For the price of a USB hard drive, you can turn theRaspberry Pi into a super cheap and supremely

flexible networkattached storage box. To start with, we're going to enable SSH on the device. SSH is a secure shell protocol, and is a way of accessing the command line of your Pi from across your network. This is particularly important with the Pi, because sitting in front of a television isn't the best place for hacking. SSH will let you hack away from any other Linux, Windows or OS X box. Although SSH is included by default on the Debian distribution we've installed, it's not running. To get it started, log in to your Pi (the default username is 'pi' with a password of 'raspberry'), and type the following: sudo service ssh start If you're new to Linux, this line may look as if it's written in a foreign language, but after it's decoded, it's very easy to understand. Single words on the command line usually launch a utility of the same name, or provide instructions to the utility about what to do. In the above command, 'sudo' is a utility that lets you run other commands with administrator privileges, 'service' is the tool used to run a script from the /etc/init.d directory, and 'ssh start' is the extra information 'service' needs to run - the first being the service to modify - ssh - and the second being what to do with it - start. This could also be stop or restart. You can find out about commands by typing man followed by the name of the command. Type man sudo, for instance, if you want to discover more about the sudo command. We also want to start SSH when we boot the Raspberry Pi, and we can do this with another command: sudo insserv ssh If you type man insserv, you'll see that this is the command for enabling a script to be run when the system boots, and now that SSH is up and running, you won't even need to connect your Pi to a keyboard, mouse and screen. As long as it's connected to the network, you'll be able to use SSH to control the device remotely - but before you can do this, you need to know the device's IP address. The Raspberry Pi tells you its IP address at the end of the boot output, but you can also find it by typing ifconfig and looking for the number to the right of 'inet addr' in the eth0 section. The ifconfig command is powerful and can be used to change lots of thing about the network, as well as outputting the current configuration. The 'lo' device, listed under the Ethernet port, is a virtual loopback device, which is useful for when you want to access services running on the Pi from the Pi itself. Now you've got the IP address of the Raspberry Pi, from another machine on the same network, type ssh pi@192.168.1.25 - but replace the IP address with your own. You'll be asked for the password, after which you'll find yourself at exactly the same command prompt as on the machine itself, and you can do all the same things you can from the command line through this SSH connection. Welcome to the wonderful world of telecommuting!

Package management

The interface to this is called apt . At the top. the package cache has updated and the view is split into three. although maybe not from the command line. but you can also press [Ctrl]+[T] to switch the input focus to the menus manually. On Linux. it uses the same packaging scheme (with different packages). and you can skip up and down the package list with either the cursor keys or with [Page Up] and [Page Down]. but it also offers a primitive command line interface. As Ubuntu is based on Debian. On Linux. As our Raspberry Pi operating system is Debian. Installing something is as simple as typing: apt-get install packagename However. After launch. there's a menu. and package managers can be distro-specific. as these are the libraries and applications required to run whatever you want to install. this is usually done through something called a package manager . . and you'll find it a lot easier to navigate than using the command line alone. A click should work if you've got a mouse attached. you need to jump to the top menu.the advanced package tool. This appears if you type aptitude on its own. you're going to want to install additional software on your RPi.a concept that's broadly the same as an app store.Sooner or later. Beneath this is a list of packages you can move through with the cursor keys.a utility called aptitude. we'll be using Debian's package manager. and below this is the output from any options you choose. You can use it on the command line to search for and install packages (aptitude search packagename and aptitude install packagename). even if you're using an SSH connection. and it's downloaded for you automatically. The search updates the discovered packages in real time. You decide what program you want to install. To search for a package. there's an easier way . so it's highly likely you'll have already encountered it. the download includes any dependencies too.

and you'll need to open this with a text editor as the system administrator. but you can get around this restriction by adding new repositories. but their dubious legality prohibits them from being included with Debian packages. We installed the Commodore 64 emulator Vice for example. The contrib archive contains free packages that depend on packages listed on the non-free archive . From the command line. you need to download the ROMs required by the emulator to run properly.gz sudo cp -a vice-1.5-roms/data/*/usr/lib/vice/ . you can unzip the ROMs from the Windows version and put them in the correct location with the following couple of commands: tar xvf vice-1. If you are legally entitled to do so.list file. They're part of the Windows version of Vice.list. With the file open. Now type: sudo apt-get update You should now be able to install lots of other packages that weren't available initially. and won't contain anything considered not to be part of the Debian operating system.5-roms.tar.a repository that should already be in your sources. as a way of putting our Pi in touch with its 80s home computer roots. the repository used by Debian is rather strict. To get this to work on your own Pi. you need to add the word contrib to the end of the first line (the one ending with 'squeeze main'). You will find the list of repositories in the /etc/apt/sources.list text file. By default.These packages are downloaded from something called a repository. type apt-get install vice (this wouldn't have worked before). you can do this by typing sudo nano /etc/apt/sources. After that has completed.

