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KNALPOT MOTOR

Kali ini kita akan membahas tentang bagaimana membuat sebuah sistem pembuangan.

Knalpot Motor Tujuan knalpot adalah membuang semua gas sisa pembakaran di dalam silinder. Pada mesin motor ,knalpot diseting sedemikian hingga momentum gas sisa pembakaran dan gelombang tekanan membantu menyeruput gas bersih di intake porting masuk ke dalam silinder Sehingga efisiensi volumetrik meningkat. Bahkan bisa mencapai diatas 100 %. Proses overlaping yang lebar pada noken as racing dan kekuatan langkah hisap memungkinkan semua ini terjadi. Pembuangan pada motor juga sangat berpengaruh pada tenaga yang dihasilkan oleh kuda besi kita. Kenaikan yang tenaga yang dihasilkan dengan penggantian knalpot mencapai 0,5 DK atau lebih, tergantung knalpot yang kita gunakan. Untuk itu penggunaan knalpot semi racing ataupun racing sangat berpengaruh pada tenaga yang dihasilkan. Mengapa saya bilang knalpot semi racing? Karena pada dasarnya knalpot racing yang beredar di pasaran merupakan knalpot yang dibuat dari spek motor standart. Tips ringan dalam memiih knalpot. Untuk andaanda yang suka touring sebaiknya memilih knalpot dengan ukuran silinder yang

panjang dengan tujuan agar ruang bakar mesin tidak cepat panas. Dengan silinder panjang RPM mesin anda tidak terlalu dipacu dan anda akan mendapatkan top speed yang maksimal. Untuk anda yang berada di jalanan yang rapat sebiaknya memakai knalpot dengan silender yang pendek, dengan tujuan agar akselerasi motor anda menjadi cepat dan anda cepat dapat top speed dibandingkan dengan knalpot bersilencer panjang, namun top speed silinder panjang lebih daripada silinder pendek.
Desaign Requirement Fungsi Constrain : Sebagai saluran gas buang : Tahan terhadap karat Dapat menahan tekanan Dapat tahan terhadap temperature tertentu Objective : Desainnya minimalis sehingga biasa digunakan pada kendaraan bermotor. Semurah mungkin agar dapat dijangkau oleh semua lapisan masyarakat : Steel Aluminium

Free variable

Knalpot Racing

INERTIA TUNING Disadari atau tidak, gas sisa pembakaran memiliki bobot, jadi jika kita membuat gas bergulir maka ini akan berlanjut bahkan hingga setelah klep buang menutup. Ketika kecepatan bertambah, waktu untuk mesin membuang gas sisa pembakaran akan semakin singkat. Disini dibutuhkan aksi hisapan dari knalpot untuk membantu mengosongkan silinder dengan cepat.

Knalpot AHAU pada Jupiter Z ACOUSTICAL TUNING Gas buang bergerak dengan pulsa tertentu. Bentuk dasar leher knalpotnya yang menyebabkan munculnya inersia gas buang, sekarang kita harus bisa menentukan panjang pipa serta diameter dalam pipa. Ini adalah point penting dimana akustikal tuning berlangsung. Exhaust gas dikeluarkan dari mesin dengan kecepatan sekitar 100 meter per detik. Tetaapi gelombang di dalam pipa knalpot mampu menyebabkan kecepatan bertamabah hingga 500 m/s. disinilah poin desain knalpot, bagaimana meningkatkan kemampuan cylinder scavenging dan meningkatkan cylinder filling dengan campuran bahan bakar dan udara.

Leher Knalpot Setelah busi mengeluarkan percikan bunga api diruang bakar, maka akan terjadi langkah usaha, namun ketika langkah usaha sedang berlangsung, klep buang mulai terangkat dan gas terhisap menuju sistem pembuangan, terciptalah gelombang tekanan yang bergulung dengan kecepatan tinggi menuju ujung pipa. Setelah gas terbuang di atmosfer, gelombang positif berbalik dan menciptakan tekanan negatif hisapan- yang mundur melalui knalpot masuk ke dalam silinder.

