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Structural Vednta, a The Structural Interplay of Tantra, Vedanta, and Nondualist Commentary the Goddess Bhakti: Nondualist Commentary on the Goddess
Thomas B. Coburn Thomas B. Coburn
One of the abiding problems for scholars of South Asian religion is how best to abiding problems scholars how best conceptualize the relationship between the different strands of the traditions we the relationship between strands are trying to understand. Even if one factors out the minority traditions of the trying to understand. Even factors out the of subcontinent, the problem o f an adequate approach to the remainder the problem of an adequate approach to the remainder conventionally called Hinduismlooms large. The persistence of the problem "Hinduism" lo o ms persistence of the problem is suggested by the widespread attention it has received of late, not just in scholarly widespread has is suggested of late, scholarly circles, as a result of the convergence of religion and politics in apparently new as a result convergence and apparently new forms. How much of the agenda of the Bharatiya Janata Party and the Visva How much agenda Bharatiya Janata Party and the Hindu Parishad is an expression of traditional religious sentiment, how much is a Parishad an a function of that sentiment in distinctly twentieth-century guise, and how much is guise, of that distinctly how is purely political opportunism? How much truth lies in the quip that the Indians opportunism? Indians have been religious for millennia, but "Hinduism" was born in the nineteenth been religious for millennia, but Hinduism was century? Answers to such questions are not simple nor easy to come by. Answers to such questions are easy Nowhere is the problem of conceptualizing Indian religion more vexing is the problem more than in trying to determine the status of Tantra and its relation to non-Tantric in trying determine the status and relation Hinduism. Recently Hinduism. Recently we have begun to make progress on the long-standing denidenitional problem, and for my purposes in this article, the denition of Andr Padoux and e of Andre Padoux will sufce: sufce: [is] a practical path to supernatural powers and liberation, Tantrism [is] a practical path to supernatural powers and to liberation, in the use specic practices and techniquesritual, bodily, consisting in the use of specic practices and techniquesritual, bodily, are always associated These pracmentalthat are always associated with a particular doctrine. These practices are intrinsically grounded in the doctrine that gives them their aim and gives them their aim and meaning and organizes them into a pattern. Elements of the doctrine may organizes Elements of the may also be associated and welded into a practical worldview, Tantrism is there.1 be associated and welded into a practical worldview, Tantrism is there.' also This denition acknowledges that Tantra cuts across both Buddhist and Hindu denition acknowledges that across Hindu traditions, but it leaves open such unresolved questions as the historical antiquity but leaves open as or the social or geographic provenance of Tantrism. Opinions on these matters the social or geographic provenance Opinions these remain very diverse. The dominant scholarly view, of course, is that Tantrism very diverse. The dominant scholarly view, is that Tantrism begins in the early centuries of the Christian era and becomes a dominant feature becomes begins of feature 77 77

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of the Hindu landscape over the course of the next millennium. We are accusHindu landscape over the course next We are accustomed to thinking of Hinduism in partially overlapping historical stages t h e to thinking partially overlapping stagesthe Vedic, the epic, the Purauic, and then the Tantricbut we often hear an alternaPurnic, a Tantric b u t hear an alternative voice, usually from Indian scholars, claiming much greater antiquity for voice, usually from Indian scholars, claiming much greater antiquity Tantra. On the contemporary scene, Madeleine Biardeau indicates how very On the contemporary scene, Madeleine Biardeau indicates how very complex the situation is: the situation is: Although tantric theory clearly distinguishes itself in its most general aspects theory clearly distinguishes itself in its most general aspects from bhakti, and although it seeks to deepen this cleavage through a reversal seeks cleavage a reversal values practice as as a range of brahmanic values in practice as well as in a broad range of its religious the gap a themes literature, the gap is in fact a very small one. We nd tantric themes in the Puranas, and references to the Puranas in the Tantrasas well as authors who Pur nas, and references a Pur nas a Tantras as as a write commentaries in both bodies of literature. The great Puranasare read of literature. great Pur nas are read in temples in which the ritual is said to be tantric, but in which the majority a vague of worshipers are mainstream Hindus who come to the temple with a vague meaning of ritual . d never dream of taking notion of the meaning of ritual . a .nand who would never dream of taking initiation into a tantric sect. initiation into a tantric sect.2 2 As a modest contribution to understanding further the relationship between As understanding further the relationship between these concepts or texts or worldviews, I should like here to look at a particular concepts or texts or worldviews, I should a particular passage from the Purnas and how it is interpreted by two commentators, one a the Purar a i Vidy Tantric of the Sr Vidya school, one a Veclamin, both of whom are philosophical a one Vedntin, a philosophical r of whom . a advaitins d passage comes from the famous sixth-century al(ta advaitins las a n(nondualists). The passage comes from the famous sixth-century Skta text,o w -M h tmya or Durg -Saptasati, which comprises thirteen chapters in Dev a a a comprises chapters h the Devi-Mahatmya or Durga-Saptasati, the Markandeya Purana. The commentators are two eighteenth-century gures, M rkan eya Pur na. The commentators are a d a eighteenth-century gures, i t Ngoji Bhatta or Nagea the Veclamin, and Bhaskararaya the Tantrin. In a recent a t a s Vedntin, a Bhskararya a a Nagoji Bhata Ngea a recent i s monograph, I have explored the nature of the text and the relationship of these I have explored of these i n t e r p r commentators to it in some detail.3 What I should like to do here is look closely at detail. especic passage whose discussion in my monograph is limited to one footnote d a W e passagewhose a t h a t 3 I b y complexity becauseoofu l complexity of the commentaries on the passageas a lens for commentaries on the passageas a lens for the d s h t w larger conceptual ssues. eave one side my discussion elsewhere of viewing the larger conceptual iissues. I lleave to one side my discussion elsewhere of l i k e o commentators the commentator's biographies and of the nature and structure of their commenof of their comment o taries. I simply note in passing that the primary concern of both Bhskararya and c o m m passing a a of both Bhaskararaya and d o Ngoji Bhatta is thet proper division of the verses of the Dev-M h tmya into 700 proper a a Nagoji t t e a n Bhata a of the verses of the Devi-Mahatmya into 700 h r mantrasefor recitation e the proper technique for reciting them. In other words, o r for , mantras s and proper technique for reciting other words, i s they consider it chiey a ritual text, whose verbal power is to be controlled and whose power o consider l k then releo be ased, o philosophical n released, not a philosophicaltext, whose meaning is to be understood. It is all c more noteworthy, then, that both commentators do take pains to understand l o s e the pains e l y the meaning of this particular passage. The reasons for this are not hard to nd, for reasons for of this for a it is indeed a puzzling passage, as we shall now see. a is indeed a t passage, as we now see. The passage comes at the very beginning o f the third o f the Devipassage comes at the very beginning of the third of the Dev M h tmyas three episodes (caritas). The Goddess haspreviously promised to assistt a a episodes Mahatmya's Goddess has previously assis the gods whenever they nd themselves in difculty. The fth chapter begins: gods whenever they themselves difculty. The chapter

