GAS RETICULATION
SYSTEM
Three main factors should be considered:
1) Estimates the gas consumption rate
or gas demand
2) Selection and assumption of
distribution system (Network
analysis)
3) Check the pressure required
whether it is maintained at a specific
level
BASIC CONSIDERATION IN SELECTING
THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Determination of the total amount of gas
consumption is among the first requirements
for the determination of the pipe diameter.
What is required for the determination of the
total amount of gas consumption is the
amount of gas consumption of each
combustion appliances and the number of
such appliances to be installed.
It can be determined directly from
manufacturer's (BTU)  rating of the appliance
which will be installed as given in table 6.1.
However, the amount of gas consumption can
be determine based on various factors
a) Number of customer
b) Type of residence
c) Fuel supply and demand situation
d) Kind of industries
e) Future prospect of the subject area
DESIGN DEMAND ESTIMATION
Appliances
Rating (Btu/hr)
Range, Free Standing Domestic
BuiltIn Oven or Boiler Unit, Domestic
BuiltIn Top Unit, Domestic
Water Heater, Automatic Storage (30 to 40 gal tank)
Water Heater, Automatic Storage (50 gal tank)
Water Heater, Automatic Instantaneous:
Capacity : 2 gal. per minute
Capacity : 4 gal. per minute
Capacity : 6 gal. per minute
Refrigerator
Gas Light
Incinerator, Domestic
65 000
25 000
40 000
45 000
55 000
142 800
285 000
428 000
3 000
2 500
35 000
Typical Example of Appliances Rating
 In general the total amount of all rating of
appliances does not always amount of the
gas that each consumer uses. This is
because, it is rarely the case that
consumers use all their appliances
simultaneously and the appliances are not
always to be used with the fully open
 Therefore, the amount of gas to be
considered as a design consumption is a
total gas consumption the area multiply
with consumption factor which is called
appliance gas coincident factor as given in
equation below
Design Consumption = Total Amount of Gas x
Appliance Coincident Factor
 Is a ratio of the total amount of gas usage divided by
the total amount of gas based on appliances rating
(theoretical load)
 There are three methods to estimate the value of gas
coincident factor
a) based on meter reading
Example
Find the CF for 50 units of houses, each house having
the appliances rated as shown below.
i) 4 topring burners = 46,000 Btu/hr
ii) Oven = 20,000 Btu/hr
From the previous data it was it was found that the
peak hour period is from 12.00 a.m. to 2.00 p.m.
where the consumption is 25,000 Btu/hr per unit of
houses.
APPLIANCES GAS COINCIDENT FACTOR
Solution
Group's actual usage = 25,000 Btu/hr x 50
= 1.25 x 106 Btu/hr
Rated connected load = (46,000 + 20,000) Btu/hr x 50
= 3.3 x 106 Btu/hr
Therefore,
CF = 1.25 x 106 = 0.38
3.3 x 106
b) Using empirical formula
Formula as shown below also can be used to
calculate the value of CF (normal practice
locally).
CF = 0.95
n
0.3
where n is the number of units of specified
premises
c) Using table
Sometimes the value of gas coincident
factor can be used straight away from table
below
No. of Premises
Value of CF (Domestic burner and Water Heater)
1
1.000
2
0.680
3
0.538
4
0.453
5
0.395
6
0.353
7
0.320
8
0.293
9
0.271
10
0.252
15
0.225
20
0.209
25
0.198
30
0.190
40
0.179
50
0.171
60
0.165
70
0.161
80
0.157
90
0.154
100
0.152
150
0.143
200
0.138
250
0.134
300
0.132
400
0.128
500
0.126
600
0.124
700
0.123
1000 and above
0.120
Value of Appliance Gas Coincident Factor
d) Research (Commercial Area)
d) Research (Residential Area)
REQUIRED INFORMATION FOR SERVICE PIPELINE
DESIGN
The following information should be obtained:
i) Plant layout
 Overall plant layout
 Part of plant layout where firing equipment is located
ii) Location of each burner system
iii) Required pressure of each equipment
iv) Future demand
v) Location of natural gas service station and for
LPG user
 Existing LPG piping layout (This drawing must
be checked to confirm its actual installation)
 LPG supplied pressure
 If possible, former LPG piping contractor name
2357 . 0
7781 . 0
n
CF =
 Avoid side slopes and cross slopes
 Avoid unstable slope
 Avoid any crossing, if possible
* river, highway, culvert etc
* cross at straight section
 Avoid cemeteries
 Avoid national park or reserve land
 Avoid religious places
 Avoid community places
 Avoid pocket land
PIPELINE ROUTE SELECTION
ROUTE OF SERVICES PIPING SELECTION &
CONSIDERATIONS
o Following is the criteria to be considered to select
services piping route.
i) Exposed piping is much better than underground
piping for easy maintenance and safety
ii) Gas piping shall not be installed in/at/through the
following places or locations:
a) a lift shaft
b) exhaust duct, etc.
c) electrical facility room, etc.
d) where it will be subjected to extreme temperature,
water or moisture continuously
e) where it will be subjected to excessive vibration
f) where it will be subjected to corrosive gas or
solution
g) in concrete slab or cylinder
iii) Gas piping shall be securely supported to avoid strain
exerting on the pipe. Therefore good pipe support
must be considered too.
iv) The piping and its support must not obstruct the
operation of any factory's mobile machine i.e. forklift
and crane.
v) Planning or possible expansion or modification of
factory
 where the future demand will be
 whether the construction (of the expansion) will
cause unsafe condition or modification required to
the piping system.
vi) The construction or installation work of the piping
shall least affect the production or operation of the
factory
vii) PE pipe shall not be installed as exposed pipe.