Aluminium alloys
Description
The Material Aluminum was once so rare and precious that the Emperor Napoleon III of France had a set of cutlery made from it that cost him more than silver. But that was 1860; today, nearly 150 years later, aluminum spoons are things you throw away - a testament to our ability to be both technically creative and wasteful. Aluminum, the first of the 'light alloys' (with magnesium and titanium), is the third most abundant metal in the earth's crust (after iron and silicon) but extracting it costs much energy. It has grown to be the second most important metal in the economy (steel comes first), and the mainstay of the aerospace industry. Composition Al + alloying elements, e.g. Mg, Mn, Cr, Cu, Zn, Zr, Li Image _ Caption Aluminum can formed both by casting and by deformation.

General properties
Density Price

2500 1.322e4 68 30 58 1 12 21.6 22

2900 2.143e4 82 500 550 44 150.5 157 35

kg/m^3 IDR/kg GPa MPa MPa % HV MPa MPa.m^1/2

Mechanical properties
Young's Modulus Elastic Limit Tensile Strength Elongation Hardness - Vickers Endurance Limit Fracture Toughness

Thermal properties
Thermal conductor or insulator? Thermal Conductivity Thermal Expansion Specific Heat Melting Point Maximum Service Temperature Good conductor 76 - 235 21 - 24 857 - 990 474.9 - 676.9 120 - 210 Good conductor Opaque 184 11.6 True 203 12.8 MJ/kg kg/kg W/m.K strain/C J/kg.K C C

Electrical properties
Electrical conductor or insulator?

Optical properties
Transparency

Eco properties
Production Energy CO2 creation Recycle

Supporting information
Typical uses Aerospace engineering; automotive engineering - pistons, clutch housings, exhaust manifolds; die cast chassis for household and electronic products; siding for buildings; foil for containers and packaging; beverage cans; electrical and thermal conductors.

Links

Reference ProcessUniverse

Producers

92/8 Aluminium bronze, 1/2 hard (wrought) (UNS C61000)


General
Designation Copper Alloy: CuAl8(1/2h) (UNS C61000) UNS Number C61000 Density 7900 - 8100 kg/m^3 Price 2.33e4 - 2.383e4 IDR/kg CO2 creation * 4.6 - 5.08 kg/kg Production Energy * 73.1 - 80.8 MJ/kg Recycle Fraction * 0.4 - 0.5 Tradenames COWLES, English manufacture (UK); AMBRALOY 928, The American Brass Co. (); HILLSMCCANNA NO. 48, McCanna Inc. (USA); SM-3090, Svenska Metallverken A.B. (SWEDEN); CERRO W25, Cerro Manganese Bronze Limited (UK); AMPCO-TRODE 7, Ampco Metal, Inc. (USA); CUPRALINOX C, Le Bronze Industriel (FRANCE); CERRO W26, Cerro Manganese Bronze Limited (UK); ORANIUM BRONZE M.H, Manufacturer unknown (); SEMALLOY NO. 3331, Semi-Alloys, Inc. (USA); COWLES B, American manufacture (USA); DELTA CA13, Delta (Manganese Bronze) Ltd. (UK); IMI 757, IMI plc (UK); ;

Composition
Composition (Summary) Cu/8Al Base Al (Aluminium) Cu (Copper) 8

Cu (Copper)

92 * 135 230 30 230 * 199 * 189.4 * 47.5 130 * 186 * 6.4e-5 230 0.34 28 * 46.3 480 125 300 1032 -273 394.4 74 16.5 11.5 140.4 250 35 250 207 217.1 50 140 372 7.6e-5 250 0.35 48.1 510 130 310 1045 396.6 78 17.5 13.2

% GPa MPa % MPa MPa MPa MPa.m^1/2 HV kJ/m^2 MPa GPa MPa GPa C C C J/kg.K W/m.K strain/C ohm.cm

Mechanical
Bulk Modulus Compressive Strength Elongation Elastic Limit Endurance Limit Fatigue Strength Model (Stress Range)
Parameters: Stress Ratio = -1, No. of Cycles = 1e7

Fracture Toughness Hardness - Vickers Izod Toughness Loss Coefficient Modulus of Rupture Poisson's Ratio Shape Factor Shear Modulus Tensile Strength Young's Modulus

Thermal

Maximum Service Temperature Melting Point Minimum Service Temperature Specific Heat Thermal Conductivity Thermal Expansion