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Once upon a time, the two demons, umbha. and Niumbha . T .oTook away Sumbha Mumbha . o k away s Indras three worlds and shares in the sacrice. Similarly, they took away the Indra's they took away the powers of the sun, the moon, Kubera, Yama, and Varuna, .[ .V a y yu and sun, the Kubera, Yama, . [V u a Agni]. Then the gods, fallen from their kingdoms, were scattered and Agni]. Then the gods, fallen from their kingdoms, were scattered and defeated [whereupon] they all .remembered the invincible Goddess . . . they . . remembered Goddess Having made up their minds, the gods went to the Himalaya, [and there] made the gods they praised the Goddess who is Vinus m y [power of illusion].4 praised the Goddess who V ig s aa . There lu ' s m hymn of thirty verses, most of which designate and praise the follows a hymn a follows a a y verses, most designate and Goddess for dwelling within all creatures in some particular form: sleep, confor dwelling r sleep, con[ p o w e within all creatures in some particular sciousness, intelligence, hunger, etc. At the end of the hymn, the text proceeds: sciousness, intelligence, hunger, etc. o f i l l u s i o n ] 5.37 Thus (entreated) by the gods who are lled with praise and the like, Thus gods are with praise and the .5.37 Prvat then went to bathe in the waters of the Ganges . . .1.] a waters of the Ganges Parvati 4 5.38 She of beautiful brows said to the gods: Who is being praised here by She of beautiful brows "Who is being praised here by you? An auspicious (iva) (form) came forth from the sheath [koa]] of s came forth from the sheath [kos'a of s you?" auspicious (s'iva) her body (and) said: said: her body 5.39 "This hymn is made to me by those who have been vanquished by This made have been vanquished by umbha Sumbha .[ .a. n d ] Nigumbha . . . [and] Niumbha s 5.40 Since Ambik came forth from the body sheath [koa]] of Prvat, She Since Ambika came a s a from body sheath [kos'a of Parvati, She is sung of in all the worlds as "Kalthiki." sung of in as Kauik. s 5.41 When she had come forth, Parvati became black (kna). Known as When she Prvat became black (lerpla). a rs as Klik, she makes her abode in the Himlayas.5 a a her abode a "Kalika.," she Himalayas. 5 The gure who is here called Ambika and Katikiki remains the central object of gure here Ambik and Kauik a s central of and the central agent in the rest o f the Devi-Mahatmya, throughout all the the central agent in the rest of the Dev-M h tmya, throughout all the a a proliferation of divine forms in battle. She is understood as commensurate with She understood as commensurate with the Goddess with a capital G who hasbeen described earlier in the text, who is also also Gwho earlier Ambik a Mahia. s a called Ambika in her defeat of the demon Mahip,. However, of Prvat, "the black of Parvati, the black one (Klik kna), who abides in the Himalayas, we hear a a rs a word more one" (KOlika.,, klyza), who abides in the Himalayas, we hear not a word more the rest She quite throughout the rest of the text. She is, quite simply, not mentioned at all. Elsewhere I have suggested mysterious Elsewhere I have suggested that this mysterious treatment of the forms of of of Goddess the Goddess is consistent with the overall spirit and apparent intention of the text. of the is a bhakti (devotional) text. Its concern is to portray the Goddess as the It is a bhakti (devotional) text. Its concern is to portray the Goddess as the fundament of the universe, to describe three of her salvic interventions in the universe, to describe three her world in some detail, and then to glorify her kaleidoscopic metamorphic potential. her kaleidoscopic metamorphic Purnic a Dev-M h tmya a a Like many other Puranic texts, the Devi-Mahatmya is not interested in delineating one with precision how various divine forms are related to one another. Its concern is concern is praise, not analyze. Indication of to praise, not to analyze. Indication of this is found in two facts: rst, throughout course narrative, the applies over names the course of the narrative, the text applies over two hundred different names to Goddess, and second, the Goddess, and second, contrary to the dominant Hindu conceptualization, on occasion the text describes akti s female power as coming from the one occasion the text describes s'akti or female power as coming forth from the Goddess herself not just from the male deities who are on the scene. The mystejust the male are scene. mysteGoddess herself,

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riousness and riousness and multiplicity of the Goddess's diverse forms are not a problem for the Goddesss a problem for author or compiler of the text. If anything, they enhance the wonder she evokes in wonder she evokes her devotees. her devotees.6 6 Thirteen hundred years later, however, the relationship between the several years however, several forms of the Goddess, and their bearing on pressing matters of religious truth, was of of religious was the concern of our commentators. It was incumbent upon them, therefore, to concern of commentators. It was incumbent upon them, therefore, dilate upon the substance of this passage. Both Nagoji Bhatta and Bhaskararaya upon the substance passage. Both Ngoji Bhata and Bhskararya a t a a bring to their analysis of this passage two kinds of hermeneutical methods. They passage of hermeneutical They are in agreement that both of these approaches are relevant to understanding the in agreement approaches are passage, but they apply them in different ways. One is the rudimentary philosophy philosophy spelled out in the three Rahasyas or secrets that have been appended to the DevRahasyas or "secrets" have been appended spelled DeviM h tmya since at least the fourth century. The other is a cluster of passages drawn a a Mahatmya since least other a cluster of passages from the Siva Purana. Let us look briey at both of these. the Pur na. a briey of The Rahasyas together amount to some ninety-three verses and constitute a Rahasyas together verses a kind of appendix to the Devi-Mahatmya. They are placed in the mouths of the the Dev-M h tmya.7 a a same interlocutors as those in the Devi-Mahatmya. They begin with the king the Dev-M h tmya. They begin a a the king 7 T interlocutors asr those h e y a e saying to the seer: "You have told me all about the Goddess's avatars. Now please Goddesss avat rs. Now please a sayil p ng a c seer: d e You have about nature (prak ti), r (pradh na), a tell me n i me about their material nature (prakrti), their primary form (pradhana), the Goddesss very own form (svar pa), and how she is u worshiped. The seer Goddess's very own form (svarpa), and how she is to be worshiped." The seer t h e proceeds colleagues has then proceeds to provideh what one of my Indian colleagues has called the earliest of my "the m o u t a s statement a.kta philosophy.8 systematic statement of Skta philosophy." Charts 5.1 and 5.2 provide the imo f conveyed mythological lanportant relationships in . philosophy, 8 C h relationships 5 this philosophy, which is conveyed in mythological lana rt s 1 t h eafrmations are these. The foundation of the universe is guage. Thed afrmations2are these. The of a n The important 5 . Mahalaksmi, whose d e Mahlako , whosei own form is both with and without characteristic marks. She a sm v characteristic She p r is constituted of three qualities (triguna) and pervades everything. She has four qualities (triguna) and pervades everything. She has four is constituted t h e seeing she each of whom arms. On m ng the universal void, she took on two other forms, in each of whom seei other i is a predominance of one three qualities (gunas) that are there is a predominance of one of the three qualities (gunas) that are formally associated Smkhya a cosmological associated with Sarpkhya philosophy, but that have pervaded Indian cosmological Bhagavad Gitd. a Mahkl, a a thinking since the time of the Bhagavad Gt . In the form named Mahakali, there is a predominance of tamas guna (quality of darkness), while in the one named a predominance tamas guna of named Mahsarasvat a a Mahasarasvati there is a predominance of sattva guna (power of light, knowledge, of sattva guna (power of light, purity). Each three goddesses and purity). Each of the three goddesses then produced a set of twins, one male, of twins, one other female. Mahlakm proceeded to arrange three marriagesbetween a s the other female. Mahalakgni proceeded to arrange three marriages between Brahm and Sarasvati, between V ig and Laksm, and between Rudra and a s Brahma and Sarasvat, between Vinu Gaurand each couple was given one of the three cosmic functions of creation, Gauri a n d each . of the of creation, preservation, and destruction. Though Mahalakgni has three qualities (triguna), Mahlakm has a s qualities (triguna), lu a n d and she a k s m i predominance of the guna of rajas (dynamic energy) by virtue has an energy) by has an implicit , of the guna of rajas L of having assigned the other gunas to her other two forms. All of this activity, we assigned other gunas her other of a n d should note, takes place within the realm of the unmanifest (avy k t ), asa kind of place a ra realm of the unmanifest (avyakrta), as a kind of b e t w e e n internal life of the Godhead or, more properly, the Goddesshead. Godhead more Goddesshead. R uthe level d a At the level of ther manifest world (vikrtz), the Goddess also has three chief (vik ti), r Goddess has chief a n d forms, "immanent" forms, iif you will, with the same names as, but slightly immanent forms, f with the same names as, but slightly different iconography from, their "transcendent" (avyakrta) counterparts. Each of transcendent (avy k t ) a ra Each of

