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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE 2. WHAT IS SCIENCE 3. 1. We see various natural phenomena in daily life. Natural 4.

phenomena are things that happen in nature. PMR 07 5. i. lightning, rainbow, melting of ice, growth of a baby 6. into an adult and the fall of ball to the ground are a 7. few examples of natural phenomena. 8. ii. We want to know why and how all these things happen. 9. We search for answers. The study of science gives us 10. the answers. 11. 2. Science is the systematic study of nature and how it affects us
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and our environment. 13. 3. The information produced from the study of science is known 14. as scientific knowledge. 15. IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE 16. 1. Science plays important roles in our daily life. Here are some 17. examples: 18. i. Science helps us to understand ourselves. Knowing 19. how our body works, we can better take care of our 20. health and safety. 21. ii. Science also helps to understand our environment. 22. This helps us to improve the quality of our 23. environment and conserve it for our future generation 24. CAREERS IN SCIENCE
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1. Science offers various career opportunities according to ones 26. area interest. Listed below are few examples: 27. i. Doctor 28. ii. Engineer 29. iii. Veterinarian 30. iv. Pharmacist 31. v. Architect 32. vi. Chemist 33. vii. Computer programmer Science Form 1 note 34. 2. Science is divided into a number of areas of study, namely 35. i. Biology - the study of life 36. ii. Physics - the study of matter, energy, force 37. and motion. 38. iii. Chemistry - the study of the composition and
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chemical properties of substances. 40. iv. Astronomy - the study of planet and stars in the 41. Earth. 42. v. Geology - the study of rocks, minerals and the 43. structure of the universe. 44. vi. Meteorology - the study of weather and climate. 45. vii. Biochemistry - the study of chemical process in 46. living organisms. 47. SCIENCE LABORATORY 48. 1.. Listed below are some rules and safety precautions in the 49. laboratory. 50. i. never enter the laboratory unless a teacher is present. 51. ii. do not eat, drink or taste any chemicals.
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iii. always follow the teachers instructions. 53. iv. and etc (notes has been given) 54. draw figure laboratory apparatus page PMR 2010 55. 3. Bunsen burner are used on the containers of hazardous 56. chemical substances to show their characteristics. PMR 03 57. STEPS IN SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION 58. 1. A scientific investigation is a series of steps done 59. systematically to study a problem or an event. 60. 2. Each step involves the use of one or more science process 61. skills. PMR 03 62. 3. The following shows the sequence of steps involved in a
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scientific investigation. 64. 4. Figure below shows some common laboratory apparatus and 65. their uses. Science Form 1 note 66. Salin dari m/s 9 Table 1.2 67. 5. Some substances in the laboratory are hazardous or 68. dangerous. 69. i. Hazard warning symbols are placed on labels of bottles 70. or containers of hazardous substances to show the 71. danger of the substances. 72. symbol Danger of substances Examples handling techniques 73. Explosive 74. * easily explodes when mixed 75. with other substances. 76. * sodium, 77. potassium 78. * keep in paraffin
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* avoid contact with 80. water 81. * concentrated 82. acids and alkalis 83. * keep away from 84. other substances 85. including water. 86. Flammable or inflammable 87. * easily catches fire and burns. 88. * organic solvent 89. such as ethanol, 90. petrol and 91. kerosene. 92. * keep away from fire 93. or heat sources. 94. toxic/poisonous 95. * causes death or harm to the 96. body if absorbed through the 97. skin or inhaled 98. * mercury * do not inhale, touch
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99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119.

