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PHYS 1313 Prof. T.E. Coan

version: 31 Jan 06

Introduction To sensibly describe the motion of objects in our universe, we need to understand displacement, velocity and acceleration. This lab will emphasize the latter. When we use the word acceleration we mean the rate at which the velocity of a moving object changes with time. Accelerations are always caused by forces. (For those who missed lecture, think of a force as a push or a pull.) This is the essence of Newtons first law. In todays lab we will measure the acceleration due to the gravitational force exerted by the earth on two different types of objects, a tennis ball and a ping-pong ball. Theory Newton's second law of force relates the amount of force on an object to its mass and acceleration. F = ma (1)

The greater the force on an object, the larger is its acceleration. Beyond that, this equation doesnt say all that much until we know what to write on the left-hand side! Fortunately, that is the case for today. Probably the most apparent (and yet the weakest!) of the four known forces in nature is the gravitational force. Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation describes the mutual attractive gravitational force (Fg) exerted on each other by two objects with masses m and m that are separated by a distance r. The magnitude of this force is simply Fg = (2)

The constant G is called the gravitational constant and, as its name implies, does not depend on variables like mass or distance. This course will not explain where this formula comes from or even the experimental tests done to verify it. Instead, we will just use it.

To compute the magnitude of the gravitational force between the earth and an object, we substitute the mass of the earth (ME) and the distance from the object to the center of the earth (r). When the objects are on or near the earth's surface, this distance can be approximated by the value for the radius of the earth (RE), so that Equation (2) becomes Fg = We see that the force on the object depends only on the mass of the object, because G, ME, and RE are all constants and remain the same if we change our object. This force (measured at the earth's surface) is called the weight of the object. Looking at Equation (1) and equating F to the gravitational force (Fg), we see that: ma = = mg , where g=. This quantity g is a special acceleration and is itself a constant because it depends on quantities that do not change with time. We call this special acceleration the gravitational acceleration and is, for example, the same acceleration a book experiences when you drop it. Allegedly, Galileo first demonstrated this result when he dropped cannonballs of different masses (weights) from the Leaning Tower of Pisa to show that although they had different masses, when dropped together, they landed together. This happened in this manner because they both experienced the same acceleration. A similar experiment can be done by dropping a coin and a feather. When dropped in air, the coin always lands first, but when they are dropped in a vacuum, an environment where there is no air, they land together! In the coin and feather case, the different velocities are due to the presence of a force, the frictional force on the coin and the feather due to the presence of air. Our Equation (4) equates the total force to the gravitational force and therefore neglects the effects of air friction. Lets now try to discover a quantitative method for determining the gravitational acceleration, g. We first look at the equation for displacement x in a one dimensional universe: x(t) = vo t + (1/2) at 2 (5) (4) (3)

Here, the quantities vo and a are, respectively, the initial velocity and the acceleration. In this experiment, like Galileo, we will be dropping an object from rest, so that vo will be zero. We will assume that the only acceleration present is due to the force of gravity so that we can set a = g. We then obtain the relation that describes the distance the object falls as a function of time

(6)

Equation (6) provides a means to measure g. All we need to do is to drop an object through a known distance x and then measure the time t it takes to fall. If we know both x and t, we can solve equation (6) for g, g = . (7)

Hence, by measuring the travel distance and the travel time for an object falling from rest, we can measure the gravitational acceleration. Procedure 1. You will drop a ping pong ball and a tennis ball from floors 2 and 3 of Fondren Science onto its first floor. (Use the central stairwell.) You will measure the fall time and the drop distance for both balls. 2. Each lab group should select 1 ping-pong ball and 1 tennis ball. Use the triple beam balance to measure the masses of these balls. Record their values with units in the table below. 3. Each lab group should grab 1 stopwatch and 1 measuring string. Verify that you can work the stopwatch. 4. Walk to the Fondren Science central stairwell and begin your measurements on the 2nd floor. Be mindful that some people will actually want to use the stairway as, well, a stairway. 5. One person in each lab group must remain on the ground floor to retrieve dropped balls and to prevent injury to passers by. Try not to conk too many people on the head. 6. The balls should each first be dropped from rest from the 2nd floor banister onto the ground floor below. Time the fall time from the banister to the floor. Record this number, with proper units, in the table below. Perform 4 drops for each ball from the 2nd floor. 7. Lab partners should take turns dropping the balls so that everyone has dropped both balls four times each. 8. Using the string, measure the drop distance, with proper units, from the 2nd floor banister to the first floor. Just mark the string with paper tape and then measure the length of the string in either the hallway near 25 Fondren Science or in the lab itself. The instructor will help you.

9. Move to the 3rd floor and measure the distance from the 3rd floor banister to the 2nd floor banister. Determine the total drop distance, with proper units, from the 3rd floor banister all the way to the first floor and record this value in the table below. 10. Drop and time both balls four times each. Record the drop times in the table below. 11. Lab partners should alternate positions so that everyone has dropped both balls four times each from the 3rd floor. Data Use the given lab form to record all data and extended data (t 2 ). You should also record m, the mass of the ball. Remember to report all data with units. For the last column of all four tables, the value of g to be used in computing |gave g| is your value of g found from that particular drop. Calculations 1. Using the measured values for x and the calculated values for t 2, insert these values into Equation (7) to get the measured values for g. Show all calculations and remember to label the appropriate quantities with their respective units. 2. Find the average of the three measurements of g and record this in the table below. 3. As a measure of precision, we will be using the average deviation from the mean for the measured value of the gravitational acceleration. Reread the lab write-up for Measurement and Measurement Error to remind yourself on how to do this type of error analysis. Your final result for the gravitational acceleration should be reported as: g = gave As a measure of accuracy, use the given accepted value for g (9.8 m/s2) and your measured average value of g to compute the percentage error. Again, reread the Measurement and Measurement Error write-up to refresh your memory on how to do this.

5 Conclusion 1. How did the gravitational acceleration vary with the different heights? Did it become smaller, larger or remain roughly constant? Why do you think this is? 2. What did you discover in this experiment? Error Analysis 1. How well do you think you can measure distance in this lab? Explain. 2. How well do you think you can measure drop time in this lab? Is this a matter of accuracy, precision or both? Explain. 3. Examine equation (7). Do you think it is more important to measure accurately the drop time or the fall distance of the ball to determine g with the greatest possible accuracy? Explain. 4. Compare your value of g with the accepted value of 9.8 m/s2. Is your value lower or higher than this value? Why do you think this is? Try to identify the experimental conditions or errors that may cause this discrepancy.

PHYS 1313 Prof. T.E. Coan

Version: 31 Jan 06

trial 1 2 3 4

Ball mass

t2

|gave-g |

Average measured value for g= _______________ Accepted value for g= _______ % error: _______

trial 1 2 3 4

Ball mass

t2

|gave-g |

Average measured value for g= _______________ Accepted value for g= _______ % error: _______

trial 1 2 3 4

Ball mass

t2

|gave-g |

Average measured value for g= _______________ Accepted value for g= _______ % error: _______

trial 1 2 3 4

Ball mass

t2

|gave-g |

Average measured value for g= _______________ Accepted value for g= _______ % error: _______

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