The unmanifest (avyakrta) (avyk t) a ra Four-armed Mahatakmi Mahakm al s

1
Four-armed Mahakah ( t h r e(three-gunas) f o u r four-armed Mahasarasvati Mahkl a a e - g u l ps ) - a r m e d Mahsarasvat a (tamas) (rajas) (sattva) (tamas) ( r a j a s 1 1 ) ( s a t i v a ) 1 1 1 I I Rudra Sarasvati Rudra Sarasvat Brahm Lakm V i g i snu Gaur Brahma Lakmi a s Vi Gauri u protection destruction destruction Chart 5.1 Diagram of relationships in the Pradhanika Rahasya Diagram Prdhnika Rahasya a a Chart creation creation

The unmanifest Four-armed Mahalakgni* Mahlakm* a s Four-armed Mahakali Mahkl a a (tamas) manifest/incarnated manifest/incarnated (vik ti) r (vikrti) ten-armed Mahakali Mahkl a a rst carita s DM of DM (ch. 1) ( hymn in ch. 1 1 (three-gunas) f o u r - a r m e d Mahasarasvati four-armed Mahsarasvat a (three-gurps) (rajas) ( s a t t v (sattva) (ra'as) a ) a 18-armed Mahalalqmi eight-armed Mahasarasvati Mahlakm eight-armed Mahsarasvat a s 18-armed

e c o second carita t h i r third carita n d carita d carita o f of DM DM o f DM of DM 2 - 4 (2 4) ( 5 - 1 3(513) ) ) h y mhymn in ch. 4 h y mhymn in ch. 11 n n

*The hymn in DM ch. 5 is to the unmanifest form of Mahalaksmi. a a s *The hy mn in D M ch. 5 is to the unrnanifest form of Mhlakm.

Chart 5.2 Diagram of relationships in the Vaikrtika Rahasya Diagram Vaik tika Rahasya r Chart

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these forms is understood to preside over one of the three episodes (caritas) of the understood over episodes of Dev-M h tmya, according to the pattern indicated in Chart 2. Moreover, each of Devi-Mahatmya, a a in Chart Moreover, each of the four hymns of the Devi-Mahatmya, which are widely agreed to constitute the Dev-M h tmya, a a devotional core of the text, is understood to be directed to a manifestation of the of core understood Goddess. There is one hymn in each of the rst two episodes that is straightforThere one each episodes ward enough: the hymns are directed to the two vik ti forms of the Goddess that vikrti r of the Goddess that preside respectively over those two episodes. O f the two hymns in the third preside respectively over those two episodes. Of two hymns the episode, the one in chapter 11 is directed to the vikrti form of Mahasarasvati, episode, the one in chapter 11 is directed to the vik ti r Mahsarasvat, a while the one in chapter 5 t h e hymn that we have just seen precedes our the one chapter 5the hymn that we have seen precedes our puzzling passageis directed to the highest form of Mahlakm, her avy k t or passageis a s a ra of Mahalakmi, her avyakrta or transcendent form. The origin of the hermeneutical apparatus that the Rahasyas "transcendent" of hermeneutical apparatus Rahasyas provide remains a mystery. For our purposes, it is enough to note that both remains a mystery. For our purposes, is enough note Bhskararya and Nagoji Bhatta take the assimilation of the Rahasyas to the text a a Ngoji Bhata a t Rahasyas Bhaskararaya of for granted, and one of their fellow commentators goes so far as to allege that the goes so far as allege that the of their real reason Rama slew Rvana was because the demon recited the Dev-M h tmya Rma slew Ravarja was because the demon a a a a real the Devi-Mahatmya without the Rahasyas! Rahasyas!9 All of the passages that Ngoji Bhatta and Bhaskararaya cite from the Siva passages a t Bhskararya a a of Nagoji Bhata from the Siva 9 Pur na, the second of the templates they use for understanding our passage, come a Purana, of the our passage, a a from the rst part of the seventh book, the Vyu SaMhit, from chapters 24, 25, or of the Vayu SaMhita, chapters or 27.10 In three cases, the commentators cite exactly the same passage. In two cases, 27. they cite very similar passages, where the differences are likely mere textual varipassages, where the differences are textual 1 cite very ants, a common Purar phenomenon. Ngoji Bhata then cites one further a common Purnic a a t () passage. There is, in other words, a common pool of passages that both commenother pool of passages commen. I tators cite, though they do not cite them in the same order or to the same purpose. same order or same them c n Pur na recount the events that follow in The o m e n a events follow p t h e n relevant chapters in the Siva Purana then . of the destruction of Dakas sacrice, and they tell a reasonably coherent s a reasonably coherent wake of Dakp.'s sacrice, they o h or devi, story. Siva and his consort, called Siva or dev, the Goddess, who has earlier been Siva Goddess, has earlier been N a g o j r called Parvati (7.23.15), settle down to enjoy themselves on Mount Mandara. Prvat (7.23.15), settle down a enjoy themselves on Mandara. i e several years named s After several years two demon brothers, named Sumbha and Niumbha, are born Niumbha., B h e and through a as(internal heat) gain from Brahma the boon that they cannot be tapas Brahm a tap t they cannot be t a a c by a man. "Rather, let us be slain in battle by a woman with whom we have Rather, slain by a whom we have t a an has fallen in h love, an invincible maiden, who has not taken delight in the touch of a of a e not born a produced (ama) of Ambika" s a man, notnborn from a womb, but produced from a fragment (aths'a) of Ambik s (7.24.26). When the demons have subsequently vanquished all the gods, Brahma c i When t have Brahm a e asks Sivas anger or tease the Goddess so that a akti (power), a maiden utterly Goddess so s e s'akti utterly s Siva to anger devoid of passion, may be born from the sheath (kos'a) that has her bodily color passion, may be born the sheath (koa) that has her s color o , (7.24.2630). So Siva playfully teased the Goddess by calling her Kl, the black teased Goddess by calling her Kali, "the black a (7.24.26-30). So n t one, whereupon she grew angry, reviling him for apparently only pretending to apparently pretending one," whereupon she e h love her, and reviling herself for apparently having given displeasure to her husand herself for apparently displeasure her husf r e u band. Siva apologizes, indicating that his remarks had been made in jest and that Siva apologizes, remarks been made in jest and that t h e c their purpose will eventually become evident. The Goddess will have none of this, Goddess have none of this, r o saying it must be her non-lustrous form (agauram vapu ) that had prompted him her (agauram vapub) h had him m to call her black; she will rectify the situation by practicing tapas, winning a boon she by a m e n t

