elpidio graduated from elementary school in nearby Caoayan. Advanced beyond his years, Elpidio became a barrio (rural village) teacher while studying at Vigan High School. Elpidio Quirino moved to Manila and graduated from Manila High School in 1911 and then passed the civil service exam. He entered law school at the University of the Philippines, graduating in 1915, and served as secretary to Senate President Manuel Quezon, where he began his rise through the Philippine government. In 1919, he was elected to the Philippine House of Representatives. In 1925, he was elected to the Philippine Senate and was quickly given Senate committee appointments. In 1931 Elpidio Quirino was reelected to the Senate, and in 1934 he served as a member of the Philippine Independence mission to Washington, D.C., helping secure the Tydings-McDuffie Act, which set the timetable for Philippine independence from the United States. Quirino was also one of the drafters of the Philippine constitution, which was approved in May 1935. In April 1942, the Philippines were captured by Japanese imperial forces. Elpidio Quirino refused to join the Japanese-sponsored puppet government of Jose Laurel and instead went underground. He was captured by Japanese military police and imprisoned. His wife, son and two daughters were killed by Japanese forces as they fled their home during the Battle of Manila in early 1945. After the war, Elpidio Quirino became the leader of the majority Liberal Party and president pro tempore of the Senate. Anticipating the countrys impending independence, elections were held in April 1946, and Manuel Roxas was elected president, with Quirino as vice president. When President Roxas unexpectedly died in April 1948, Quirino became president. When he took office, Quirino had two goals: reconstructing the nation and restoring the faith and confidence of the people. However, Quirino soon faced impeachment, instituted by members of the rival Nationalist Party. Charges ranged from nepotism to misappropriation of funds, but after several months, he was exonerated of all charges. Elpidio Quirino was reelected president in November 1949, under suspicion of widespread election fraud and intimidation. As president, he attempted to improve social, economic and agrarian conditions. He also established relations with Western and Asian countries. Quirinos administration faced a serious threat from the Communist-led Hukbalahap (Huk) movement. Quirino appointed Defense Secretary Ramon Magsaysay to suppress the insurrection. Although successful to a degree in these areas, Quirino failed to act aggressively in implementing many of the needed reforms. Further, Quirino was often justly accused by Filipino nationalists of placing American interests above Filipino ones. The Huk rebellion wasnt suppressed until 1954, under Quirinos successor Ramon Magsaysay. Elpidio Quirino ran for reelection in 1953 despite his poor health. Defense Secretary Ramon Magsaysay angrily resigned over Quirinos alleged corruption and joined the opposition Nationalist Party. He would go on to defeat Quirino in the general election. Elpidio Quirino retired to private life and died of a heart attack in February 29, 1956

