For the price of a USB hard drive, you can turn theRaspberry Pi into a super cheap and supremely

flexible networkattached storage box. To start with, we're going to enable SSH on the device. SSH is a secure shell protocol, and is a way of accessing the command line of your Pi from across your network. This is particularly important with the Pi, because sitting in front of a television isn't the best place for hacking. SSH will let you hack away from any other Linux, Windows or OS X box. Although SSH is included by default on the Debian distribution we've installed, it's not running. To get it started, log in to your Pi (the default username is 'pi' with a password of 'raspberry'), and type the following: sudo service ssh start If you're new to Linux, this line may look as if it's written in a foreign language, but after it's decoded, it's very easy to understand. Single words on the command line usually launch a utility of the same name, or provide instructions to the utility about what to do. In the above command, 'sudo' is a utility that lets you run other commands with administrator privileges, 'service' is the tool used to run a script from the /etc/init.d directory, and 'ssh start' is the extra information 'service' needs to run - the first being the service to modify - ssh - and the second being what to do with it - start. This could also be stop or restart. You can find out about commands by typing man followed by the name of the command. Type man sudo, for instance, if you want to discover more about the sudo command. We also want to start SSH when we boot the Raspberry Pi, and we can do this with another command: sudo insserv ssh If you type man insserv, you'll see that this is the command for enabling a script to be run when the system boots, and now that SSH is up and running, you won't even need to connect your Pi to a keyboard, mouse and screen. As long as it's connected to the network, you'll be able to use SSH to control the device remotely - but before you can do this, you need to know the device's IP address. The Raspberry Pi tells you its IP address at the end of the boot output, but you can also find it by typing ifconfig and looking for the number to the right of 'inet addr' in the eth0 section. The ifconfig command is powerful and can be used to change lots of thing about the network, as well as outputting the current configuration. The 'lo' device, listed under the Ethernet port, is a virtual loopback device, which is useful for when you want to access services running on the Pi from the Pi itself. Now you've got the IP address of the Raspberry Pi, from another machine on the same network, type ssh pi@ - but replace the IP address with your own. You'll be asked for the password, after which you'll find yourself at exactly the same command prompt as on the machine itself, and you can do all the same things you can from the command line through this SSH connection. Welcome to the wonderful world of telecommuting!

Package management

and you'll find it a lot easier to navigate than using the command line alone. Installing something is as simple as typing: apt-get install packagename However. this is usually done through something called a package manager . the package cache has updated and the view is split into three. A click should work if you've got a mouse attached. the download includes any dependencies too. and you can skip up and down the package list with either the cursor keys or with [Page Up] and [Page Down]. As our Raspberry Pi operating system is Debian. As Ubuntu is based on Debian.a concept that's broadly the same as an app store. there's an easier way . On Linux. This appears if you type aptitude on its own. even if you're using an SSH connection.the advanced package tool. you need to jump to the top menu. You decide what program you want to install. you're going to want to install additional software on your RPi. although maybe not from the command line.Sooner or later. On Linux. as these are the libraries and applications required to run whatever you want to install. and package managers can be distro-specific.a utility called aptitude. and below this is the output from any options you choose. so it's highly likely you'll have already encountered it. The interface to this is called apt . and it's downloaded for you automatically. there's a menu. but it also offers a primitive command line interface. At the top. Beneath this is a list of packages you can move through with the cursor keys. we'll be using Debian's package manager. You can use it on the command line to search for and install packages (aptitude search packagename and aptitude install packagename). but you can also press [Ctrl]+[T] to switch the input focus to the menus manually. After launch. . it uses the same packaging scheme (with different packages). To search for a package. The search updates the discovered packages in real time.

To get this to work on your own Pi. If you are legally entitled to do so.gz sudo cp -a vice-1.5-roms/data/*/usr/lib/vice/ . They're part of the Windows version of Vice.list text file. the repository used by Debian is rather strict. but you can get around this restriction by adding new repositories. Now type: sudo apt-get update You should now be able to install lots of other packages that weren't available initially. you need to download the ROMs required by the emulator to run properly.5-roms. After that has completed. From the command line. With the file open. you can do this by typing sudo nano /etc/apt/sources.list file.a repository that should already be in your sources. and you'll need to open this with a text editor as the system administrator. You will find the list of repositories in the /etc/apt/sources. as a way of putting our Pi in touch with its 80s home computer roots. and won't contain anything considered not to be part of the Debian operating system. you need to add the word contrib to the end of the first line (the one ending with 'squeeze main'). type apt-get install vice (this wouldn't have worked before). you can unzip the ROMs from the Windows version and put them in the correct location with the following couple of commands: tar xvf vice-1.tar. but their dubious legality prohibits them from being included with Debian packages.These packages are downloaded from something called a repository.list. We installed the Commodore 64 emulator Vice for example. The contrib archive contains free packages that depend on packages listed on the non-free archive . By default.