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from Brahma, and becoming lustrous (gaud: 7.24.53). She retreats to the Himaand (gaur: She retreats layas and performs erce austerities, even taming a tiger that comes to devour her. layas erce a tiger comes devour Brahm, pressured again by the gods for relief from Sumbha and Niumbha, has Brahma, pressured again a relief from umbha. Niumbha, has s his attention caught by the power generated by the Goddess's practice of tapas.. attention caught the power generated Goddesss of tap as Approaching her and learning of her desire to shed her blackness, he is puzzled, her of her desire shed her blackness, he is puzzled, for, as the Goddess, she can have anything she wants just for the asking. But he as the Goddess, she can have he then chooses to make use of the power (s'akti) she has built up, for the purpose of chooses make use (akti) she has s of destroying the demons. Upon request then, "the Goddess, casting off the sheath of the off the of her skin (tvakkos'a), became golden (gauri). A Black (k l) maiden with the lustre (tvakkoa), became s (gaur). Black (ka/i) a of a thundercloud, was born from the skin-sheath and called Kauik (7.25.38 '1Kauiki'" (7.25.38 a s 39). This power (s'akti), called Vinus yogic slumber (yoganidr ), whose nature is power (akti), s a Vs ig m y (illusion) (7.25.40), bows to Brahm and to Gaur, who is called her mother, a maya Brahma and Gauri, is her mother, . a a (illusion) ands y o g i goes off to slay the demons. When Gaur returns to Sivas abode Gauri iva's abode lu ' immediately goes c (7.27), Siva asks ifeheranger has passed, saysthat he loves her whether she is k l or a s l uiva asks if herrangerhas passed, says that he loves her whether she is kali or m b other color, and points out the many ways in which they are mutually color, n anyyother g a and ipoints out the many ways in which they are mutually ( o d r a He was assist gods interdependent. He repeats that it was just to assist the gods in getting rid of the of ) , that he teased her. The Goddess ignores attery, asks he has demons that he teased her. The Goddess ignores this attery, but asks if he has w the maiden Kauiki,, whose like has never been nor will be known. Brahma o seen theh maiden Kauik whose s s has never nor Brahm a e provide will provide him with details of that maiden's battle with the demons, she says. maidens she says. n a t u The faithful tiger is then installed as guardian of the household and the text moves as of the household moves r to other, very different concerns. e on to other, very different concerns. i s This account is o f intrinsic interest for a number of reasons. It clearly account is of interest for a number reasons. It clearly understands the relationship between Siva and Devi as a much more symbiotic the relationship between iva and Dev as a one, as Ardhanarigvara (see 7.15), than does the parallel passage in the Devias Ardhanrvara (see 7.15), than does the parallel passage a s the Dev M h tmya, where the Goddess reigns virtually supreme. It is concerned to explain a a Mahatmya, the relationship between the various forms of the Goddess with greater precision between greater than is in our text, and it has a more fully developed concept of akti. I suspect it and has a developed ss'akti. of was composed a good deal later than the sixth-century Dev-M h tmya. Most a a was composed a good deal later than the sixth-century Devi-Mahatmya. Most intriguingly, the Siva Purana account reverses the emphasis of the name and the the Siva Pur na a reverses emphasis color of the form called "Katthiki." The Devi-Mahatmya, as we have seen, has a called Kauik. The Dev-M h tmya, as we have seen, has s a a luminous form named Ambika arising from the kos'a of Prvat, whence Ambik Ambik a koa of Parvati, s a a Ambika gets the designation "Kalthiki." It is Parvati who becomes black and retires to the the Kauik. s Prvat a becomes black Himalayas, leaving Ambika/Kauiki at center stage. The Siva Purana, however, leaving Ambik/Kauik at center stage. The Siva Pur na, however, a s a sees the gure who arises from the kos'a, who is therefore named Kauik, to take the arises koa, s s s ees Kauiki, the color from the kos'a, which is black. It is she who makes the quick exit, to do the koa, s black. It she makes battle, leaving the luminous (gaur) Parvati, who has earlier been called Ambik, as a has earlier been a (gauri) Prvat, Ambika, as the dominant presence in the text. All of this, however we now leave to one side, as however now leave as of this, we turn to exploring how Nagoji Bhatta and Bhaskararaya bring citations from exploring how Ngoji Bhata a t Bhskararya a a from this account, and from the Rahasyas, to bear on our puzzling passage. account, and the Rahasyas, bear passage. Ngoji Bhatta's position is a good deal easier tto understand than a Bhatas position is a good deal easier o understand than t Nagoji Bhskararyas, a a because Bhaskararaya's, in part because it is more familiar to Western scholarship, in part because he has less at stake here religiously. So let us start with Ngoji Bhatta.11 I he has less stake So a t Nagoji Bhata.11 have suggested above, and elsewhere, that he may be understood as an Advaita suggested above, and elsewhere, that he may understood as