Electrical
Resistivity

Durability

Flammability Fresh Water Organic Solvents Oxidation at 500C Sea Water Strong Acid Strong Alkalis UV Wear Weak Acid Weak Alkalis

Very Good Very Good Very Good Average Very Good Poor Very Good Very Good Very Good Good Very Good

Notes
Standards with Similar Compositions The following information is taken from ASM AlloyFinder 3 - see link to References table for further information. DIN 2.092 (Germany) DIN AlBz8 (Germany) DIN CuAl8 (Germany) ISO 1634 CuAl8 (Switzerland) ISO 1637 CuAl8 (Switzerland) ISO 428 CuAl8 (Switzerland) Typical Uses

Tubes & components for condensers; heat exchangers for brine, acids & salts; chemical & paper-making plant; chains & slings; marine equipment; non-magnetic components; coins; jewellery; hard-facing and overlaying electrodes. Other Notes (s)=soft; (1/2 h)=half hard; (h)=hard; (xh)=extra hard; (hr) = hot rolled; (w)=soln heat-trtd; (wh)=soln heat-trtd & work hdnd; (wp)=soln heat-trtd & precip hdnd; (whp)=precip hdnd after cold-wkng; (wph)=work hdnd after precip hdng. Reference Sources Data compiled from multiple sources. See links to the References table.

Links
Reference Shape Structural Sections Producers ProcessUniverse

Aluminium Bronze
General
Designation Copper Alloy: Aluminium Bronze Density Price CO2 creation Production Energy Recycle Fraction

7300 2.138e4 * 4.78 * 75.9 * 0.4

8200 2.401e4 5.28 83.9 0.5

kg/m^3 IDR/kg kg/kg MJ/kg

Composition

Composition (Summary) Cu/5-20 Al Base Al (Aluminium) Cu (Copper)

Cu (Copper) 5 - 20 80 - 95 109 128 8 128 165 27 87.5 * 1.5e-5 128 0.34 26 37 360 100 247 1036 -270 390 60 14.5 145 530 65 530 275 68 250 2.5e-4 530 0.35 50 800 134 392 1066 -160 402 86 19.5

% % GPa MPa % MPa MPa MPa.m^1/2 HV MPa GPa MPa GPa C C C J/kg.K W/m.K strain/C

Mechanical

Bulk Modulus Compressive Strength Elongation Elastic Limit Endurance Limit Fracture Toughness Hardness - Vickers Loss Coefficient Modulus of Rupture Poisson's Ratio Shape Factor Shear Modulus Tensile Strength Young's Modulus

Thermal
Maximum Service Temperature Melting Point Minimum Service Temperature Specific Heat Thermal Conductivity Thermal Expansion

Electrical
Resistivity

9.33

52.5

ohm.cm

Durability
Flammability Fresh Water Organic Solvents Oxidation at 500C Sea Water Strong Acid Strong Alkalis UV Wear Weak Acid Weak Alkalis Very Good Very Good Very Good Average Very Good Poor Very Good Very Good Very Good Good Very Good

Notes
Typical Uses High strength corrosion-resistant parts for marine and chemical use, pumps, valve gears, chains die-cast components for autos, condensers, heat exchangers for brine, acid and salts, coins, jewellery Reference Sources Data compiled from multiple sources. See links to the References table.

Links
Reference Shape Structural Sections Producers ProcessUniverse

Cast magnesium alloy (AM50)


General
Designation Mg alloy: AM50 (cast) Density Price CO2 creation Production Energy Recycle Fraction

1800 4.906e4 * 22.4 * 356 0.7

1810 5.607e4 24.7 393 0.8

kg/m^3 IDR/kg kg/kg MJ/kg

Composition

Composition (Summary) Mg/5Al/.3Mn Base Al (Aluminium) Mg (Magnesium) Mn (Manganese)

Mg (Magnesium) 5 94.7 0.3 33 * 120 6.5 120 * 85 * 84.08 * 16 * 36 * 3e-3 * 120 0.3 30 15 195 40 * 150 440 -273 1050 61 25.9 12.3 40 130 7.5 130 100 100.4 17 38.5 8e-3 130 0.31 18 200 45 180 625 1060 63 26.2 12.6