viii) The radius of the inner curve of PE pipe bending (R)
shall not less than 25 times of inner
diameter of the
pipe. The radius as shown in table 3.3.
ix) Location of customer's monitoring meter and line or
equipment regulator shall be located in
ventilated
spaces readily accessible for examination,
servicing or replacement.
x) Piping system shall be as simple as possible to avoid
confusion, especially in case of existing LPG piping
remained.
xi) The loop of piping shall not be use for internal piping
SIZING OF GAS PIPING FOR SERVICE LINE
o Is a line connected from the street main to the customer's
meter.
o Gas piping shall be of such size and so installed as to
provide a supply of gas sufficient to meet demand without
undue pressure drop between service station and gas
appliances.
o There are a several points to be remember about sizing
the pipe;
1) 2 1/2 and 5 inches pipe shall not be used for new piping
system except special cas. These two pipes are not
common in the market.
2) The pipe size of the piping system shall not be changed
except for branches and connection for meters,
regulators, isolation valves or special case such as tiein
point to existing piping etc.
3)The pipe size of the downstream pipe shall not be larger
than upstream except the connection for meters,
regulators, isolation valves etc. And the downstream pipe
of meters or regulator must be adequate size for
distributing condition.
4) The minimum pipe size for welding is recommended to
be 1 inch.
o Factors influence the service line sizing are:
1) Total connected load
2) Length of service line
3) Pressure at the main
o There are four methods widely used to solved the
above task as called a quit and simple calculation (not
as complex as general gas flow equation).
1) NFPA No. 54 (National Fire Protection Association)
Method
2) Clifford Method
3) Cox's Formula
4) Paulss Formula
COX'S (Supply Pressure is/above
29.4 kPa.G (3000 mmH
2
O))
o The pipe size of each section or portion shall be pre
determined by using Table 3.4, which shows the
maximum flow capacity at various pressure to ensure
the flow velocity at various pressure to ensure the
flow velocity does not exceed 20 m/s.
o In case that supply pressure is not available in Table
3.4, the maximum flow capacity of each pipe at 20
m/s can be calculated as below:
where,
Q
max
: Maximum flowrate (Sm
3
/hr) at 20 m/s flow
velocity
P
s
: Supply pressure (kPa.G)
D : Pipe inner diameter (mm)
101.3 : Atmospheric pressure in kPa (101.3 kPa. abs =
1 atm)
Q
max
=
1.8
10
2
x t x D
2
x
101.3 + P
s
101.3
o The pressure drop of the size predetermined above to
each appliance system shall be calculated by Cox's
Formula as shown below: However, maximum
allowable pressure drop is 15% of supply pressure. If
not, shall select bigger pipe size for that sections to
provide the sufficient pressure or pressure drop within
15% of supply pressure.
O In that case, piping cost effect should be also taken into
consideration, so that 2 or more piping sections or
portions might be selected to bigger pipe size. This
mean that, the down stream pipe size must be bigger
size than upstream pipe.
Q = K
(P
2
1
P
2
2
) D
5
S L
or
P
2
= P
2
1
S Q
2
L
K
2
D
5
where,
P
1
& P
2
: Absolute pressure (kPa.abs) = Gauge
Pressure (kPa.G) + Atmospheric Pressure
(101.325 kPa)
S : Specific Gravity
Q : Flowrate (Sm
3
/hr)
L : Distance (m)
D : Pipe Inner Diameter (mm)
K : Cox's Coefficient = 1.69 x 10
3
Example
Determine pipeline sizing of a domestic
installation diagram shown below. Assume
SG = 0.6
Solution
a) Piping Diagram
Source of Supply
Pressure : 138 kPa.G
s.s
100 m
70 m 50 m
50 m 40 m
15 m
Boiler:
300
Oven:
60
Dry Oven:
35
Sm /hr
3
Sm /hr
3
Sm /hr
3
Source of Supply
Pressure : 138 kPa.G
s.s
100 m
70 m 50 m
50 m 40 m
15 m
Boiler:
300
Oven:
60
Dry Oven:
35
Sm /hr
3
Sm /hr
3
Sm /hr
3
0
1
2
3
4
5
b) Design flowrate and predetermined
c) Pressure Drop Calculation
As supply pressure is 138 kPa.G, the
minimum pressure to the equipment is
117.3 kPa.G (218.6 kPa.abs). Therefore,
pressure drop of each pipe as shown in
table below:
Node No.
Flowrate Sm3/hr
Pipe Size (inch)
0  1
1  2
2  3
2  4
1  5
395
95
35
60
300
3 (2 1/2)
1
3/4
1
2
Node No
Flowrate
Length
P1
P2
Remarks
Pipe
Size
(Sm3/hr)
(m)
inch
mm
kPa.abs
kPa.abs
0 1
1  2
2  3
2  4
1  2
2  3
2  4
1  5
395
95
35
60
95
35
60
300
100
70
65
40
70
65
40
50
3
1
3/4
1
1 1/4
3/4
1
2
77.92
26.64
20.96
26.64
35.08
20.96
26.64
52.48
239.3
236.7
222.1
222.1
236.7
233.1
233.1
236.7
236.7
222.1
211.8
216.6
233.1
223.3
227.8
231.2
< 218.6
< 218.6
> 218.6
> 218.6
> 218.6
d) Result
Source of Supply
Pressure : 138 kPa.G
s.s
Boiler:
300
Oven:
60
Dry Oven:
35
Sm /hr
3
Sm /hr
3
Sm /hr
3
0
1
2
3
4
5
3 " 1 1/4 "
3/4 "
2 "
1"
Example 7
Determine pipeline sizing of a domestic installation
shown in example 6 if supply pressure Ps is 100
kPa.G. Please compare with the pressure drop and
pipe size of example 6.
Solution
a) Piping Diagram
Source of Supply
Pressure : 138 kPa.G
s.s
100 m
70 m 50 m
50 m 40 m
15 m
Boiler:
300
Oven:
60
Dry Oven:
35
Sm /hr
3
Sm /hr
3
Sm /hr
3
Source of Supply
Pressure : 138 kPa.G
s.s
100 m
70 m 50 m
50 m 40 m
15 m
Boiler:
300
Oven:
60
Dry Oven:
35
Sm /hr
3
Sm /hr
3
Sm /hr
3
0
1
2
3
4
5
b) Design flowrate and predetermined
c) Pressure Drop Calculation
As supply pressure is 100 kPa.G, the minimum
pressure to the equipment is 85 kPa.G (186.3
kPa.abs). Therefore, pressure drop of each pipe as
shown in table below:
Node No.
Flowrate
Sm3/hr
Pipe Size
(Example 6)
Pipe Size (inch)
0  1
1  2
2  3
2  4
1  5
395
95
35
60
300
3 (2 1/2)
1
3/4
1
2
3 (2 1/2)
1 1/4
3/4
1
2
d) Result
Node No
Flowrate
Length
P1
P2
Remarks
Pipe
Size
(Sm3/hr)
(m)
inch
mm
kPa.abs
kPa.abs
