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CIROS Mechatronics Manual

572757 EN 01/2010

Order No.: Edition: Authors: Graphics: Layout:

572757 01/2010 Christine Lffler Doris Schwarzenberger 07/2010, Beatrice Huber, Julia Saenscheidt

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG, 73770 Denkendorf, 2004-2010 Internet: www.festo-didactic.com E-Mail: did@de.festo.com

The copying, distribution and utilization of this document as well as the communication of its contents to others without express authorization is prohibited. Offenders will be held liable for the payment of damages. All rights reserved, in particular the right to carry out patent, utility model or ornamental design registration.

Contents

1. 2. 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 4. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 5. 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13

What will you learn from the manual? ____________________ 7 This is how you install CIROS Mechatronics _____________ 10 These functions support you with the preparation of PC workstations for students _______________________ 11 Description of files for a process model _________________ 11 Creating a user-specific work environment _______________ 12 Creating files with fault settings for a process model ______ 14 The CIROS Mechatronics system ______________________ 16 Overview of CIROS Mechatronics _____________________ 16 The process models of CIROS Mechatronics _____________ 18 Controlling the process models via internal PLC __________ 26 Controlling the process models via external PLC __________ 27 Functions for fault setting in the process model___________ 29 Functions for the analysis of process models _____________ 30 Important control functions of CIROS Mechatronics ______ 32 Loading a process model _____________________________ 32 Simulating a process model___________________________ 41 Displaying and operating a process model _______________ 45 Changing the view of a process model __________________ 51 The Inputs and Outputs windows ______________________ 55 The Manual Operation window ________________________ 56 Controlling a process model via the internal S7 PLC _______ 70 Controlling a process model via the external Soft PLC S7-PLCSIM _________________________________ 80 Controlling a process model via the external Soft PLC CoDeSys SP PLCWinNT _______________________ 92 Controlling a process model via an external PLC _________ 116 Setting faults in a process model _____________________ 132 Eliminating faults in a process model __________________ 139 Logging of eliminated faults _________________________ 144

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Contents

6. 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 7. 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 8.

The following training contents can be taught with CIROS Mechatronics _______________________________ 146 Training contents __________________________________ 146 Target group ______________________________________ 147 Previous knowledge ________________________________ 148 Example: Assigning training aims to training courses _____ 148 The training concept of CIROS Mechatronics ___________ 153 This is how you establish the mode of operation and structure of a system in CIROS Mechatronics ___________ 155 Training aims _____________________________________ 155 Methods _________________________________________ 156 Support via CIROS Mechatronics _____________________ 160 Example _________________________________________ 160 Example _________________________________________ 166 Example _________________________________________ 171 This is how you establish the mode of operation of the components forming part of a system in CIROS Mechatronics _______________________________ 176 Training aims _____________________________________ 176 Methods _________________________________________ 177 Support via CIROS Mechatronics _____________________ 177 Example _________________________________________ 178 This is how you use CIROS Mechatronics in PLC programming __________________________________ 185 Training aims _____________________________________ 185 Methods _________________________________________ 186 Support via CIROS Mechatronics _____________________ 187 Example _________________________________________ 188 Example _________________________________________ 197

8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 9. 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5

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Contents

10. 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4

This is how you carry out systematic fault finding on a simulated system ________________________________ 208 Training aims _____________________________________ 208 Methods _________________________________________ 209 This is how CIROS Mechatronics supports you __________ 216 Example _________________________________________ 216

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1. What will you learn from the manual?

What is CIROS Mechatronics?

CIROS Mechatronics is an application from the CIROS Automation Suite. CIROS Mechatronics is a PC-based graphic 3D simulation system consisting of preassembled process models. These process models represent automated systems of varying complexity. CIROS Mechatronics is a tool, which enables you to familiarise yourself with the mode of operation and structure of a system, to practise PLC programming and testing of the PLC programs und to carry out systematic fault finding on systems. These process models, also called work cells, are also available in the form of actual systems. In addition to the ready-made process models, CIROS Mechatronics also offers you the option of simulating process models of your own design. You can create and modify process models using CIROS Studio, which is a further application available from the CIROS Automation Suite.

Target group

This manual is intended for Trainers and teachers The manual provides ideas and suggestions on how CIROS Mechatronics can be used for tuition in vocational and further training. Trainees and students The information and instructions on how to operate COSMIR MECHATRONICS are of particular interest to the above.

Composition of the manual

The manual is subdivided into the following subject areas: Chapter 2 contains information and notes regarding the installation and licencing of CIROS Mechatronics. Chapter 3 contains information on how to set up CIROS Mechatronics on students PC workstations.

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1. What will you learn from the manual?

Chapters 4 and 5 describe the system and the main user functions of CIROS Mechatronics. Chapter 6 deals with didactic aspects and lists the training contents taught with CIROS Mechatronics . It also describes the training concept and the resulting possibilities for use in tuition. Chapters 7 to 10 describe actual problem definitions regarding the training contents, the methodical approach to solutions and their realisation in CIROS Mechatronics. The exercises are for example carried out on the Distributing station.

Conventions

Certain print formats have been used for text as well as key combinations and sequences to enable you to find information more easily.

Print format Bold

Meaning This format is used for command names, menu names, dialog window names, directory names and command options. A plus sign (+) between the key names means that you must press the keys mentioned simultaneously. A minus sign () between the key names means that you need to press the keys mentioned in succession.

Key1 + key2

Key1 key2

Additional support

Additional descriptions and support are available via the on-line Help. The on-line Help comprises CIROS Help with operation and CIROS Mechatronics Assistant.

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1. What will you learn from the manual?

The on-line Help consists of detailed information regarding the functions and operation of CIROS Mechatronics . CIROS Help is a component part of the CIROS Automation Suite and describes the functionality of various, different CIROS applications. The functional scope of CIROS Help is therefore greater than that required for CIROS Mechatronics. The menu bar of the on-line Help provides functions that you are already familiar with from using a standard Internet browser. These include: Next and back, select start page, print selected topics, show and hide the navigation bar or Internet connection options. The additional indexes such as Contents, Index, Search or Favourites, furthermore give you the option of conveniently navigating through the information provided in the Help menu of CIROS Mechatronics . CIROS Mechatronics Assistant provides detailed function descriptions and technical documentation for the individual process models. It also comprises a sample PLC program for the more complex process models. The PLC program is created in STEP 7. Moverover, CIROS Mechatronics Assistant offers you direct access to a particular process model. Adobe Acrobat Reader will need to be installed on your PC to view PDF documents. The Adobe Acrobat Reader program is available free of charge and can be downloaded via the Internet address www.adobe.com. Our telephone Hotline is available 24 hours, should you have any queries when installing or commissioning CIROS Mechatronics .

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2. This is how you install CIROS Mechatronics

To install CIROS Mechatronics you will need the CIROS Automation Suite DVD-ROM, where all the software packages of the CIROS Automation Suite are ready for installation. It also includes the manuals in the form of PDF documents for the individual software packages. On completion of the installation, you will need to execute the licencing. As soon as this is successfully completed you can start CIROS Mechatronics. For further information regarding system requirements, installation and licencing, please refer to the enclosed instructions.

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3.

These functions support you with the preparation of PC workstations for students

CIROS Mechatronics consists of functions to support you in the use of the software program during training. These include: An individual working environment that can be set up on each students PC. This working environment stores user specific data for CIROS Mechatronics. Files with fault settings for a process model can be centrally set up by instructors and easily copied to the PC workstation of the students.

3.1 Description of files for a process model

The example of the Distributing station process model is used to demonstrate which files belong to a process model and what information is stored in these files. The name of the directory for the Distributing process model is DistributingStation.

File DistributingStation.mod

Description Process model for simulation. The process model is controlled via the internal S7 PLC as standard. Initialisations for the process model: This file contains all user specific settings for the process model such as window configuration, fault settings, etc. Protocol of fault localisation: This file is read in the teacher mode and displayed in the fault log window. Export of fault log: Changes in the fault log are automatically exported to these files. These files can then for instance be viewed via Microsoft Internet Explorer or Microsoft Excel. Settings regarding fault setting: This file contains all settings regarding the activation, start, duration and type of a fault. If this file exists in the process model directory, then it overwrites the settings in the INI file. If not, then the fault settings stored in the INI file are used.

DistributingStation.ini

DistributingStation.prot

DistributingStation.htm DistributingStation.xls DistributingStation.txt DistributingStation.mcf

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3. These functions support you with the preparation of PC workstations for students

3.2 Creating a user-specific work environment

User-specific working environments consist in the main of the process models and files with the user specific data. User specific data are: Window configurations, Settings for the process model, Settings regarding fault setting, Protocol of fault localisation. In order to create a user-specific working environment, the process models are saved to a separate directory on the PC. Any user specific data is then also stored in this directory. For example, to set up the working environment for three different users on one PC, you will need to copy the process models into three different directories. Each user will then be working with his/her own directory, which corresponds to the users working environment. The user loads the process models with which he/she is working in CIROS Mechatronics from his/her directory. CIROS Mechatronics supports you with the setting up of user specific working environments. To do so, open up CIROS Mechatronics Assistant. CIROS Mechatronics differentiates between reference models und user models. Reference models are filed in the program directory of CIROS Mechatronics and are write protected. The model and associated PLC program cannot be modified. This ensures that the process model can be opened and correctly simulated at any time. User models, if created and opened with the help of CIROS Mechatronics Assistant, are filed as standard in your personal folder under My Documents\CIROS\CIROS Mechatronics Samples. These are not write protected and you therefore can for example modify the appropriate PLC programs and replace these with your own. The program directory with the user models represents your individual working environment for CIROS Mechatronics.

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3. These functions support you with the preparation of PC workstations for students

You can also copy the user models into a folder other than into the standard preset folder. You will find the information for this in CIROS Mechatronics Assistant.

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3. These functions support you with the preparation of PC workstations for students

3.3 Creating files with fault settings for a process model

Files with fault settings for a process model can be created centrally by teaching staff and copied to the PC workstations of students in a simple manner. This is how you create a file centrally with fault settings for a process model: 1. Start CIROS Mechatronics . 2. Load the desired process model, e.g. the process model Distributing Station. The process model is to be controlled via the internal PLC. 3. Open the Fault Setting window. To do so, activate Fault Setting under Fault Simulation in the Extras menu. 4. The Fault Setting window opens once you have entered the password. 5. Now set a fault for example for the PLC input 1B1. 6. Activate the context sensitive menu via the right mouse button and select the option Export.

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3. These functions support you with the preparation of PC workstations for students

7. The faults set for the process model DistributingStation.mod have been exported to the file DistributingStation.mcf. You will find this file in the same directory, in which the process model loaded at the time is also stored.

8. Now copy the file with the fault settings to the user specific working environments. Select the directory in which the relevant process model is stored as directory, in this case the Distributing Station process model.

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4. The CIROS Mechatronics system

CIROS Mechatronics comprises the following: The simulation software CIROS Mechatronics The communication software EzOPC The on-line CIROS Mechatronics Help The on-line CIROS Mechatronics Assistant Online Help for EzOPC A PDF document with information regarding the licencing and installation of a licence server A manual in the form of a PDF document for the operation of CIROS Mechatronics

4.1 Overview of CIROS Mechatronics

CIROS Mechatronics is a PC-based 3D simulation system with preassembled process models. In addition, CIROS Mechatronics also offers you the option of simulating process models of your own design apart from the preassembled process models. You can create and modify process models using CIROS Studio, which is a further product from the CIROS Automation Suite.

MC7-Code

Internal S7 PLC Operating functions

CIROS assistant CIROS help OPC-Client

Process models

EzOPC (OPC-Server)

Easy Port

S7-PLCSIM

CoDeSys PLCWinNT

External PLC

Component parts of CIROS Mechatronics

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4. The CIROS Mechatronics system

The following are required to simulate the operation of a process: A PLC and PLC program to control the process, The simulation to simulate the behaviour of the process. This simulation ensures for example, that cylinders move and sensors are activated. Sample PLC programs are available for complex process models. These PLC programs define a possible process control system. You can of course create new PLC programs that generate a different process execution. When loading a process model, the sample PLC program is automatically downloaded at the same time, provided that it exists. The PLC program is executed via a SIMATIC S7 simulator. This S7 simulator is a component part of CIROS Mechatronics . The integrated S7 simulator is also referred to as the internal PLC. Once the process model has been loaded, the process can be simulated immediately. The advantage with this is that you can familiarise yourself with, activate and monitor the process. Plus there is no need for you to have created a PLC program beforehand. One particular additional function offered by CIROS Mechatronics is the possibility of simulating faults, whereby you can set typical faults in a process model. The following can for example be causes of malfunction: A mechanically displaced sensor, a cable break or failure of an entire module. The cause of the fault must be found by means of systematic fault finding and eliminated. One of the main focal points of CIROS Mechatronics is the monitoring and analysis of processes and elimination of faults. Another focal point is the creation of your own PLC programs for the process models. These PLC programs are loaded to an external PLC and CIROS Mechatronics exchanges the input/output signals with the external PLC via the OPC interface.

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4. The CIROS Mechatronics system

The following can be used as external PLCs Any actual PLC The Soft PLC SIMATIC S7-PLCSIM The soft PLC CoDeSys SP PLCWinNT CIROS Mechatronics requires the software program EzOPC for connection to an external PLC. The OPC server EzOPC communicates with any PLC via the EasyPort interface.

4.2 The process models of CIROS Mechatronics

The process models are realistic replicas of actual working stations and modules. For each process model, there is a work cell. An exception is the MPS B distributing, processing and sorting stations. For these process models, there are three work cells in each case. It is apparent from the name, via which PLC the process model is to be controlled. For example, in the case of the MPS distributing station this is as follows: DistributingStation_B.mod: Control via the internal S7-PLC. DistributingStation_B(PLCSIM).mod: Control via the external PLC S7 PLCSim. DistributingStation_B(EasyPort).mod: Control via an external PLC via EasyPort. In the case of the MPS B testing station, there is only one work cell due to the analogue processing. This work cell is controlled via the internal S7-PLC. For all other process models, precisely one work cell is available. The setting as to which PLC is to control the process model can be effected in a CIROS Mechatronics menu item.

