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A U4"EEHBTICAL KIDEL FOR STRATIFIED WUNDBAFT GASIFIERS

Thomas B. Reed, Benjamin Levie, a n d Michael L t-hrkson . S o l a r Energy R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e , Golden, CO 80401


Michael S. Graboski Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO
INTRODUCTION The downdraft g a s i f i e r o r i g i n a t i n g from World W r 11 Swedish d e s i g n s has proven t o a be s u c c e s s f u l in g e n e r a t i n g a c l e a n p r o d u c t gas when o p e r a t e d in a n a i r blown mode. Such g a s p r o d u c e r s a r e u s e f u l f o r g e n e r a t i n g a n e s s e n t i a l l y t a r f r e e b o i l e r g a s o r e n g i n e f u e l from renewable r e s o u r c e s s u c h as wood and a g r i c u l t u r a l waste. Recently, a new g e n e r a t i o n of s t r a t i f i e d downdraft g a s i f i e r s (1, 2) h a s been A s u c c e s s f u l model of t h i s t y p e of g a s i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s s h o u l d be a b l e studied. t o c l e a r l y show t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c y of o p e r a t i n g v a r i a b l e s i n o r d e r t o optimize b o t h c o s t of $gasifier a n d performance. Such a p r o c e s s model would be u s e f u l in determining t h e p r o p e r g a s i f i c a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s when i n p u t c o n d i t i o n s o r d e s i g n pa rame t e r s change.

80401

Biomass f u e l a n d o x i d i z e r F i g u r e 1 shows t h e i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e s of t h e g a s i f i e r . a r e f e d c o c u r r e n t l y t o t h e t o p of t h e g a s g e n e r a t o r where p y r o l y s i s of t h e f u e l t a k e s place. The p y r o l y s i s r e a c t i o n is d r i v e n by h e a t t r a n s f e r from t h e gas and As t h e f r e s h s o l i d is h e a t e d i t d r i e s a n d d e v o l a t i l i z e s . ' h e h o t char bed below. v o l a t i l e s e v o l v e d c o n t a i n c o m b u s t i b l e s p e c i e s which r e a c t w i t h o x y g e n / a i r t o During p y r o l y s i s , t h e gas produce h e a t , CO, C02, H2, H 0 a n d l i g h t hydrocarbons. and s o l i d a r e a t v a s t l y d i f J e r e n t t e m p e r a t u r e s because p y r o l y s i s c o o l s t h e s o l i d ( A t t h e end of p y r o l y s i s t h e g a s may be more t h a n w h i l e o x i d a t i o n h e a t s t h e gas. 500K h o t t e r t h a n t h e s o l i d . ) In t h i s zone of t h e r e a c t o r , a b o u t 80% t o 90% o f t h e solid weight loss o c c u r s .
Once oxygen is consumed and p y r o l y s i s is completed, r e d u c t i o n of c h a r by Cog and The r e a c t i o n s o c c u r r i n g a r e endothermic H20 can o c c u r in t h e g a s i f i c a t i o n zone. so that t h e &as and s o l i d t e m p e r a t u r e s f a l l a s carbon c o n v e r s i o n proceeds. The r e a c t i o n s t e n d t o q u i t a t a b o u t lOOOK due t o k i n e t i c l i m i t a t i o n s . I n t h e s t e a d y - s t a t e o p e r a t i o n of t h e downdraft g a s i f i e r , a s p e c i f i c oxygen t o f u e l r a t i o e x i s t s f o r a given feedstock a n d carbon conversion level. I n p r a c t i c e i t is found t h a t g a s i f i e r throughput does not a f f e c t t h e r e q u i r e d 0 2 / f u e l r a t i o and t h e Also, i t is found that p r o d u c t gas composition f o r a s u f f i c i e n t l y deep char bed. t h e u a j o r i t y of hydrocarbons are d e s t r o y e d in t h e p y r o l y s i s zone. These d a t a s u g g e s t that t h e p y r o l y s i s and g a s i f i c a t i o n zones a r e t o a good a p p r o x i m a t i o n s e p a r a t e and that t h e whole char bed i n downdraft g a s i f i e r s is n o t t r u l y a c t i v e . I n t h e char g a s i f i c a t i o n zone t h r e e r e a c t i o n s dominate ( n e g l e c t i n g t h e c r a c k i n g of r e s i d u a l tars and hydrocarbon gases from t h e p y r o l y s i s z o n e ) : Char