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Vedantin. Vedntin.12 Nowhere, in either his Dev-M h tmya commentary or elsewhere, a a a have I found him giving a systematic exposition of his view, but general evidence of his general evidence 12 for o wsuggestion is that his chief claim to fame is as a grammarian, a eld which, chief claim as a N my suggestion h n in the eighteenth century, was steeped in the culture of Sa karas school. More the , e r e eighteenth century, was steeped the culture alikara's school. More specically, we nd him using revealing terminology throughout his commentary commentary i n on the Devi-Mahatmya. Thus, when at the end of the nal battle, the Goddess the Dev-M h tmya. Thus, when at the end a a the Goddess e i resumes all the diverse forms into herself, Nagoji says that Ambika then stood all the diverse forms into herself, Ngoji says that Ambik a a stood t h entirely alone "because of the lack of differentiation within the m la-akti (primal alone because of of differentiation maa4akti (primal u s e r (10.4). Elsewhere (4.6) he calls her the mala-prakrti (primordial subpower)" (10.4). Elsewhere (4.6) he calls her the m la-prak ti power) u r subh Similarly, causes sams ra a stance). Similarly, it is in the form of ignorance that she causes samsara (rebirth), of i in the form of knowledge (vidya) that she brings it all to an end (5.11). Maya a M y aa but of knowledge (vidy ) s as (avidy : a a itself is to be understood as ignorance (avidya: 11.4). Most telling is Ngojis claim is be Nagoji's claim D what makes the terribleness of the Goddess so great is that it cannot be what makes the terribleness of Goddess so great is that cannot be that e v i - (atirikta) by anything other than knowledge of Brahmn, for he is here sublated a "sublated" of Brahman, specic master concepts Vednta. a using one M aone of the specic master concepts of Advaita Vedanta. we grant then that Ngoji appears to be an Advaita Vedntin, certain a a h a If we grant then that Nagoji appears to be an Advaita Vedantin, certain follow.13 assumes a conclusions follow." Adopting a dualistic epistemology, he assumes that there is a t m lower sphere (vy vah rika), a a higher realm of "lower" sphere of conventional knowledge (vyavaharika), and a "higher" realm of y a (p ram rthika). a a Dev-M h tmya a a ultimate truth (paramarthika). What the Devi-Mahatmya presents, with its myths c hymns and devotional belongs former and hymns and devotional fervor, belongs entirely to the former realm. It offers a o powerful and temporarily valid understanding of the universe, but it is not nally of nally m for is sublated, surpassed, true, for it is sublated, or surpassed, or transcended by knowledge of a non-dual of a m Brahmn. What Ngoji Bhata about his commentary, then, a a t Brahman. What Nagoji Bhatta is about in his commentary, then, is simply the e setting in order of fragments of truth, the rearrangement of approximately accuof approximately accun formulations. rate formulations. t a t This turns out to be exactly what is on Ngoji Bhatas mind in his commenNagoji Bhatta's commena on our puzzling passage. It is too glib to imagine him sayingWell, it's no passage. tary saying"Well, its the passage is puzzling: what can you expect from myths and other wonder the passage is puzzling: what can you expect from myths and other r vy vah rika a a realm!for detritus from the vyavaharika (ordinary) realm!" f o r his search for intelligibility y But he does particular runs deeper o deeper than that. But he does appropriate, almost mechanically, a particular of vy vah rika realm general a a way of explaining the dynamics of the vyavaharika realm in general and of this of this r three-guna theory of the Samkhya passage in particular. What he alights on is the three-guiya theory of the Sarhkhya e often used Vednta a as school, often used by Advaita Vedanta to explain the ordinary world and, as we l have seen, introduced in the Rahasyas in association with the different forms of seen, introduced the Rahasyas of s alakm. The problem for Ngoji Bhata here and throughout the third Mah s a t Mahalakmi. The problem for Nagoji Bhatta here and throughout the third e episode, as episode of Dev-M h tmya, a a episode, is as follows. In the rst episode of the Devi-Mahatmya, the association of of w killing with Mahkl, in whom tamas predominates is comprehensible: ignorance a a tamas predominates Mahakali, h maya are part of Mahkls power, and she uses them to delude the demons and m y aa a a demons Mahakah's power, and she uses e Madhu and Kaitabha into challenging V*Ju in this episode. Similarly, in the and Kaiabha t challenging Vinu s episode. Similarly, second episode, the association of Mahalakgni and rajas is necessary to kill the episode, the association Mahlakm a s rajas necessary r buffalo demon Mahisa. But how can the power of sattva, which logically belongs Mahia. s how e power of sattva, logically belongs to Mahsarasvat in the third episode, be used a any Goodness , Mahasarasvati in the third episode, be used to justify any killing? Goodness alone does not kill, so how can Mahasarasvati do so? This is the hermeneutical does not kill, so how can Mahsarasvat a so? This hermeneutical alone

