For the price of a USB hard drive, you can turn theRaspberry Pi into a super cheap and supremely

flexible networkattached storage box. To start with, we're going to enable SSH on the device. SSH is a secure shell protocol, and is a way of accessing the command line of your Pi from across your network. This is particularly important with the Pi, because sitting in front of a television isn't the best place for hacking. SSH will let you hack away from any other Linux, Windows or OS X box. Although SSH is included by default on the Debian distribution we've installed, it's not running. To get it started, log in to your Pi (the default username is 'pi' with a password of 'raspberry'), and type the following: sudo service ssh start If you're new to Linux, this line may look as if it's written in a foreign language, but after it's decoded, it's very easy to understand. Single words on the command line usually launch a utility of the same name, or provide instructions to the utility about what to do. In the above command, 'sudo' is a utility that lets you run other commands with administrator privileges, 'service' is the tool used to run a script from the /etc/init.d directory, and 'ssh start' is the extra information 'service' needs to run - the first being the service to modify - ssh - and the second being what to do with it - start. This could also be stop or restart. You can find out about commands by typing man followed by the name of the command. Type man sudo, for instance, if you want to discover more about the sudo command. We also want to start SSH when we boot the Raspberry Pi, and we can do this with another command: sudo insserv ssh If you type man insserv, you'll see that this is the command for enabling a script to be run when the system boots, and now that SSH is up and running, you won't even need to connect your Pi to a keyboard, mouse and screen. As long as it's connected to the network, you'll be able to use SSH to control the device remotely - but before you can do this, you need to know the device's IP address. The Raspberry Pi tells you its IP address at the end of the boot output, but you can also find it by typing ifconfig and looking for the number to the right of 'inet addr' in the eth0 section. The ifconfig command is powerful and can be used to change lots of thing about the network, as well as outputting the current configuration. The 'lo' device, listed under the Ethernet port, is a virtual loopback device, which is useful for when you want to access services running on the Pi from the Pi itself. Now you've got the IP address of the Raspberry Pi, from another machine on the same network, type ssh pi@192.168.1.25 - but replace the IP address with your own. You'll be asked for the password, after which you'll find yourself at exactly the same command prompt as on the machine itself, and you can do all the same things you can from the command line through this SSH connection. Welcome to the wonderful world of telecommuting!

Package management

the advanced package tool. and package managers can be distro-specific.Sooner or later. this is usually done through something called a package manager . Installing something is as simple as typing: apt-get install packagename However. After launch. and it's downloaded for you automatically. although maybe not from the command line.a utility called aptitude. As Ubuntu is based on Debian. You decide what program you want to install. as these are the libraries and applications required to run whatever you want to install. but you can also press [Ctrl]+[T] to switch the input focus to the menus manually. there's a menu. you're going to want to install additional software on your RPi. The search updates the discovered packages in real time. and you can skip up and down the package list with either the cursor keys or with [Page Up] and [Page Down]. A click should work if you've got a mouse attached.a concept that's broadly the same as an app store. Beneath this is a list of packages you can move through with the cursor keys. The interface to this is called apt . even if you're using an SSH connection. the download includes any dependencies too. we'll be using Debian's package manager. To search for a package. . the package cache has updated and the view is split into three. it uses the same packaging scheme (with different packages). and you'll find it a lot easier to navigate than using the command line alone. there's an easier way . As our Raspberry Pi operating system is Debian. On Linux. At the top. you need to jump to the top menu. On Linux. You can use it on the command line to search for and install packages (aptitude search packagename and aptitude install packagename). This appears if you type aptitude on its own. and below this is the output from any options you choose. but it also offers a primitive command line interface. so it's highly likely you'll have already encountered it.

You will find the list of repositories in the /etc/apt/sources. you need to download the ROMs required by the emulator to run properly.gz sudo cp -a vice-1. but their dubious legality prohibits them from being included with Debian packages. the repository used by Debian is rather strict. you need to add the word contrib to the end of the first line (the one ending with 'squeeze main'). type apt-get install vice (this wouldn't have worked before). After that has completed. To get this to work on your own Pi. With the file open. By default.tar. you can do this by typing sudo nano /etc/apt/sources. Now type: sudo apt-get update You should now be able to install lots of other packages that weren't available initially. you can unzip the ROMs from the Windows version and put them in the correct location with the following couple of commands: tar xvf vice-1.a repository that should already be in your sources.5-roms. They're part of the Windows version of Vice. but you can get around this restriction by adding new repositories.list. We installed the Commodore 64 emulator Vice for example.These packages are downloaded from something called a repository. as a way of putting our Pi in touch with its 80s home computer roots.5-roms/data/*/usr/lib/vice/ . and won't contain anything considered not to be part of the Debian operating system.list file. If you are legally entitled to do so. From the command line. The contrib archive contains free packages that depend on packages listed on the non-free archive . and you'll need to open this with a text editor as the system administrator.list text file.