Boudouard R e a c t i o n C02 + 2CO A H = +40,778 k c a l / m o l


+ CO

Char

+ H20

Water Gas R e a c t i o n + H2 A H = +32,472 k c a l l m o l

H20

+ CO *

Water Gas S h i f t R e a c t i o n H2 + CO2 AH = -8306 kcal/mol

410

The k i n e t i c s and thermodynamics of t h e s e r e a c t i o n s d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n v e r s i o n of c h a r t o gas a n d t h e subsequent g a s composition a t any p o i n t in t h e char g a s i f i c a t i o n zone.

In t h e r e a c t i o n scheme, t h e water-gas and Boudouard r e a c t i o n s are coupled by t h e s h i f t reaction. T h e r e f o r e , o n l y two of t h e s e r e a c t i o n s c a n be c o n s i d e r e d t o be The water-gas s h i f t r e a c t i o n is f a i r l y r a p i d o v e r carbon t r u l y independent. s u r f a c e s a t g a s i f i c a t i o n t e m p e r a t u r e s a n d is assumed t o be in e q u i l i b r i u m in t h i s In o u r model we have assumed t h a t E d r i c h e t a l . ( 3 ) k i n e t i c s f o r investigation. t h e Boudouard r e a c t i o n o v e r ponderosa p i n e c h a r c o a l a p p r o x i r a t e s t h e c a r b o n S i n c e t h e a c t i v a t i o n energy f o r r e d u c t i o n r e a c t i o n o c c u r r i n g in t h e g a s i f i e r . carbon r e d u c t i o n by CO is a b o u t 35 k c a l , k i n e t i c s in e r r o r by a f a c t o r of 2 w i l l be e q u i v a l e n t t o a 5 6 O C o f f s e t . T h i s o f f s e t is w i t h i n t h e a c c u r a c y of d a t a A t a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e , t h i s r e a c t i o n sequence a v a i l a b l e f o r bed t e m p e r a t u r e . A t e l e v a t e d p r e s s u r e , methane should a d e q u a t e l y d e s c r i b e t h e k i n e t i c p r o c e s s e s . forming k i n e t i c s s h o u l d probably be c o n s i d e r e d . For char p a r t i c l e s w i t h minor dimensions up t o 3 / 4 i n c h , E d r i c h e t a l . ( 3 ) a l s o show that i n t r a p a r t i c l e mss t r a n s f e r is not i m p o r t a n t . T h e r e f o r e , t h e same r a t e e x p r e s s i o n f o r c h a r g a s i f i c a t i o n a p p l i e s r e g a r d l e s s of p a r t i c l e s i z e ( i f less t h a n 3 / 4 i n c h ) .
The r e a c t o r d e s i g n c o n d i t i o n s which a f f e c t t h e char g a s i f i c a t i o n zone I n c l u d e i n i t i a l c o n d i t i o n s , such as char and gas t e m p e r a t u r e s , flow rate and composition of t h e incoming g a s , a n d g a s i f i e r p a r a m e t e r s , such a s c h a r g a s i f i c a t i o n k i n e t i c s , c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l area of r e a c t o r , h e a t t r a n s f e r from t h e g a s t o t h e s o l i d s , and t h e An a d e q u a t e model mst a c c o u n t f o r changes d e n s i t y and void f r a c t i o n of t h e char. in t h e s e i n i t i a l c o n d i t i o n s a n d parameters. To d a t e t h e most e x t e n s i v e m o d e l l i n g of t h e c h a r zone of t h e s t r a t i f i e d downdraft Reed's model of t h e c h a r g a s i f i c a t i o n g a s i f i e r has been developed by Reed (1). 'his zone is zone assumes e q u a l molar f e e d r a t e s of C02 a n d c a r b o n ( c h a r ) . assumed t o be a d i a b a t i c , y i e l d i n g a change in t e m p e r a t u r e of a b o u t 24'K p e r 1% of r e a c t i o n of carbon. Coupling t h e t e m p e r a t u r e change t o t h e k i n e t i c s of t h e Boudouard r e a c t i o n t h e n y i e l d s t h e c o n v e r s i o n of c a r b o n and t e m p e r a t u r e of t h e ?he model g i v e s a r e a c t i o n v e r s u s time a n d p o s i t i o n (depending on f e e d r a t e ) . good f i r s t a p p r o x i m a t i o n of t h e g a s i f i e r behavior l e a d i n g t h e way towards t h e u s e of theory f o r p r a c t i c a l p r e d i c t i o n s .