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4. The CIROS Mechatronics system

Process model Processing Station

Description The process model represents a simulation of the MPS Processing Station of Festo Didactic. In this work cell, workpieces are to be tested, processed and transferred to the adjacent station. A sample PLC program is available for this process model. The process model represents a simulation of the Festo Didactic MPS B Processing Station. In this work cell, workpieces are to be tested, processed and transferred to the adjacent station. A sample PLC program is available for this process model. The process model represents a simulation of the MPS Fluidic Muscle Press Station of Festo Didactic. In this work cell, workpiece inserts are to be pressfitted with workpiece housings and the finished workpiece transported to the transfer station. A sample PLC program is available for this process model.

File name ProcessingStation.mod

B Processing Station

ProcessingStation_B.mod ProcessingStation_B(PLCSIM). mod ProcessingStation_B(EasyPort ).mod

Fluidic Muscle Press Station

FluidicMuscleStation.mod

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4. The CIROS Mechatronics system

Process model Handling Station

Description The process model represents a simulation of the Festo Didactic MPS Handling Station. In this work cell, workpieces are to be removed from a retainer and, depending on the results of material testing, deposited on a slide. A sample PLC program is available for this process model. The process model represents a simulation of the Festo Didactic Stacker Store. In this work cell, workpieces are to be put into and removed from storage. A sample PLC program is available for this process model.

File name HandlingStation.mod

Stacker Store Station

StoreWorkCell.mod

Pick & Place Station

The process model represents a simulation of the Festo Didactic MPS Pick & Place Station. In this work cell, workpiece inserts are to be placed onto the workpiece housings and the complete workpiece transported to the transfer position. A sample PLC program is available for this process model.

PickAndPlaceStation.mod

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4. The CIROS Mechatronics system

Process model Testing Station

Description The process model represents a simulation of the Festo Didactic MPS Testing Station. In this work cell, the material characteristics of the workpieces is to be determined and the workpiece height checked. Depending on the test result, the workpiece is either ejected or transferred to the adjacent station. A sample PLC program is available for this process model. The process model represents a simulation of the Festo Didactic MPS B Testing Station. In this work cell, the material quality of the workpieces is to be determined and the workpiece height checked. Depending on the test result, the workpiece is to be ejected or transferred to the adjacent station. A sample PLC program is available for this process model. The process model represents a simulation of the Festo Didactic MPS Buffer Station. In this work cell, workpieces are to be transported, buffered and separated out. A sample PLC program is available for this process model.

File name TestingStation.mod

B Testing Station

TestingStation_B.mod Note: The process model can only be controlled using the internal PLC.

Buffer Station

BufferStation.mod

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4. The CIROS Mechatronics system

Process model Sorting Station

Description The process model represents a simulation of the Festo Didactic MPS Sorting Station. In this work cell, workpieces are to be sorted according to material and colour. A sample PLC program is available for this process model.

File name SortingStation.mod

B Sorting Station

The process model represents a simulation of the Festo Didactic MPS B Sorting Station. In this work cell, workpieces are to be sorted according to material and colour. A sample PLC program is available for this process model.

SortingStation_B.mod SortingStation_B(PLCSIM).mo d SortingStation_B(EasyPort).m od

Separating Station

The process model represents a simulation of the Festo Didactic Separating Station. In this work cell, workpieces are to be differentiated and separated into two material flow directions. The basic bodies for the cylinder are further transported on conveyor 1, and the housings for the measuring instruments on conveyor 2, and then transferred to the adjacent stations. A sample PLC program is available for this process model.

SeparatingStation.mod

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4. The CIROS Mechatronics system

Process model Distributing Station

Description The process model represents a simulation of the Festo Didactic MPS Distributing Station. In this work cell, workpieces are to be separated out and transferred to the adjacent station. A sample PLC program is available for this process model. The process model represents a simulation of the Festo Didactic MPS B Distributing Station. In this work cell, workpieces are to be separated out and transferred to the adjacent station. A sample PLC program is available for this process model. The process model represents a simulation of the Festo Didactic MPS Rotary Indexing Table module. In this work cell, workpieces are to be tested and polished in two parallel sequences.

File name DistributingStation.mod

B Distributing Station

DistributingStation_B.mod DistributingStation_B(PLCSIM ).mod DistributingStation_B(EasyPor t).mod

Rotary Indexing Table Module

RotaryTable.mod

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4. The CIROS Mechatronics system

Process model Stacking Magazine Module

Description The process model represents a simulation of the Festo Didactic MPS Stacking Magazine module. In this work cell, workpieces are to be separated out from the magazine.

File name StackMagazine.mod

Changer Module

The process model represents a simulation of the Festo Didactic MPS Changer module. In this work cell, workpieces are to be picked up by a vacuum suction cup and transferred by means of a semi-rotary actuator.

ChangerModule.mod

Sorting System Project Module

The process model represents a simulation of the Sorting System project module of Festo Didactic. In this work cell, workpieces are to be transported via the conveyor belt and sorted according to different material characteristics. A sample PLC program is available for this process model.

SortingSystem.mod

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4. The CIROS Mechatronics system

Process model Conveyor Project Module

Description The process model represents a simulation of the MPS Conveyor project module of Festo Didactic. The conveyor enables you to connect MPS stations. The conveyor is to transport and buffer workpieces. The conveyor is available in four stages of expansion. A sample PLC program is available for this process model.

File name Conveyor1.mod Conveyor2.mod Conveyor3.mod Conveyor4.mod

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4. The CIROS Mechatronics system

4.3 Controlling the process models via internal PLC

The PLC integrated into CIROS Mechatronics is a SIMATIC S7 simulator. The S7 simulator can execute LDR, FCH and STL programs created in STEP 7. The internal PLC executes the sample PLC programs provided for the process models and enables you to immediately simulate the processes. Detailed information regarding the function scope of the internal PLC is available via the CIROS on-line Help.

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4. The CIROS Mechatronics system

4.4 Controlling the process models via external PLC

If you are creating and testing your own PLC programs, we recommend that you download the programs to an external PLC and execute them from there. The advantage of this is that you can choose the PLC and programming system of your choice. Also, the testing and diagnostic functions designated by the program for this purpose are available to you for fault finding in the PLC program. This includes the status display of PLC input/outputs and variables, the on-line display of the PLC program and also the read-out of machine statuses. If you are using the Soft PLC S7-PLCSIM or CoDeSys SP PLCWinNT as external PLC, you do not require any additional hardware components.

Information exchange with configuration via external Soft PLC S7-PLCSIM

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4. The CIROS Mechatronics system

If you are using a hardware PLC as external PLC, you will require EasyPort and the data cable for the exchange of input/output signals. EasyPort transmits the input/output signals of the PLC to the OPC server ExOPC via the serial or the USB interface of the PC and the OPC server passes on the data to the process model simulation. Conversely, the statuses of sensors and actuators are communicated from the process model to the external PLC.

Information exchange with configuration via external hardware PLC

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4. The CIROS Mechatronics system

4.5 Functions for fault setting in the process model

The dialog window for fault setting is password protected. Only instructors have access to this dialog. A list of typical faults is available for each process model, from which you can select one or several faults.

The exercise for students is to identify and describe the fault within the process and to then determine the cause of it. The students then enter the suspected fault in the dialog window for fault elimination. If the fault has been correctly identified, the process will then function correctly. The entries in the dialog window for fault elimination are logged and can be seen by instructors and trainers.

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4. The CIROS Mechatronics system

4.6 Functions for the analysis of process models

CIROS Mechatronics offers you various options of monitoring and analysing the execution of a process. As soon as the simulation of a process model is active and a PLC is controlling the process, you can activate and visually monitor progress. The process is controlled by means of the keys and switches on the control console.

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4. The CIROS Mechatronics system

The electrical status of the process components is displayed by LEDs on the sensors and valves. If pressure is applied to a cylinder connection, the connection is highlighted in blue. The pneumatic tubing itself is not simulated. The statuses of the PLC inputs/outputs are shown in separate windows. An overview of all process statuses and process operations is provided in the Manual Operation window. If you want to run the process step-by-step, you need to use the Manual Operation as a tool to control the process. You can stop the process at defined points by setting breakpoints. In the absence of an active PLC program during process model simulation, you can use the Manual Operation window to activate individual process activities. This will enable you to, for instance, control the movement of a cylinder or switch on or off an electrical motor.

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5. Important control functions of CIROS Mechatronics

This chapter describes the main control functions of CIROS Mechatronics . MS Windows programs provides various options for activating commands. In this account, commands are initiated via the options in the menu bar. You can of course also use the symbols bar, appropriate key combinations or the context sensitive menu via the right mouse button. Detailed information regarding the use of all options in CIROS Mechatronics is available via the on-line Help for this software package.

5.1 Loading a process model

You can load preassembled process models with the help of CIROS Mechatronics Assistant or by using a menu bar command. Process models of your own design or modified process models are loaded solely via a menu bar command.

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5. Important control functions of CIROS Mechatronics

This is how you load a process model via CIROS Mechatronics Assistant 1. Start CIROS Mechatronics . Once CIROS Mechatronics is started, both the View window and the Help window are displayed.

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5. Important control functions of CIROS Mechatronics

2. In CIROS Mechatronics Assistant, navigate to the directory with the desired process model, for example to the Distrubuting Station directory. The process model is opened by clicking onto Open reference model.

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5. Important control functions of CIROS Mechatronics

Note

Open reference model means: The write protected process model, filed in the CIROS Mechatronics program directory, is opened. The write protection ensures that the correct functioning and simulation of the process model is ensured at all times. Open user model means: The process model, previously copied to or filed as standard in your personal folder under My Documents\CIROS\CIROS Mechatronics Samples, is opened. Process models filed as user models are no longer write protected. This therefore enables you to modify the associated PLC programs and replaced these with your own. The directory with the user models represents your individual working environment for CIROS Mechatronics.

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5. Important control functions of CIROS Mechatronics

3. The process model for the Distributing station is loaded and is displayed in the View window. In addition, you will also find the status of the PLC input/outputs in the Inputs and Outputs windows. Please note that the sample PLC programs do not use all the displayed PLC inputs/outputs. In the case of most process models, a table with the workpieces possible is displayed as standard. If simulation is active, then you select the workpiece you wish to use for the production process at this table.

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5. Important control functions of CIROS Mechatronics

This is how you load a process model by activating a menu command 1. Click onto Open in the File menu. The process models are filed under the default setting c:\Program Files\Didactic\CIROS Automation Suite 1.1\CIROS Mechatronics.en\Samples. Each process model is in its own subdirectory.

2. Select the desired process model, for example the process model Distributing. To do so, open the subdirectdory DistributingStation: Highlight the directory DistributingStation and click onto the Open button.

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5. Important control functions of CIROS Mechatronics

3. Highlight the file DistributingStation.mod and click onto the Open button.

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5. Important control functions of CIROS Mechatronics

4. The process model for the Distributing station is now loaded and is displayed in the View window. In the case of most process models, a table with the workpieces possible is displayed as standard. If simulation is active, then you select the workpiece you wish to use for the production process at this table.

Note

If an error occurs when loading a process model, then please check the entry for the rendering machine in the CIROS.ini file. The rendering machine to increase graphics card performance must only be activated if your PC has an appropriate graphics card and/or a current graphics card driver is installed on your PC.

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5. Important control functions of CIROS Mechatronics

Check the relevant entry regarding the rendering machine in the CIROS.ini configuration file. The rendering machine ist not activated, if the following setting is entered there: [CIROS-Features] ExternalRenderer=0

You will find the CIROS.ini file in the directory c:\Program Files\Didactic\CIROS Automation Suite 1.1\CIROS Mechatronics.en\Samples and for user models in C__Program Files_Didactic_CIROS Mechatronics.en_bin under Documents and Settings.

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5. Important control functions of CIROS Mechatronics

5.2 Simulating a process model

Once loaded, the process is displayed, but simulation is not active. A table with the workpieces possible is displayed as standard for most of the process models. If simulation is active, then select the workpiece you wish to use for the production process at this table.

If the process model is to be simulated, a PLC program must be available to control the running of the process model. The PLC program can be executed in the internal S7 PLC or in an external controller. If you are working with a process model which was opened as a reference model, then the sample PLC program for the process model is automatically loaded to the internal PLC and executed when starting simulation.

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If no PLC program is active, then the user can directly control individual components by using the functions of the manual operation window. As soon as simulation is active, you can monitor the visual simulation and as such the function sequence of the process model in the activity window. Certain information is always available to you. In the header you will see the file name with path details of the process model loaded. The status line informs you of the operational status of the process model: A field to the right displays whether simulation is active or stopped. Stopped: Simulation mode is not active. The process model is not simulated. Cycle: The process model is simulated. Sequence: The process model is simulated. The field to the right indicates the simulation time.

Note

In CIROS Mechatronics , both simulation modes Cycle and Sequence are identical.

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This is how you switch simulation on and off again 1. Make sure that the process model is in the initial position. You can do this by executing the Reset Workcell command in the Simulation menu. 2. Click onto Start in the Simulation menu. Simulation is active. In the status bar, the simulation mode is displayed via Running. Alternatively, you can also activate simulation via the menu option Start Cycle or via the Stopped button in the status bar.

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3. You can stop simulation by clicking onto Stop in the Simulation menu. Alternatively, you can also click onto the Running field. You can operate and observe the process model as soon as simulation is active.

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5.3 Displaying and operating a process model

A process model controlled via a PLC program (as for example in the case of the reference models) is operated via the keys and switches of the control console. To do so, simulation must be active. The simulation status can be established via the information in the status bar.

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A table with the workpieces possible is displayed as standard for most of the process models. If simulation is active, then you select the workpiece you wish to use for the production process at this table.

This is how you operate a process model controlled via the sample PLC program (Reference models are controlled via sample PLC programs) 1. Start simulation by clicking onto Start in the Simulation menu. 2. The illuminated Reset button now requests the Reset function. Failing this, put the process model into the initial position. To do so, activate the simulation. Then click onto the command Reset Workcell in the Simulation menu. Now restart simulation. 3. Carry out the Reset function by clicking onto the Reset button.

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4. The illuminated Start button indicates that the process model is in the initial position and the start condition is fulfilled.