% % % GPa MPa % MPa MPa MPa MPa.m^1/2 HV MPa GPa MPa GPa C C C J/kg.K W/m.K strain/C ohm.cm

Mechanical
Bulk Modulus Compressive Strength Elongation Elastic Limit Endurance Limit Fatigue Strength Model (Stress Range) Fracture Toughness Hardness - Vickers Loss Coefficient Modulus of Rupture Poisson's Ratio Shape Factor Shear Modulus Tensile Strength Young's Modulus

Parameters: Stress Ratio = -1, No. of Cycles = 1e7

Thermal
Maximum Service Temperature Melting Point Minimum Service Temperature Specific Heat Thermal Conductivity Thermal Expansion

Electrical
Resistivity

Durability
Flammability Fresh Water Organic Solvents Oxidation at 500C Sea Water Strong Acid Strong Alkalis UV Wear Weak Acid Very Good Very Good Very Good Very Poor Poor Poor Good Very Good Average Average

Weak Alkalis

Very Good

Notes
Typical Uses Seat frames, instrument panels, brackets and wheels. Reference Sources Data compiled from multiple sources. See links to the References table.

Links

Reference Shape Structural Sections Producers ProcessUniverse

Nickel-Iron-Chromium Alloy, "INCOLOY 800", spr. temper wire


General
Designation Unified Numbering System (USA): N08800 UNS Number Density Price CO2 creation Production Energy Recycle Fraction

N08800 7850 7.009e4 * 6.55 * 104 * 0.7

8050 1.402e5 7.23 115 0.9

kg/m^3 IDR/kg kg/kg MJ/kg

Composition
Composition (Summary)

30-35Ni/>39.5Fe/19-23Cr/<1.5Mn/<1Si/<.75Cu/.15-.6Al/.15-.6Ti/<.1other Base Ni (Nickel) Al (Aluminium) 0 - 1 % Cr (Chromium) 19 - 23 % Cu (Copper) 0 - 0.75 % Fe (Iron) 39.5 - 100 % Mn (Manganese) 0 - 1.5 % Ni (Nickel) 30 - 35 % Si (Silicon) 0 - 1 % Ti (Titanium) 0.15 - 0.6 %

Mechanical

Bulk Modulus Compressive Strength Elongation Elastic Limit Endurance Limit Fatigue Strength Model (Stress Range) Fracture Toughness Hardness - Vickers Loss Coefficient Modulus of Rupture Poisson's Ratio Shape Factor Shear Modulus Tensile Strength Young's Modulus

Parameters: Stress Ratio = -1, No. of Cycles = 1e7

186 * 895 2 895 * 385 * 332.3 * 120 * 280 * 1e-4 * 895 0.33 1 70 965 190 * 777 1355 -273 490 11 13.5 92

224 1175 5 1175 605 645.7 150 380 3e-4 1175 0.35 76 1210 200 977 1385 515 12 15 100

GPa MPa % MPa MPa MPa MPa.m^1/2 HV MPa GPa MPa GPa C C C J/kg.K W/m.K strain/C ohm.cm

Thermal
Maximum Service Temperature Melting Point Minimum Service Temperature Specific Heat Thermal Conductivity Thermal Expansion

Electrical
Resistivity

Durability
Flammability Fresh Water Organic Solvents Oxidation at 500C Sea Water Strong Acid Strong Alkalis UV Wear Weak Acid Weak Alkalis Very Good Very Good Very Good Very Good Very Good Good Very Good Very Good Good Very Good Very Good

Notes
Standards with Similar Compositions ASTM B564(99) N08800 (USA)

Typical Uses Heat treating equipment; Petrochemical pyrolysis tubing and piping systems; Sheathing for electrical heating elements; Food-processing equipment; Warning All nickel compounds should be regarded as toxic. Some can cause cancer and/or foetal abnormalities. Other Notes INCOLOY is a registered tradename of the INCO group of companies. As of September 1999 , INCONEL, INCOLOY, MONEL, NIMONIC, INCO-WELD, NILO, BRIGHTRAY, CORRONEL and UDIMET have become registered trademarks of Special Metals Corporation Reference Sources Data compiled from multiple sources. See links to the References table.

Links

Reference Shape Structural Sections Producers ProcessUniverse