W)DEL FORWIATION
The o v e r a l l g a s i f i e r model c o n s i s t s of two p a r t s ; t h e s e a r e a p y r o l y s i s model a n d a g a s i f i c a t i o n model. The p y r o l y s i s model is used t o p r o v i d e a s t a r t i n g g a s To composition, flow r a t e , a n d t e m p e r a t u r e f o r t h e c h a r g a s i f i c a t i o n zone. i n i t i a t e t h e modelling, t h e a i r / f u e l o r O ~ / f u e lr a t i o , f e e d u l t i m a t e a n d proximate 'he model a n a l y s i s and a methane l e a k a g e from t h e g a s i f i e r a r e s p e c i f i e d . g e n e r a t e s p y r o l y s i s gas composition and t e m p e r a t u r e a l o n g w i t h carbon c o n v e r s i o n gas composition a n d t e m p e r a t u r e a l o n g t h e c h a r bed l e n g t h .

Pyrolysis Model
Biomass is assumed t o be a r t i f i c i a l l y composed of f i x e d carbon ( c h a r ) and v o l a t i l e mtter. Upon p y r o l y s i s , f o r b i o m s s under downdraft g a s i f i e r c o n d i t i o n s , t h e c h a r The c h a r is y i e l d is assumed t o be e q u a l t o t h a t from t h e proximate y i e l d . t r e a t e d a s pure carbon. With t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n of a n a i r o r 0 2 / f u e l r a t i o a n d f e e d composition, a n a d i a b a t i c r e a c t i o n c a l c u l a t i o n a r o u n d t h e p y r o l y s i s zone w i l l y i e l d t e m p e r a t u r e , gas composition a n d flow r a t e . It i s f u r t h e r assumed t h a t any Therefore, t h e w s s methane e s c a p i n g p y r o l y s i s is not cracked in t h e c h a r bed. and energy balance a r o u n d t h e p y r o l y s i s zone a l l o w s f o r t h e methane l e a k a g e s p e c i f i e d a s a model i n p u t .

411

In o r d e r t o c a l c u l a t e t h e a d i a b a t i c flame t e m p e r a t u r e of t h e p y r o l y s i s g a s , when i t is o x i d i z e d by t h e a i r or oxygen, f i r s t t h e energy r e l e a s e d by t h e combustion is determined.


AH298 = HHv

- AHcombustion

where AHzg8 is t h e energy r e l e a s e d from t h e p y r o l y s i s a n d p a r t i a l combustion assuming N2, CO, C02, H2, H20, CH4, and char a r e t h e only p r o d u c t s , HHV is t h e h i g h h e a t i n g v a l u e of t h e b i o m s s ( c a l c u l a t e d by t h e ITG method), a n d AHc mbustio is t h e sum of t h e moles of t h e p r o d u c t s of p y r o l y s i s times t h e i r %eats combustion. In t h e model p r e d i c t i o n s p r e s e n t e d below, a t y p i c a l b i o m s s composition of 51 p e r c e n t carbon, 6 p e r c e n t hydrogen a n d 45 p e r c e n t oxygen by weight was assumed f o r t h e m t e r i a l b h r . c e c a l c u l a t i o n .
Tie a d i a b a t i c flame t e m p e r a t u r e c a n t h e n be determined by t h e f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n

04

In t h i s model a n i n t e g r a l a v e r a g e v a l u e of Cpi f o r e a c h of t h e g a s c o n s t i t u e n t s is utilized. The c a l c u l a t e d a d i a b a t i c flame t e m p e r a t u r e is t h e n used t o d e t e r m i n e S i n c e t h e flame t h e c o r r e c t Kp and gas c o m p o s i t i o n i n a second i t e r a t i o n . t e m p e r a t u r e v a r i e s l i t t l e w i t h changes i n K , only two i t e r a t i o n s a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r a c c u r a t e g a s c o m p o s i t i o n a n d a d i a b a e i c flame t e m p e r a t u r e p r e d i c t i o n s . S p e c i f y i n g t h e amount of f i x e d c a r b o n y i e l d e d from t h e b i o m s s a n d t h e oxygen t o f u e l r a t i o g i v e s a u n i q u e gas c o m p o s i t i o n and temperature.