7. RAMON MAGSAYSAY QUICK FACTS NAME: Ramon del Fierro Magsaysay OCCUPATION: World Leader BIRTH DATE: August 31, 1907 DEATH DATE: March 17, 1957 EDUCATION: University of the Philippines, Jos Rizal College, Institute of Commerce PLACE OF BIRTH: Iba, Philippines PLACE OF DEATH: Balamban, Philippines AKA: Ramon Magsaysay NICKNAME: "Idol of the Masses" BEST KNOWN FOR Ramon Magsaysay became the third president of the Philippines in 1953, and is credited with restoring law and order during the Philippine crisis of the 1950s. Born in the Philippines on August 31, 1907, Ramon Magsaysay was the third president of the Philippines (195357), best known for successfully defeating the communist-led Hukbalahap (Huk) movement in his country and his popular appeal. He died in his country in 1957. EARLY LIFE Ramon Magsaysay was born Ramon del Fierro Magsaysay in Iba, a city in the Philippines, on August 31, 1907. After attending the University of the Philippines, Magsaysay transferred to the Institute of Commerce at Jos Rizal College (1928-1932), where he received a bachelor's degree in commerce. At the start of World War II, Magsaysay joined the motor pool of the 31st Infantry Division of the Philippine army. He was promoted to captain, and was involved in clearing the Zambales coast of the Japanese before to the landing of American forces there. LEADING MILITARY REFORM Magsaysay was elected to the Philippine House of Representatives in 1946, and was later re-elected to a second term. During both terms, he was chairman of the House National Defense Committee. In 1950, Philippines President Elpidio Quirino appointed Magsaysay secretary of defense to deal with the threat of the Huks, whose leader, Luis Taruc, had called for the overthrow of the government. Magsaysay reformed the army, dismissing many officers and emphasizing mobility and adaptability in combat operations against the Huk guerrillastactics that he had learned in his own guerrilla efforts against the Japanese in World War II. From then until 1953, Magsaysay carried out one of the most effective anti-guerrilla campaigns in modern history; by 1953, the Huks were no longer a serious threat. Unfortunately, Magsaysay's sweeping measures had made many enemies for him within the government, and he resigned on February 28, 1953, later charging the Quirino Administration with corruption and incompetence. THE PRESIDENCY Although Magsaysay was a liberal, the Nacionalista Party backed him for the presidency against Quirino in the 1953 elections, and Magsaysay prevailed. He promised reform in nearly every segment of Filipino life, but he was often thwarted by a congress that only represented the interests of the wealthy. Magsaysay did manage to enact agrarian reform, giving some 90,000 acres to 4,500 indigent families for settlement/farming purposes. He also set up a process to hear and address citizen grievances, and

maintained a reputation for incorruptibility throughout his presidency, all of which went a long way toward ensuring his popularity. Sadly, Ramon Magsaysay's term came to an abrupt end on March 17, 1957, when his presidential plane crashed, killing Magsaysay and 24 other passengers. An estimated 5 million people attended Magsaysay's burial on March 31, 1957, and afterward, he was referred to in the Philippines as the "Idol of the Masses." In his honor, the Ramon Magsaysay Award, considered "Asia's Nobel Prize," was established in 1957. In the spirit of Ramon Magsaysay's leadership, the award recognizes integrity and courage among individuals and organizations in Asia. 8. CARLOS P. GARCIA

Era: Eighth President of the Philippines Fourth President of the Third Republic Personal Details Born: November 4, 1896 Talibon, Bohol Died: June 14, 1971 Quezon City Carlos Polistico Garca (November 4, 1896 June 14, 1971) was a Filipino teacher, poet, orator, lawyer, public official, political economist and guerrilla leader. He became the eighthPresident of the Philippines. Garca was born in Talibon, Bohol, to Policronio Garca and Ambrosia Polistico (who were both natives of Bangued, Abra). Garca grew up with politics, with his father serving as a municipal mayor for four terms. He acquired his primary education in his native Talibon, then took his secondary education in Cebu Provincial High School. Initially, he pursued his college education at Silliman University in Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental, and later studied at the Philippine Law School (now Philippine College of Criminology) where he earned his law degree in 1923. He was among the top ten in the bar examination. Rather than practice law right away, he worked as a teacher for two years at Bohol Provincial High School. He became famous for his poetry in Bohol, where he earned the nickname "Prince of Visayan Poets" and the "Bard from Bohol". He started his political career in 1925, scoring an impressive victory running for congressman representing the third district of Bohol. He was elected for another term in 1928 and served until 1931. He was elected governor of Bohol in 1933 but served only until 1941 when he successfully ran for the Philippine Senate but his term cut short during World War II. He took the post when Congress convened in 1945 after the Philippines was liberated from the Japanese. Garca was the running mate of Ramn Magsaysay in the presidential election of 1953. He was appointed Secretary of Foreign Affairs by President Ramn Magsaysay, for four years concurrently serving as vice president. As secretary of foreign affairs, he opened formal reparation negotiations in an effort to end the nineyear technical state of war between Japan and the Philippines, leading to an agreement in April 1954. During the Geneva Conference on Korean unification and other Asian problems, Garca as chairman of the Philippine delegation attacked communist promises in Asia and defended the U.S. policy in the