5. Make sure that workpieces are available. In the case of the Distributing process model this means: the magazine of the distributing station must be filled with workpieces.

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6. Click onto the desired workpiece on the table with the workpieces. All workpieces are realised in the form of buttons. The selected workpiece, a red basic cylinder body, is shown as "pressed". Now click onto the symbolic workpiece on the distributing station. With each mouse click, the magazine is filled with the selected workpiece.

7. Start the cycle by clicking onto the Start button.

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If the process model is to be controlled via your own PLC program, then you will know how the process and operation are defined. If the process model is not controlled via a PLC program, then you can manually activate specific actuators of the process. You will need the functions of the Manual Operation window for this.

This is how the status of the process model is displayed The electrical status of the process components is displayed via the LEDs on the sensors and valves. If pressure is applied to a cylinder connection, then this connection is highlighted in blue. The pneumatic tubing itself is not shown. The status of the PLC signals is displayed in the Inputs and Outputs windows. The Manual Operation window provides an overview of all process statuses and process events. The designation of components is shown by clicking onto the connection or LED of a process component. This designation is identical to the designation in the circuit diagram. An exception to this is the designations of compressed air connections. These pertain to the valves which supply the compressed air connections with air.

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5.4 Changing the view of a process model

The perspective view of a process model is freely adjustable and you can turn, move, enlarge or minimise the process model representation by means of a few central commands.

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The perspective view is defined by the coordinates of the viewer (= angle) and a reference point of the process model (= centre).

Reference point Z Turn

Angle

Definition of perspective view

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This is how you move the process model 1. Click onto the Move command in the View menu. This changes the mouse pointer into a small coordinate system, which indicates the direction in which the angle and reference point can be moved. A dashed arrow means that it is not possible to move in the respective direction. 2. Hold down the left mouse button. 3. Move the mouse pointer in Z- or X-direction. 4. Release the mouse pointer again. The view will then change accordingly. You can also activate the Move command by holding down the Shift key and pressing the left mouse button.

This is how you turn the process model 1. Click onto Turn in the View menu. The mouse pointer now changes into a small coordinate system, which indicates the direction in which the angle and reference point can be moved. A dashed arrow means that it is not possible to move in the respective direction. 2. Hold down the left mouse button. 3. Move the mouse pointer in Z-or X-direction. 4. Release the mouse pointer again. The view will then change accordingly. You can also activate the Turn command by holding down the Ctrl key and then pressing the left mouse button.

This is how you enlarge or minimise the view 1. Activate the Zoom command in the View menu. The mouse pointer now changes into two squares. 2. To enlarge the view, hold down the left mouse button and move the mouse pointer in the direction of the arrow.

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3. To minimise the view, hold down the left mouse button and move the mouse pointer in the opposite direction of the arrow. You can also activate the Zoom command by holding down the Shift + Ctrl key combination and then pressing the left mouse button. If you have a mouse with a scroll wheel, you can easily enlarge or minimise the process model view by using the scroll wheel.

This is how you enlarge a particular section 1. Position the mouse pointer on a corner of the section. 2. Hold down the Shift + Ctrl key combination. 3. Press the right mouse button and move the mouse. A frame is then displayed. 4. Place the frame around the section you would like to enlarge by moving the mouse. 5. Release the right mouse button. The view is now enlarged.

This is how you enlarge the view Click onto Zoom-In in the View menu. The image is now enlarged to 125%.

This is how you minimise the view Click onto Zoom-Out in the View menu. The picture is minimised to 80%.

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5.5 The Inputs and Outputs windows

The Inputs and Outputs windows indicate which signals are applied at the inputs and outputs of the PLC. 0-signals are displayed in red and 1-signals in green. If the input or output signal is forced, the value is shown in angle brackets, e.g. <1>.

This is how you open the Inputs window Click onto the option Inputs/Outputs in the View menu and select Show Inputs. So that you know which process signal you are dealing with, the signal names include the relevant designation from the circuit diagrams. Example: STATION_1B2: PLC input, which is connected to the sensor 1B2.

This is how you open the Outputs window Click onto the option Inputs/Outputs in the View menu and select Show Outputs. So that you know which process signals you are dealing with, the signal names contain the relevant designations from the circuit diagrams. Example: STATION_1M1: PLC output, which is connected to the valve coil 1M1.

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Notes

You can however also open the Inputs and Outputs windows via Workspaces in the Window menu, where you will often find the required window combinations.

5.6 The Manual Operation window

The Manual Operation window offers various functions Display of process statuses and process activities, Controlling individual actuators of the process model, Setting breakpoints in the process model simulation.

In the lefthand section of the window you can see the process activities. These include mainly the actuation of valves. An applied 1-signal is represented by a red illuminated LED. In the righthand section of the window you can monitor all process statuses. Process statuses include the status of the sensor and valve coils. Here, 1-signals are represented by a green illuminated LED. The signal statuses are also shown in the Value column. If the signal is forced, the value is shown in angle brackets. If the Value column is now shown, activate the item in the context sensitive menu via the right mouse button.

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The following additional information is displayed: If a signal status has changed since the last simulation cycle, then the respective line is highlighted in colour. Process activities are shown in red and process statuses in green. This method enables you to easily identify and track any signals which have changed.

This is how you open the Manual Operation window In the Modeling menu, click onto Manual Operation. Alternatively , open the window by clicking onto Manual Operation under Workspaces in the Window menu.

This is how you control individual actuators in the process model If you want to actuate individual actuators of a process model manually, we recommend that you disconnect the process model from the PLC. Only those commands will then be executed which have been initiated via manual operation since the PLC program is no longer active. If you wish to terminate manual operation and control the process model via a PLC program once again, you will need to reconnect the process model to the PLC.

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1. Make sure that simulation is stopped. 2. Isolate the process model from the PLC. Move the mouse pointer to the left section of the Manual Operation window and the process activities. Press the right mouse button to open the context sensitive menu and select Disconnect all Controllers.

3. Start the simulation.

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4. Double click onto the process activity line you wish to execute. The double click causes the signal to change. If you double click onto a line with a valve activation, this causes the value of the respective valve coil to change. If the value 0 is applied, this will be set to 1 or vice versa. The double click therefore has a toggle function. Please note: To switch a valve with two valve coils to a particular position, the appropriate electrical signal must be applied to both valve coils.

5. Stop simulation, if you wish to end Manual Operation.

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6. To control the process model via a PLC program again, move the mouse pointer to the left section of the Manual Operation window to the process activities. Now press the right mouse button to open the context sensitive menu and select Restore I/O Connections.

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This is how you set breakpoints during the operation of the process model To stop the process model operation at defined points, you will need to set breakpoints in the process model simulation. You can stop the process run whenever the value of a process signal is changing. Breakpoints merely influence process model simulation; the PLC program for the control of the process model remains unaffected. If a breakpoint is set at a signal, this causes the process model simulation to stop when the value of the signal changes. The changed value is transmitted to the PLC as soon as simulation is restarted. 1. Make sure that a process model is loaded. 2. Start the process model simulation and establish that the process model is controlled via a PLC program. 3. Open the Manual Operation window. To do so, click onto Manual Operation in the Modeling menu.

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4. Click onto the line of the desired process activity. In this case, for example, line 1 to control valve coil 1M1 for the magazine ejector. Click onto the right mouse button to open the context sensitive menu and select Stop at Value Change.

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5. The Stop sign in the line in the Manual Operation window indicates that a breakpoint is set at this signal.

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6. Activate the process. As soon as the PLC generates a 1-signal at the valve coil 1M1, simulation stops. You can follow the simulation status in the status bar.

7. If you restart simulation of the process model, this causes the process run to continue and the magazine ejector to eject a workpiece.

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8. To delete the breakpoint, click onto the line with the breakpoint with the right mouse button. This opens the context sensitive menu of the right mouse button. Select Stop at Value Change. This command is realised in the form of a toggle function. The breakpoint is removed. Alternatively, you can select the command Delete all Stops.

Please note that you can also set breakpoints at signals in the Process Status window section.

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This is how you control the process model step-by-step If you want to execute the process stepwise, then use the Manual Operation window as a tool to control simulation. You can stop the process at defined points by setting breakpoints. To execute the process step-by-step, set breakpoints against all process activities. In this way, the process will be stopped whenever an actuator changes its status. 1. Make sure that a process model is loaded. 2. Make sure that the process model is controlled via a PLC program. 3. Open the Manual Operation window. To do so, click onto Manual Operation in the Modeling menu.

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4. Under Process Activities, highlight all lines containing signals for valve coils by pressing the Ctrl key and clicking onto the desired lines with the left mouse button. Open the context sensitive menu via the right mouse button and select Stop at Value Change.

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5. All lines with valve coils now indicate breakpoints.

6. Start the simulation and control the process by using the keys and switches of the control console. Whenever the status of a process signal changes, simulation stops. The process is continued if you restart simulation.

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7. To remove the breakpoints again, open the context sensitive menu via the right mouse button and select Delete all Stops.

Please note that you can also set breakpoints at signals in the Process Status window section.

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5.7 Controlling a process model via the internal S7 PLC

The internal S7 simulator interprets executable S7 programs. A sample PLC program for S7-300 is available for each of the more complex process models. When you load a model, the respective S7 program is also downloaded. You can exchange this S7 program with another S7 program, if required. Only complete project files with the file extension S7P can be downloaded. The project will need to have been created via the SIMATIC Manager and must be in accordance with the Siemens MC7 code at binary level.

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This is how you control a process model via the relevant sample PLC program 1. Make sure that the Help window of CIROS Mechatronics Assistant is open. You open CIROS Mechatronics Assistant by activating the command Workcells of CIROS Mechatronics in the Help menu. 2. In CIROS Mechatronics Assistant, navigate to the directory with the desired process model, for example to the directory Distributing Station. The process model is loaded by clicking onto Open reference model.

3. As soon as simulation of the process model is started, the execution of the S7 is also started. To do so, click onto Start in the Simulation menu.

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This is how you control a process model via a newly created S7 PLC program 1. Load the desired process model. The process model is to be controlled via the internal PLC. As the PLC program is to be modified, load a user model at this point. The process model is to be controlled via the internal PLC. The setting via which the PLC is to be controlled can be seen in the Switch external PLC <-> internat PLC window. You will find the command to activate this window in the Modeling window. The entry S7-PLC Simulator in the Type column means: the process model is controlled via the internal S7-PLC. Close the window Switch external PLC <-> internal PLC again.

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2. Make sure that simulation has stopped. 3. Select Open in the File menu to open the Open File window. 4. Under File Type, select S7 Project (*.S7P). All files of this format available in the current directory are displayed.

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5. Navigate to the directory which contains your S7 project. Select the required S7 project and click onto the Open button.

6. If the project you have selected contains several S7 programs, then select one for simulation and confirm your choice with OK.

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7. Start the process model simulation. Select Start in the Simulation menu. As soon as the simulation of the process model is started, the internal S7 simulator is also started and the loaded PLC program is executed.

This is how you establish which S7 program is currently loaded 1. Click onto the S7 Program Manager option in the Programming menu. 2. The name and the structure of the PLC program are displayed in a clearly set out tree structure. The PLC program may consist of the following blocks: Organisation blocks, function blocks, data blocks, functions and system functions.

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3. Click onto the +-symbol to display the PLC program. You can view the contents of a block by clicking onto a block.

4. In the absence of a loaded PLC program, the window S7 Program Manager looks as follows:

Further information regarding the display of S7 programs in STL or for the display and use of timing diagrams is available via the on-line Help.

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This is how the sample programs are filed on the computer 1. Select Open in the File menu to open the Open File window. 2. Under File Type, select S7 Project (*.S7P). All the files in this format available in the current directory will be displayed.

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3. The sample programs for the reference models are filed in the program directory of CIROS Mechatronics. Navigate to the directory c:\Program Files\didactic\CIROS Automation Suite 1.1\CIROS Mechatronics.en\ samples\S7\MPSC_V22. This directory contains the S7 project with all the sample PLC programs for the MPS C stations, provided that you have transferred all the preset directories when installing CIROS Mechatronics. The sample program for the stacker store is stored in the Store subdirectory. The other subdirectories contain the sample programs for the MPS B stations for the Conveyor project module and a sorting system. A comparable directory structure is set up for the user models. The user models are stored as standard under My Documents\CIROS\CIROS Mechatronics Samples.

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4. Select the S7 project and click onto the Open button.

The program name provides information about the PLC program and the process model to which it belongs: The initial digit corresponds to the station number. The two letters after this digit designate the station: DI: Distributing station TE: Testing station PR: Processing station HA: Handling station BU: Buffer station SO: Sorting station PP: Pick and place station FM: Station Fluidic Muscle Press TR: Separating station The letters beginning with underscore designate the programming language of the PLC program: AS: Programming language GRAPH, KFA: Programming languages LDR, FCH and STL, KFAFF: Programming languages LDR, FCH and STL. The step structure of the process activity is simulated with flipflops.

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The internal PLC supports to a large extent the command set of the S7400 controllers, whereby the programs can be created in ladder diagram, function chart, statement list or in the form of graphic sequence control.

5.8 Controlling a process model via the external Soft PLC S7-PLCSIM

S7-PLCSIM is a Soft PLC, which executes the PLC programs created in STEP 7. Within STEP 7, comprehensive testing and diagnostic functions are available to you for fault finding in the PLC program. They include, for instance, the status display of variables or the on-line display of the PLC program. You can make use of these functions when creating the PLC program for a process model in STEP 7 and subsequently when testing the PLC program during interaction with the process model. The exchange of the PLC input/output signals between the process model simulation and the Soft PLC S7-PLCSIM is effected via the EzOPC program. The EzOPC program forms part of the CIROS Automation Suite and has been installed on your PC together with the CIROS Mechatronics application. EzOPC is automatically invoked by CIROS Mechatronics as soon as you start simulation of a process model and this process model is to be controlled via an external PLC.

Note

If you work with the operating system Vista, please make sure that the used S7-PLCSIM-Version is Vista compatible.