Char G a s i f i c a t i o n Model
The char g a s i f i c a t i o n model d e s c r i b e d below assumes that t h e char g a s i f i c a t i o n zone is a d i a b a t i c a n d , a s in t h e p y r o l y s i s zone, t h e water gas s h i f t r e a c t i o n is a t equilibrium. Char g a s i f i c a t i o n k i n e t i c s a r e employed t o compute t h e H e a t b a l a n c e s on t h e gas a n d s o l i d a r e used t o conversion/length p r o f i l e . Material b a l a n c e s w r i t t e n f o r g a s and char i n t h e determine temperature p r o f i l e s . r e a c t o r assume p l u g flow; however, t h e g a s and c h a r move a t d i f f e r e n t r a t e s down The fractional c o n v e r s i o n of t h e char, X, is d e f i n e d a s f o l l o w s : t h e reactor.

where h (0) = molar flow r a t e of c a r b o n a t t o p of g a s i f i c a t i o n zone, and h ( z ) = o r a t e of c a r b o n a t p o s i t i o n "z" in t h e g a s i f i c a t i o n zone. w molar h T~G?c a r b o n mass b a l a n c e is t h e n :

where X is t h e f r a c t i o n a l c o n v e r s i o n of t h e c h a r , z is t h e d i s t a n c e down t h e r e a c t o r , re is t h e r a t e of c o n v e r s i o n of in moles char/min, S is t h e c r o s s s e c t i o n a l a r e a of t h e r e a c t o r , and h (0) is t h e char f e e d rate in moles char/min. l h e rate is computed from k i n e t 5 c d a t a . For t h e Boudouard r e a c t i o n : ( k l * PC02)/(1 k l = exp(-E1/RT k 2 = exp(-Ep/RT

+ k2

* PCO)

12.3091) 28.4295)

412

where r c , i s in u n i t s of l/min, E 1 = 43870 - 19811/Tp ( p r e t r e a t m e n t ) cal/mol, E2 = -67,300 cal/mol a n d PCO a n d PC02 are p a r t i a l p r e s s u r e s of CO a n d CO2 respectively. The p r e t r e a t m e n t t e m p e r a t u r e is t h e t e m p e r a t u r e a t which t h e In t h i s model i t is assumed t o be 1000K. For t h e purpose b i o m s s is pyrolyzed. Shift of t h i s model, t h e bed voidage a n d particle s i z e a r e assumed c o n s t a n t . k i n e t i c s a r e assumed t o be r a p i d . Thus, t h e g a s c o m p o s i t i o n is b r o u g h t t o a water g a s s h i f t e q u i l i b r i u m a t e a c h p o s i t i o n in t h e r e a c t o r . To a c c o u n t f o r k i n e t i c s 0C t h e e q u i l i b r i u m c o n s t a n t is d i s p l a c e d from t h e g a s t e m p e r a t u r e by 5'. The energy b a l a n c e i n c l u d e s i n d i v i d u a l e q u a t i o n s f o r t h e char, a n d one f o r t h e gas phase. In t h e g a s phase:

where m is t h e mss f l o w rate of t h e g a s , cp is t h e h e a t c a p a c i t y of t h e g a s , T is t h e g a s t e m p e r a t u r e , h is t h e h e a t t r a n s f e k c o e f f i c i e n t between t h e gas a n d t h g c h a r , A is t h e s u r f a c e a r e a p e r gram c h a r , T is t h e char temperature. P is t h e c h a r d e i s i t y a n d E is t h e v o i d f r a c t i o n in t h e bed. For t h e s o l i d D h a s e