0 1
1  2
2  3
2  4
2  3
1  5
395
75
35
60
35
300
100
70
65
40
65
50
3
1 1/4
3/4
1
1
2
77.92
35.08
20.96
26.64
26.64
52.48
201.3
198.2
193.9
193.9
193.9
198.2
198.2
193.9
182.0
187.5
190.3
191.6
< 186.3
> 186.3
> 186.3
> 186.3
Source of Supply
Pressure : 138 kPa.G
s.s
Boiler:
300
Oven:
60
Dry Oven:
35
Sm /hr
3
Sm /hr
3
Sm /hr
3
0
1
2
3
4
5
3 " 1 1/4 "
1 "
2 "
1"
Question 1
A horizontal liquefied petroleum gas pipeline planned
to be installed at the Gas Engineering Laboratory as
shown in Figure 1. Liquefied petroleum gas is
supplied through a bulk tank, which has a wetted
area of 90 square feet and a minimum rate of
evaporation of 13.3875 Ib/hr. The Gas Engineering
Department has signed the agreement with a
supplier for the supply of liquefied petroleum gas
composition as shown in Table 1 in order to achieve
the latent heat of evaporation and the heat of
combustion are 160 Btu/Ib and 21422 Btu/Ib,
respectively. If the surrounding temperature and
overall heat transfer coefficient is 80
o
F and 3
Btu/ft
2
/
o
F respectively, calculate the pipe size of each
section involved.
Composition
Percent Volume
Propane
ibutane
nbutane
55
30
15
Source of Supply
Pressure : 138 kPa.G
s.s
100 m
70 m 50 m
50 m 40 m
15 m
Boiler:
300
Oven:
60
Dry Oven:
35
Sm /hr
3
Sm /hr
3
Sm /hr
3
( )
F T
T x x
T A Q
jam Btu
x
L x Q
jam lb Q
o
v
R
06 . 72
80 90 3 2142
'
/ 2142
160 3875 . 13
3875 . 13 '
/ 3875 . 13
2
2
=
=
A =
=
=
=
=
Solution
Com
p
%V V(gal)
(a)
(lb/gal)
(b)
W
(axb)
MW Mol X P
vap
at
72.06F
XP
va
p
Y% YMW
C3 55 0.55 4.16 2.288 44 0.052 0.5843 150 87.6
45
84.33 37.105
2
nC4 30 0.30 4.81 1.443 58 0.025 0.2809 34 9.55
06
9.19 5.3302
iC4 15 0.15 4.64 0.696 58 0.012 0.1348 50 6.74
0
6.48 3.7584
0.089 103.
935
6
100 46.193
8
vap
A A A A
P x P y P = =
60 . 1
96 . 28
1938 . 46
96 . 28
= = =
AMW
SG
Source of Supply
Pressure : 138 kPa.G
s.s
100 m
70 m 50 m
50 m 40 m
15 m
Boiler:
300
Oven:
60
Dry Oven:
35
Sm /hr
3
Sm /hr
3
Sm /hr
3
Node Q Pipe Size (inci)
01 395 2 (3)
12 95 1
23 35 3/4
24 60 1
15 300 2
Tekanan bekalan = 138 kPgauge
Tekanan minimum = 117.3 kPg =218 kPabs
0 1
2
3 4
5
PreDetermine
( )
5
2
3
2
2
1 2
10 69 . 1 xD x
L SQ
P P
=
Node No
Flowrate
Length
P1
P2
Remarks
Pipe
Size
(Sm3/hr)
(m)
inch
mm
kPa.abs
kPa.abs
0 1
1  2
2  3
2  4
2  3
1  5
395
75
35
60
35
300
100
70
65
40
65
50
3
1 1/4
3/4
1
1
2
77.92
35.08
20.96
26.64
26.64
52.48
201.3
198.2
193.9
193.9
193.9
198.2
198.2
193.9
182.0
187.5
190.3
191.6
< 186.3
> 186.3
> 186.3
> 186.3
Source of Supply
Pressure : 138 kPa.G
s.s
Boiler:
300
Oven:
60
Dry Oven:
35
Sm /hr
3
Sm /hr
3
Sm /hr
3
0
1
2
3
4
5
3 " 1 1/4 "
1 "
2 "
1"
PAUL'S FORMULA (Supply Pressure is less than 29.4
kPa.G (3000 mmH
2
O))
o Pressure drop of each section can be calculated by
Paul's Formula as shown below
where,
AP : Pressure drop (Pa)
K2 : Paul's coefficient = 7.09 x 10
4
D : Pipe inner diameter (mm)
S : Specific gravity of gas
L : Pipe length (m)
Q : Flowrate (Sm
3
/hr)
 The Paul's Formula can be simplified as the following
formula which is based on Tokyo Gas experiences.
Q = K
2
AP D
5
S. L
or
AP =
S
K
2
D
5
x Q
2
L
where, K'2 as shown in table below. (K'2 is also taken
consider in the pressure drop at fittings).
If the supply pressure is very low, the pressure differences
caused by difference of pipe level cannot be neglected.
Therefore, above pressure differences shall be considered
and calculated by the formula as shown below.
AP = K
'
2
Q
2
L
Nominal Pipe
Size (inch)
K'2
Nominal Pipe
Size (inch)
K'2
1/2
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
5.20
8.80 x 101
2.37 x 101
5.31 x 102
2.29 x 102
7.85 x 103
3
4
6
8
12
6.67 x 104
3.94 x 105
3.94 x 105
3.02 x 106
4.14 x 107
AP
H
= . g. (1 S). AH = 12. 68 x (1 S). AH
If level of the node is higher than level of the last node,
the pressure drop is AP pressure calculated by Paul's
Formula minus APH.
The predetermined of pipe size shall be named as
node number normally as node 0 (started  service
station), the next branch is named as node 1 and to the
end by following manner.
1. The longest length of piping from node n
to the end value shall be measured (Ln)
2. Calculate the K value with below formula
AP
H
: Pressure difference (Pa)
: Density of air (1. 293 kg/Nm
3
)
S : Specific gravity of gas
AH : Difference of pipe level (m)
g : Gravity acceleration (9. 807 kg/s
2
)
K =
AP
n. max
Q
2
n
L
n
AP
n. max
= AP
n 1. max
AP
n1
3. Compare K value to K'2 value shown in
Table 3.4. Then can find out the pipe size of
which K'2 value is less than K value. That size
is predetermined pipe size for section n.
4. APn shall be calculated by Paul's Formula
5. Repeat (1) (4) to determine the pipe size of
section n + 1 until the end section.
AP
n. max
: Maximum allowable pressure drop from node n to the end value
AP
n1
: Pressure drop of section n1 calculated by determined pipe size
Q
n
: Design flowrate of section n
Elevation Effect to Low Pressure System
Pertimbangkan ketinggian statik 1 m dengan
gas yang mempunyai nilai spesifik graviti S.
Pada paras datum
Tekanan atmosfera = Pa mbar
Tekanan tolok gas = H mbar
Tekanan mutlak gas = Pa + H mbar
Pada ketinggian 1 m, tekanan atmosfera
adalah rendah sebanyak
udara
x g x H. Oleh
yang demikian,
dan dengan
udara
= 1.2248 kg/m3 serta 1/10
2
penukaran dari N/m
2
kepada mbar maka
tekanan gas mutlak adalah
Tekanan Atmosfera = P
a
udara
. g. H
= P
a
1. 2248 x 9. 81
10
2
mbar
Oleh kerana kolum statik gas dipertimbangkan tidak
ada kehilangan tekanan akibat aliran maka bacaan
tolok pada paras yang tinggi adalah berjumlah
iaitu 0.12(1  S) mbar/m di mana merupakan
pembetulan tolok tekanan untuk sistem bertekanan
rendah.
Tekanan Gas Mutlak = P
a
+ H
gas
. g. H
= P
a
+ H (S x
udara
) g. H
= P
a
+ H S x
\