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The following requirements must be fulfilled in order for the PLC input/output signals to be correctly exchanged: When EzOPC is started, both communication users S7-PLCSIM and the process model simulation- must already be active. Only then can EzOPC set up the communication link to both stations. The EzOPC must be correctly configured for the data exchange. Therefore check the configuration as soon as EzOPC is started.

Configuration of EzOPC for data exchange with S7-PLCSIM

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This is how you control a process model with S7-PLCSIM 1. Start STEP 7 or the STEP 7 Manager and open the required S7 project. 2. Start S7 PLCSIM by clicking onto Simulate Modules under Options.

3. The S7-PLCSIM window now opens.

4. Delete the contents of the virtual CPU of S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto the MRES button in the CPU 300/400 window.

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5. Download the desired PLC program in S7-PLCSIM by highlighting the Modules folder. Then click onto Download in the menu Target System.

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6. Load the appropriate process model in CIROS Mechatronics.

7. Select the setting for the process model to be controlled via an external PLC by activating the command Switch external PLC <-> internal PLC in the Modeling menu.

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8. The Switch external PLC <-> internal PLC window opens. The information regarding process model control is displayed in the columns Type and Program Name/OPC Server. - The name of the process model is Distributing. - The process model is controlled via the internal PLC. You can establish this by the item S7 PLC-Simulator. - The internal PLC executes the PLC program. The PLC program forms part of the STEP 7 project MPSC_V22.s7p, using the path specified.

9. Highlight the entry for the process model. Activate the context sensitive menu of the right mouse button. Select the Switch command. Alternatively switch the controller by double clicking onto the item.

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10. OPC Server is now entered in the Type column for the process model. The server name FestoDidactic.EzOPC.2 is displayed under Program Name/OPC Server. This entry means that the process signals for the Distributing process model are exchanged via an OPC server with the name FestoDidactic.EzOPC.2.

11. Close the Switch external PLC <-> internal PLC window. 12. Check whether the process model is to be in the initial position. If yes, then activate the Reset Workcell command in the Simulation menu.

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13. Start the process model simulation by clicking onto Start under Simulation. As soon as simulation starts, the EzOPC program is automatically called up and you will see this from the item EzOPC displayed in the Start bar.

Note

When EzOPC is started, both communication users - S7-PLCSIM and the process model simulation must already be active. Only then are the communication links correctly set up.

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14. Click onto the EzOPC button in the Start bar. This opens the EzOPC window, where you configure the communication between CIROS Mechatronics and S7-PLCSIM. The overview indicates that CIROS Mechatronics is connected to S7 PLCSim via the virtual controller of EzOPC. The table shows which components are installed individually and whether EzOPC is in the process of accessing this component. Make sure that the communication links of your EzOPC are configured as shown below. The desired communication links are established by clicking onto the appropriate button.

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15. Now click onto the Virtual Controller register where the virtual controller status and your inputs/outputs are displayed. 8 input bytes and 8 output bytes are preset for data exchange. You can accept this presetting unaltered. If a 1-signal is applied to an input/output byte bit, then this is shown illuminated.

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16. Click onto the S7-PLCSIM register and check the settings. Here, the status of S7-PLCSim simulation and its inputs/outputs is displayed. 8 input bytes and 8 output bytes are preset for data exchange. You can accept this presetting unaltered. However, only the first 4 bytes are required. If a 1-signal is applied to an input/output byte bit, then this is shown illuminated.

17. Minimise the EzOPC window. 18. Make sure that the process model simulation in CIROS Mechatronics is active.

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19. Start S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto the box next to RUN in the window CPU 300/400. The LED for RUN should now start flashing.

20. Operate the process model as planned and programmed in the PLC program. 21. If faults still exist in the PLC program, then the on-line representation in STEP 7 will provide you with excellent support during fault finding. To do so, call up the program block in which you suspect the fault. Then click onto Monitor in the Test menu. You can now monitor in parallel with simulation, which PLC program sections are or are not being executed.

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5.9 Controlling a process model via the external Soft PLC CoDeSys SP PLCWinNT

CoDeSys SP PLCWinNT is a Soft PLC which executes the PLC programs created in CoDeSys. The PLC input and output signals are exchanged between the process model simulation and the Soft PLC CoDeSys SP WinNT via the EzOPC program. EzOPC is part of the CIROS Automation Suite, and will have been installed on your PC together with the CIROS Mechatronics application. CIROS Mechatronics automatically starts up EzOPC as soon as the simulation of a process model begins if the process model needs to be controlled via an external PLC.

Note

If you are using the MS Windows Vista operating system, ensure that the version of CoDeSys SP PLCWinNT which you are using is Vistacompatible.

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The following requirements must be fulfilled in order to ensure that the PLC input and output signals are exchanged correctly: There must be an interface to the OPC server EzOPC in the CoDeSys PLC program. The input and output signals of the PLC program are transferred byte by byte via this interface. The UNPACK functional module and the PACK function in CoDeSys can be used to convert bits to bytes.
Program execution in CoDeSys SP PLCWinNT UNPACK (FB) EB0 B B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 OPC_notUsed OPC_1B2 OPC_1B2 OPC_notUsed OPC_2B1 OPC_2B1 OPC_3B1 OPC_3B1 OPC_notUsed OPC_notUsed OPC_notUsed PLC program & OPC_notUsed OPC_P2 OPC_P2 OPC_notUsed OPC_notUsed OPC_notUsed OPC_notUsed OPC_notUsed OPC_notUsed B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 PACK (FUN) PACK AB1

EzOPC Process inputs (Sensors) CIROS Process model simulation Process outputs (Actors)

Simple program example of OPC interface in CoDeSys

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When starting EzOPC, both communication users CoDeSys SP PLCWinNT and the process model simulation in CIROS must already be active. Only then can EzOPC set up the communication link to both users. The EzOPC program must be correctly configured for data exchange. In order to ensure this, check the configuration as soon as EzOPC starts up.

Configuration of EzOPC for data exchange with CoDeSys SP PLCWinNT

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This is how you control a process model with CoDeSys SP PLCWinNT 1. Start CoDeSys and open the desired CoDeSys project.

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2. Make sure that the Util.lib library is entered in the Resources tab. If this is not the case, add the Util.lib library using the Library Manager: Double-click on Library Manager in the Resources tab. In the Insert menu, select Additional Library. Find the location where Util.lib is stored. The default location for the library is in the directory c:\Program Files\3S Software\CoDeSys\Library. Once you have selected the Util.lib library, click on the Open button. Close the Library Manager window. 3. Next, define the input/output signals to be exchanged with the CIROS process model via the OPC interface. The input/output signals in the example project can be easily identified by the extension OPC. The input/output signals are defined as global variables. You can open the Global_Variables window by opening the Global Variables folder in the Resources tab, then double-clicking on Global_Variables.

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4. Expand the control program by calling up the UNPACK functional module. This extracts the EB0 input byte and converts it into 8 Boolean variables. In the example project, only bits 1, 3 and 4 of the EB0 input byte are needed. Remember that an instance (Unpack_EB0 in the example) must be defined in the program head before a functional module can be called up. 5. Expand the control program by calling up the PACK function. The PACK function combines 8 Boolean variables into one byte. In the example, the PACK function shows the output signal OPC_P2 on bit 1 of output byte AB1.

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6. Make sure that the Soft PLC CoDeSys SP PLCWinNT is set as the target system for the project. To do this, double-click on Target Settings in the Resources tab. 3S CoDeSys SP PLCWinNT must be set as the configuration.

7. Next, configure the settings in CoDeSys for the data exchange between CoDeSys SP PLCWinNT and CIROS Mechatronics. To do this, open the Start menu, go to 3S Software -> Communication and select CoDeSys OPC Configurator.

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8. Set Single PLC for OPC communication. Do this by selecting Single PLC in the File menu.

9. In the tree structure, click on Server and set an Update Rate of 100 for the OPC server. Alternatively, you can also use the preset value.

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10. In the tree structure, click on PLC and enter the name of the PLC project. Note The project name must exactly match the name of the CoDeSys project file. If the project is changed, the name must also be changed here to match.

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11. In the tree structure, click on Connection to specify the type of connection between the OPC server and the Soft PLC. As both programs run on the same computer, select the Local option for Gateway. Select Tcp/lp with the Address localhost as the Device for the new connection. Configure the settings in the Communication Parameters window.

12. Open the Communication Parameters window by clicking on the Edit button. Then click on the Gateway button and select Local as the connection for Gateway.

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13. Click the New button to define the parameters for the new connection channel. Enter the name of the channel and select Tcp/lp as the device.

14. Close the window Communication Parameters: New Channel. 15. Close the windows Communication Parameters and OPCConfig.

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16. Next, prepare the input/output bytes which are to be transferred via the OPC interface for data exchange. To do this, activate the Options command in the Project menu in CoDeSys. In the Options window, click on Symbol configuration.

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17. Select Dump symbol entries, then click on the configure symbol file button. This opens the Set object attributes window.

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18. Open the Global Variables folder and select the objects AB1 (BYTE) and EB0 (BYTE). Hold down the Ctrl key while selecting. Place a tick in each check box and close the Set object attributes and Options windows.

19. Click on the Rebuild all command in the Project menu. 20. Start CoDeSys SP PLCWinNT by selecting it from the Start menu.

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21. The CoDeSys SP PLCWinNT window opens.

22.

To establish the connection between the CoDeSys programming system and the Soft PLC CoDeSys SP PLCWinNT, activate the Login command in the Online menu in CoDeSys.

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23. If the current project is different to the PLC program in the Soft PLC, you will be asked whether you wish to load the current PLC program when you log in. Click Yes. The current project is loaded into the Soft PLC.

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24. Load the corresponding process model in CIROS Mechatronics.

25. Alter the process model settings so it is controlled by an external PLC. To do this, go to the Modeling menu and activate the Switch external PLC <-> internal PLCcommand.

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26. The Switch external PLC <-> internal PLC window opens. The Type and Program Name/OPC Server columns show information on how the process model is controlled. The name of the process model is Distributing. The process model is controlled by the internal PLC. You can see this from the S7 PLC Simulator entry in the Type column. The internal PLC executes the PLC program. The PLC program is part of the STEP 7 project MPSC_V22.s7p with the specified path.

27. Highlight the process model entry. Click the right mouse mutton to open the context-sensitive menu. Select the Switch command. Alternatively, you can switch the control system by double-clicking on the entry.

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28. The Type column now shows OPC Server for the process model. The Program Name/OPC Server column now shows the server name FestoDidactic.EzOPC.2. This means that the process signals for the Distributing process model are exchanged via an OPC server with the name FestoDidactic.EzOPC.2.

29. Close the Switch external PLC <-> internal PLC window. 30. Check whether the process model is meant to be in the basic setting. If so, activate the Reset Workcell order in the Simulation menu.

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31. Start the simulation of the process model. To do this, open the Simulation menu and select Start. As the simulation starts, the EzOPC program is automatically opened. You can see this because EzOPC appears in the start bar.

Note

When starting EzOPC, both communication users CoDeSys SP PLCWinNT and the process model simulation must already be active. Only if this is the case will the communication links be correctly set up.

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32. Click on the EzOPC button in the Start bar. The EzOPC window opens. Here you can configure the communication between CIROS Mechatronics and CoDeSys SP PLCWinNT. The overview shows that CIROS Mechatronics is connected to the CoDeSys control system via the EzOPC virtual control system. The table shows details of which components are installed whether EzOPC directly accesses these components. Make sure that the communication links of your EzOPC are configured as shown below. You can create the desired communication link by clicking the corresponding button.

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33. Next, click on the Virtual Controller tab. This displays the status of the virtual controller and its I/Os. 8 input bytes and 8 output bytes are preset for data exchange. You can use this preset without modifying it. If logic 1 applies to any bit of the input/output byte, this bit is represented by a brighter colour.

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34. Click on the CoDeSys tab and check the settings. This tab shows the status of the CoDeSys SP PLCWinNT simulation and its inputs/outputs. 8 input bytes and 8 output bytes are preset for data exchange. You can use this preset without modifying it. However, only the first 4 bytes are required. If logic 1 applies to any bit of the input/output byte, this bit is represented by a brighter colour.

35. Minimise the EzOPC window. 36. Make sure that the process model simulation is active in CIROS Mechatronics.

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37. Start running the PLC program in the Soft PLC. To do this, open the Online menu and click Run. You can see the current status of the Soft PLC CoDeSys SP PLCWinNT in the CoDeSys SP PLCWinNT window.

38. Operate the process model as you specified and programmed in the PLC program.

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5.10 Controlling a process model via an external PLC

If you are creating and testing your own PLC program, we recommend that you download the programs to an external PLC and have these executed from there. You can use the Soft PLC S7-PLC SIM as external PLC, if you are programming in STEP 7, in which case you will not require any additional hardware components. You can however also use any other control or programming system, in which case you download the PLC program to your hardware PLC. The exchange of the PLC input/output signals between the process model simulation and your external PLC is effected via the serial or the USB interface of the PC and via the EasyPort interface. Also included in the exchange of process signals is the EzOPC program. The advantage of this configuration is that you can use the PLC and programming system of your choice. Also available for fault finding in the PLC program are the testing and diagnostic functions intended for this purpose in the programming system. We recommend that you install the simulation software CIROS Mechatronics and the PLC programming system on different computers.

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Possible configuration with a hardware PLC and two PCs

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However, you can also choose a different configuration and install the two software packages on one PC. Your PC will need to be equipped with two serial interfaces or with one serial and one USB interface if you intend to make use of the testing and diagnostic functions during the process model simulation . The following can be used as EasyPort interface: EasyPort D16 interface box for 16 digital I/O (Order No.. 167121) The following data cables are required: PC data cable RS232 for EasyPort with PC to RS232 (Order No. 162 305) or USB adapter RS232 for EasyPort with PC on USB (Order No. 540699) For PLC EduTrainer of Festo Didactic: I/O data cable with SysLink plugs at both ends to IEEE 488, cross paired (Order No.. 167 106) For any PLC: I/O data cable with SysLink plug at one end to IEEE 488 and open cable end sleeves (Order No. 167 122)

The EzOPC program The EzOPC program organises the exchange of PLC input/output signals between the process model simulation and the external PLC. EzOPC does not access the external PLC signals directly, but via the EasyPort interface. The EzOPC program forms part of the CIROS Automation Suite and has been installed on your PC in conjunction with the CIROS Mechatronics application. EzOPC is invoked automatically by CIROS Mechatronics as soon as you start the simulation of a process model and this process model is to be controlled via an external PLC.