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problem for Nagoji Bhatta. The passage with which we are concerned has great Ngoji Bhata. The passage a t are has great potential for solving this problem and demonstrating how the distribution of the how of the forms and qualities of the Goddess works. What is the characterization of Ambik/ of Goddess of Ambika/ a Kauik as Siva, auspicious, indicates, says Ngoji (comm. on 5.38), is that she is a Kaukiki as s says Nagoji a she is a portion (aths'a) of the Devi in whom the gul a of sattva predominates. Hence the (ama) s Dev guna of sattva y expectation that sattva dominates in this episode is met. Beyond that, however, that sattva dominates this episode met. Beyond however, because of the close connection (sahodaritva) between the two forms that this close connection (sahodaritva) between the passage demonstrates, it is legitimate to expect that the tamasic qualities of the demonstrates, it is legitimate tamasic of black KalikdiParvati,, who retires to the mountains, will spill over into the form Klik/Prvat who retires the mountains, a a a over actions of Ambik, enabling her do battle a demons on and actions of Ambika, enabling her to do battle with the demons (comm. on 5.41). It makes good sense for Ngoji to quote the Siva-Pur na in this regard, for, makes sense for Nagoji quote the Siva-Puralya in this regard, a a as we seen, emphasis aswe have seen, the reversed emphasis in that text invites us to blur the distinction way a us passage between light and dark forms in just the way that Ngoji wants us to. The passage Nagoji is indeed Ngoji a shows how is indeed troubling, but Nagoji makes a virtue of necessity and shows how there is of necessity indeed a the Goddess vy vah rika a a indeed a logic to the forms of the Goddess that are active within the vyavaharika passage realm. This passage demonstrates that logic by identifying the activity of the sattva of the sattva guna Goddess. gul a form of the Goddess. y Bhskararyas commentary on this passage proceeds a a quite a different Bhaskararaya's commentary on this passage proceeds in quite a different fashion, for while he too is a nondualist, his nondualism is of a Tantric sort, for while he too is his nondualism of a i Vidy school." specically of a does accept epistemospecically of the Sr Vidyd school.14 He therefore does not accept the epistemor a logical dualism of Vednta; his philosophy points toward the ritual actualization of of Vedanta; ritual of power unmanifest Mahlakm which ontologically connected a s the power of the unmanifest Mandlakmi,, which is ontologically connected to, accessible the mantras of Dev-M h tmya. a a power and accessible in, the mantras of the Devi-Mahatmya. He knows the power that inheres the ritual recitation of the text and he is concerned to show how that power inheres of show how power springs from the very foundation of the universe. of There are three chief points that Bhaskararaya makes in his commentary on Bhskararya makes his commentary on a a chief points the verses of our passage. In typical scholastic fashion, he pays careful attention to pays careful of our diction and grammar, so let us meet him on his own terms with a similar kind of and so a similar of analysis. analysis. His rst point is that there is a kind of interchangability between the two there a forms of the Goddess in this passage, Kali (ka) and Parvati, which is a secret Goddess this passage, Kl a and Prvat, a a secret (marmatva: comm. on 5.38). In support of this, he cites the relevant passages from on passages of this, Pur na the Siva Puralya account and says that the dark maiden who emerges from the kos'a a says emerges from koa s dark Puralya was after Parvati's tapas in the Siva Pur na was the vibh ti of Prvat. The word vibh ti Prvats tapas a a u a u vibhuti of Parvati. vibhuti is a pregnant a range meanings beauty and prosperity is a pregnant term, with a range of meanings from "beauty" and "prosperity" to what is most important about something, its essence. Daniel Ingalls has "what is most important about something," its "essence." Daniel Ingalls has means something Eliades suggested it means something like Eliade's concept of hierophany.15 In the Devof hierophany. M a n t h a I Mahatmya itself e of 15 h tmya itself this is the term that - used at the end of the last combat, when D e v i is used umbha accuses Sumbha accuses the Goddess of false pride for relying on the power of the other Goddess false power of the other and she deities, and she responds: I alone exist here in the world; what second, other than "I other is there? O wicked one, behold these my vibh tis entering back u me! I, is there? 0 wicked one, behold these my vibhutis entering back into me!' all the goddesses . n t body of the Thereupon, all the goddesses .w .ewent to their resting place in the body of the their then Ambik, alone a a t Goddess, then there was just Ambika, alone" (10. 3 4). Thus, like Ngojii Bhata, 3-4). Nagoj Bhatta,

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Bhaskararaya Bhskararya asks us to blur the distinction between the two forms, but he does so, a a he does not to justify the correspondence of the Goddess's forms with the theory of the to justify the correspondence Goddesss forms of three gul:las, but to emphasize that there is, in fact , only one Goddess, one reality, gunas, emphasize fact, no matter how many different names or labels we may apply to her. matter how many names we Bhaskarardya's second and third points depend on the interpretation of a Bhskararyas second and third a a depend on the of a crucial half line, so let me cite again the last two verses of our passage: half so let me again the verses our passage: 5.40 Since Ambik came 5.40 Since Ambika came forth from the kos'a of Prvat a koa of Parvati s a She is sung of in all the worlds as "Kalthiki." She sung of as Kauik. s 5.41 When she had come forth, Parvati became black. When she Prvat became a Known as "Kalikd." she makes her abode in the Himalayas. as Klik. she makes her abode a a Himlayas. a The Sanskrit for the rst half of the last verse is tasyam vinirgat y m tu knabhut verse tasy m vinirgatdydni tu kr,cnabhut a aa rs half of s pi pdrvati. The clear sense, on which all other commentaries that I have seen a a other have seen sapi p rvat. The clear sense, on agree, is that the rst half of the line is a locative absolute, and that the she refers half of "she" refers Ambik/Kauik who has just come forth a s Prvat. Bhskararya, a a a to Ambika/Kauiki who has just "come forth" from Parvati. Bhaskarardya, however, prefers a variant reading for the rst half of this line tasydvinirgata ya tu, prefers a variant reading half of tasy vinirgat y a a a which he glossesastasyd vinirgat y tu, yielding the translation The one who had glosses as tasy vinirgataya tu, a a a "The one who had come forth from her, Parvati, became black." That is, tasyd(b) is a feminine forth from her, Prvat, became black. That is, tasy ( ) is a feminine a ah ablative, joined in false scandhi to vinirgatd, and designating the unnamed source joined in false samdhi vinirgat , and a from which Parvati came. Parvati came forth from her, but we do not yet know Prvat a Prvat a "her," know who "she" is. Moreover Bhaskarardya then goes on at great length to explain what she Moreover Bhskararya a a goes great what the verb vinirgam, "to come forth," can and cannot mean. Just what is verb vinirgam, to come forth, can and cannot mean. Just what is Bhskararya up to, and what seems to be at stake here for our commentator? a a be at stake here our Bhaskarardya up to, and what seems The key to answering these questions lies in returning to the rudimentary answering rudimentary a Skta philosophy sketched out in the Rahasyas. As noted in passing above, al(ta philosophy sketched out in the Rahasyas. As noted in passing above, Bhskararya rejects the epistemological dualism of Advaita Vedanta, but it is a a Vednta, but is a Bhaskarardya rejects the epistemological dualism comparably important to note that, for him, all the different forms of Mahlakm a s of Mahalakmi do not designate ontologically different deities. He remains a monist. The various designate a various forms for Bhaskararaya are simply different manifestations of the same reality. for Bhskararya are a a manifestations of the same That reality can admittedly be spoken about in different ways, but the differences the differences are not of major consequence. When ultimate reality is spoken of in its aggregate of in aggregate (samati) form, it is named Mahalakmi,, or Caucli, or Brahman. One of the rst s a s Cand, One of (sama,c0) form, it named Mahlakm lines of his commentary declares the deity named Cand is the highest Brahman, is the highest Brahman," of his declares "the Caucli who is (quoting Saundaryalahari 98) "the queen through whom the crown is is (quoting Saundaryalahar the queen through whom inherited. same (vyati) s inherited." But when this same reality is spoken of in its separate (vya,c1)) forms, it of in is named Mahalakmi,, Mahakall and Mahasarasvati. What is crucial for named Mahlakm Mahkl and Mahsarasvat.16 a s a a a is Bhskararya istthat the shifting from samagl to vyagl forms of Mahlakm, that a a s 16a W h a i s c r samaci i vyatil u st a s Bhaskarardya of Mahalakmi, unmanifest is, from aggregate to separate, or moving from the level of f from aggregate to separate, or moving from the "level" o f the unmanifest o r (avy k t ) to that of the manifest (vik ti), or from the Prdhnika to the Vaik tika a ra r a a r (avyakrta) of the (vikrtz), or from the Pradhanika to the Vaikt-tika we are not moving a secondary diminished The Rasasya, we are not moving to a secondary or diminished form of reality. The is still ultimate. The ontological connection ultimate is still ultimate. The ontological connection is still utter, for reality is a seamless s virtually seamless web. The Goddess, the great slayer of Mahia and other demons, slayer of Mahip other demons,