Far East. In a speech on May 7, 1954, the day of the fall of Dien Bien Phu, Garca repeated the Philippine stand for nationalism and opposition of communism. Garca acted as chairman of the eight-nation Southeast Asian Security Conference held in Manila in September 1954, which led to the development of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, known as SEATO. At the time of the sudden death of President Ramon Magsaysay, Vice President and Foreign Affairs Secretary Carlos P. Garca was heading the Philippine delegation to the SEATO conference then being held at Canberra, Australia.Having been immediately notified of the tragedy, Vice President Garca enplaned back for Manila. Upon his arrival he directly repaired to Malacaan Palace to assume the duties of President. Chief Justice Ricardo Paras, of the Supreme Court, was at hand to administer the oath of office. President Garca's first actions dealt with the declaration of a period of mourning for the whole nation and the burial ceremonies for the late Chief-Executive Magsaysay. During his administration, he acted on the BohlenSerrano Agreement which shortened the lease of the US Bases from 99 years to 25 years and made it renewable after every five years. After his failed reelection bid, Garca retired to Tagbilaran to live as a private citizen. On June 1, 1971, Garca was elected delegate of the 1971 Constitutional Convention. The convention delegates elected him as the President of the Convention. However, just days after his election, on June 14, 1971, Garca died from a fatal heart attack. He was succeeded as president of the Convention by his former Vice President, Diosdado Macapagal. Garca became the first president to have his remains lie in-state at the Manila Cathedral and the first president to be buried at the Libingan ng mga Bayani. 9. DIOSDADO MACAPAGAL Era: Ninth President of the Philippines Fifth President of the Third Republic Personal Details Born: September 28, 1910 Lubao, Pampanga Died: April 21, 1997 Makati City Diosdado P. Macapagal (1910-1997) was the fifth president of the Republic of the Philippines. He was instrumental in initiating and executing the Land Reform Code, which was designed to solve the centuries-old land tenancy problem, the principal cause of the Communist guerrilla movement in central Luzon. Diosdado Macapagal was born on Sept. 28, 1910, the son of poor tenant farmers. In 1929 he entered the University of the Philippines, where he received an associate in arts degree in 1932. Meanwhile he worked part time with the Bureau of Lands. Macapagal was constantly forced to interrupt his schooling for lack of funds. His brother-in-law Rogelio de la Rosa, with whom he acted in and produced Tagalog operettas, helped him continue his education. Macapagal entered the University of Santo Tomas in Manila, receiving his bachelor of laws degree in 1936, his master of laws degree in 1941, and doctor of laws degree in 1947. He also received a doctorate in economics in 1957. In 1941 Macapagal worked as legal assistant to President Quezon and as professor of law in the

University of Santo Tomas. In 1946 Macapagal served as assistant and then as chief of the legal division in the Department of Foreign Affairs. In 1948 he was second secretary to the Philippine embassy in Washington and in 1949 became counselor on legal affairs and treatises in the Department of Foreign Affairs. In 1949 he was elected representative of the first district of Pampanga Province on the ticket of the Liberal party. In 1953 he was the only Liberal party member to win reelection. Macapagal attained worldwide distinction in 1951, when, as chairman of the Philippine UN delegation, he conducted a debate with Soviet foreign minister Andrei Vishinsky. In November 1957 Macapagal was elected vice president, receiving 116,940 more votes than the total received by the elected president, Carlos P. Garcia. Macapagal became president on Nov. 14, 1961, defeating Garcia. In his inaugural statement he declared: "I shall be president not only of the rich but more so of the poor. We must help bridge the wide gap between the poor man and the man of wealth, not by pulling down the rich to his level as Communism desires, but by raising the poor towards the more abundant life." With his naivetand paternalistic attitude, Macapagal vowed to open Malakanyang Palace, the presidential residence, to all the citizens. He canceled the inaugural ball and issued a decree forbidding any member of his family or of his wife's to participate in any business deals with the government. He dismissed corrupt officials and started court action against those who could not explain their sudden acquisition of wealth. He changed the date that Filipinos celebrate their independence to June 12 from July 4. In 1898, Filipino revolutionaries had declared independence from Spain on June 12; July 4 was the date the Philippines were declared independent by the United States after World War II. He lost his bid for re-election in 1965 to Ferdinand Marcos, who ruled for the next 20 years. He died in Manila on April 21, 1997 of heart failure. He was 86.