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The following requirements must be fulfilled in order for the PLC input/output signals to be correctly exchanged: When starting EzOPC, both communication users EasyPort and the process model simulation - must be active. Only then can EzOPC set up the communication link to the two users. In the case of EasyPort this means that EasyPort must be connected to the PC via the serial interface and voltage applied to EasyPort. The EzOPC program must be correctly configured for the data exchange. Therefore check the configuration as soon as EzOPC is started.

Configuration of EzOPC for data exchange with an external PLC via EasyPort

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This is how you control a process model via an external PLC 1. Connect the PC with CIROS Mechatronics to the external PLC via the EasyPort interface. The data cable with Order No. 162 305 connects the serial interface of the PC to the serial interface RS232 of EasyPort. If you are using the USB interface, then use the data cable of Order No. 540699. The PLC input/output signals for the process are applied at port 1 of EasyPort. The PLC input/output signals for the control console are transmitted via port 2. If you are using EasyPort without USB interface: For the DIP switches under Mode at EasyPort, select the following setting: 1 ON, 2 OFF, 3 OFF. If you are using EasyPort with USB interface: Make sure that address 1 is set for EasyPort. The set address can be read or changed by pressing the two arrow buttons. Simultaneously pressing both buttons stores the address and exits address mode.

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Configuration with PLC EduTrainer

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Configuration with PLC board

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2. Switch on the power supply for EasyPort. 3. Load the desired process model to CIROS Mechatronics.

4. Effect the setting for the process model, i.e. that this is to be controlled via an external PLC. To do so, activate the command Switch external PLC <-> internal PLC in the Modeling menu.

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5. The window Switch external PLC <-> internal PLC now opens which displays the information regarding the process model control in the columns Type and Program Name/OPC Server. The name of the process model is Distributing. The process model is controlled via the internal PLC. You can see this by the entry S7 PLC simulator. The internal PLC executes the PLC program. The PLC program forms part of the STEP 7 project MPSC_V22.s7p with the specified path.

6. Highlight the entry for the process model. Activate the context sensitive menu of the right mouse button and select the command Switch. Alternatively switch the controller by double clicking onto the entry.

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7. OPC Server is not entered for the process model in the Type column. The server name FestoDidactic.EzOPC.2 is displayed under Program Name/OPC Server. This entry means that the process signals for the process model Distributing are exchanged via an OPC server named FestoDidactic.EzOPC.2.

8. Close the Switch external PLC <-> internal PLC window. 9. Check whether the process model is to be in the initial position. If yes, then activate the command Reset Workcell in the Simulation menu.

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10. Start the simulation of the process model by clicking onto Start under Simulation. The EzOPC program is called up automatically when simulation starts. You will see EzOPC displayed in the Start bar.

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Note

When EzOPC is started, both communication users - EasyPort and the simulation of the process model must already be active. Only then can the communication link be correctly set up. 11. Click onto the EzOPC button in the Start bar to open the EzOPC window, where you configure the communication between CIROS Mechatronics and EasyPort.

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12. The overview shows that CIROS Mechatronics is connected to S7 PLCSim via the virtual controller of EzOPC. You will need a communication link between CIROS Mechatronics and EasyPort. Click onto the PLC via EasyPort button to establish this.

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13. The configuration link between CIROS Mechatronics and EasyPort is configured. The table indicates which components are installed and whether EzOPC is currently accessing these components.

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14. Now check the range of inputs/outputs via which data exchange is to be effected in the virtual controller. To do so, click onto the Virtual Controller register. 8 input bytes and 8 output bytes are preset for data exchange. You can accept these presettings unaltered. Only the first 4 bytes are required.

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15. Click onto the EasyPort register where the status of the connected EasyPort and its inputs and outputs are displayed. If a 1-signal is applied to an input/output byte bit, then this is shown illuminated.

16. Minimise the EzOPC window. 17. Download the PLC program to the PLC. 18. Start up the PLC. 19. Start the process model simulation. 20. Operate the process model according to how you have planned and programmed it in the PLC program.

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5.11 Setting faults in a process model

Use the Fault Setting window to set specific faults in the functional sequence of a process model. Use the internal PLC and the sample PLC program provided to control the process model. This ensures that a potential fault behaviour is caused solely by process components. The PLC program is operating error-free. The setting of faults is permissible by authorised users only. This is why the dialog for fault setting is password protected. The default for the password is didactic. The password can be changed at any time. Each process model contains a list of possible faults.

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The following data is required if you want to generate a fault for one of the listed process components Type of fault Start of fault Duration of fault With some components, different faults can occur and you can select these faults from a list of options. The following mean: Reed switch displaced: Reed Switch is mechanically displaced. Reed switch jammed: A 1-signal is continually applied at the reed switch. Cable break: A 0signal is continually applied at a component. Short circuit - voltage: A 1-signal is continually applied at component. Malfunction: Complete failure of component. Tubing defective: Pneumatic tubing is defective, operating pressure not achieved. Compressed air supply malfunction: Pressure failure. Power supply malfunction: Voltage not available. The time stated for the start of malfunction refers to the simulation time after the fault is set. The duration of the fault is to be indicated in seconds. Error statuses influence the simulation of the process model as soon as the Fault Simulation is active.

Note

Only in user models fault functions are stored if the process model is stored. The fault functions remain active until they are deactivated in the Fault setting window.

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This is how you set faults in the process model 1. Make sure that a user model is loaded. The process model is to be controlled via the internal PLC. 2. Open the Fault Setting window by activating Fault Setting in the Extras menu under Fault Simulation.

Note

You can also open the Fault Setting via Window Workspaces Teacher mode. Under Teacher mode are frequently-needed window combinations for the Fault operation.

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3. A dialog box is displayed for the password to be entered. Enter the password. Provided that you have not changed the password since CIROS Mechatronics has been installed, then the standard specified password is still valid. Enter didactic in the Password box. Note that the password is case-sensitive. Confirm your entry with OK.

4. The Fault Setting window is now displayed.

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5. Set a fault function for example for the PLC input 1B1. Double click onto the appropriate field in the Type column to display a list of options. Open the list and select the type of fault, e.g. Cable break. The fault is to become active with the start of simulation and to remain so until the fault is cancelled in Fault Setting. No entry is therefore required in the Begin column field. The duration of the fault is arbitrary and likewise, no entry is therefore required in the Duration column. Entries in the Begin and Duration column are activated by means of a double click.

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6. The selected faults are displayed in the Status column.

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7. Now activate the Fault Simulation mode by selecting Fault Simulation in the Extras menu under Fault Simulation.

8. Close the process model in order to deactivate the teacher mode.

This is how you start the simulation of the process model with the set faults 1. Open the process model with the set fault. 2. Make sure that Fault Simulation is activated. 3. Start the process model simulation.

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5.12 Eliminating faults in a process model

Use the Fault Localisation window to eliminate error functions in the process model. The set error functions only occur if the process model is controlled via a PLC program and if the Fault Simulation mode is active.

Example

Distributing process model: The process activity stops once a workpiece is ejected. The next step, moving the swivel arm into the magazine position, is not executed. When monitoring and analysing the process model simulation, you realise that voltage is applied to the sensor 1B1, but not to the respective PLC input. You therefore conclude that there is a cable break at the PLC input 1B1.

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This is how you eliminate a fault in the process model 1. Make sure that the process model is loaded. 2. Open the Fault Localisation window by clicking onto the Fault Localisation window in the Extras menu under Fault Simulation.

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3. The Fault Localisation window is displayed.

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4. In the line 1B1 PLC input, double click onto No fault and select Cable break in the list. The button is now illuminated in yellow. If the fault Is correctly identified, the next process model simulation will be executed fault-free.

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5. In teacher mode, the Fault Localisation window looks as follows:

Note

If you have correctly identified and entered the fault, the process model is executed correctly in the next simulation cycle. If you have failed to correctly identify the cause of the fault, then the fault remains in place. If you have erroneously identified the cause of the fault as a mechanically displaced sensor, then you have created an additional fault within the process as a result of this and the fault is active from the next simulation onwards.

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5.13 Logging of eliminated faults

Each action in the Fault Localisation window is logged in a log file. Authorised persons are able view the log file.

The log file contains a list of activities which have been listed in the Fault Localisation window. The entries contain the following data entered by the student. Date Time Faults, which have been correctly identified and eliminated are marked in green.

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This is how you access the log file 1. Open the Fault Log window by activiating Fault Log in the Extras menu under Fault Simulation. 2. A dialog box is then displayed for you to enter the password. Enter the password. Provided that you have not changed the password since CIROS Mechatronics has been installed, the standard specified password is still valid. Enter didactic in the Password box. Please note that the password is case-sensitive. Confirm your entry with OK.

3. The Fault Log window is now displayed.

Notes

To cancel the fault log, activate the context-sensitive menu via the right mouse button and select the appropriate command.

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CIROS Mechatronics is a multimedia training aid for use in the field of automated systems. The examples given represent practice-related applications. The exercises are based on industrial process sequences and aim to portray a holistic training process. With CIROS Mechatronics , you will be training in both methodology and professional competency.

6.1 Training contents

CIROS Mechatronics provides process models for systems of varying complexity from the production sector. The general training aims to be achieved with CIROS Mechatronics are to be able to Analyse and understand the mode of operation and system structure of PLC controlled systems, Create and test PLC programs or clearly configured systems and Carry out systematic fault finding as part of maintenance and corrective maintenance. These general training aims cover all subject areas that can be taught by means of simulated processes. The main focus of training is on a methodical approach.

Significance of the training contents in industrial practice One of the most important influences in industrial development over the past few years has been the ever increasing degree of automation, growing complexity of processes and faster operating cycles. The keywords here are optimal utilisation of high investment, flexible and cost effective production. More specifically these include: High degree of machine efficiency, Less downtimes, Optimisation of systems, Continual improvement processes.

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As a result of this, those who are dealing directly with a system are to some extent faced with entirely new demands. A system operator now takes on minor maintenance work and possibly some corrective maintenance, as does the installer. A mechanical maintenance engineer must have sufficient knowledge and understanding of electrical and electronic control technology to draw the necessary conclusions regarding pneumatics, hydraulics and mechanics. Conversely, an electrical engineer requires knowledge about pneumatic and hydraulic actuators. At the same time, these changing requirements lead to new forms of collaboration. Grouped together, these requirements can be put into three areas Technology know-how System know-how and system understanding Socio-cultural skills With CIROS Mechatronics you will develop your knowledge and practice your skills in the areas of technology know-how as well as system know-how and understanding. Apart from technical know-how, these skills also include decision-making responsibility and methodological compentency .

6.2 Target group

The target group for CIROS Mechatronics includes all those whose professional area of activities involves PLC programming, maintenance and corrective maintenance or those who need to have a basic knowledge on these topics. These include: Professional teachers/instructors Mechatronics engineers Electrical engineers, for instance specialising in automation technology Industrial mechanical engineers Professional qualifications in metal-working and electrical engineering Vocational training at colleges and universities

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6.3 Previous knowledge

Knowledge is required of the following in order to work and train with CIROS Mechatronics : A basic knowledge of control technology: Structure of an automated system A basic knowledge of PLC technology: Design and mode of operation of a PLC A basic knowledge of PLC programming and handling of a PLC programming tool, such as the programming system SIMATIC STEP 7 A basic knowledge of pneumatic control technology: Drives, control elements A basic knowledge of sensor technology: Limit switches, contactless proximity sensors A basic knowledge of designing, wiring and tubing of electropneumatic systems. A basic knowledge of electrical engineering: Electrical variables, correlations and calculations thereof, direct and alternating current, methods of electrical measurement Basic knowledge of how to read and interpret circuit diagrams The ability to deal with and operate Windows programs

6.4 Example: Assigning training aims to training courses

Below is a list of training aims on the subjects of system know-how, PLC programming and systematic fault finding. The training aims are taken from the 1999 sillabus for Mechatronics engineers. The contents have been adapted and weighted accordingly such as for instance for the 2003 syllabi for electronic engineers. Mechatronics and electronics engineers are two examples of how vocational training in Germany is currently updated and adapted to the new training area concept. The tables below list only those training aims which can also be taught with CIROS Mechatronics.

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Training content: Analysis of mode of operation and structure of a system

Mechatronics engineer Area of training Area of training 1: Analysis of functional interrelationships within mechatronic systems Training aims To read and use technical documentation. To have a command of processes in order to be able to analyse and document functional interrelationships. To draw up and interpret block diagrams. To identify the signal, material and energy flow with the help of technical documentation. Area of training 4: Investigating the energy and information flow in electrical, pneumatic and hydraulic modules To understand basic control technology circuits: To actuate (pneumatically and hydraulically) a single-acting and double-acting cylinder, basic logic operations, contactor circuits, digital circuits. To read and use circuit diagrams. To identify power supply units in electrotechnology, pneumatics and hydraulics. To identify and describe the control functions of simple control systems. To design a control system (block diagram). To identify signals & measured values in control systems. Area of training 7: Realisation of mechatronic subsystems To understand and describe mechatronic subsystem structures. To understand and analyse the mode of operation, signal behaviour and the use of components (sensors and actuators). To understand basic circuits and the mode of operation of drives.

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Mechatronics engineers (continuation) Area of training Area of training 8: Design and construction of mechatronic systems Training aims To describe the structure and signal pattern of mechatronic systems. To analyse the effect of changing operating conditions on a process cycle. To describe the information structure (signal structure, signal generation, signal transmission) of a system with the help of circuit diagrams. To establish the interrelationship between electrical, pneumatic and hydraulic components. To analyse signals (binary, analogue, digital) and to deduce potential error sources. To use computer-aided diagnostic methods, e.g. testing and diagnostic functions of a programming system or bus system. Area of training 11: Commissioning, fault finding and corrective procedures Area of training 13: Handover of mechatronic systems to customers To analyse mechatronic systems on the basis of technical documentation and to break down their configuration into function blocks. To describe mechatronic systems. To create operating instructions and documentation.