1. 2248 x 9. 81
10
2
.



Tekanan Gas Tolok =
P
a
+ H
S x 1. 2248 x 9. 81
10
2
(
(
(
P
a
1. 2248 x 9. 81
10
2
(
(
(
= H +
1. 2248 x 9. 81
10
2
(1 S) mbar
1.2248 x 9.81
10
2
(1 S) mbar
Example 8
Determine the pressure drop from
node 1 to node 2 for diagram shown
below:
30 m
5 m level difference
Q = 30
Pipe size : 2 inch
Sm /hr
3
Node 1
Node 2
Solution
Example 9
Determine the pipe size below. The maximum
allowable pressure drop is 3 kPa
Solution
a) Diagram schematic
AP
total
= AP AP
H
= 7. 85 x 10
3
x 30
2
x (30 + 5) 12. 68 x (1 0. 65) x 5
= 247. 27 22. 19 = 225. 0 Pa
Supply Pressure:
20 kPa.G
s.s
Boiler
Oven
Dry Oven
10 m 30 m
15 m
5 m
60 m
5 m
30 sm2/hr
40 sm2/hr
20 sm2/hr
b) Predetermine pipe size
The most long pipe length from service station to
equipment is 0  3. Then
Node 0 to Node 1
Node 1  Node 2
Supply Pressure:
20 kPa.G
s.s
Boiler
Oven
Dry Oven
10 m 30 m
15 m
5 m
60 m
5 m
0
1
2
3
4 5
K =
AP
n. max
Q
2
n
. L
n
=
3000
90
2
x 100
= 3. 7 x 10
3
Therefore : Pipe Size = 3"
Pressure drop = K
'
2
Q
2
L
= 6. 67 x 10
4
x 90
2
x 10 = 54. 0 Pa
K =
AP
n. max
Q
2
n
. L
n
=
3000 54
60
2
x 90
= 9. 1 x 10
3
Therefore : Pipe Size = 2"
Pressure drop = K
'
2
Q
2
L
= 7. 85 x 10
3
x 60
2
x 30 = 847. 8 Pa
40 sm2/hr
20 sm2/hr
30 sm2/hr
Node 2  Node 3
Node 2  Node 4
Node 1  Node 5
K =
AP
n. max
Q
2
n
. L
n
=
3000 54 847. 8
40
2
x 60
=2. 19 x 10
2
Therefore : Pipe Size = 2"
Pressure drop = K
'
2
Q
2
L
= 7. 85 x 10
3
x 40
2
x 60 = 753. 6 Pa
K =
AP
n. max
Q
2
n
. L
n
=
3000 54 847. 8
20
2
x 20
= 2. 6 x 10
1
Therefore : Pipe Size = 1"
Pressure drop = K
'
2
Q
2
L
= 2. 37 x 10
1
x 20
2
x 20 = 1896 Pa
K =
AP
n. max
Q
2
n
. L
n
=
3000 54. 0
30
2
x 5
= 6. 5 x 10
1
Therefore : Pipe Size = 1"
Pressure drop = K
'
2
Q
2
L
= 2. 37 x 10
1
x 30
2
x 5 = 1066. 5 Pa
c) Determination of pipe size
Node
Flowrate
(Sm3/hr)
Length
(m)
PreSize
(inch)
AP
(Pa)
Final
Size
(inch)
AP
(Pa)
0 1
90
10
3
54.0
2
635.8
1 2
60
30
2
847.8
2
847.8
2  3
40
60
2
753.6
2
753.6
0  3
1655.4
2237.2
2  4
20
70
1
1896.0
1 1/4
424.8
0  4
2797.8
1908.4
1  5
30
5
1
1066.5
1
1066.5
0  5
1120.5
1702.3
NFPA 54
Noted for simplicity
Given a length and the maximum load, the required pipe size
is read directly from the table
Following factors are required.
1) Allowable loss in pressure from point of delivery to
equipment
2) Maximum gas demand
3) Length of pipe from the point of delivery to the
most remote
4) Specific gravity of gas
5) Diversity factor
Capacities for low pressure (0.5 psig or less) in cubic feet per
hour of 0.60 specific gravity for different length are shown in
Table 13 to Table 16 ( MS 930) for iron pipe or equivalent
rigid pipe.
 Table 13 and 15 are based upon a pressure drop
0.3 inches water column
 Table 14 and 16 are based upon a pressure drop
0.5 inches water column
 Table 26 is used when capacities in thousands of BTU
per hour of undiluted liquefied petroleum gases based
on pressure drop 0.5 inches water column
If the data does not give the exact value, select the column
showing the next larger
If the gravity of gas is different with table used the gravity
factor in Table 25
In using these tables no additional allowance is necessary for
an ordinary number of fittings.
Example
Determine the required pipe size of each section and outlet
of the piping system shown below. Given gas gravity 0.65,
designed pressure drop is 0.5 inches water column and gas
heating value is 1000 BTU/CF.
Point of delivery
Outlet C
Range:
75,000 Btu/hr
Outlet B
Gas refrigerator:
3,000 Btu/hr
Outlet A
Water heater:
30,000 Btu/hr
Outlet D
Furnace:
136,000 Btu/hr
10 '
20 '
10 '
15 '
20 '
10 '
10 '
5'
Section 3
Section 2
Section 1
Solution
Step 1
Maximum gas demand at each outlet
= Consumption Rating (Btu/hr)
Heating Value of Gas (Btu/cf)
Outlet A = 30,000/1000 = 30 cfh
Outlet B = 3,000/1000 = 3 cfh
Outlet C = 75,000/1000 = 75 cfh
Outlet D = 136,000/1000 = 136 cfh
Step 2
Length of pipe from the point of delivery to the most
remote outlet (A) = 60 ft
Step 3
Refer to table which follow the above specification.
Read under column length of 60 ft.
If the gravity factor is applied to this
example, the value in the column
marked 60 feet of Table 14 would be
multiplied by the multiplier 0.96 from
Table 25 and resulting cubic feet per
hour values would be used to size the
piping.
Section Outlet Demand (cfh) Pipe Required (inches)
1 A
B
30
3
3/8
1/4
A + B 33 3/8
2 C 75 3/4
A + B + C 108 3/4
3 D 136 3/4
A+B+C+D 244 1
However, in this example it will give
the same answer about the size
pipe
Nominal Iron Pipe Size
(inches)
Based on SG 0.6
at 60 feet (cfh)
Multiplier 0.96
(cfh)
1/4
3/8
1/2
3/4
1
1 1/4
1 1/2
2
2 1/2
3
4
16
36
68
178
260
520
810
1520
2400
4300
8800
15.36
34.56
65.28
170.88
249.60
499.20
777.60
1459.20
2304.00
4128.00
8448.00
Clifford Method
May not be simple but offers the advantage of flexibility
Can be noted with actual pressure drop and pipe size
Which ultimately may prove useful when making
adjustments for possible future loads.
Classified by two categories
1) Low pressure line
2) High pressure line
Low Pressure Line
Five factors should be considered
i) Pipe length together with additional length of
fitting
ii) Allowable pressure drop
iii) Load or demand
iv) Pipe material
v) Actual pressure drop
Refer to Table 28 and Table 29
Pipe Length
Length 10  100 feet >Listed in left hand side of
the table
Length > 100 feet > The actual length (plus
the allowable for fitting) and
allowable pressure drop are
both divided by a convenient
number that will bring the pipe
length within the range of the
table
Example:
280 ft line with allowable pressure drop
0.6 inches water column.
The pipeline would be properly sized if the length is
considered to be 70 (divided by 4) and the allowable
pressure drop is 0.15 inches water column.
Equivalent length for fitting refer to Table 29.
Commonly, they used 2 inches pipe size as a
reference. If the final answer (pressure drop) more
than allowable value select the next larger size.
Allowable Pressure Drop
Is given over to pressure drop ranging from
0.1 to 1.0 inches water column.
This pressure drops makes the table quit
flexible and allow for appropriate selection.
Allowable pressure drop used is 0.6 inches
water column.
Single line pipeline is direct solving but
branch lines must be sized separately.
Load or Demand
Calculate the load it must handle.
A branch line is sized on the basis of the BTU
rating of the appliance it services.
The main line must handle the total load.
An intermediate line will be sized for the
appliances it services.
Pipe Material
Four type of piping material system and practitioner
will make his selection on the basis of company
practice.
Actual Pressure Drop
For the more complicated piping system it is helpful to
determine the actual pressure drop for the pipe sized
selected.
Example
Determine pipeline sizing of a domestic installation
shown below. Used allowable pressure drop is 0.6
inches water column.
R
A
B
C
D