10. FERDINAND MARCOS QUICK FACTS NAME: Ferninand Marcos OCCUPATION: Lawyer, Dictator BIRTH DATE: September 11, 1917 DEATH DATE: September 28, 1989 EDUCATION: University of the Philippines PLACE OF BIRTH: Sarrat, Philippines PLACE OF DEATH: Honolulu, Hawaii BEST KNOWN FOR Known for running a corrupt, undemocratic regime, Ferdinand Marcos was the president of the Philippines from 1966 to 1986.

A lawyer, a member of the Philippine House of Representatives (1949-1959) and a member of the Philippine Senate (1959-1965), Ferdinand Marcos became the president of the Philippines in 1966, a post he held until 1986, when his people rose against his dictatorial rule and he fled. EARLY LIFE Ferdinand Marcos went to school in Manila and later attended law school at the University of the Philippines. His father, Mariano Marcos, was a Filipino politician, and on September 20, 1935, the day after Julio Nalundasan defeated Mariano Marcos for a seat in the National Assembly (for the second time), Nalundasan was shot and killed in his home. Ferdinand, Mariano and Ferdinands brother and brother-in-law were tried for the assassination, and Ferdinand and his brother-in-law were found guilty of the murder. Ferdinand argued their case on appeal to the Philippine Supreme Court and won acquittal a year later. Remarkably, while Marcos was preparing his case, he was studying for the bar exam and became a trial lawyer in Manila subsequent to the acquittal. ENTERING POLITICS During World War II, Ferdinand Marcos served as an officer with the Philippine armed forces, later claiming that he had been a leader in the Filipino guerrilla resistance movement. These claims were a principal element in his subsequent political success, but it was revealed in U.S. government archives that he actually played little or no part in anti-Japanese activities during World War II. At the end of the war, when the American government granted the Philippines independence on July 4, 1946, the Philippine Congress was created. Marcos ran and was twice elected as representative to his district and served from 1949 to 1959. In 1959, Marcos took a seat in the Philippine Senate, a position he would hold until he ran for and won the presidency in 1965. ASCENSION TO THE PRESIDENCY After failing to attain the Liberal Partys nomination for president, Ferdinand Marcos ran as the Nationalist Party candidate. At the end of the expensive and bitter campaign, Marcos prevailed and was inaugurated on December 30, 1965. His first presidential term is notable mostly for his decision to send troops into the fray of the Vietnam War, a move he had previously opposed as a Philippine senator. Marcos was reelected in 1969, becoming the first Filipino president to serve a second term. Massive crowd violence, vote buying and fraud on Marcos part, however, were prominent traits of his second campaign, which was funded with $56 million from the Philippine treasury. What arose from the campaign unrest became known as the First Quarter Storm, during which leftists took to the streets to demonstrate against both American involvement in Philippine affairs and the increasingly apparent dictatorial style of Ferdinand Marcos. STATE OF THE REGIME AND DOWNFALL Ferdinand Marcos' wife, Imelda, became a powerful figure after martial law was decreed in 1972, often appointing her relatives to lucrative governmental and industrial positions (while accumulating upward of 1,000 pairs of shoes and several Manhattan skyscrapers). These acts were akin to Marcos stateimposed "crony capitalism," by which private businesses were seized by the government and handed over to friends and relatives of regime members. Indicative of the entire Marcos administration, these acts would eventually lead to economic troubles for the Philippines and further civil unrest.