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whose activity is described in the verses of the Devi-Mahatmya, whose power is described verses of the Dev-M h tmya, whose power is a a accessible those mantras, also of accessible in those mantras, is also the foundation of the universe. Given th e narrative and hymnic nature o f the Devi-Mahamiya, the narrative and hymnic nature of the Dev-M h tmya, a a Bhskararya is hard-pressed to nd textual support for this interpretation. But Bhaskararaya hard-pressed a a the variant reading that he accepts for this crucial verse provides him with an variant reading that he accepts for this crucial verse provides important piece of evidence. It gives him a specic reference to the avy k t form of evidence. gives a specic avyakrta form a ra of Mahlakm. She is the one whom Bhaskararaya understands to be referred to Mahalakgni. She a s Bhskararya understands be a a by the ablative case "her." In his own words, the form that is designated Klik, case her. designated Kalika, a a who is essentially the same as Parvati (a matter to which we shall return in a is essentially the same as Prvat matter a shall moment), this very form "came forth from the presence of the highest deity this very form came forth from the presence of highest deity (paradevat : comm. on 5.40," that is from the unspecied "her" in the variant a unspecied her (paradevata: comm. on 5.41), that reading. She is the transcendent Goddess who looms behind all specic activity, She the transcendent Goddess specic who forms the backdrop and underpinning of all particular existence. Elsewhere, of all particular existence. Elsewhere, using a term that is deliberately reminiscent of Gaudapdas famous Krik on the a a a of Gaudapada's famous Karika M n ukya Upani,cad, Bhaskararaya calls this foundational samagl Mahlakm a d s a a s a s Mandukya Upaniad, Bhskararya calls this foundational samati Mahalakmi tury , "the fourth.17 In developing this point, Bhaskararaya maintains that the a Bhskararya maintains that the a a turiya, the fourth." 17 developing verb vinirgam, to go forth, can be used either in the mundane fashion, asin going as "going either forth to bathe," or metaphysically, to describe the relationship between the highest bathe, between the highest avy k t form of Mahlakm and her several other vik ti forms. But it cannot be a ra a s her several other vikrti r be avyakrta Mahalakmi used, he says, with the highest form of Mahlakm as the subject of the verb he says, with the highest form a s Mahalakmi as the subject of because it is improper to impute action to the highest deity, just asit is improper to as it is improper to improper highest impute color to her. Following this line of thinking on the word vibh ti that we her. Following u of thinking vibhuti that we noted above, he argues that this verb cannot be used to describe the relationship above, he argues between Kauiki/Ambika and the Parvati from whom she sprang because there is Kauik/Ambik s a Prvat a whom she sprang because no essential difference between them. They are, as it were, on a par with each essential difference between them. They are, as were, on par each other, virtually interchangeable vikrti forms. What they have in common outvirtually interchangeable vik ti r What they have weighs by far the contrast in which they both stand to the transcendent Mathe contrast they stand transcendent weighs by hlakm from whom they have "come forth." a s have come forth. halakgni Let me conclude by suggesting that this admittedly technical discussion may suggesting technical may help in understanding the relationship between the different strands of Hindu understanding relationship between strands of Hindu tradition, in particular, the strands of bhakti, philosophy (dars'ana) as represented philosophy (darana) as s of by Advaita Vedanta, and the Tantra. Let me do so in heuristic fashion, with a Advaita Vednta, and the a Let so a diagram that points toward an aphorism. that points toward an The diagram asks us to think of the Hindu tradition as a conversation in diagram asks us as conversation of which there are three participants, visualized structurally as a triangle with three structurally as three vertices. At one vertex is the great mythology of popular Hinduism, as found in one as of popular the Purarjas. Its animating spirit is bhakti, devotion, and its narratives move Purnas. Its animating spirit is bhakti, devotion, and its narratives move a unselfconsciously and unsystematically through a variety of philosophical views. and unsystematically a philosophical Casually informed by arial(hya terminology, the accounts are more or lless dualisSamkhya ess dualistic in their ontologies, and in their understanding of the relationship between in their ontologies, and their understanding between male and female deities (Radha and Kly Prvat and Siva, Sakti and Siva). They (Rdh a a rsna, a male K are also casually dualistic in their varied understandings of the relationship beunderstandings of be. also casually dualistic tweenP a randa t i deities and human beings and of the relationship between male v female beings between of the la , a n d i v a , a k t i a n d i v a ) .