Area of training 9: Analysing the information flow in complex mechatronic systems

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6. The following training contents can be taught with CIROS Mechatronics

Training content: PLC programming and testing of the program

Mechatronics engineers Area of training Area of training 7: Realisation of mechatronic subsystems Training aim To understand the design and mode of operation of a PLC. To design and document control systems for simple applications. To program simple control processes via PLC: Logic operations, memory functions, timers, counters. To carry out programming in one of the PLC programming languages ladder diagram, function chart or statement list in accordance with DIN EN 61131-3. To document control systems in function diagrams and function chart according to DIN EN 60848. Area of training 8: Design and creation of mechatronic systems To program mechatronic systems in one of the programming languages ladder diagram, function chart, statement list, sequential function chart. To program the mode section. To program a sequence control. Area of training 9: Analysing the information flow in complex mechatronic systems To use computer-aided diagnostic methods, e.g. testing and diagnostic functions of the programming system.

Area of training 11: Commissioning, fault finding and corrective procedures

To eliminate errors in the PLC program.

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Training content: Systematic fault finding on systems

Mechatronics engineers Area of training Area of training 4: Analysing the energy and information flow in electrical and hydraulic modules Area of training 7: Realisation of mechatronic subsystems Area of training 8: Design and creation of mechatronic systems Area of training 9: Analysing the information flow within complex mechatronic systems Training aim Fault finding on simple modules with the help of measurement technology.

To check control systems for simple applications, e.g. by means of signal analysis. To identify errors by means of signal analyses at interfaces and eliminating error causes. Computer simulation To analyse signals (binary, analogue, digital) and deduce potential error sources. To use computer-aided diagnostic methods, e.g. the testing and diagnostic function of the programming system. To understand the procedure for fault finding in electrical, pneumatic and hydraulic systems. To carry out a fault analysis. To have a command of and apply systematic fault finding. To recognise typical error causes. To make specific use of diagnostic systems. To document faults. To create a log of corrective procedures.

Area of training 11: Commissioning, fault finding and corrective procedures

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6.5 The training concept of CIROS Mechatronics

CIROS Mechatronics is a motivating, multimedia training aid on the subject of automated systems. The systems vary in complexity and can be flexibly programmed. Problem definitions can thus be formulated according to requirements and the instructors previous knowledge. It is therefore for instance possible to analyse the mode of operation of individual components. Similarly, it is possible to program and test the mode section of a system. Simulated processes have an innate didactic quality: They are practice-related and as representational as possible. The ability to experiment with process models creates an environment close to that of an actual system, which is the real object of training and knowledge is tested and consolidated. Practice-related experience with simulated processes lends a new dimension and quality to knowledge in that theoretical knowledge becomes application and practice-orientated competence. CIROS Mechatronics supports self-motivated, experimental learning: A simulated system operates in the same way as an actual system. This enables students, for instance, to immediately see whether they have programmed the sequence of a system correctly. The effect of incorrect operation also is apparent without causing any damage to the system. This enables students to independently reach and analyse their findings. Students can access technical documentation about process models according to their needs. Students can practice their knowledge and skills on a wide range of different process models.

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What are the advantages of CIROS Mechatronics as a training medium? CIROS Mechatronics is a PC-assisted training aid and therefore represents an alternative training method. Training can be devised in a diversified and motivating way. Industry-based process models are used to practice and consolidate the knowledge and skills acquired on actual systems. Simulated processes can be used to highlight and experiment with statuses, which would be too hazardous on actual systems. Efficient, practice-related hands-on training is possible without the use of an actual system. A one-off, actual system is available in the form of several simulated systems, which increases the availability of this system for training purposes. The actual and virtual world of automation can be combined in any way and adapted to the requirements of the learning process. All systems simulated in CIROS Mechatronics are also available in the form of actual systems and can be ideally combined and supplemented for training. Skills and activities which can only be acquired and practiced on actual systems should not to be replaced, but supplemented, practised and consolidated. Simulation is an advanced tool for use with automated systems. Example 1 To ensure that the PLC programs and design of a system are ready at the same time, appropriate simulation of the system is used to test the PLC program. Example 2: Since production systems should have as few downtimes as possible, simulated systems are often used to train and familiarise operators and maintenance personnel with systems.

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CIROS Mechatronics supports you in many different ways with the familiarisation and analysis of a system. The systematic procedure you use to do so and the knowledge you acquire can be transferred to any system and of course also an actual system. Load a process model to CIROS Mechatronics . Whilst the process model is being simulated, you can control, monitor and analyse the process, which follows the specification of the PLC program provided. The supplied PLC program defines a possible sequence and operation of the process. The process model can however also be controlled via a different PLC program.

Prerequisite

The selected process model is operational and there are no faults in the process. The selected process model is to be controlled via the internal PLC. A correct STEP 7 PLC program is available in the form of a sample program. The sample program is downloaded to the internal PLC.

7.1 Training aims

These training aims can be taught with the use of CIROS Mechatronics:

Main training aim

To analyse and understand automated systems on the basis of technical documentation and with the help of simulated processes.

General training aims

To identify the function and mode of operation of the individual components. To break down the system into function blocks in order to identify the system structure. To identify and track the signal, material and energy flow of the system.

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To identify the controller behaviour and the operating sequence of the system with the help of the technical documentation, i.e. Function Chart. To familiarise students with the operation of the system. To understand the product and the processing method. To investigate the system with the help of the simulated process. To use the technical documentation specifically to investigate the system. The technical documentation is comprised of the following: Function chart, circuit diagrams, operating instructions, commissioning instructions, data sheets. To identify the advantages of a simulated process for the operating sequence.

7.2 Methods

To be able to understand and analyse a system, you will need to subdivide. One possible way, is to subdivide a system into the areas of system and controller structure, mechanical configuration, drive technology, control elements, control system, signal generators and energy supply.

No. 1

Function scope System structure and controller structure Mechanical configuration Drive technology Control elements Control system Signal generators Energy supply

Components and component parts Program flow charts, function charts, function diagrams, description Support and mounting unit, function units, adjustment Electrics, hydraulics, pneumatics, mechanics Electrics, hydraulics, pneumatics, mechanics Electrical relay controller, PLC, pneumatics, CNC, robot controllers Binary sensors, analogue sensors, digital sensors Electrics, hydraulics, pneumatics

2 3 4 5 6 7

Structure of a system

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This structure serves as the basis for a systematic procedure to analyse and investigate the system. Questions regarding the individual function scopes provide ideas and guidance as to what exactly you should investigate within the individual function scopes.

Questions

Function scope - system and controller structure What is the function of the system? What is the system to produce? How is the operating sequence of the system defined? What control functions are provided? What display functions are provided? What type of control system is available: Logic control system, sequence control? What function units does the system consist of? Are the function units or components networked? What bus systems are used: PROFIBUS, AS-i, Ethernet, or similar? What information is exchanged within the system? What information is exchanged with other systems or higher order processes? What does the material flow look like? What does the signal flow look like? What does the energy flow look like? What does the information flow look like? What are the possibilities of tracing the signal flow? Program flow chart Function chart Function diagrams Description Operating instructions Commissioning instructions

Documents

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Questions

Function scope - drive technology What drives are incorporated: Linear drive, swivel drive, rotary drive, electric motor Which drive technology is used: Electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic? Circuit diagrams Data sheets

Documents

Questions

Function scope - control elements What control elements are incorporated? How are the control elements actuated: Electrically, pneumatically, hydraulically? How high is the control voltage used for electrically actuated control elements? What interfaces occur between the signal control section and the power section? How do the control elements react in the event of Emergency-Stop? What are the status display options of control elements? Circuit diagrams Data sheets

Documents

Questions

Function scope - the control sysem How is the control system realised: PLC, relay control, robot control, CNC, pneumatic control? Which control energy does the PLC require? What is the voltage applied at the PLC inputs? What is the voltage applied to the PLC outputs? Is a bus system used? Which fieldbus system forms part of the control system? Circuit diagrams Data sheets

Documents

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Questions

Function scope - signal generators Which signal generators are incorporated: Binary, analogue, digital? Which electronic signal generators are incorporated: Optical sensors, inductive sensors, capacitive sensors, magnetic sensors? What is the design (polarity of the output signal) of the electronic sensors: PNP, NPN? Which mechanically actuated sensors are incorporated? Which pressure sensors are incorporated? What are the status display options of the sensors? Circuit diagrams Data sheets

Documents

Questions

Function scope - energy supply Which energy supply is used? How high is the operating pressure in the case of pneumatic or hydraulic energy supply? Is direct or alternating current used? How high is the operating voltage: 24 V or 230 V? Circuit diagrams Data sheets

Documents

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7.3 Support via CIROS Mechatronics

CIROS Mechatronics supports you with the following during your analysis and investigation of the system: Simulation of the process model and execution of the PLC program in the internal PLC. Window for PLC inputs/outputs: Display of the PLC inputs/outputs. Window for manual operation: To monitor process activities and process statuses. Window for manual operation: To set breakpoints to enable you to monitor system operation step by step. Window for manual operation: To set specific breakpoints in order to stop the process at a particular step. CIROS Mechatronics Assistant: Provides information on-line, such as circuit diagrams for the process model.

7.4 Example

Investigating the operating sequence of the Distributing station

Exercise

Investigate the operating sequence of the Distributing station. To do so, use the checklist containing the system structure. Answer the following questions: How is the initial position of the system defined? What is the purpose of the Reset function? What is defined as the start precondition: Does it include the execution of the Reset function? How does the Distributing station react if no more workpieces are available? No more workpieces are available in the stacking magazine. What do you need to do for the station to operate correctly again?

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Implementation

1. Load the Distributing process model. Make sure that the process model is controlled via the intenal PLC using the sample PLC program. This applies in the case of the reference models.

2. The system can be broken down into the following function blocks: Stacking magazine, swivel drive and electrical. The electrics also include the PLC.

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3. Refer to the technical documentation for information regarding the initial position and start condition of the system. To do so, access the on-line help for the process model. Click onto Help on Work cell in the Help menu. The required information is available in the chapters The Distributing Station and Technical Documentation.

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Result

Initial position: Ejecting cylinder extended (1B2=1) and swivel arm at magazine (3B1=1) and workpiece not picked up (2B1=0). The system moves to the initial position via the Reset function. The start condition is met if the station is reset and in the initial position.

4. Start the simulation of the process model by clicking onto Start in the Simulation menu. 5. Control the process by means of the pushbuttons and switches of the control console. Carry out the reset function first by clicking onto the green illuminated Reset button. Then place two workpieces into the magazine by selecting the desired workpiece on the workpiece table via a mouse click. Now click onto the appropriate symbolic workpiece on the Distributing station. Start executing the process by clicking onto the Start button. You can now follow the implementation of the process.

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6. If there are no further workpieces in the magazine, the swivel arm stops in the adjacent station position. The indicator light Q1 is illuminated. The designation of the indicator light in the circuit diagram is P3.

7. Fill the magazine with workpieces. Click onto the illuminated Start button to acknowledge that you have finished filling the magazine.

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8. Open the Manual Operation window, if you want to execute a process sequence step by step, to enable you to monitor it more effectively. To do so, click onto Manual Operation in the Modeling menu. Highlight all the process activities and set breakpoints at these process activities by activating the context sensitive menu via the right mouse button. Select Stop at Value Change. Start the simulation of the process model. Simulation stops at each value change. As soon as simulation is re-started, the next step is executed.

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9. You can trace the signals in the process via the status display in the Manual Operation window or via the LEDs of the process components. 10. To access information regarding the circuit diagram designations of process components, click onto the LED or the air connection of a component.

Note

If, as a result of simulation, the process model reaches a status you cannot or do not want to work with any longer, return the process model to the initial position by stopping the simulation. Then click onto Reset Workcell in the Simulation menu.

7.5 Example

Determining the components of the Distributing station

Exercise

Investigate the design of the Distributing station. Use the checklist detailing the structure of the station and the questions regarding the system for this. Answer the following questions: With which valve is the swivel drive actuated? How is the vacuum generated? What are the designations of the solenoid coils of the valve for the ejection of the workpieces? Via which sensor is the filling level of the magazine monitored? How many PLC inputs and PLC outputs are required for the control of the Distributing station?

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Implementation

1. Load the Distributing process model. Make sure that the process model is controlled via the internal PLC using the sample PLC program. This applies in the case of the reference models.

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2. Refer to the technical documentation for information regarding the process components and their circuit diagram designations. To do so, open the on-line help for the process model and click onto Help on Workcell in the Help menu. The required information is available in the chapter Technical Documentation.

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Result

The swivel drive is actuated via two 3/2-way solenoid valves. This valve combination has the function of a 5/3-way solenoid valve with midposition pressurised. The circuit diagram designation for this valve is 3V1. The vacuum is generated via a 2/2-way solenoid valve. The second 2/2-way solenoid valve creates an ejector pulse, which results in reliable ejection once the vacuum is switched off. The circuit diagram designation for the valve is 2V1. All valves are housed on one valve terminal. The designation of the valve coil of valve 1V1 for the actuation of the ejecting cylinder is 1M1. The filling level of the magazine is checked via the optical sensor with the circuit diagram designation B4.

3. Take a look also at the process components in the process model itself. Click onto the LED or the air connection in order to display the designation. To enlarge or turn the components, use the options in the View menu. You can restore the standard setting of the process model by clicking onto Standard Views in the View menu and then selecting Default Setting.

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4. Determine the number of PLC inputs and outputs required to control the process. You will find the relevant information for this in the technical documentation via the on-line help. You can however also display the PLC inputs/outputs and their statuses in a separate window for the process model by clicking onto Inputs/Outputs under View and selecting Show Inputs and Show Outputs.

Result

The process control system requires 12 PLC inputs and 8 PLC outputs. The additionally displayed inputs/outputs can be used to expand the control system.

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7.6 Example

Tracing the signal and energy flow on the Distributing process model

Exercise

Investigate the signal and energy flow of the Distributing station. To do so, trace the signal of the sensor 1B1 up to the respective PLC input. Trace the signal and energy flow from the PLC output 3M1 to the pneumatic drive. Answer the following additional questions: To which PLC input is the sensor 2B2 connected? To which PLC input is the sensor B4 connected? Which drive is actuated via the solenoid coil 1M1? To which PLC output is the vacuum generator connected?