just as its packages are different to downloadable executables. Working sound The reason why there's no working sound. We'd recommend using the autostart option. at least with the early version of Debian we're using.which is a module to allow users to dynamically mount remote filesystems. We got pretty good performance out of the emulator. You'll need to use the emulator while it's connected to a real screen rather than through SSH.1 followed byRUN to launch the default game on any disc image. and drivers are usually part of the kernel rather than separate entities that need to be downloaded and installed. Even if the framerate occasionally drops below 10 per cent. is because the driver to handle the sound device hasn't been loaded. along with any of its dependencies.the kernel detects their presence and loads the driver automatically. and we were able to play most games at around 100 per cent speed. they have no need of most of the modularised drivers. and if you typesudo lsmod on the command line. Our installation shows just one . However. These are modules the sound driver needs to work. the games are still playable. but thanks to Vice's point and click interface. This is why so many devices work without any manual intervention .fuse . you'd usually see a long list of the modules that have already been loaded. you need only to click on the file menu to open a requester and launch your games. because the distributions built for Raspberry Pi know exactly what kind of hardware they're running on. as this will begin the loading process without you having to remember to type LOAD "*". Drivers that can be loaded dynamically like this are called 'modules'. and you can load it by typing: sudo modprobe snd_bcm2835 If you type lsmod again.You can now start the emulator by typing x64. You can now check sound is working from the desktop by plugging a pair of headphones or speakers into the Pi's audio output and running the Music Player application from the Sound and Video menu. . Except sound.8. The sound module should already be part of your distribution. you'll see that this module has been loaded. The Debian installation even includes a piece of music for you to test. Linux drivers are different to Windows drivers.

which is a stable and widely used reimplementation of Microsoft's networking protocol. we're going to turn our Raspberry Pi into a NAS. you'll need to re-enable sound in the Vice emulator to hear anything. and make sure it's permanent. Look in this output for something like sda: . We've found the sound module to be pretty flaky on the Raspberry Pi.sharing files and playing music. increasing the buffer and fragment sizes and turning off filter emulation in Vice's settings menus. but you should find that the module is loaded automatically when you restart the Pi. we'd also recommend lowering the sample rate. and at the end you should see the part where your system is dealing with the inserting of the USB stick. and the SSH server we started earlier. As we're going to be using a remote drive connected via USB.With audio now working. we need to create a point on the filesystem for this to be accessible. sometimes hanging audio apps. Processes like these. It can be installed with a single command: sudo apt-get install samba After the installation has completed. This might be why it isn't enabled by default. As this starts to push the CPU to the limit. it's the best way of setting up a file sharing server that everyone can access. Combine this with sound playback on the unit. and you could even start to use the Raspberry Pi at the centre of a media hub . As this is used by Windows. two background processes will start. just add the name of the module (snd_bcm2835) to the /etc/modules with a text editor. At the core of this functionality is a tool called Samba. We now need to define the part of the filesystem we're going to use to store the files. You'll need to be the system administrator to write the changes back. OS X and Linux to access remote shares. This will enable you to attach a USB hard drive to the unit and share those files across the network. After inserting a USB drive. File sharing For our last trick this issue. This displays the output of the system logs. Just delete this entry from the file to stop the module loading. but if you do want to load the module at boot time. all controlled from a remote connection. are usually called daemons. and they'll automatically handle any requests that are made over the network. type dmesg. or typermmod snd_bcm2835 to remove the loaded module while the system is running.

To do this. add the following line to /etc/fstab: /dev/sda1 /mnt/share vfat defaults 0 0 This line takes the form of a source. Then we set a password for this account. and to use a native Linux filesystem. which is our USB device with a node taken from the output of dmesg. You'll then need to enter the username and password created in this step whenever you access the Samba share from a remote machine. you should see users as part of this list.sda1. such as ext3. If you type groups you'll see the list of groups your current user is a member of. followed by a filesystem type. We can do this from the command line. using the following two commands: sudo chown -R root:users /mnt/share sudo chmod -R ug+rwx /mnt/share The first of these changes ownership of all the files within the drive because the -R argument means that these changes will be made recursively. If you're using the default 'pi' username. we first need to create a new local account. You can do this with the following two commands: sudo useradd smbaccess -m -G users sudo passwd smbaccess sudo smbpasswd -a smbaccess First. keyword and two zeros. In order to add our device to the system. this is your unit's node on the virtual filesystem Linux uses to manage devices.conf: . to mount this folder at boot time. Save your changes to fstab and test whether the mount is working correctly by typing sudo mount/mnt/share. Otherwise. change the filesystem accordingly. It's far better to reformat the device in the same way we formatted the SD card. we need to add a user called smbaccess and make sure it's part of the group users. a destination. The only problematic part of this line is the filesystem type. Reading and writing If you find that this doesn't work. which is the folder we just created. We used mkdir/mnt/share to create a folder called 'share' in the pre-existing /mnt folder. you should be able to browse the contents of your USB device by pointing a file browser or the command line at /mnt/share. Take a look in /dev/ for an overwhelming list of what's possible. before adding the account to Samba. it might be exactly this. The second command ensures all files and folders are set to (r)ead. take a look at any new output from the dmesg command to get a better idea of what might have gone wrong. We now want to make sure that everyone can read and write to the shared folder. then. or it may be sdb. and this can be done by adding the following to the end of /etc/samba/smb. then link this to Samba. If all goes well. first we need to create a new folder to act as the root node for the device. We now want to create a user account you can use to access the share. that means any user that's also part of the users group will have group access too. Theroot:users part makes root (the system administrator) the owner. the defaults. because we're guessing it's going to be a Microsoftformatted USB stick (vfat in filesystem parlance). Either way. In Linux terms. Now comes the part where we ask Samba to share the mount point over the network. If you do this. your USB device should now mount automatically whenever you start up the Pi. (w)rite and e(x) ecutable for both the user and groups assigned to the files. but also assigns a group value of users.

133. and read and write these from any box on the network.168.1 into either the command launcher or file manager. you should type smb://smbuser@192. In KDE. and you can do this from any machine on the same network. for instance. followed by the IP address of your Raspberry Pi.[public] comment = Public path = /mnt/share valid users = @users force group = users create mask = 0660 directory mask = 0771 read only = no The final step is to restart Samba. Just use the smb protocol. which we can do by revisiting the first command from this tutorial: sudo service samba restart We're now ready to access our share. You'll then see your files. .

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