fuse . . at least with the early version of Debian we're using. We'd recommend using the autostart option. the games are still playable. is because the driver to handle the sound device hasn't been loaded. We got pretty good performance out of the emulator.1 followed byRUN to launch the default game on any disc image. you'd usually see a long list of the modules that have already been loaded.which is a module to allow users to dynamically mount remote filesystems. along with any of its dependencies. and we were able to play most games at around 100 per cent speed. as this will begin the loading process without you having to remember to type LOAD "*". Linux drivers are different to Windows drivers. You can now check sound is working from the desktop by plugging a pair of headphones or speakers into the Pi's audio output and running the Music Player application from the Sound and Video menu. This is why so many devices work without any manual intervention . You'll need to use the emulator while it's connected to a real screen rather than through SSH.the kernel detects their presence and loads the driver automatically. These are modules the sound driver needs to work.You can now start the emulator by typing x64. Working sound The reason why there's no working sound. Our installation shows just one . Except sound.8. you need only to click on the file menu to open a requester and launch your games. The sound module should already be part of your distribution. just as its packages are different to downloadable executables. because the distributions built for Raspberry Pi know exactly what kind of hardware they're running on. The Debian installation even includes a piece of music for you to test. and drivers are usually part of the kernel rather than separate entities that need to be downloaded and installed. and you can load it by typing: sudo modprobe snd_bcm2835 If you type lsmod again. and if you typesudo lsmod on the command line. Drivers that can be loaded dynamically like this are called 'modules'. However. they have no need of most of the modularised drivers. you'll see that this module has been loaded. but thanks to Vice's point and click interface. Even if the framerate occasionally drops below 10 per cent.

OS X and Linux to access remote shares. sometimes hanging audio apps. and at the end you should see the part where your system is dealing with the inserting of the USB stick. We now need to define the part of the filesystem we're going to use to store the files. and the SSH server we started earlier. This displays the output of the system logs. we need to create a point on the filesystem for this to be accessible. Processes like these. we're going to turn our Raspberry Pi into a NAS. As this starts to push the CPU to the limit. After inserting a USB drive. increasing the buffer and fragment sizes and turning off filter emulation in Vice's settings menus. You'll need to be the system administrator to write the changes back.sharing files and playing music. Just delete this entry from the file to stop the module loading. and make sure it's permanent. We've found the sound module to be pretty flaky on the Raspberry Pi. all controlled from a remote connection. Combine this with sound playback on the unit. and they'll automatically handle any requests that are made over the network. you'll need to re-enable sound in the Vice emulator to hear anything. it's the best way of setting up a file sharing server that everyone can access. are usually called daemons. which is a stable and widely used reimplementation of Microsoft's networking protocol. and you could even start to use the Raspberry Pi at the centre of a media hub . As we're going to be using a remote drive connected via USB. type dmesg. or typermmod snd_bcm2835 to remove the loaded module while the system is running. It can be installed with a single command: sudo apt-get install samba After the installation has completed. This might be why it isn't enabled by default. This will enable you to attach a USB hard drive to the unit and share those files across the network.With audio now working. File sharing For our last trick this issue. just add the name of the module (snd_bcm2835) to the /etc/modules with a text editor. but you should find that the module is loaded automatically when you restart the Pi. but if you do want to load the module at boot time. two background processes will start. At the core of this functionality is a tool called Samba. we'd also recommend lowering the sample rate. Look in this output for something like sda: . As this is used by Windows.

Reading and writing If you find that this doesn't work. In Linux terms.conf: . Take a look in /dev/ for an overwhelming list of what's possible. such as ext3. the defaults. or it may be sdb. The only problematic part of this line is the filesystem type. We now want to create a user account you can use to access the share. If you type groups you'll see the list of groups your current user is a member of. that means any user that's also part of the users group will have group access too. In order to add our device to the system. We now want to make sure that everyone can read and write to the shared folder. and to use a native Linux filesystem. Either way. then link this to Samba. this is your unit's node on the virtual filesystem Linux uses to manage devices. and this can be done by adding the following to the end of /etc/samba/smb. followed by a filesystem type. The second command ensures all files and folders are set to (r)ead. we first need to create a new local account. before adding the account to Samba. a destination. We used mkdir/mnt/share to create a folder called 'share' in the pre-existing /mnt folder. If all goes well. your USB device should now mount automatically whenever you start up the Pi. Save your changes to fstab and test whether the mount is working correctly by typing sudo mount/mnt/share. we need to add a user called smbaccess and make sure it's part of the group users. then.sda1. If you do this. which is our USB device with a node taken from the output of dmesg. to mount this folder at boot time. because we're guessing it's going to be a Microsoftformatted USB stick (vfat in filesystem parlance). You'll then need to enter the username and password created in this step whenever you access the Samba share from a remote machine. Then we set a password for this account. We can do this from the command line. it might be exactly this. Now comes the part where we ask Samba to share the mount point over the network. keyword and two zeros. It's far better to reformat the device in the same way we formatted the SD card. you should be able to browse the contents of your USB device by pointing a file browser or the command line at /mnt/share. (w)rite and e(x) ecutable for both the user and groups assigned to the files. If you're using the default 'pi' username. You can do this with the following two commands: sudo useradd smbaccess -m -G users sudo passwd smbaccess sudo smbpasswd -a smbaccess First. add the following line to /etc/fstab: /dev/sda1 /mnt/share vfat defaults 0 0 This line takes the form of a source. first we need to create a new folder to act as the root node for the device. but also assigns a group value of users. change the filesystem accordingly. To do this. take a look at any new output from the dmesg command to get a better idea of what might have gone wrong. using the following two commands: sudo chown -R root:users /mnt/share sudo chmod -R ug+rwx /mnt/share The first of these changes ownership of all the files within the drive because the -R argument means that these changes will be made recursively. Otherwise. Theroot:users part makes root (the system administrator) the owner. which is the folder we just created. you should see users as part of this list.

You'll then see your files.133.1 into either the command launcher or file manager. Just use the smb protocol. In KDE. for instance. and read and write these from any box on the network. followed by the IP address of your Raspberry Pi.168. which we can do by revisiting the first command from this tutorial: sudo service samba restart We're now ready to access our share. . you should type smb://smbuser@192. and you can do this from any machine on the same network.[public] comment = Public path = /mnt/share valid users = @users force group = users create mask = 0660 directory mask = 0771 read only = no The final step is to restart Samba.

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