Marcos' later years in power were marred by widespread government corruption (which turned out to be the central legacy of his regime), economic stagnation, a widening economic gap between the rich and poor and the growth of a communist guerrilla uprising. By the early 1980s, change was coming to the Philippines. To this end, on August 21, 1983, Benigno Aquino Jr. returned from his long exile to offer the Philippine people a new face of hope. Unfortunately, he was shot dead by his military escort as he stepped off the plane in Manila. The assassination was seen as the work of the government and ignited massive countrywide protests. An independent commission appointed by Marcos concluded a year later that high military officers were responsible for Aquino's assassination, although it has since been suggested that Marcos or even his wife had ordered the killing. Also contributing to Marcos' downfall was the resolution signed in 1985 by 56 assemblymen calling for his impeachment for allegedly diverting U.S. aid to his personal coffers. To quiet the opposition and reassert his position of power, Marcos called for presidential elections to be held in 1986. Corazon Aquino, the widow of Benigno Aquino, emerged as a formidable opponent and became the presidential candidate of the opposition. Marcos, however, managed to defeat Aquino and retain the presidency, but it was quickly revealed that his victory was only ensured through massive voting fraud carried out by his supporters. As word spread of the rigged election, Marcos was discredited at home and abroad, and a tense standoff ensued between his supporters and those of Corazon Aquino. With his health failing and support for his regime fading fast, on February 25, 1986, with the United States urging him on, Ferdinand Marcos went into exile in Hawaii. Evidence was later uncovered showing that Marcos, his family and his associates had embezzled billions of dollars from the Philippine economy through various corrupt practices. The U.S. government subsequently indicted Marcos and his wife on racketeering charges, but Ferdinand died in 1989, and Imelda was acquitted of all charges and was allowed to return to the Philippines the following year. 11. CORAZON AQUINO QUICK FACTS NAME: Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco-Aquino OCCUPATION: World Leader BIRTH DATE: January 25,193 DEATH DATE: August 01, 2009 EDUCATION: Mount St. Vincent College PLACE OF BIRTH: Tarlac, Philippines PLACE OF DEATH: Makati, Philippines BEST KNOWN FOR Corazon Aquino was the 11th president (and first female president) of the Philippines. She restored democracy after the long dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos. Maria Corazon Aquino was born January 25, 1933, in Tarlac, Philippines. Her husband had been an opponent of Ferdinand Marcos and was assassinated upon returning from exile. When Marcos unexpectedly called for elections in 1986, Corazon Aquino became the unified opposition's presidential candidate. She took office after Marcos fled the country, and served as president, with mixed results, until 1992.

EARLY YEARS Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco was born January 25, 1933, in the Tarlac Province to a wealthy political and banking family. She attended school in Manila until the age of 13, then finished her education in the United States, first in Philadelphia and later in New York City. She graduated from the College of Mount St. Vincent in New York in 1953, with a bachelor's degree in both French and mathematics. Upon returning to the Philippines, she enrolled in law school in Manila, where she met Benigno Aquino, Jr., an ambitious young journalist who also came from a family with considerable wealth. The couple married in 1954, and would go on to have five children together: one son and four daughters. Benigno soon abandoned a career in journalism for politics. With Corazon at his side, he quickly established himself as one of the country's brightest young leaders. Over the span of just two decades, he was elected mayor, then governor and, finally, senator. Along the way, he challenged the rule of the country's president, Ferdinand Marcos. Elected to the presidency in 1965, Marcos' administration was marred by corruption, human rights violations and political repression. In 1972 Marcos declared martial law, effectively stripping his citizens of their democratic rights and arresting key opposition leaders, including Benigno Aquino, who spent seven years in jail before being permitted to relocate with his family to the United States in 1980. Corazon Aquino stood by her husband's side, playing the role of the supportive wife. During his time in prison, Aquino served as the bridge between Benigno and the outside world, keeping his profile alive and passing his notes on to the press. UNLIKELY POLITICAL CAREERS After three years in exile, Benigno Aquino returned to the Philippines on August 21, 1983, when he was killed by two soldiers soon after arriving. Marcos was presumed to be behind the killing, and Benigno's assassination set off a wave of protests against Marcos' administration. The opposition coalesced around Corazon Aquino. While she gracefully dealt with her husband's death, Aquino evolved into a national symbol of reform. With international pressure bearing down on his administration, Marcos unexpectedly called for presidential elections in February 1986. Marcos' opposition chose Aquino as their candidate. When she narrowly lost the election, Aquino and her supporters challenged the results. Quickly, Marco's fortunes began to turn. The army, and then the defense minister, soon declared support for Aquino, prompting Marcos to seek exile in Hawaii. Aquino was sworn into office on February 25, 1986, becoming the first female president of the Philippines. That same year, she was named TIME magazine's Woman of the Year. During her six years as the country's president, Aquino fended off coup attempts by Marcos supporters, and struggled to address her country's economic problems. In 1992 she left office, and was succeeded by her former defense secretary, Fidel Ramos. FINAL YEARS Aquino did not go quietly into retirement. Instead, she ran a think tank on non-violence and periodically helped lead street protests against the policies of endorsed by her successors.

