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Sociology and Anthropology are closely related and the two disciplines have much in common. • Both
Sociology and Anthropology are closely related and the two disciplines have much in common. • Both

Sociology and Anthropology are closely related and the two disciplines have much in common.

Both are more recent disciplines in the academic field compared to other social sciences, and both associated

with the process of socialization.

Both fields strive to understand the ways of life in various

cultures.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

SOCIOLOGY - DEALS WITH THE STUDY OF ORIGIN, EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF MAN AND HIS SOCIETY.
SOCIOLOGY - DEALS WITH THE STUDY OF ORIGIN, EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF MAN AND HIS SOCIETY.
SOCIOLOGY - DEALS WITH THE STUDY OF ORIGIN,
SOCIOLOGY
- DEALS WITH THE STUDY OF ORIGIN,
EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF MAN AND
EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF MAN AND
HIS SOCIETY.
HIS SOCIETY.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

ANTHROPOLOGY - DEALS WITH THE STUDY OF ORIGIN, EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF MAN AND HIS SOCIETY.
ANTHROPOLOGY - DEALS WITH THE STUDY OF ORIGIN, EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF MAN AND HIS SOCIETY.
ANTHROPOLOGY - DEALS WITH THE STUDY OF ORIGIN,
ANTHROPOLOGY - DEALS WITH THE STUDY OF ORIGIN,
EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF MAN
EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF MAN
AND HIS SOCIETY.
AND HIS SOCIETY.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

The two disciplines complement each other, as they have common areas of concern, such that of
The two disciplines complement each other, as they have common areas of concern, such that of

The two disciplines complement each other, as they have common

areas of concern, such that of gender issues; ethnicity; social class; religion; pop culture, etc.

Lastly, both disciplines generalize and harmonize data about social

behavior in relation to social institutions;

Thus, they are also parts of the behavioral sciences.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

1. Social Sciences deals with human behavior in its social and cultural aspects , which include
1. Social Sciences deals with human behavior in its social and cultural aspects , which include

1. Social Sciences deals with human behavior in its social and cultural aspects, which include the

following disciplines; history, economics, humanities, social work, philosophy, psychology, political science and those areas of education that deal with social contexts of learning

and the relation of the school to the social environment.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

2. History there are certain areas of historical study that are almost indistinguishable from work done
2. History there are certain areas of historical study that are almost indistinguishable from work done
  • 2. History there

are certain areas of historical study that are

almost indistinguishable from work done

in the

social science disciplines. History is the chronological record of past and significant

events that affects the nation or its institutions, usually including explanation of their causes. In the explanation of the causes of historical events, sociologists and

anthropologists attempt to show the social and cultural

patterns, and motivations events.

that

brought

such

historical

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

3. Humanities Emphasizes human subjectivity and dramatizes the human experiences containing the records of human ideals,
3. Humanities Emphasizes human subjectivity and dramatizes the human experiences containing the records of human ideals,

3. Humanities Emphasizes human subjectivity and dramatizes the human experiences containing the records of human ideals, values, goals,

aspirations, experiences, and sentiments that are

ultimately expressed in human feelings and

thoughts.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

4. Political Science- sociologists and anthropologists study the political behavior of man that focuses on the
4. Political Science- sociologists and anthropologists study the political behavior of man that focuses on the

4. Political Science- sociologists and anthropologists study the political behavior of man that focuses on the different aspects of government, political

institutions, its processes and political parties.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

4. Political Science- Sociologist are also interested in the bureaucracy of the state, power sharing and
4. Political Science- Sociologist are also interested in the bureaucracy of the state, power sharing and

4. Political Science-

Sociologist are also interested in the bureaucracy of the

state, power sharing and distribution, political conflicts,

and the theories or concepts of the state and political power.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

4. Political Science- David Easton (1953)- also relates politics is the aspect of culture by means
4. Political Science- David Easton (1953)- also relates politics is the aspect of culture by means

4. Political Science-

David Easton (1953)- also relates politics is the aspect

of culture by means of which social systems are

kept in equilibrium (ferkiss, 1974).

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

5. Economics - sociologists and anthropologist study the management of resources in society and its various
5. Economics - sociologists and anthropologist study the management of resources in society and its various

5. Economics- sociologists and anthropologist study the management of resources in society and its various dimensions such as the determination

and distribution of wealth, and wealth sources/

generation of the nation;

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

5. Economics - also the production, distribution and consumption of goods, and services in the market
5. Economics - also the production, distribution and consumption of goods, and services in the market

5. Economics-

also the production, distribution and consumption of

goods, and services in the market sociologists and

anthropologists are also interested in the technology and

the economic values that greatly affect the general

welfare of society.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

6. Psychology - the study of mental processes and human behavior closely unites psychology to sociology
6. Psychology - the study of mental processes and human behavior closely unites psychology to sociology

6. Psychology- the study of mental processes and human behavior closely unites psychology to sociology and anthropology, and also when these common concerns (social behavior, perceptions, values, etc) are merged. The unity of these disciplines gives rise to the sub- field of social psychology, which was pioneered by George Herbert mead and Charles Cooley.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

7. Biology- a more recent field of sociobiology has emerged in the study of society and
7. Biology- a more recent field of sociobiology has emerged in the study of society and

7. Biology-

a

more

recent field of sociobiology has

emerged in the study of society and culture.