or taste the substances. * keep in a looked cupboard. Corrosive * cause damage to the skin or eyes upon contact. * concentrated acids and alkalis * avoid contact with skin or eyes. * spill on body parts should be washed away quickly under running water. irritant/harmful * ammonia solution, chloroform, dilute acids and alkalis. * spill on body parts should be washed

with a lot of water. 121. Radioactive 122. * causes cancer or destroy 123. bodily tissues. 124. * uranium, 125. plutonium, 126. radium. 127. * keep in special lead 128. containers. Science Form 1 note 129. 6. The following shows the sequence of steps involved in a scientific 130. investigation. PMR 03 131. 1. identifying the problem 132. first, we determine what we want to find out. 133. To do so, we need to observe things or happenings carefully to 134. obtain information. Based on our observation, we then ask
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questions about the things or happening. 136. 2. forming a hypothesis 137. To make a smart guess to explain the problem. 138. The hypothesis needs to be tested based on the evidence 139. collected. 140. 3. planning an experiment 141. this section involves: 142. identifying the variables involved. A variable is conditioning 143. that influences the results of the experiment. 144. Determining the materials and apparatus required. 145. Determining the procedure to carry out the experiment, 146. method of collecting and analysing data. 147. 4. carrying out the experiment
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this section involves: 149. controlling the variables as planned so that the experiment is a 150. fair test. 151. Collecting data through observations and measurements. All 152. these must be done systematically, accurately, objectively and 153. honestly. 154. 5. analysing and interpreting data 155. explaining the collected data in an objective and logical 156. manner. 157. Giving an explaination about the pattern or relationship based 158. on the data collected. Science Form 1 note
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6. making a conclusion 160. state whether the hypothesis is true. 161. A conclusion should be made based on the data and not 162. influenced by any unfair opinion. 163. 7. writing a report on the experiment 164. present the aim, materials, apparatus and procedures, any 165. table or graph and conclusion clearly in the report. 166. It is important as a means of communication among scientists. 167. PHYSICAL QUANTITIES AND THEIR UNITS 168. 1. There are five physical quantities which can be 169. measured, that is length, mass, time, temperature and
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electric current. 171. 2. Physical quantities can be measured in System 172. International dUnits (SI) units. Its means International 173. System of Units. 174. 3. The following table shows the physical quantities and 175. their SI unit. 176. Physical quantity SI unit Symbol 177. length Metre m 178. mass kilogram kg 179. time Second s 180. temperature Kelvin K 181. electric current Ampere A2.1 Understanding cellsWeight and Mass 182. 1. The concept of weight and mass.
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i. Weight is the gravitational force acting on an 184. object. 185. ii. The greater the force pulling the object towards 186. the centre of Earth, the heavier of object. 187. iii. Spring balance is used to measure weight. 188. Lukis gambar m/s 18 figure 1.8 189. iv. Weight is measured in Newton (N) 190. 1 N = 0.1 kg 191. 1 kg = 10 N 192. v. Mass is the amount of matter in an object. 193. vi. Mass of an object can be measured by using 194. beam balance, a lever balance or electronic 195. balance.
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Lukis gambar m/s 18 photo 1.13 197. vii. The SI unit for mass is kilogram (kg). Mass can 198. also be measured in gram (g) and milligram 199. (mg). 200. I kg = 1000 g 201. 1 g = 1000 mg 202. viii. The S.I. unit for length is the metre (m). 203. ix. The unit `metre is used to measure objects 204. such as cloth, tables, poles and running tracks. Science Form 1 note 205. x. Longer distances are measured in kilometres 206. (km) and shorter distances are measured in 207. centimetres (cm).
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xi. The length of a curve is measured using a ruler 209. and a thread, or opisometer (measuring tool for 210. maps). 211. xii. Temperature is the degree of hotness or 212. coldness. 213. xiii. The S.I. unit for temperature is the Kelvin (k). 214. xiv. However, in daily usage, temperature is 215. measured in the Celsius scale which is named 216. after the Swedish scientist, Anders Celsius. The 217. unit used for temperature is degrees Celsius 218. ( 219. 0C).
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xv. The volume of regular shape or irregular shape 221. solids can be measured using water 222. displacement method. The volume of water 223. displaced is equal to the volume of the object. 224. PMR 05 225. Standard form and prefixed form 226. 1. The distance from the Earth to the Sun is 150 000 000 227. 000m 228. 2. The mass of a hydrogen atom is 229. 0.00000000000000000000000 167g 230. 3. For number like these, we can write them in the standard 231. form of a x 10
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232. 233. 234.