and we were able to play most games at around 100 per cent speed. at least with the early version of Debian we're using. Working sound The reason why there's no working sound. and if you typesudo lsmod on the command line. However. you'll see that this module has been loaded. We'd recommend using the autostart option. Linux drivers are different to Windows drivers.1 followed byRUN to launch the default game on any disc image.which is a module to allow users to dynamically mount remote filesystems.8. you'd usually see a long list of the modules that have already been loaded. just as its packages are different to downloadable executables. is because the driver to handle the sound device hasn't been loaded. You'll need to use the emulator while it's connected to a real screen rather than through SSH. but thanks to Vice's point and click interface. as this will begin the loading process without you having to remember to type LOAD "*". Except sound.fuse . These are modules the sound driver needs to work. The Debian installation even includes a piece of music for you to test. Our installation shows just one . the games are still playable.You can now start the emulator by typing x64. We got pretty good performance out of the emulator. Even if the framerate occasionally drops below 10 per cent. they have no need of most of the modularised drivers. The sound module should already be part of your distribution. .the kernel detects their presence and loads the driver automatically. and drivers are usually part of the kernel rather than separate entities that need to be downloaded and installed. you need only to click on the file menu to open a requester and launch your games. and you can load it by typing: sudo modprobe snd_bcm2835 If you type lsmod again. along with any of its dependencies. This is why so many devices work without any manual intervention . because the distributions built for Raspberry Pi know exactly what kind of hardware they're running on. Drivers that can be loaded dynamically like this are called 'modules'. You can now check sound is working from the desktop by plugging a pair of headphones or speakers into the Pi's audio output and running the Music Player application from the Sound and Video menu.

This might be why it isn't enabled by default. all controlled from a remote connection. we need to create a point on the filesystem for this to be accessible. Look in this output for something like sda: . and make sure it's permanent. it's the best way of setting up a file sharing server that everyone can access. As this starts to push the CPU to the limit. increasing the buffer and fragment sizes and turning off filter emulation in Vice's settings menus. or typermmod snd_bcm2835 to remove the loaded module while the system is running. and they'll automatically handle any requests that are made over the network. two background processes will start.With audio now working. After inserting a USB drive. just add the name of the module (snd_bcm2835) to the /etc/modules with a text editor.sharing files and playing music. Processes like these. but if you do want to load the module at boot time. you'll need to re-enable sound in the Vice emulator to hear anything. and you could even start to use the Raspberry Pi at the centre of a media hub . but you should find that the module is loaded automatically when you restart the Pi. It can be installed with a single command: sudo apt-get install samba After the installation has completed. which is a stable and widely used reimplementation of Microsoft's networking protocol. This will enable you to attach a USB hard drive to the unit and share those files across the network. we'd also recommend lowering the sample rate. You'll need to be the system administrator to write the changes back. OS X and Linux to access remote shares. File sharing For our last trick this issue. and at the end you should see the part where your system is dealing with the inserting of the USB stick. type dmesg. and the SSH server we started earlier. As we're going to be using a remote drive connected via USB. we're going to turn our Raspberry Pi into a NAS. are usually called daemons. At the core of this functionality is a tool called Samba. We now need to define the part of the filesystem we're going to use to store the files. Just delete this entry from the file to stop the module loading. This displays the output of the system logs. Combine this with sound playback on the unit. As this is used by Windows. We've found the sound module to be pretty flaky on the Raspberry Pi. sometimes hanging audio apps.

Then we set a password for this account. such as ext3. (w)rite and e(x) ecutable for both the user and groups assigned to the files. but also assigns a group value of users. before adding the account to Samba. using the following two commands: sudo chown -R root:users /mnt/share sudo chmod -R ug+rwx /mnt/share The first of these changes ownership of all the files within the drive because the -R argument means that these changes will be made recursively. We now want to make sure that everyone can read and write to the shared folder. To do this. this is your unit's node on the virtual filesystem Linux uses to manage devices. We can do this from the command line. you should be able to browse the contents of your USB device by pointing a file browser or the command line at /mnt/share. If you do this. You can do this with the following two commands: sudo useradd smbaccess -m -G users sudo passwd smbaccess sudo smbpasswd -a smbaccess First.sda1. take a look at any new output from the dmesg command to get a better idea of what might have gone wrong. that means any user that's also part of the users group will have group access too. then link this to Samba. first we need to create a new folder to act as the root node for the device. the defaults. The only problematic part of this line is the filesystem type. add the following line to /etc/fstab: /dev/sda1 /mnt/share vfat defaults 0 0 This line takes the form of a source. change the filesystem accordingly. You'll then need to enter the username and password created in this step whenever you access the Samba share from a remote machine. In order to add our device to the system. then. followed by a filesystem type. you should see users as part of this list. In Linux terms.conf: . and this can be done by adding the following to the end of /etc/samba/smb. Reading and writing If you find that this doesn't work. It's far better to reformat the device in the same way we formatted the SD card. which is our USB device with a node taken from the output of dmesg. The second command ensures all files and folders are set to (r)ead. to mount this folder at boot time. your USB device should now mount automatically whenever you start up the Pi. we need to add a user called smbaccess and make sure it's part of the group users. If all goes well. and to use a native Linux filesystem. it might be exactly this. Save your changes to fstab and test whether the mount is working correctly by typing sudo mount/mnt/share. We now want to create a user account you can use to access the share. a destination. which is the folder we just created. we first need to create a new local account. keyword and two zeros. because we're guessing it's going to be a Microsoftformatted USB stick (vfat in filesystem parlance). If you type groups you'll see the list of groups your current user is a member of. If you're using the default 'pi' username. Now comes the part where we ask Samba to share the mount point over the network. Theroot:users part makes root (the system administrator) the owner. Either way. Otherwise. Take a look in /dev/ for an overwhelming list of what's possible. or it may be sdb. We used mkdir/mnt/share to create a folder called 'share' in the pre-existing /mnt folder.

In KDE. you should type smb://smbuser@192. and you can do this from any machine on the same network. . which we can do by revisiting the first command from this tutorial: sudo service samba restart We're now ready to access our share.133.168. followed by the IP address of your Raspberry Pi. and read and write these from any box on the network.[public] comment = Public path = /mnt/share valid users = @users force group = users create mask = 0660 directory mask = 0771 read only = no The final step is to restart Samba. You'll then see your files.1 into either the command launcher or file manager. for instance. Just use the smb protocol.

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