15 feet, 0. 34 " WC
5 feet,
0. 26 " WC
10 feet, 0. 26 " WC
10 feet,
0. 26 " WC
Water h eater
30 ,0 00 Btu
Gas Rang e
63 ,0 00 Btu
Floo r furnace
80 ,0 00 Btu
Solution
Step 1
Leading to the appliance with the greatest
load or input.
Equivalent length:
Main line
Measured length = 15 feet
One 90 degree elbow = 5 feet
SubTotal = 20 feet
Branch line to floor furnace (The Greatest
Load)
Measured length = 5 feet
TeeSide Outlet = 10.4 feet
SubTotal = 15.4 feet
Total pipe length from furnace to the
pressure regulator is 35.4 feet
Since the main line is 0.57 of total length
involved and 0.57 pressure drop of 0.6 inches
water column is 0.34 inches water column. So
allowable pressure drop on each branch line
is 0.26 inches water column.
Step 2
Load demand based on figure:
Gas range = 63,000
Water heater = 30,000
Floor furnace = 80,000
Total Load = 173,000 Btu
Step 3
Can select out of 4 type of piping material (use Table
28)
Main line
Pipe Sizing
From pipe length 20 ft. proceed to RHS to 0.34 " W.C.
(allowable pressure drop)
Drop straight down to lower portion of the table (select
the suitable piping material) to the total load 173,000
Btu (if not available, look the next larger i.e.
321,000Btu  interpolation).
From 321,000 Btu, proceed to LHS to pipe size.
Answer = 3/4 in. IPS
Actual Pressure Drop
From 3/4 inch IPS, proceed to RHS to 175,000 BTU
(nearest to 173,000 Btu).
Then proceed upward until in line with the pipe
distance 20 ft.
Answer = 0.1 inches water column
Branch Line B
Pipe sizing and actual pressure drop
Use the similar way as above (main line)
Pipe length = 20 ft (10 ft. measured length + 10 ft
TeeSide)
Allowable pressure drop = 0.26 " W.C.
Load (63,000 Btu) = 109,000 Btu
(interpolation)
Pipe size = 1/2 " K Tubing
Actual pressure drop = 0.1" W.C.
(Nearest load = 68,000 Btu)
Branch Line C
Pipe sizing and actual pressure drop. Use the similar
way as above (main line).
Pipe length = 20 ft (10 ft. measured length
+ 10 ft TeeSide)
Allowable pressure drop = 0.26 " W.C.
Load (30,000 Btu) = 54,000 Btu (interpolation)
Pipe size = 3/8 " K Tubing
Actual pressure drop = 0.08" W.C.
(Nearest load = 31,000 Btu)
Branch Line D
Pipe sizing and actual pressure drop. Use the similar
way as above (main line).
Pipe length = 15 ft (5 ft. measured length
+ 10 ft TeeSide)
Allowable pressure drop = 0.26 " W.C.
Load (80,000 Btu) = 126,000 Btu
(interpolation)
Pipe size = 1/2 " K Tubing
Actual pressure drop = 0.11" W.C.
(Nearest load = 84,000 Btu)
High Pressure Line
If an appliance requires gas at a pressure of 10 psig or
15 psig for proper operation, it will have to supplied by
a high pressure gas line.
The carrying capacity of a pipeline is 10 times or 15
times greater with high pressure gas than with low
pressure.
 Table 31 to Table 34 (MS 930) have to be used
for Option 1
 Chart in Figure 19 (MS 930) has to be used for
Option 2.
The increased capacity depends, of course on the
pressure at which the gas is piped and allowed
pressure drop.
If an existing low pressure line has become overload,
its capacity may be increased considerably by
increasing the pressure by only a few pounds.
In many such cases it would be less expensive and
provide better performance to change to twostage
regulator rather than replace the existing low pressure
line.
Example (Table 31)
A commercial installation is to be made in a northern area
where the lowest temperature to be accounted is 15
o
F. The
pipe length is 40 ft and the maximum load is 650,000 Btu.
Determine the required pipe size for intermediate pressure
line when twostages regulator will used.
Solution
Step 1
Referring to the key at the bottom of table 31, it will be noted
that for a minimum temperature 15
o
F, the B capacities
should be used.
Step 2
Select 40 ft in the left hand column of the table and use the
pipe capacities shown opposite the letter B.
Step 3
Since the figure 650, representing the load in thousands of
Btu does not appear in the horizontal line opposite 40 ft B
the next higher figure 870 is selected.
Step 4
Moving upward from the 870 just selected the required pipe
size is found to be 1/2 inch type K tubing. By following the
same procedure in the right of the table, 1/2 inch pipe will be
indicated for this installation.
Note: For sizing high pressure lines involving factors beyond
the scope of the simplified in Table 31, Table 32 to Table 35
are recommended.
Example (Option 1)
Determine the proper pipe sizes for
the high piping system shown below.
The maximum allowable pressure drop
between the high pressure regulator
outlet and several appliances is 5 psig
R
L1 20 0 feet
L4
20 feet
L2 2 5 feet
L3
20 feet
2, 00 0, 000 Btu
1, 50 0, 000 Btu
3, 00 0, 000 Btu
Delivered
pressure
10 p sig
Initial
pressure 15 psig
Step 1
An arbitrary decision must be made as to how
this will be apportioned.
Suggested:
Main line = 3 psi
Each branch = 2 psi
Therefore, delivered pressure for the main
line will be 12 psi and this will then be the
initial pressure for the branch lines.
Step 2
Referring to Table 33.
15 psi initial pressure it will be seen that the
value of 'h' for 3 psi pressure drop is 169.
For each branch lines the initial is 12 psi and
the pressure drop is 2 psi. For this pressure
drop and initial pressure the value of 'h' is 103
Step 3
Size the main line
Pipe length = 200 ft
Value of 'h' = 169
Load = 6500 thousand Btu (total
load)
Since 200 ft is not shown in the pipe sizing table. It is
necessary to make adjustment such as the following:
200 ft value of 'h' 169
100 ft value of 'h' 85
In table 32, the values 80 and 90 are found for 'h'. Since
85 is haft way between, one can follow down between
the two line to the standard pipe section.
The indicated pipe sized = 1 1/4 IPS
However, the actual value of 'h' can be estimated.
Find 6500 in the horizontal line opposite to 1 1/4 IPS:
6684 is selected
Proceed upward to the 100 ft line it is seen that the
actual value of 'h' appears to be 40. Since pipe length
and 'h' were divided by 2, it is necessary now multiply
by 2 to get the true value of 'h' for the size selected.
Size the line 2
Pipe length = 25 ft
Value of 'h' = 103
Load = 3000 thousand Btu
Since 'h' with 103 is not shown in the pipe sizing table.
It is necessary to make adjustment such as the
following:
The value of 'h' and the load by 4, as follow;
Value of 'h' 103
Value of 'h' 26
Load 3000 thousand Btu
Load 750 thousand Btu
The problem can now be solved on the basis of the
following factors:
Pipe length = 25 ft
Value of 'h' = 26
Load = 750 thousand Btu
Using table as already explained;
Pipe size = 1/2 IPS
Value of 'h' = 10 x 4 > (chart shown factor)
= 40
Size the line 3
Solved in the same manner and the following factors
being used with the pipe sizing table.
Pipe length (2 ells) = 30 ft
Value of 'h' = 26
Load = 500 thousand Btu
Value of 'h' 103
Value of 'h' 26
Load 2000 thousand Btu
Load 500 thousand Btu
Pipe sized = 1/2 IPS
Actual value of 'h = 6 x 4
= 24
Size the line 4