where X i s t h e c o n v e r s i o n of char, HB is t h e h e a t of r e a c t i o n f o r t h e Boudouard, Y is t h e c o n v e r s i o n of s t e a m t o hydrogen, a n d HwGs is t h e h e a t of r e a c t i o n f o r t h e water gas s h i f t r e a c t i o n . The mss a n d energy b a l a n c e s a r e coupled a n d s o l v e d u s i n g a Runge K u t t a i n t e g r a t i o n r o u t i n e in a n i n t e r a c t i v e mode. The model r e s u l t s a r e v e r y dependent on i n i t i a l c o n d i t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e i n p u t from t h e p y r o l y s i s model c a l c u l a t i o n s of t e m p e r a t u r e and composition of t h e gas. lhe a v e r a g e t e m p e r a t u r e of t h e s o l i d is n o t known e x a c t l y but is assumed t o be somewhere between t h e flame t e m p e r a t u r e a n d t h e p y r o l y s i s f r o n t temperature. The s o l i d t e m p e r a t u r e is n o t c r i t i c a l , s i n c e t h e h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t is l a r g e and t h e h e a t c a p a c i t y of t h e s o l i d phase is small r e l a t i v e t o t h e g a s phase. The h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t in t h e energy b a l a n c e has been c a l c u l a t e d by a n e m p i r i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n of S a t t e r f i e l d ( 4 ) f o r f i x e d bed r e a c t o r s . The model needs t h e area t o volume r a t i o of t h e f e e d s t o c k t o c a l c u l a t e t h e h e a t t r a n s f e r c o e f f i c i e n t , h, and t h e p a r t i c l e a r e a t o weight r a t i o , AP'

KXPERMENTAL DATA
To compare t h e p r e d i c t i o n of t h e model w i t h e x p e r i m e n t a l g a s i f i e r r e s u l t s , a A type q u a r t z t u b e g a s i f i e r 54 mm o u t e r d i a m e t e r , shown in Fig. 2, was employed. K 1/16-in. thermocouple was used f o r t e m p e r a t u r e measurement through t h e p y r o l y s i s and g a s i f i c a t i o n zones. A 1/16-in. 304 SS t u b e was p l a c e d d i r e c t l y a l o n g s i d e t h e A 10 cc s y r i n g e (+ n e e d l e ) thermocouple, through which gas samples were p u l l e d . was used t o e v a c u a t e t h e t u b e a n d t o t a k e t h e sample. Gas a n a l y s i s was done w i t h a Carle # l l l H gas c h r o u a t o g r a p h , w i t h a hydrogen t r a n s f e r t u b e a n d a t e n f t Carbosieve column. I n t e g r a t i o n of a n a l y s i s was performed w i t h a V a r i a n I CDS111 integrator.

Two samples were t a k e n f o r e a c h l e v e l measured. Once a s t e a d y s t a t e c o n d i t o n in t h e gasifier was a c h i e v e d , t h e probes were i n s e r t e d t o t h e s p e c i f i e d l e v e l a n d t h e gas sampling t e m p e r a t u r e r e c o r d i n g p r o c e d u r e begun. The probes were t h e n moved a t 2 c m i n t e r v a l s up through t h e bed u n t i l t h e t e m p e r a t u r e r e a d below g a s i f i c a t i o n The time i n t e r v a l in between each sample was p y r o l y s i s t e m p e r a t u r e s (100OC). a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 minute.

413

Rl3SULTS Table 1 p r e s e n t s r e s u l t s of t h e p y r o l y s i s m a t e r i a l a n d energy b a l a n c e model. The a d i a b a t i c flame t e m p e r a t u r e s of t h e p y r o l y s i s p r o d u c t s , assuming f r a c t i o n s of f i x e d c a r b o n from 0.05 t o 0.20 when burned w i t h v a r i o u s r a t i o s of 0 / f u e l h a s been The model a l s o y i e l d s t h e gas composition a t t h e end o t p y r o l y s i s f o r calculated. Zhe g a s t e m p e r a t u r e a n d c o m p o s i t i o n is t h e n each f i x e d carbon and 0 2 / f u e l r a t i o . i n p u t i n t o t h e g a s i f i c a t i o n model. For p r e d i c t i o n s of t h e l a b o r a t o r y d a t a , t h e For t h e f i x e d c a r b o n is assumed t o be 15%and t h e 0 / f u e l r a t i o is s e t a t 0.45. 0.40. The r e s u l t s p r e s e n t e d y i e l d oxygen runs t h e 0 2 / f u e l r a t i o is assumed t o A a l t e r n a t e c a l c u l a t i o n is t o i t e r a t e on n v a r y i n g char l o s s through t h e g r a t e . t h e a i r / f u e l r a t i o t o consume a s p e c i f i e d m o u n t of f i x e d carbon.

be

%ble
Feed Gas
Air (02)

1.