In 2008, she learned she had colon cancer. She passed on August 1, 2009. 12. FIDEL RAMOS

Era: Twelfth President of the Philippines Second President of the Fifth Republic Personal Details Born: March 18, 1928 Lingayen, Pangasinan Fidel Ramos was President of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998. Under his leadership the Philippines experienced a period of political stability and rapid economic growth and expansion. Prior to his election as president, Fidel Ramos served as Secretary of National Defence (1988-1991) and Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (1986-1988) with the rank of General. As President, Fidel Ramoss policies and programmes to foster national reconciliation and unity led to major peace agreements with Muslim separatists, communist insurgents and military rebels, which renewed investor confidence in the Philippine economy. Ramos pushed for the deregulation of key industries and the liberalization of the economy. He encouraged the privatization of public entities, to include the modernization of public infrastructure through the expanded Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) law. During the years 1993-1997, the Philippine economy recovered dramatically. Gross National Product averaged 5 percent annually, the total inflow of foreign exchange into the country outpaced that of the combined periods of rule of both Presidents Marcos and Aquino, and the average income of the Filipino family grew more during Ramos administration than in the preceding two decades. This allowed Fidel Ramos government to implement a comprehensive Social Reform Agenda (SRA) that addressed long-standing problems regarding poverty, health, education and skills training, housing, environmental protection, children and the youth, the elderly and the handicapped, jobs and livelihood, agrarian reform and access to equal opportunity. The peace agreement which Ramos brokered with military rebels and the MNLF southern secessionists won for him (together with Chairman Nur Misuari) and the Philippines the coveted 1997 UNESCO Peace Prize - the first for Asians. His public service spanned a total period of 51 years. Activity after public politics Ramos founded the Ramos Peace and Development Foundation, a non-partisan and non-profit organisation dedicated to the promotion of peace and development in the Philippines and in the larger Asia-Pacific region. In 1998, together with Bob Hawke, former Prime Minister of Australia, and Morihiro Hosokawa, former Prime Minister of Japan, Ramos founded the Boao Forum for Asia (BFA), a premier forum for leaders in government, business and academia in Asia and other continents who are committed to promoting regional economic integration and bringing Asian countries even closer to their development goals.