Sizing line 4 follow the same procedure:
Pipe length (2 ells) = 30 ft
Value of 'h' = 26
Load = 375 thousand Btu
Value of 'h' 103
Value of 'h' 26
Load 1500 thousand Btu
Load 375 thousand Btu
Pipe sized = 1/2 IPS
Actual value of 'h' = 3 x 4 = 12
Example (Option 2)
Find the proper size of standard weight pipe for a 1000
ft line which is to carry a load of 10,000,000 Btuh. The
initial pressure is 20 psi and the pressure drop is
limited to 3 psi.
Solution
Step 1
Refer to table 33 : h = 199
Use Figure 19.
Align this point on Figure 19 with 1000 ft and extending to Line
3.
Step 2
Align point on Line 3 with 10,000 of Scale 4 and extend to Scale
5. However, no pipe size can be read because out of range (no
intersection).
Step 3
Divide the 10,000 thousand Btu by 10 and repeat Step 2.
Pipe size in between 1 1/2" and 2"
Answer: Select pipe size with 2
Step 4
To find actual pressure drop with pipe size selected, reversed
the above procedure.
Start with 2" pipe size.
Answer : pressure drop in between 1 1/2 psi and 2 psi.
BUOYANCY CONTROL
O Pipeline are subject to buoyant forces when they
encounter freestanding or flowing water at river
crossing, streams and lakes and when buried in the
saturated soils generally present in flood plains,
marshes, swamps, muskeg (bogs) and local
depressions.
O There are two principles reasons for counteracting
the buoyant force exerted on a pipeline system:
i) to submerge the pipe in a waterfilled ditch
during construction prior to backfilling
ii) to prevent the pipe from floating or rising off at
the ditch bottom during the post installation
period and during operation of the pipeline.
O Potential areas requiring buoyancy control can be
classified into four brad categories:
i) river crossings
ii) stream or creek crossings
iii) muskeg or bogs crossing
iv) soil which have the potential to act as a fluid
O Buoyancy control may be achieved in three ways:
i) mechanical anchoring system
They are not commonly used for large diameter
pipelines
ii) backfill
Using either native or borrowed material for buoyancy control,
relies on the mass of the backfill over the pipe to counteract
the buoyancy forces.
# Native backfill may be considered if it consists of stable, ice
free soil which is capable of achieving a reasonable level of
strength.
# If the native backfill is not adequate, select backfill can be used.
Select backfill should be coarsegrained, free draining material
exhibiting sufficient shear strength when thawed or mixed with
water.
Although gravel is undoubtedly the best material, other
materials such as a mixture of gravel, sand, clay and silt can be
used
iii) density anchoring system
Density anchors are a system of weight added to
the pipeline.
The types of anchors usually in the form of
concrete are
1. swamp weights (saddle or seton weights)
2. river weights (bolton)
3. continues concrete coating.
Hook
Reinforced Bar
Wire
Mesh
Rockshield
Hook
Rockshield
Wire Mesh
Bolt
Steel
Tubing
Concrete Minimum
Thickness, T
FBE Coating or
equivalent
Compressible
Material of Coating
Protection
Wire
Mesh
Compressible
Material
ANCHOR SELECTION
Final selection of the type and extent of
buoyancy control measures should be made
on a sitespecific basis, taking the following
into consideration:
i) type of terrain
ii) type of soil
iii) ditch conditions (dry or wet)
iv) construction season
v) cost (economics)
vi) availability of materials
vii) access to site
viii) ease of handling during transport and
construction
ix) limitations of equipment
ANCHOR DESIGN CONSIDERATION
In general, design of buoyancy control system are
based on location conditions. For example, the
following values or factors are incorporated into
design calculation in Canada:
i) For river flood plains, small streams, drainage course,
swamp, muskeg, small lakes and local depression
where water will be encountered in the ditch during
construction:
Negative Buoyancy : 5 %
Fluid Density : 1040 kg/m
3
ii) For main river channels and areas where flowing or
moving water will be encountered during
construction:
Negative Buoyancy : 10 %
Fluid Density : 1000 kg/m
3
o However, in Malaysia design of buoyancy control
system is constant which is based on negative
buoyancy as 20 percent in all conditions and density
of fluid is 1000 kg/m
3
.
PRESSURE TEST
o Required if the pipe is operated at Hoop Stress of 30% or
more of SMYS
o To make sure all jointing are sealed and without any
swelling problem.
o Conducted right after the installation is completed except
on tiein area or the area that not ready yet
o Required by all gas codes of practice
o The test should be witnessed by local gas inspector for
verification gas competent person or authority
o Two types of test
1. Hydrostatic test test medium: water or methanol
2. Pneumatic test test medium: compressed gas or inert gas
o Test level: Above maximum operating
pressure (normally 1.5 times Design
Pressure)
o Test record should keep it as long as the
pipe still in used
o Based on Federal Pipeline Safety
Regulations, USA the record should consist
of the following:
1. Pressure record chart
2. Calibration of all equipments used
3. Name of responsible operator
4. Date and time of the test
5. Level of pressure testing limit
6. Test medium
7. Description of the equipments used
8. Comments
Hydrostatic Pressure
General Guideline
1. Pipe length < 16 km
2. Limited to 500 m3 if other than water (methanol)
3. Lower and upper point of pipe
 pressure identification or evaluation
4. Should near to a source of water (one end)
5. Test area of pipe must have a similar diameter
 same strength
6. Use a standard form which is consist of
1. Test location
2. Pipe dimension
3. Lower point, higher point and test point
4. Grade or SMYS of pipe
5. Maximum operation pressure
6. Test level
Test Preparation
1. Approval to use testing medium, if required
2. Testing equipments
a. Pressure and temperature recorder
b. Test head
c. Dead weight tester
d. Pressure gauge and thermometer, if required
e. Flow meter
f. Fitting > for joining purposes
3. Filling and Testing process
 Clean water need to be used. Free from
mud, floating materials or corrosive agent
 Fill up by using poly pig or coated form
pig (front). To clear the pipe from a trap
air
 Effected the test result
 May introduce harmful conditions
 Make sure the test head free from any
leaking after the filling process is
completed
 Period of testing: 24 hours
 The amount of water can be calculated as
shown below.
a) Filling water volume
V = water volume at 0 psig, gallon
L = Length of pipe, feet
D = Pipe internal diameter, inch
b) Required volume of water at test pressure
V
tp
= Volume of water (gal) at pressure P and
temperature T
F
wp
= Compression correction factor due to
compression
of water from 0 psig to test pressure P
F
pp
= Volume correction factor in pipe due to variation
of pressure from 0 psig to test pressure P
L x D x V
2
0408 . 0 =
pwt pp wp tp
F x F x F x V V =
( )
(