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both of these and the material world. While Purauic myths may invoke the of these and the material world. While Purnic myths may invoke the a concept of m y in a narrative (not philosophical) sort of way, they basically afrm maya a aa of they basically afrm a single epistemology: the commonsense world, though slippery, is more or lless a single epistemology: the commonsense though or ess knowable as it is presented to us. The point throughout the Purnas is nurturance as Purarjas is nurturance a and expression of the devotional spirit, glorication of God, or of Goddess, or of expression of God, or of Goddess, or of both. Although the Dev-M h tmya is distinctive in its effort to place the Goddess Devi-Mahatmya a a place the Goddess at center stage, it is nicely representative of this Purnic devotional spirit, where, as of this Purauic devotional a as the great Bengali bhakta Ramprasad, would have said it, the goal is to taste the great Bengali bhakta Rmprasd, would have a a the goal taste sugar of the divine, not to becomeit.18 The other two partners in the conversation, sugar of become it." other partners the occupying the other two vertices, are concerned to resolve the tensions and philoare sophical problems inherent in the casually dualistic myths and hymns of devoproblems inherent the casually and devotional fervor. What we have met in the commentaries on the Devi-Mahatmya are fervor. What we have Dev-M h tmya a a two such efforts. Both of them move toward nondualism, but they do so in quite such Both different ways, and so each occupies a different vertex of the triangle. ways, and so each occupies a Advaita Vedanta, as represented by Ngoji Bhata, can make sense" of the Vednta, as a a t by Nagoji Bhatta, can "make sense of the Dev-M h tmya, including the puzzling passage we has been considering, by a a Devi-Mahatmya, including the puzzling passage we has been considering, by afrming an ontological monism. But it can do so only by afrming as well an an ontological monism. But can so as epistemological dualism. Ultimately, the Goddess and her activity and the text are Goddess her are relegated to the realm of ordinary, less-than-ultimate knowledge. Only Brahmna relegated of Only Brahmanwithout-qualities is nally real. Tantrics as represented by Bhaskararaya, can also make sense" of the Devas Bhskararya, a a "make sense of the DeviM h tmya asa whole, and of our puzzling passage, and they, too, adopt a monistic a a passage, Mahatmya as of our adopt a monistic position. But they are unwilling to ascribe secondary status to the physical world, they secondary status physical or to the senses, or to the manifest diversity of the Goddess's forms. The way in the senses, the Goddesss way of which they avoid epistemological dualism is not philosophically, but ritually they avoid epistemological dualism is ritually through the esoteric, experiential transformation of the world. This is surely one of the surely one reason for Bhaskararaya's preoccupation elsewhere in his commentary with the for Bhskararyas preoccupation elsewhere a a commentary proper ritual use of the text. What differentiates the two nondualisms, then, is that proper of the is that oneAdvaita Vedanta i s of a public and profoundly philosophical sort, while Vedntais a a and philosophical the otherTantrainclines toward a private and ritualized experience o f otherTantrainclines toward a private and ritualized experience of oneness. oneness.19 1 9 My aphorism, which I offer by way of summarizing our discussion, is this: of summarizing our Purnic bhakti, reecting Smkhya, afrms an ontological dualism and so is a a Purauic Sarikhya, dualism able to afrm a single epistemology. Nondual Vednta afrms an ontological a able to afrm a single epistemology. Nondual Vedanta afrms an ontological monism, but the price it pays for this is epistemological dualism. Tantric nondualnondualalso experienism also afrms a monistic ontology, but relies on the esoteric, ritualized, experiential transformation of the material world in order to avoid a dualistic epistemology. order
NOTES Charts 5.1 and 5.2 are reproduced with permission from Thomas B. Coburn, EncounCharts 5.1 and 5.2 are reproduced with permission from Thomas B. Coburn, Encountering the Goddess: A Translation off the Devi-Mahatmya and a Study of f Its Interpretation a a tering the Goddess: A Translation o the Dev-M h tmya and a Study o Its Interpretation (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1991). (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1991).

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1. Andr e Padoux, "Tantrism," The Encyclopedia of Religion, ed. Mircea Eliade (New Andr Padoux, Tantrism, The e of Religion, ed. Mircea York: Macmillan, 1986), 14:273. Macmillan, 1986), 2. Madeleine Biardeau, Hinduism: The Anthropology of a Civilization, trans. Richard Madeleine Biardeau, Hinduism: of a Nice (Delhi: Oxfor d University Press, 1989), 156. Oxford Press, 3. Thomas Coburn, Encountering the Goddess: A Translation of the Dev-M h tmya Thomas Encountering the Goddess: A Translation of the Devi-Mahatmya a a and a Study of Its Interpretation (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1991). of Its State University 4. Ibi d., 52- 53; Devi-Mahatmya 5.1- 6. Ibid., 5253; Dev-M h tmya 5.16. a a 5. Coburn, Encountering the Goddess, 55. Coburn, Encountering the 6. See Thomas B. Coburn, Devi-Mahatmya: The Crystallization of the Goddess TradiSee Dev-M h tmya: The Crystallization of theGoddess Tradi a a tion (Delhi and Columbia: M otilal Banarsidass and South Asia Books, 1984) , 80n, 137, Motilal Asia 1984), tion 14653, 247- 49n. 247 49n. 146- 53, 7. F or fuller discussion of the Rahasyas, see Coburn, Encountering The Goddess, chapFor fuller Rahasyas, see Encountering The ter 5, esp. 109- 117. 5, esp. 109117. 8. A. N . Jani, cited in ibid., 109. A. N. Jani, cited i n 9. Ibi d., 101, and 209, 8n. Ibid., 10. H er e I follow the Sanskrit text given iin The Siva M ahapur 4a, ed. Pushpendra a a 10. Here I follow the Sanskrit text given n The Siva Mah pur na, ed. Pushpendra Kumar (Delhi: Nag Publishers, 1981). See also the Siva Pural:/a, trans. Board of Scholars (Delhi: Nag Publishers, 1981). See also the Siva Pur na, trans. Board of Scholars a Kumar (Delhi, Vanarasi and Patna: Motilal Banarsidass, 1970). Patna: Motilal Banarsidass, 1970). (Delhi, Vanarasi 11. T he commentaries o f Ngoji Bhatta and Bhaskararaya on which I draw in the The commentaries of Nagoji Bhata and Bhskararya on which I draw i n the a t a a 11. ensuing discussion are those published in Durga-saptafatz saptaik -samvalit [The Durg discussion are those published in Durg -saptaat saptatika-samvalita [The Durga a s t a a a ensuing Saptaat w i th seven commentaries], ed. Harikrsnasarma (Bombay: Venkatesvara Press, s with seven commentaries], ed. Harikrsnasarma (Bombay: Venkatesvara Press, Saptagati 1916; and Delhi and Baroda: Butala and Company, 1984). 1916; and Delhi and Baroda: Butala and Company, 1984). 12. Coburn, Encountering the Goddess, 129-31. 12931. 12. Coburn, Encountering the 13. See Eliot Deutsch, Advaita Vedanta: A Philosophical Reconstruction (Honolulu: See Eliot Deutsch, Advaita Ved nta: a Philosophical Reconstruction 13. University of Hawaii Press, 1969), 15- 26. of Hawaii Press, 1969), 1526. University 14. See Coburn, Encountering The Goddess, 12229. Encountering The 14. See 122-29. 15. Ingalls made this suggestion orally in 1971, in discussing the Bhagavad Gt s use of Ingalls made this suggestion orally in 1971, in discussing the Bhagavad Gita's use of a 15. the word. word. 16. For more on samagl and vya,ct , see Coburn, Encountering The Goddess, 135-39, samati s vyati, see s Encountering The Goddess, 13539, 16. For 14243. 43. 14217. See Bhaskararaya's comment on Pradhanika Rahasya 4, Durga-saptajati. a a a a a s 17. See Bhskararyas comment on Prdhnika Rahasya 4, Durg -saptaat. 18. See Coburn, Encountering The Goddess, 166 and 22728, 73n. See Coburn, Encountering The Goddess, 166 and 227- 28, 73n. 18. 19. T he recent work of Douglas R. Brooks is very provocative in thinking about these 19. The recent work of Douglas R. Brooks is very provocative in thinking about these a matters: The Secret of the Three Cities: An Introduction to Hindu S kta Tantrism (Chicago Secret of the Three An Introduction to Hindu Sakta Tantrism (Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1990), particularly 93, 12728. London: The University of Chicago Press, 1990), particularly 93, 127- 28. and