Implementation

1. Load the Distributing process model. Make sure that the process model is controlled via the internal PLC using the same PLC program. This applies in the case of the reference models.

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2. Refer to the technical documentation for information regarding the signal and energy flow of the sensor 1B1 and the PLC output 3M1. To do so, open the on-line help for the process model and click onto Help on Workcell in the Help menu. The required information is available in the chapter Technical Documentation.

Result

The sensor 1B1 is connected to the PLC input 1B1 (I0.2). The PLC output 3M1 (O 0.3) controls the valve coil 3M1 of the valve 3V1.

3. Move the process model into the initial position by clicking onto Reset Workcell in the Simulation menu. 4. Start the simulation by clicking onto Start in the Simulation menu. 5. Establish where the components are located in the system and investigate the signals and energy flow of these. You will recognise the components by their circuit diagram designation. 6. Control the process by using the pushbuttons and switches of the control console. First, carry out the reset function by clicking onto the green illuminated Reset button. Then fill the magazine with workpieces by clicking onto the workpiece on the station. Start the process operation by clicking onto the Start button. You can now follow the process execution.

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7. Carry out the process activity step-by-step to enable you to better monitor everything. Open the Manual Operation window by clicking onto Manual Operation in the Modeling menu. Highlight all the process activities and set the breakpoints at these by activating the context sensitive menu via the right mouse button. Select Stop at Value Change. Start the simulation of the process model. Simulation stops with each value change. The next step in the process is executed as soon as you restart simulation.

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8. Monitor the signal flow of the sensor 1B1. The sensor 1B1 is connected to the PLC input 1B1, i.e. to STATION_1B1. The sensor status can be established via the LED on the sensor. You can also monitor the switching status of the sensor in the Manual Operation window. If the sensor 1B1 switches, then a 1-signal is applied at the PLC input STATION_1B1. The status of the PLC inputs is displayed in the Inputs window. Open this window by clicking onto Inputs/Outputs in the View menu and select Show Inputs.

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9. Monitor the signal and energy flow of the PLC output STATION_3M1. The PLC output STATION_3M1 is connected to the valve coil 3M1. The status of the PLC can be established in the Ouputs window. Open this window by clicking onto Inputs/Outputs in the View menu and select Show Outputs. If a 1-signal is applied at the PLC input, voltage is also applied at the valve coil 3M1. The LED of the valve coil is illuminated. If a 0-signal is also applied simultaneously at the valve coil 3M2, then the valve 3V1 switches. The swivel arm moves into the magazine position.

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When investigating a system, the main focus can be put on familiarisation with the components, in which case the system will not be not controlled via a PLC program. To enable you to more closely observe the mode of operation and behaviour of a component, CIROS Mechatronics allows you to operate individual actuators by hand, similar to an actual station. With manual operation, an electrical signal is generated at the selected solenoid coil and the valve switches according to the signal applied and controls the drive. The system components can be specifically controlled via manual operation. You can trace the signal and energy flow, identify interfaces and therefore systematically analyse and understand the system.

Prerequisite

The process model selected is operational and there are no faults within the process. The process model selected will not be controlled via a PLC. The working energies current and compressed air are connected.

8.1 Training aims

The following training aims can be taught with the use of CIROS Mechatronics:

Main training aim

Familiarisation with the individual components of an automated system: Mode of operation, status display elements, mechanical characteristics.

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General training aims

Familiarisation with the mode of operation of sensors and limit switches. To be able to identify application areas for optical, magnetic, inductive and capacitive sensors. To be familiar with the DC motor as an example of an electrical drive. To know of examples for pneumatic linear drives and rotary drives. To be familiar with the design and mode of operation of electropneumatic valves. To analyse and understand the signal and energy flow of components. To be familiar with electropneumatic circuits. To be familiar with status display components on electrical components and to use these for signal tracing.

8.2 Methods

Use a systematic approach to familiarise yourself with a system or system components. The instructions for a systematic procedure are set out in Chapter 7.

8.3 Support via CIROS Mechatronics

CIROS Mechatronics supports you with the following during your analysis and investigation of the components which formpart of a system: Simulation of the process model. The PLC programs are not active during this. Window for manual operation: Monitoring of process activities and statuses. Window for manual operation: Initiating individual process activities. CIROS Mechatronics Assistant: Provides information on-line, such as circuit diagrams for the process model.

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8.4 Example

Investigating the mode of operation of the ejecting cylinder in the stacking magazine module

Exercise

Investigate the mode of operation of the stacking magazine. Answer the following questions: How is the initial position of the stacking magazine defined? What is the status of the ejecting cylinder in the initial position? How do you identify whether the ejecting cylinder is extended or retracted? Via which valve is the ejecting cylinder actuated? What is the designation of the valve solenoid coil for the actuation of the ejecting cylinder? How can you identify whether voltage is applied at the solenoid coil? Is the sensor for workpiece detection an inductive, capacitive or optical sensor? Which signal is applied at the sensor if a workpiece is available in the magazine?

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Implementation

1. Load the stacking magazine process model. No sample PLC program is available for the stacking magazine.

Note

Proceed as follows, when carrying the investigation of individual components on a process model for which a sample program is available: Load the process model controlled via the internal PLC. Open the Manual Operation window. Activate the context-sensitive menu via the right mouse button. Select Disconnect all Controllers. Carry out your investigations by means of manual operation. Once you have completed your investigations and want to control the process model via the internal PLC, connect the simulation of the process model with the internal PLC. To do so, activate the contextsensitive menu via the right mouse button and select Restore I/O Connections.

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2. Establish which components the stacking magazine consists of. You can find the relevant information by clicking onto the LED or the compressed air connection of the component. Additional information is available in the technical documentation. This technical documentation is available on-line. To access this, open the on-line help for the process model by clicking onto Help on Work cell in the Help menu. You will find the required information in the chapter Technical Documentation.

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Result

The ejecting cylinder separates out the workpieces. The end positions of the ejecting cylinder are detected via two sensors: Sensor 1B1 (ejecting cylinder retracted), sensor 1B2 (ejecting cylinder extended). The valve for the actuation of the ejecting cylinder is a 5/2-way solenoid valve with the designation 1V1. The valve coil 1M1 actuates the valve 1V1. The optical sensor B4 detects whether a workpiece is available in the magazine.

3. Make sure that the stacking magazine is in the initial position by clicking onto Reset Workcell in the Simulation menu. In the initial position, the ejecting cylinder is extended. 4. Start the process model simulation by clicking onto Start in the Simulation menu.

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5. Open the Manual Operation window by clicking onto Manual Operation in the Modeling menu.

6. Add a workpiece into the magazine by clicking onto one of the workpieces on the slotted assembly board. Check whether the status of the sensor B4 changes. You can identify the switching status of the sensor on the LED of the sensor. You can however also establish the sensor status via the Manual Operation window. Result No workpiece available: Workpiece available: B4=1 B4=0.

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7. Eject a workpiece from the magazine by applying a 1-signal at valve coil 1M1. Double click onto line 1 of the process activities. Valve coil 1M1 is set at value 1 and the ejecting cylinder ejects a workpiece. No compressed air tubing is shown in the simulation. Applied compressed air is signalled by means of a blue connection.

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8. Return the magazine ejector to the magazine by double clicking onto line1 of the process activities. This double click changes the value of the valve coil from 1 to 0; the ejecting cylinder extends again. 9. Remove the ejected workpiece by double clicking onto line 2 of the process activities. The workpiece is removed.

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9. This is how you use CIROS Mechatronics in PLC programming

CIROS Mechatronics offers you numerous process models for automated applications that are typical in industry. You determine the process sequence, which can be either simple or complex. You then create the PLC program for this sequence in the programming system and for the PLC of your choice. The PLC program is subsequently used to control the process model. You can immediately detect whether the PLC program is operating correctly. If errors occur, then use the testing and diagnostic functions of your programming system for error detection and error elimination. The main focus of CIROS Mechatronics as part of PLC programming is on: Practising a systematic procedure to create the PLC program. Systematic testing of the PLC program on the simulated process. The advantage is that relevant actual systems exist for these process models. This enables you to carry out comprehensive commissioning on the actual systems with the tested PLC programs.

Prerequisite

The selected process model is operational and there are no faults within the process. The process model selected is to be controlled via an external PLC.

9.1 Training aims

CIROS Mechatronics is a tool for the process of creating a PLC program. With the help of this tool you can teach the following training contents.

Main training aim for the Beginners target group Beginners

To design, create and test PLC programs for simple motion sequences.

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General training aims for the target group Beginners

To describe the design and function of a PLC. To list the differences between a PLC and relay control. To realise simple control tasks using basic logic functions (and timers). To program simple control tasks in one of the programming languages: Ladder diagram, function chart or statement list according to DIN EN 61131-3. To test PLC programs for simple control tasks. To systematically solve simple control problems from problem definition and analysis through to finding a solution, programming, checking and documentation.

Main training aim for the Advanced target group

To design, create and test a PLC program for extensive control systems.

General training aim for the Advanced target group

To program sequence control systems in sequential function chart according to DIN EN 61131-3. To program the mode section. To utilise the diagnostic and testing functions of the PLC programming system. To systematically solve control tasks from problem definition and analysis through to finding a solution, programming, checking and documentation.

9.2 Methods

PLC programs or more generally control programs - are an important component part of an automated system. In order for PLC programs to be as error-free, easy to maintain and cost effective as possible, they need to be systematically designed, well structured and documented in detail. Proceeding in stages has proved a successful method for the development of a PLC program. Breaking down the process into stages or sections provides a targeted, systematic approach and gives clearly configured results that can be checked against the problem definition.

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Stages Specification (description of the control task) Planning and design (description of the solution)

Activities Description of the system Defining the system process

Result/documents Function description Positional sketch Technology layout Circuit diagrams Parts lists Solution in the form of a function table or logic diagram to IEC 617-12 for sequence controllers Solution in the form of a function chart to DIN EN 60848 for sequence controllers Function diagrams Definition of software modules Annotated PLC program in one of the programming languages to DIN EN 61131-3

Planning the system Defining the control technology requirements (Emergency-Stop, modes of operation, visualisation...) Design of the PLC program (formal representation of the sequence and logic of the PLC program)

Realisation (implementation of the solution)

Programming of the PLC program Simulation and testing of program sections and the overall program Construction of the system Testing and commissioning of the control system

Commissioning (integration and testing of the solution)

Operational PLC program Commissioning report Storage medium with PLC program Full documentation

Stages within the systematic solution of a control task

9.3 Support via CIROS Mechatronics

CIROS Mechatronics with the following for PLC programming: Industry-typical, realistic process models of varying complexity. Simulation of the process model. Control of the process model via OPC interface using any PLC (for example via S7-PLCSIM). Window for PLC inputs/outputs: Display of PLC inputs/outputs. Window for manual operation: Monitoring process activities and process statuses.

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CIROS Mechatronics Assistant: Provides information such as system description or circuit diagrams.

9.4 Example

Programming the display of the initial position of the Distributing process model.

Exercise

On the Distributing station, the indicator light H1 is to be illuminated if the station is in the initial position.

Ancillary conditions

The technical documentation for the station is to be used, such as the circuit diagrams and symbols table. You will find these in CIROS Mechatronics Assistant.

Your task

Represent the control function in the form of a logic diagram. Program the control task in one of the following languages: Ladder diagram, function chart or statement list. Test the PLC program using the simulated process model.

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Implementation using the programming system STEP 7and the Soft PLC S7-PLCSIM 1. Start CIROS Mechatronics . 2. Load the Distributing process model. The process model is to be controlled via an external PLC. The prerequisite for this is that OPC Server is displayed in the Type column of the Switch external PLC <-> internal PLC window. Should this not be the case, then double click onto this line.

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3. Use the technical documentation to find out how the initial position of the station is defined. To do so, open the on-line help for the process model and click onto Help on Workcell in the Help menu. You will find the required information in the chapters The Distributing Station and Technical Documentation.

Result

Initial position: Ejecting cylinder extended (1B2=1) and swivel arm at magazine (3B1=1) workpiece not picked up (2B1=0).

4. Formulate the control function in the form of a logic diagram.

Result

1B1 3B1 2B1

&

P1

Logic diagram

5. Create the symbols table for the control function. Take the required inputs/outputs from the general symbols table for the Distributing station. The symbols table is available via the online Help for the work cell. Activate the on-line Help by clicking onto Help with the Work Cell in the Help menu.

Result

Symbol

Address

Data type BOOL BOOL BOOL BOOL

Comment

1B2 2B1 3B1 P1

I 0.1 I 0.3 I 0.4 O 1.0

Ejecting cylinder extended Workpiece picked up Swivel arm in magazine position Indicator light Initial position

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6. Start STEP 7 or the SIMATIC Manager. 7. Plan a project for the control function. 8. Create the PLC program and store this.

9. Open S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto Simulate Module under Options in the SIMATIC Manager. 10. Delete the contents of the virtual CPU of S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto the MRES button in the CPU 300/400 window.

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11. Load the PLC program to the S7-PLCSIM. In order to do this, highlight the folder Module, then click onto Load in the Target System menu. 12. Start the S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto the box next to RUN in the CPU 300/400 window. 13. Start the process model simulation by activating Start in the Execute menu.

Note

With the starting of the process model simulation, the communication program EzOPC is also started. If EzOPC is started, both communication users - S7-PLCSIM and process model simulation must already be active. Only then can the communication link be correctly set up.

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14. Carry out the settings in EzOPC. Click onto the EzOPC button in the Start bar. This will open the EzOPC window. The current communication links are displayed in the Overview register. You can change the communication link by clicking onto the appropriate button. The following communication links must be available for your task: Process simulation in CIROS must be connected to the S7-PLCSIM controller via the virtual controller.

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15. Now check the settings for the virtual controller by clicking onto the Vitual Controller register. 8 input bytes and 8 output bytes are preset for data exchange. You can accept this setting unaltered. The first two bytes are required at any one time.