.

\

atm
test
wp
P
P
x x
F
5
10 5 . 4 1
1
D = External pipe diameter, inch
t = Pipe wall thickness, inch
T = Pipe temperature,
o
F
F
pwt
= Correction factor of changing of water and pipe
volume due to variation of temperature form
base (60
o
F) to pipe temperature (
o
F)
F
pt
= Pipe volume correction factor due to pipe
thermal expansion
F
wt
= Thermal volume of water correction factor.
Refer to Table 1.
( )   60 10 6 . 3 10
30
9 . 0
1
6 6
+
(

.

\


.

\

+ =
T x x x
P
x
t
D
F
test
pp
wt
pt
pwt
F
F
F =
( )  
6
10 2 . 18 60 1
+ = x x T F
pt
Example
Calculate a water volume required to perform a
hydrostatic test. Below are the data
Pipe Size : 10.75 inch OD x 0.279 w.t. X52
Length : 5 miles (5280 feet = 1 mile)
Test Pressure : 2430 psig
Temperature : 50
o
F
Solution
Additional volume required to achieve a test pressure is
113,099 111,888 = 1211 gallon
gallon L x D x V 888 , 111 0408 . 0
2
= =
( )
007479 . 1
73 . 14
10 5 . 4 1
1
5
=
(
(


.

\

ujian
wp
P
x x
F
( )   002804 . 1 60 10 6 . 3 10
30
9 . 0
1
6 6
= +
(
(


.

\


.

\

+ =
T x x x
P
x
t
D
F
ujian
pp
) 1 ( 9993061 . 0 Table from F
wt
=
( )   999818 . 0 10 2 . 18 60 1
6
= + =
x x T F
pt
gallon
x x x
F x F x F x V V
pwt pp wp tp
099 , 113
000512 . 1 002804 . 1 007479 . 1 111888
=
=
=
Example
Continuation on the above example. After certain period
of time the test pressure P is reduced to 2422 psig and
temperature of pipe and water is reduced to 48
o
F.
Calculate the required volume of water at the new
condition.
Solution
Initial Volume = 113,099 gallon
New Volume = 113,101 gallon
Means:
Required additional 2 gallon of water to sustain the test
pressure level. If more, may there is some leak happen.
000565 . 1
999217 . 0
999781 . 0
002796 . 1
007454 . 1
48
2422
888 , 111
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
pwt
wt
pt
pp
wp
o
F
F
F
F
F
F T
psig P
gallon V
gallon
x x x
F x F x F x V V
pwt pp wp tp
101 , 113
000565 . 1 002796 . 1 007454 . 1 111888
1
=
=
=
Relationship Between Pressure and Temperature
Change of pressure due to water temperature change can be
estimated through Chart.
The chart is developed based on the ratio between pipe
diameter and its wall thickness.
Example
Pipe Size = 18 inch OD x 0.375 inch w.t.
Initial Temperature = 70
o
F
Temperature of T time = 66
o
F
Test Pressure = 1800 psig
Solution
Based on chart the reduction of pressure is
F e Temperatur Average
t
D
o
68
2
66 70
48
375 . 0
18
=

.

\

+
=
= =
F per psig P
o
23 = A
4. Drying Process
Alternative method to methanol washing
Commonly due to of the following factors
a. If some delay in pipeline readiness
b. Involve with wet gas
Water content is measured based on dew point testing
using Mirror Hydrometer at the outlet of the pipe.
The dryness level is based on the accepted quantity of
water vapor in MMSCFD of gas.
Normal quantity : 7Ib/MMSCFD (dew point =  45
o
C)
PNEUMATIC TEST
o Popular testing medium is compressed gas due to
cheaper cost
o Certain condition inert gas is preferred safety
reason.
Equipment and Preparation
a) Pump and Compressor
Small pipe hand pump and take longer time
Bigger Pipe Air compressor
b) Compressed Air Cylinder
Example
Pressure : 2200 psig (15000 kPa)
Size: 70ft
3
(2 m
3
) till 300 ft
3
(8.5 m
3
) based on
volume at atmospheric pressure
c) Liquefied Gas Cylinder
Insulated liquefied nitrogen gas tank  100 100 m
3
Installed with vaporizer
d) Cylinder System
Easier to carry at site
Connect to a test pipe
Need to estimate the required cylinder quantity
e) Cylinder Quantity
Steps that need to follow
1. Estimation of test pipe volume
V = pipe volume (ft
3
or m
3
)
d = pipe diameter (ft or m)
L = pipe length (ft or m)
2. Identify of Gas Cylinder Size
Identify through physical size or volume at
atmospheric pressure
Example
Cylinder : Nitrogen Gas
Physical Size : 1.5 ft
3
at 2200 psig
L x 7854 . 0 x d V
2
=


.

\

=
2
1
1 2
P
P
V V
pressure c atmospheri at ft
ka V
3
3
2
5 . 225
73 . 14
73 . 14 2200
5 . 1
=

.