13. JOSEPH EJERCITO ESTRADA NAME: Joseph Ejercito Estrada OCCUPATION: Film Actor, Producer, World Leader BIRTH DATE: April 19, 1937 (Age: 75) EDUCATION: Mapua Institute of Technology PLACE OF BIRTH: Manila, Philippines ORIGINALLY: Joseph Ejercito AKA: Erap Estada AKA: Joseph Estrada BEST KNOWN FOR Filipino actor and politician Joseph Estrada served as the thirteenth president of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001. Joseph Estrada was born on April 19, 1937, in Manila, Philippines. Over the course of his prolific film career, he has acted the lead role in more than 80 films and produced over 70. In 1992 he ran for vice president and won. In 1998 he became president of the Philippines. In 2001 he was arrested and imprisoned for six years. He ran for re-election in 2010, but lost to Benigno Aquino III. EARLY LIFE Joseph Estrada was born Joseph Marcelo Ejercito in the Tondo district of Manila, Philippines, on April 19, 1937. He was one of 10 children. Estradas father, Emilio Ejercito, was a government engineer. His mother was named Maria Marcelo. Josephs parents were wealthy landowners. When Joseph was still very young, his family moved to San Juan, which has since become a part of metropolitan Manila. Estrada received his primary education at a local Jesuit school called Ateneo de Manila University. After graduating from Ateneo de Manila, he enrolled in engineering courses at the Mapa Institute of Technology. To his parents grave disappointment, Estrada dropped out after three years. He was the only one of his siblings not to receive a college diploma. FILM CAREER When Estrada was a young adult, he stumbled upon an acting role and enjoyed the sense of escapism that acting provided him. Quickly proving his acting prowess, he opted to pursue an acting career in lieu of completing his education. His parents strongly opposed to the decision and forbade him to use the family name. Instead, the fledgling actor took the screen name Joseph Estrada, Estrada being the Spanish word for street. He also gave himself the nickname Erap, a Spanish term for pal spelled backward. Over the course of his prolific film career, Estrada has acted the lead role in more than 80 films made in the Philippines, and has also produced more than 70 movies. I have been a jeepney driver, labor leader, a Communist guerilla, Estrada said of his many roles, which often entailed playing a poor man seeking justice. He was awarded Best Actor and Best Film awards by the Filipino Academy of Movie Arts and Science (FAMAS) five times each, earning him spots in the FAMAS Hall of Fame in both 1981 and 1984. POLITICS In 1967, Estrada used his popularity with audiences to garner votes in the San Juan mayoral elections. He served as mayor for 17 years, during which time he focused largely on education and health care reform. In 1987 Estrada became a national politician when he took a seat in the Philippine Senate. During his

five-year stint in the Senate, Estrada served as chairman of the Committee on Rural Development and Committee on Cultural Communities, as well as the vice chair of the Committee on Health and Committee on Natural Resources and Ecology. In 1992 Estrada ran for vice president and won. He retained the position for the next six years. As vice president, Estrada led the Presidential Anti-Crime Commission and was responsible for a number of high-profile criminal arrests. Estradas 1998 presidential campaign was centered on this same law-and-order platform. Despite accusations of electoral fraud, Estrada won the presidency by a landslide, leaving his closest competitor, Jose de Venecia, in the dust. During Estradas administration, he improved the countrys tax collection system and worked toward demilitarizing the Philippine government. On April 25, 2001, Estrada was arrested on charges of plunder that his political adversaries had filed against him. After a long and humiliating trial, Estrada was imprisoned in Tanay for six years and was eventually released based on an unconditional pardon in October of 2007. RECENT YEARS Following his release from prison, Estrada has worked for a number of local humanitarian causes, including disaster-relief missions and programs that strive to help the poor by eradicating hunger. In 2010 he ran for president again but came in second to Benigno Aquino III in the general elections. As of 2011, Estrada continued to residealong with his wife, former senator Dr. Luisa Pimentelin the Tondo district of Manila where Estrada grew up. The couple has three children, including their son Jinggoy, who has served in the Philippine Senate since 2004. 14. GLORIA MACAPAGAL ARROYO QUICK FACTS NAME: GloriaMacapagal Arroyo OCCUPATION: World Leader BIRTH DATE: April 05,1947 (Age: 65) EDUCATION: Georgetown University, University of the Philippines PLACE OF BIRTH: San Juan, Philippines BEST KNOWN FOR Former Filipino president Gloria Macapagal Arroyo was a controversial leader who resisted several military coups. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo became the 14th president of the Philippines on 20 January 2001. She is the daughter of the late President Diosdado Macapagal who served as a reform president from 1961 to 1965 and was fondly known as the "poor boy from Lubao". Gloria attended Georgetown University in Washington, DC and was a classmate of former U.S. President Bill Clinton. She graduated magna cum laude from Assumption College and later earned a Master of Arts degree in Economics from the Ateneo de Manila University, and a Ph.D. in Economics from the University of the Philippines. Before embarking on a political career, she was a teacher at Assumption College, an Assistant Professor at the Ateneo de Manila University, and a Senior Lecturer at the University of the Philippines School of Economics.