n Example: 150 000 000 000m

= 1.5 x

10 11m 236. 0.0000000000000000000000 0167 g= 1.67 x 10 237. 24 238. g Science Form 1 note 239. 4. We can also write physical quantities in the prefixed 240. form.. 241. prefix symbol numerical value value 242. tera T 1 000 000 000 000 x 10 243. 12 244. giga G 1 000 000 000 x 10 245. 9 246. mega M 1 000 000 x 10 247. 6 248. kilo k 1 000 x 10
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3 250. hector h 100 x 10 251. 2 252. deca da 10 x 10 253. 1 254. deci d 0.1 x 10 255. 1 256. centi c 0.01 x 10 257. 2 258. milli m 0.001 x 10 259. 3 260. micro 0.000 001 x 10 261. 6 262. nano n 0.000 000 001 x 10 263. 9 264. pico p 0.000 000 000 001 x 10 265. 12 266. femto f 0.000 000 000 000 001 x 10 267. 15
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5. we can also change 45 000g into the kilo prefix. 269. 1000 270. 45000g 271. = 45 kg 272. 6. change 3 m into the mm prefix. 273. 3 x 1 000 = 3 000mm Chapter2 .. By the end of this lesson : students should be able to
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identify that cells is the basic unit of living things, 275. prepare slides following the proper procedure 276. use a microscope properly 277. identify the general structures of animal cells and plant cells 278. draw the general structure of an animal cell and a plant cell
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label the general structure of an animal cell and a plant cell 280. state the function of each cell structure 281. state the similarities and differences between an animal cell and plant cell Identify that cell is the basic unit of living things cells are the basic building units of all living tings which can function by itself the smallest unit of a living thing which can Notes carry out living processes such as respiration, multiplication, excretion and growth
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Additional info The Cell Song Related The wonders of a tiny links cell Questions 1. Complete the following sentences with the correct terms. The basic unit for all living things is called

_________. When a green plant cell is stained with iodine solution, its ___________ becomes brown. Protoplasm consists of ____________ and _________. Movement of substances in and out of a cell is controlled by the _____________. Plants need a ______________ to support its cells
Identify the general structures of animal cells and plant cells

Dec23 Notes

PLANT CELL

ANIMAL CELL

Additional info

REAL PLANT CELL

REAL ANIMAL CELL

Related links The Plant Cell Plant Cell Anatomy Plant Cell Functions

Cells Animal Cell Structure A Typical Animal Cell Questions 1. Draw an animal cell and a plant cell.
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Label the following terms on your drawing and give its function cytoplasm nucleus cell wall cell membrane chloroplast vacuole Understanding unicellular organism and multicellular organism By the end of this lesson : students should be able to state the meaning of unicellular organism and multicellular organism
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give examples of unicellular organism and multicellular organism


2. State the meaning of unicellular organism and multicellular organism

Dec23 Notes
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Unicellular a simple organism where its body is made up of one cell only. (uni means one) most unicellular organisms are aquatic living things and live in wet areas like ponds, drains, and the sea also known as microorganism (short form is microbe) because its size is too minute. It cannot be seen with the naked eyes and can only be seen under a microscope. Multicellular

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an organism which is made up of many cells (multi means many) more complex than a unicellular organism

Additional info multicellular and unicellular UNICELLULAR ORGANISM

MULTICELLULAR ORGANISM

Related links Unicellular and Multicellular Organisms Questions 1. Complete the following sentences with the correct scientific terms. Unicellular organisms are made up of _________ cell whereas __________ organisms are made up of many cells. _____________ organism is more complex than ____________

organism. 3.3 Understanding the concept of density By the end of this lesson : students should be able to define density 2. explain why some objects and liquids float 3. solve simple problems related to density 4. carry out activities to explore the densities of objects and liquids 3.4 Appreciating the use of matter in everyday life By the end of this lesson : students should be able to
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describe how man uses the different states of matter 2. describe how man applies the concept of density
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carry out activity to explore the applications of the concept of floating and sinking related to density
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