Pyrolysis &del

Calculations Adiabatic

02/Fuel 0.4

F r a c t i o n Fixed Carbon 0.05

Temperature

(K)

0.10
0.15 0.20 0.45

0.05

0.10
0.15

0.20
0.50

0.05
0.10 0.15 0.20

57 5 (888) 764 (1182) 955 (1475) 1146 (1765) 745 (1201) 924 (1490) 1104 (1775) 1282 (2055) 897 (1504) 1067 (1785) 1236 (2061) 1403 (2330)

F i g u r e 3 shows t h e model p r e d i c t i o n s of t h e c h a r a n d g a s phase t e m p e r a t u r e The s o l i d phase is p r o f i l e s through t h e g a s i f i c t i o n zone f o r a i r g a s i f i c a t i o n . r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e s o l i d l i n e , t h e gaseous phase is r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e d o t t e d l i n e E x c e l l e n t agreement w i t h t h e a n d t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a are r e p r e s e n t e d by stars. data is observed t h r o u g h o u t t h e c h a r g a s i f i c a t i o n zone, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e data p o i n t a t t h e g r a t e . This d i s c r e p a n c y is caused by h e a t l o s s ( c o n d u c t i o n a n d r a d i a t i o n ) a t t h e g r a t e , r e s u l t i n g in lower t e m p e r a t u r e measurements t h a n expected. In a r e a c t o r w i t h a l a y e r of ceramic balls a b o v e t h e g r a t e i t would be e x p e c t e d that h e a t l o s s would n o t be i m p o r t a n t . F i g u r e 4 shows p r e d i c t i o n s a n d e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a of t h e CO/CO2 r a t i o down t h e reactor. The agreement between model p r e d i c t i o n s a n d e x p e r i m e n t a l d a t a is good

414

c o n f i r m a t i o n of t h e model. S i n c e no a d j u s t a b l e p a r a m e t e r s were i n p u t into t h e model t o make t h e t e m p e r a t u r e p r o f i l e a n d CO/C02 r a t i o p r e d i c t i o n s , t h e model appears successful a t simulating laboratory conditions. In t h i s The e f f e c t of v a r y i n g throughput on c h a r c o n v e r s i o n is shown in Fig. 5. f i g u r e , t h e r e s u l t of i n p u t t i n g into t h e model t e n t i m e s normal, normal, and one Quantitatively, a f t e r t h e s o l i d a n d t e n t h normal a i r thorughput i s i l l u s t r a t e d . gas have come t o t h e same t e m p e r a t u r e , t h e c o n v e r s i o n of c h a r f o r a g i v e n d i s t a n c e is l i n e a r l y dependent on t h e t h r o u g h t p u t . Although a n i n c r e a s e in t h r o u g h p u t i n c r e a s e s t h e h e a t t r a n s f e r from t h e gas t o t h e s o l i d , t h e n e t e f f e c t on char c o n v e r s i o n , a s y i e l d e d by model c a l c u l a t i o n s , i s t h e same char c o n v e r s i o n f o r Increasing the surface e q u i v a l e n t r e s i d e n c e t i m e s , r e g a r d l e s s of throughput. area/volume r a t i o f o r t h e f e e d s t o c k a l s o i n c r e a s e s h e a t t r a n s f e r from gas t o c h a r , b u t a g a i n no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e in c o n v e r s i o n o c c u r s f o r v a r i o u s r a t i o s , a f t e r t h e gas a n d s o l i d t e m p e r a t u r e s a p p r o a c h t h e same p o i n t . F i g u r e 5 a l s o shows t h e c h a r c o n v e r s i o n f o r a throughput c o n s i s t i n g of oxygen An i n t e r e s t i n g outcome from u s i n g oxygen in t h e model i n s t e a d of a i r . c a l c u l a t i o n s i s that t h e t e m p e r a t u r e of t h e c h a r only rises a b o u t 50K above t h e 'Ihis i s in peak temperature of t h e a i r g a s i f i c a t i o n c a s e , a s d e p i c t e d in Fig. 6. s p i t e of t h e i n i t i a l gas t e m p e r a t u r e of t h e oxygen r u n of 1750K, compared t o 1400K f o r t h e a i r case. S i m i l a r r e s u l t s have been observed in t h e l a b o r a t o r y f o r t h e oxygen g a s i f i e r . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s phenomenon is t h e b u f f e r i n g e f f e c t of t h e endothermic g a s i f i c a t i o n reactions which i n c r e a s e their r a t e s a t higher t e m p e r a t u r e s , t h u s c o n v e r t i n g g r e a t e r amounts of s e n s i b l e h e a t t o chemical energy. The end r e s u l t t h e n i s not h i g h e r t e m p e r a t u r e s in t h e r e a c t o r but h i g h e r c o n v e r s i o n of t h e c h a r in t h e g a s i f i c a t i o n zone.