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16. Now check the settings for S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto the S7-PLCSIM register. 8 input bytes and 8 output bytes are also preset in this case and you can accept these settings unaltered also. The first two bytes are required at any one time.

17. Minimise the EzOPC window. 18. If your PLC program is correct, the indicator light P1 is illuminated if the station is in the initial position.

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19. If PLC program still contains errors, then the on-line view in STEP 7 will support you ideally during fault finding. Call up the program module, in which you suspect the fault and activate Monitor in the Test menu. You can now monitor in parallel with simulation, which PLC program sections are or are not being executed.

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9.5 Example

Programming a simple sequence for the Distributing station

Exercise

A simple sequence is to be programmed for the Distributing station. The sequence is defined as follows: 1. The swivel drive swivels to the Succeeding Station position, if workpieces are detected in the magazine and the Start button is pressed. 2. The ejecting cylinder retracts and ejects a workpiece from the magazine. 3. The swivel drive moves to the Magazine position. 4. The vacuum is switched on. If the workpiece is reliably picked up, a vacuum switch switches. 5. The ejecting cylinder extends and releases a workpiece. 6. The swivel drive moves to the Succeeding Station position. 7. The vacuum is switched off. 8. The swivel arm moves to the Magazine position.

Ancillary conditions

The technical documentation for the station is to be used, such as circuit diagrams and the symbols table. You will find these in CIROS Mechatronics Assistant.

Your task

Represent the control task in function chart according to DIN EN 60848. Program the control task in sequential function chart. Test the PLC program with the simulated process model.

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Implementation using the programming system STEP 7 and the Soft PLC S7-PLCSIM 1. Start CIROS Mechatronics . 2. Load the Distributing process model. The process model is to be controlled via an external PLC. The prerequisite for this is that OPC Server is displayed in the Type column of the Switch external PLC <-> internal PLC window. If this is not the case, then double click onto this line.

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3. Refer to the technical documentation to find out which process components are used and what the designations of the components are in the circuit diagram. Open the on-line help to do so and activate Help on Workcell in the Help menu. You will find the required information in the chapter Technical Documentation. 4. Formulate the control task in function chart.

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Result

Function chart to DIN EN 60848 (IEC 60848)

1
Start

Station in initial position and part in magazine and Start button


Swivel arm to Succeeding Station pos.

Swivel arm to Succeeding Station position

Swivel arm in Succeeding Station position 3


Eject workpiece

Magazine slide forward (ejecting cylinder to retract)

Workpiece ejected
Swivel arm to Magazine position

Swivel arm to Magazine position

Swivel arm in Magazine position 5


Pick up workpiece

Vacuum ON Magazine slide back (ejecting cylinder to extend)

Workpiece picked up and magazine slide back 6


Swivel arm to Succeeding Station pos.

Swivel arm to Succeeding Station position

Swivel arm in Succeeding Station position 7


Deposit workpiece

Vacuum OFF

Workpiece not picked up


Swivel arm to Magazine position

Swivel arm to Magazine position

Swivel arm in Magazine position

Function chart for the control task

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5. Create the symbols table for the control task. Take the required inputs/outputs from the general symbols table for the Distributing station. You will find the symbols table on the online help for the work cell.

Result

Symbol

Address

Data type BOOL BOOL BOOL BOOL

Comment

1B2 1B1 2B1 3B1

I 0.1 I 0.2 I 0.3 I 0.4

Ejecting cylinder extended Ejecting cylinder retracted Workpiece picked up Swivel drive in magazine position Swivel drive in succeeding station position Magazine empty Start button Ejecting cylinder to retract (magazine slide advanced) Switch on vacuum Switch off vacuum Swivel cylinder to magazine position Swivel cylinder to succeeding station position

3B2

I 0.5

BOOL

B4 S1 1M1

I 0.6 I 1.0 O 0.0

BOOL BOOL BOOL

2M1 2M2 3M1

O 0.1 O 0.2 O 0.3

BOOL BOOL BOOL

3M2

O 0.4

BOOL

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6. Start STEP 7, i.e. the SIMATIC Manager respectively. 7. Create a project for the control task. 8. Create the PLC program and store it.

9. Open S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto Simulate Modules under Options in the SIMATIC MANAGER. 10. Delete the contents of the virtual CPU of S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto the MRES button in the CPU 300/400 window.

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11. Load the PLC program to S7-PLCSIM. To do so, mark the Modules folder and then activate Load in the Target System menu. 12. Start S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto the box next to RUN in the CPU 300/400 window. 13. Start the simulation of the process model by clicking onto Start in the Simulation menu.

Note

With the starting of the process model simulation, the communication program EzOPC is also started. If EzOPC is started, both communication users - S7-PLCSIM and the simulation of the process model must already be active. Only then will the communication links be correctly set up.

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14. Carry out the settings in EzOPC. Click onto the EzOPC button in the Start bar to open the EzOPC window. The communication links are displayed in the Overview register. You can change the communication link by clicking onto the appropriate button. The following communication links must be available for your task: process simulation in CIROS must be connected to the S7-PLCSIM controller via the virtual controller.

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15. Now check the settings for the virtual controller by clicking onto the Virtual Controller register. 8 input bytes and 8 out bytes are preset for data exchange. You can accept this setting without alteration. The first two bytes are required at any one time.

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16. Now check the settings for S7-PLCSIM by clicking onto the S7-PLCSIM register. 8 input bytes and 8 output bytes are also preset for data exchange in this case. You can accept these settings unaltered. The first two bytes are required in any one case.

17. Minimise the EzOPC window. 18. If your program is correct, you can start the sequence once you have inserted a workpiece by clicking onto the Start button.

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19. If the PLC program still contains errors, the on-line view in STEP 7 will support you ideally with fault finding. Call up the program module, where you suspect an error. Activate the command Monitor the Test menu. You can now monitor, in parallel with the process simulation, which PLC programs are or are not being executed.

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CIROS Mechatronics supports you in numerous ways during systematic fault finding on a simulated system. The systematic procedure, the working aids and diagnostic systems used for this and the know-how you acquire, can be applied to any system. Load a process model in CIROS Mechatronics . A fault has been previously set on this process model. You can now control and monitor the process model as it is being simulated. Analyse the fault behaviour and determine the cause of the fault. When you have found the cause, eliminate the fault by entering the cause of the fault in the window provided. If you have identified the cause of the fault, then the process model will operate correctly during the next simulation run.

Prerequisite

The selected process model is loaded and a fault set in the process model by an authorised person. The fault simulation mode is active. The selected process model is controlled via the internal PLC. A correct PLC program is available for this in the form of a sample program. The sample program is automatically downloaded to the internal PLC by opening the reference model.

10.1 Training aims

You can impart these training aims with the use of CIROS Mechatronics :

Main training aim

Systematically repairing a system after a fault has occurred.

General training aims

To familiarise students with and apply a general procedure for systematic repair work in the event of a fault. To acquire information regarding the mode of operation of a system and system components from technical documentation.

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To determine the actual status of a system after a fault has occurred. To carry out systematic fault finding on PLC controlled electropneumatic systems. To become familiarised with and apply a strategy for fault finding on PLC controlled electropneumatic systems. To carry out a fault analysis. To know the typical causes of faults. To document faults. To make targeted use of diagnostic systems. To familiarise students with the working aids for fault finding.

10.2 Methods

The basic prerequisite for systematic fault finding and corrective procedures is to understand the system. Only if you understand the system, its structure and function can you carry out corrective procedures. Eliminating faults by means of systematic corrective procedures. The following methods have proved successful with systematic fault finding and corrective procedures: Familiarisation with the system Systematic repair work after a fault has occurred Systematic determination of the actual status of the system Systematic fault finding in general Systematic fault finding for PLC controlled systems

Method: Familiarisation with the system

Familiarise yourself with the system by: Investigating the system. Analysing the system documentation. Understanding the product and the processing technology. Conducting informative discussions with system operators.

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Method: Systematic corrective procedures after a fault has occurred

In the event of an inadvertent interruption of the process, corrective procedures are to be carried out according to the following schematic representation:

REQUIRED status

Fault diagnosis

Fault finding

Fault located

No Comparison

Yes

Corrective procedures

ACTUAL status

Recommissioning

Production system

Systematic corrective procedures

In the event of a fault signal, the actual status of the system is to be established first. Once the actual status has been determined and compared with the required status, the actual fault finding starts. The source of a fault is often found during this comparison if the fault is visible (e.g. mechanical damage on a signal generator) is audible (e.g. leakage on a valve) is detectable by suspicious odours (e.g. scorching of a cable).

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If this is not the case, the fault can be found and eliminated by means of systematic fault finding. Once a fault is found, it is not enough to merely correct it. It is also necessary to establish the cause of the fault. A list of faults is is helpful for this and this should be stored in the system. This list describes all the faults and their causes. With the help of a fault list, it is possible to determine whether damage or faults occur regularly. In this way, it is possible to identify weak areas in the system. Once these are established, it is advisable to technically improve the system.

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Method: Systematically determining the actual system status

First, the actual system status must be determined in the event of an error message. Several options are available for this:

Establishing the actual status Step 1 Determining the fault behaviour of the system No start Standstill during process step Faulty process sequence Work result wrong Status displays (LED) on the system components: Current mode of operation Ready status Signal status of signal generators Switching status of control elements Switching status of PLC input/outputs Visible damage Audible damage Damage detectable by odour/smell Screen: Error message, diagnostic message Status information Machine status display

Step 2

Establishing the actual status of the system

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Method: Systematic fault finding in general

The basis for systematic fault finding is again the desired/actual value comparison.
Determining of ACTUAL status Comparison with REQUIRED status

Establishing possible error sources


a

Mechanical faults Pneumatic faults Hydraulic faults Electrical faults

Investigating possible sources of faults by means of testing or measurement protocols

NO (fault not found)

Result

YES (fault found)

Elimination of fault and recommissioning

Overview of systematic fault finding

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Method: Systematic fault finding for PLC controlled systems

Every controller functions on the principle of signal input, signal processing and signal output. Systematic fault finding for PLC controlled systems is based on this structure. A desired/actual value comparison enables you to narrow down the area of the fault within the process sequence. Investigate possible causes of faults by checking the components in the direction of the signal and energy flow, starting from the fault location.

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Structure Fault has occurred in the system Establishing the actual status Comparison of actual status with desired status Checking the electrical energy supply Checking of sensor

Working aids

Possible error sources

Voltage tester

Voltage supply switched off Voltage supply to high or too low Sensor incorrectly adjusted Sensor mechanically displaced Sensor faulty PLC input module faulty Cable break between sensor and PLC input PLC faulty No voltage applied

Voltage tester LED

Monitoring of PLC input

LED

Checking of PLC

LED Programming and testing unit LED Voltage tester LED Manual override

Checking of PLC output Checking of control elements

PLC output module faulty Control element mechanically faulty Control element electrically faulty Cable break between PLC output and control element Connections mixed up Loss of electrical connection Energy supply not switched on Leakage in network

Checking of drive

Visual inspection

Checking of pneumatic or hydraulic energy supply

Pressure gauge

Systematic fault finding of PLC controlled systems

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10.3 This is how CIROS Mechatronics supports you

CIROS Mechatronics supports you with the following during the monitoring and analysis of the actual system status: Simulation of the process model and execution of the PLC program via internal PLC. Window for PLC inputs/outputs: Display of PLC input/outputs. Window for manual operation: Display of process activities and process statuses. Window for fault localisation: Input and elimination the cause of the fault. CIROS Assistant: Provides information on-line regarding the process model, such as circuit diagram or function chart.

10.4 Example

Finding and eliminating faults in the Distributing station

Exercise

A fault has occurred in the course of the sequence of the Distributing station. Eliminate the fault by means of systematic corrective procedures.

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Implementation

1. Load the Distributing process model with the set fault. The process model is controlled via the internal PLC.

2. Ensure that the Fault Simulation mode is active. 3. Put the process model into the initial position by clicking onto Reset Workcellin the Simulation menu. 4. Now start the simulation of the process model. To do so, click onto Start in the Simulation menu. 5. Operate the process using the pushbuttons and switches of the control console.

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6. A fault has occurred during execution, which stops the process.

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7. Refer to the technical documentation to establish the correct process execution. Open the on-line help for the process model by clicking onto Help on Workcell in the Help menu. You will find the required information in the chapters The Distributing Station and Technical Documentation.

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8. Determine the actual status of the process and compare it with the required status, thereby narrowing down the area of the fault location within the process.

Result

The fault is a stoppage during the process sequence. The process step Move swivel arm to magazine position is not executed. Possible causes of the fault are: The swivel cylinder and its valve actuation or possibly also the sensors, which should trigger the movement of the swivel cylinder.

9. We recommend that you check the energy flow, starting from the sensors through to the swivel cylinder. It is of course possible to proceed in reverse and to check the signal and energy flow from the swivel cylinder to the valve via the PLC to the sensor. 10. Find out which sensor signals need to be applied in order for the swivel arm to move to the magazine position. Use the function chart and allocation list from the on-line help for the Distributing work cell.

Result

If the reed switch 1B1 and the end position switch 3B2 are actuated, the swivel arm should move to the magazine position.

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11. Check the switching status of the reed switch 1B1 and the end position switch 3B2. Two options are possible. Evaluate the LED in the process model. The designation of the respective component is displayed as soon as you click onto the LED. Or check the signal status of the sensors in the Manual Operation window by clicking onto Manual Operation in the Modeling window.

Result

The LED of the reed switch 1B1 is illuminated and the sensor therefore switches.

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12. Check the PLC input 1B1 connected to the sensor by opening the PLC Inputs window. To do so, open the PLC inputs window if this is not displayed. Click onto Inputs/Outputs in the View menu and select Show Inputs. The Inputs window is displayed.

Result

A 0-signal is applied at the PLC input STATION_1B1, even though the sensor 1B1 switches. You therefore suspect that the cause of the fault is a cable break at the PLC input 1B1.

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13. Open the Fault Localisation window to eliminate the fault. Click onto Fault Localisation under Fault Simulation in the Extras menu to do so. Then double click onto No fault on the line PLC input 1B2. Select Cable Break in the list of options.

Result

The simulation of the process model is continued correctly. The cause of the fault has been correctly identified and eliminated.

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