\

+
=
3. Identify the required pressure level
Based on referred code of practices
 Pressure level
 Testing period
4. Cylinder Quantity Determination
Required information
a. Pipe volume
b. Test pressure
c. Cylinder volume
Example
Pipe volume : 175 ft
3
Test pressure: 50 psig
Cylinder volume: 1.5 ft
3
at 2200 psig
First Step
Calculate pressure in pipe whenever the first
cylinder is connected
P
2
= Unknown pressure, Psia
P
1
= Atmospheric pressure (14.73 Psia)
V
1
= Volume of nitrogen gas at atm +
pipe volume, ft
3
V
2
= Volume of nitrogen gas at 2200
psig + pipe volume, ft3
33.42 Psia is a pressure in pipe after connection
with first cylinder
Second Step
Add with second cylinder and calculate pressure
in pipe
At this moment, initial pressure in the pipe is
33.42 psia so the volume need to be calculated
based on this pressure level


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\

=
2
1
1 2
V
V
P P
Psia
Paip ka Silinder ka
Paip ka N ka
P
42 . 33
175 5 . 1
175 5 . 225
73 . 14
3 3
3
2
3
2
=


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\

+
+
=
P
2
= Pressure in pipe after connection with first
cylinder
Volume of 1.5 ft
3
nitrogen gas at 2200 psig in
cylinder will expand to 99.4 ft
3
at 33.42 psia
Then
Third Step
Add with third cylinder and repeat the step as
step 2
Stop the calculation whenever the pressure is
higher than the required test pressure


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=
2
1
1 2
P
P
V V
3
3
2
4 . 99
42 . 33
73 . 14 2200
5 . 1
ft
psia
psia psig
ft V
=


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\
 +
=
psia 95 . 51
175 5 . 1
175 4 . 99
42 . 33
V
V
P P
2
1
1 2
=


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+
+
=


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\

=
The pressure is higher than test pressure level
(50 psig).
Therefore,
3 unit of cylinder required for the test
psia at ft
P
P
V V
95 . 51 94 . 63
95 . 51
175 2200
5 . 1
3
2
1
1 2
=

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\

+
=


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\

=
psig or psia
V
V
P P
6 . 59 32 . 70
175 5 . 1
175 94 . 63
95 . 51
2
1
1 2
=
=


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\

+
+
=


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\

=
PURGING PROCESS
o Required prior to operate the pipe air or oxygen
free. To avoid any disaster (explosion)
o Purging medium:
4 inch diameter and more
> Inert gas (nitrogen or carbon dioxide )
Less then 4 inch
> Natural gas or inert gas
o Natural gas will mix with air if the pipe size is more
than 4 inch (less velocity) and possible to create
disaster
o Normal practice:
Outlet of mixture velocity > 200 ft/min at 8 psig
(above methane flame speed : 120 ft/min or 2 ft/sec)
a) Pipe Diameter Less Than 4 inch
o Purge medium: Natural gas or nitrogen
Natural Gas
1. Verify and check layout plan note down pocket
point, uncontrolled opening and purge point
2. Verify and check approval of purging process
3. Purge point size should be more than > 0.5 inch
4. Check the distance of pipe to building and should
be more than 10 ft and safe from flame source
5. Purging velocity and pressure must be 200 ft/min
8
psig respectively
6. Should be supervised permanently by one
supervisor . Control vale : 1/3 turn and 5 ft from
purge point
7. Complete process: 100% of methane detected
(use gas detector)
8. Not allowed to burn the gas except connected to
burner
Nitrogen Gas
1. Calculate the quantity of nitrogen gas cylinder
2. Installed in manifold system and the process is
continued until the cylinder empty
3. Make sure purge point maintain at pressure of 8
psig and velocity 200 ft /min and must be
supervised by two supervisors
4. Completion: 100% nitrogen is detected at
purge point (used nitrogen detector)
Length Pipe x R 3.14
Length Pipe x D x 0.785 Volume Pipe
2
2
=
=
0.013 x Volume Pipe Gas Nitrogen Required =
b) Pipe Diameter More Than 4 Inch
o Purge medium: Nitrogen or carbon dioxide gas
Guideline
1. Cylinder installed through manifold system and
the process is continued until the cylinder empty
2. Make sure purge point maintain at pressure of 8
psig and velocity 200 ft /min and must be
supervised by two supervisors
3. Completion: 100% nitrogen or carbon dioxide is
detected at purge point (used nitrogen detector)
Calculation
o Items that need to be calculated
1. Cylinder quantity of purge medium
2. Purging time (at 200 ft/minute)
3. Pressure in cylinder at every minute of
operation
i) Determination of Cylinder Quantity (Nitrogen)
Pipe Volume V = Pipe Length x Int. Area of Pipe at atm
Purge Volume V = Pipe Volume x Nitrogen Volume at
8 psig
54 . 1
7 . 14
7 . 14 8
x Volume Pipe
psig
x Volume Pipe
=
+
=
However, quick method
Example
Determine a required number of nitrogen gas cylinder
for purging process on 8 inch pipe diameter with 400
ft length.
Conventional Method
Pipe Volume = 0.785 x 0.66 ka
2
x 400 ka
= 136 ft
3
Purge Volume = 136 ft
3
x 1.54
= 209 ft
3
Volume Gas x
Pressure Std Pressure Operation
Pressure Std Cylinder in Pressure Gas
Factor Safety x Volume Purge
Cylinder of No.
+
+
=
0085 . 0
5 . 1
7 . 14 8
7 . 14 2200
25 . 1
x Volume Purge
x
x Volume Purge
=
+
+
=
0.013 x Volume Pipe Cylinder of No. =
No. of. Cylinder = 209 ft
3
x 0.0085
= 1.80 unit = 2 unit
Quick Method
Pipe Volume = 0.785 x 0.66 ft
2
x 400 ft
= 136 ft
3
No. of Cylinder = 136 ft
3
x 0.013
= 1.80 unit = 2 unit
ii) Purging Time
Purging time is defined as a ratio of length of pipe to
purging velocity
iii) Cylinder Pressure
Recorded in every minute of purging process
Below are the steps
Velocity Purging
Length Pipe
Time Purging =
cyclinder
ft
x Cylinder of No
psig
psig
x
cylinder
ft
x Cylinder of No
psig to correction Capacity Full at Volume Cylinder V
3
3
1
4 . 146 .
7 . 14 8
7 . 14 2200
5 . 1 .
) 8 (
=
+
+
=
=
psia 14.7
Cylinder of No.
15.13 x V
psia 14.7
/cylinder ft 1.5 x Cylinder of No.
psia 14.7 psig 8
x V P
Time Purging
Minute Y
x V Volume Purge V
Process Purging of Minute Y after Volume Cylinder V
2
3
2 2
1
2
=


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 +
=


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=
=
Example
Based on the previous example, determine cylinder
pressure after 1 minute and 2 minute off the purging process.
psig
P
Then
ft x V
ft x V
1407
7 . 14
2
13 . 15 188
188
2
1
209 293
293 4 . 146 2
2
3
2
3
1
=

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+
=
=

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\

=
= =
Minute 1
psig
P
Then
ft x V
ft x V
76 . 620
7 . 14
2
13 . 15 84
84
2
2
209 293
293 4 . 146 2
2
3
2
3
1
=

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\

+
=
=

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\

=
= =
Minute 2