CONCLUSIONS
A p y r o l y s i s model h a s been developed which y i e l d s gas t e m p e r a t u r e a n d The r e s u l t s of t h i s model composition f o r both a i r and oxygen g a s i f i c a t i o n . a r e then i n p u t i n t o a s e p a r a t e char g a s i f i c a t i o n model. A c h a r g a s i f i c a t i o n model has been developed which u t i l i z e s no a d j u s t a b l e parameters t o p r e d i c t d e s i g n p a r a m e t e r s a n d g a s i f i e r p r o c e s s c o n d i t o n s .

The two models y i e l d r e a l i s t i c t e m p e r a t u r e p r o f i l e s of t h e s o l i d and gas phases down t h e r e a c t o r . P r e d i c t i o n s compare very w e l l w i t h l a b o r a t o r y data. The CO/CO2 r a t i o p r e d i c t e d a g r e e w e l l w i t h l a b o r a t o r y data. 'Ihe model shows a n e s s e n t i a l l y linear c o r r e l a t i o n between throughput a n d char c o n v e r s i o n f o r a g i v e n r e a c t o r length. The model p r e d i c t s e q u i v a l e n t c o n v e r s i o n s volume r a t i o s of t h e same f e e d s t o c k . of char for various surface t o

The model d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e b u f f e r i n g e f f e c t of t h e endothermic g a s i f i c a t i o n r e a c t i o n s in keeping down t h e c h a r t e m e r p a t u r e in a n oxygen g a s i f i e r .


RECOMMENDATIONS
'

A model should be i n c o r p o r a t e d t o g i v e t h e r e s i d e n c e time and i n t e g r a l This a d d i t i o n would a l l o w a v e r a g e t e m p e r a t u r e of t h e c h a r a f t e r p y r o l y s i s . d e t e r m i n a t i o n s of t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r e a c t o r l e n g t h f o r complete g a s i f i c a t i o n , a n d remove t h e e s t i m t i o n of i n i t i a l p a r t i c l e temperature in t h e char g a s i f i c a t i o n zone.

415

(2)

Experimental data s h o l d be t a k e n w i t h v a r i o u s g a s i f i e r c o n d i t i o n s and d e s i g n s t o check mode1 p r e d i c t i o n s a n d assumptions.


A(XNOWLEDGEI&NTS

Support f o r t h i s p r o j e c t from t h e O f f i c e of Alcohol f u e l s of t h e United S t a t e s Review of t h i s paper by J. Department of Energy is g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. Diebold a n d T M i l n e is s i n c e r e l y a p p r e c i a t e d . .

REFERENCES
Reed, T.B., M. Markson, A P r e d i c t i v e Yssdel f o r S t r a t i f i e d Downdraft G a s i f i c a t i o n of Biomass, Proceedings of t h e 1 4 t h B i o m s s Thermochemical c o n v e r s i o n c o n t r a c t o r s Meeting. A t l a n t a , GA, 1982.
Walawender, W a l t e r P., S. M. Chern a n d L. T. Fan, Wood C h i p G a s i f i c a t i o n in a Commercia1 Downdraft G a s i f i e r , P r e s e n t e d a t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference Estes Park, CO, 18-22 on Fundamentals of Thermochemical Biomass Conversion. October 1982. T. B r a d l e y , a n d M. S . Graboski, The G a s i f i c a t i o n K i n e t i c s of Edrich, R., Ponderosa P i n e C h a r c o a l , P r e s e n t e d a t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference on E s t e s Park, CO, 18-22 Fundamentals of Thermochemical Biomass Conversion. October 1982. Satterfield, P r e s s , 1970.
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