Macapagal-Arroyo entered government service as an Assistant Secretary of the Department of Trade and Industry and later became Executive Director of the Garments and Textile Export Board, steering the garments industry to become the top net dollar earner for the country. She was elected as Senator during her first try in politics in 1992. She was re-elected Senator in 1995 with nearly 16 million votes, the highest number of votes in Philippine history. During her tenure in the Senate, she authored 55 laws on economic and social reform and was named outstanding Senator several times. In 1998 she was elected Vice President of the Philippines with almost 13 million votes, the largest mandate in the history of any presidential or vice presidential election. She was an outspoken critic of President Joseph Estrada who faced serious corruption allegations. Following street demonstrations, the Supreme Court ruled that President Estrada no longer effectively controlled the government and declared the position of president vacant. Macapagal-Arroyo was sworn in as the 14th president of the Philippines on January 20, 2001. She is the second woman to be swept into the presidency by a peaceful People Power revolution. 15. BENIGNO AQUINO III QUICK FACTS Benigno S.Aquino III is the first: unmarried president in the history of the country. president with no children. deputy speaker of the House of Representatives to later become president. marksman to become president since Ferdinand Marcos (who belonged to the U.P. rifle team). President since 1992 who was inaugurated into office without having been Vice President first. President since Diosdado Macapagal to be elected as the candidate of the Liberal Party. He is also the first president since Macapagal not to have changed political parties. Benigno Simeon Noynoy Cojuangco Aquino III was born on February 8, 1960 in Manila. He is the only son of the late Senator Benigno Aquino Jr. whose assassination led to the social unrest which catapulted his mother, Corazon Cojuangco Aquino to president. He is a fourth-generation politician. His great grandfather, Servillano Aquino served as a delegate to the Malolos Congress his grandfather, Benigno Aquino, Sr., held several legislative positions from 191944. He is the third of the five children of Benigno Aquino, Jr., who was then Vice Governor of Tarlac province, and Corazon Aquino. He has four sisters, Maria Elena (Ballsy) Aquino Cruz, Aurora Corazon (Pinky) Aquino Abellada, Victoria Eliza (Viel) Aquino Dee, and Kristina Bernadette (Kris) Aquino Yap. Aquino obtained his Economics degree from the Ateneo de Manila University in 1981 and joined his family in their exile in the United States. He returned to the Philippines when his father was assassinated in 1983. Aquino had a short tenure as a member of the Philippine Business for Social Progress, working as an assistant of the executive director of PBSP. Aquino later joined Mondragon Industries Philippines, Inc. as an assistant Retail Sales Supervisor and assistant promotions manager for Nike Philippines, Inc.

From 1986 to 1992, during the presidency of his mother, Aquino joined the Intra-Strata Assurance Corporation, a company owned by his uncle Antolin Oreta Jr., as vice president. From 1993 to 1998, Aquino worked for Central Azucarera de Tarlac, the sugar refinery in charge of the Cojuangco-owned Hacienda Luisita, as the executive assistant for administration from 1993 to 1996, then Aquino worked as manager for field services from 1996 to 1998. In 1998, he was elected to the House of Representatives as Representative of the 2nd district of Tarlac province. He was subsequently re-elected to the House in 2001 and 2004. In 2007, having been barred from running for re-election to the House due to the term limit, he was elected to the Senate in the 14th Congress of the Philippines. After his mothers death, on September 9, 2009, Aquino officially announced he would be a candidate in the 2010 presidential election, held on May 10, 2010. On June 9, 2010, the Congress of the Philippines proclaimed Aquino the winner of the 2010 presidential election. Aquino had taken office as the fifteenth President of the Philippines on June 30, 2010, succeeding Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.