Socio-biologists do not only focus on the

biological and evolutionary bases of human

behavior but also study the processes heredity influences cultural transmissions.

on how

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

7. Biology- Influenced by the Darwinian theory of evolution and cultural selection, socio-biologist also believe that
7. Biology- Influenced by the Darwinian theory of evolution and cultural selection, socio-biologist also believe that

7. Biology-

Influenced by the Darwinian theory of evolution and

cultural selection, socio-biologist also believe that mans

physiological and anatomical characteristics are a result

of the long process evolution.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

8. Cyber Technology- does modern technology (computer, cell-phone, digital equipments, etc.) affect or alter the traditional
8. Cyber Technology- does modern technology
8.
Cyber
Technology-
does
modern
technology

(computer, cell-phone, digital equipments, etc.)

affect or alter the traditional processes in

sociology such as in socialization, communication, and interaction?

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

8. Cyber Technology- How do text messaging, chatting, e-mails, “ blogging” and Friendster” come into the
8. Cyber Technology- How do text messaging, chatting, e-mails, “ blogging” and Friendster” come into the

8. Cyber Technology-

How do text messaging, chatting, e-mails, “ blogging” and Friendster” come into the fields of sociology and anthropology? Do they really matter in the social

process?

8. Cyber Technology- How do text messaging, chatting, e-mails, “ blogging” and Friendster” come into the

Do they really improve the quality of

human life?

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

The study of sociology and anthropology also focuses on the conditions places, behavior, cultures, and other
The study of sociology and anthropology also focuses on the conditions places, behavior, cultures, and other

The study of sociology and anthropology also focuses on the conditions places, behavior, cultures, and other social processes as humanity live, participate and interact with each other collectively and individually as members of a particular society and as denizens of today‘s civilization.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

The ethnographic accounts of Spanish chroniclers from those of Pigafetta, Loarca, Chirino & Antonio Morga provided
The ethnographic accounts of Spanish chroniclers from those of Pigafetta, Loarca, Chirino & Antonio Morga provided

The ethnographic accounts of Spanish chroniclers from those of Pigafetta, Loarca, Chirino & Antonio Morga provided the earliest information about Filipino society and culture.

PIGAFETTA

The ethnographic accounts of Spanish chroniclers from those of Pigafetta, Loarca, Chirino & Antonio Morga provided

Antonio Morga wrote the sucesos de las islas Filipinas (a book about ‘ indiocultureand society)

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Jose Rizal during his stint in Europe had studied and translated Blumentritt’s ethnography of the island
Jose Rizal during his stint in Europe had studied and translated Blumentritt’s ethnography of the island

Jose Rizal during his stint in Europe had studied and translated Blumentritt’s ethnography of the island of Mindanao.

As a requirement for membership to the prestigious anthropological and ethnographical society of Berlin, visited the Philippines and had written a book about the igorots.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Alfred Marche , conducted some a in marinduque. Frenchman diggings MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R. DELA CRUZ,
Alfred Marche , conducted some a in marinduque. Frenchman diggings MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R. DELA CRUZ,
Alfred Marche , conducted some a in marinduque. Frenchman diggings MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R. DELA CRUZ,

Alfred

Marche, conducted some

a

in marinduque.

Frenchman

diggings

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

During the American colonial period, the Americans created the bureau of non-Christian tribes. This agency was
During the American colonial period, the Americans created the bureau of non-Christian tribes. This agency was

During the American colonial period, the Americans created the bureau of non-Christian tribes. This

agency was later replaced by the ethcnological survey

of the Philippines office.

Eminent among the Americans anthropologist during

first Filipino to obtain a PhD in sociology from

university of Wisconsin.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Modern anthropology and sociology started only in the Philippines after World War II. Many Filipino enjoying
Modern anthropology and sociology started only in the Philippines after World War II. Many Filipino enjoying

Modern anthropology and sociology started only in the Philippines after World War II. Many Filipino enjoying

foreign scholarships specialized in anthropology and sociology in known schools such as the university of

Chicago and cornell university.

In

1952

the

Philippine

sociological

society

was

established. It came out with the Philippine

sociological journal, which

had

focused

on

the

contributions of anthropologists and sociologists.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

The first social science congress was held on November 17-19, 1983 with the theme; “Towards Excellence
The first social science congress was held on November 17-19, 1983 with the theme; “Towards Excellence

The first social science congress

was held

on

November 17-19, 1983 with the theme; “Towards Excellence in the Social Science in the Philippines.

On may 22-23, 1998, the fourth national congress was

convened by the Philippines science council in

cooperation with the national academy of science and

technology and tackled current social issues and problems.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Man is the basis of society and the focal point of social institutions according to the
Man is the basis of society and the focal point of social institutions according to the

Man is the basis of society and the focal point of social institutions according to the Vatican 11 the subject and the goal of all human institutions as and must be the human person, which for its part and by its very nature stands completely in need of social life.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Sociology or the science of society is operationally defined as the systematic study of social life
Sociology or the science of society is operationally defined as the systematic study of social life

Sociology or the science of society is operationally

defined as the systematic study of social life and

behavior especially in relation to the social system.

A Social System is a set of inter-related elements, which can be as large and complex as a society or as a small and relatively simple as a married couple.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Civilizations began from the nomadic (Paleolithic) to the sedentary ( Neolithic.) Paleolithi c Neolithi c MARTIN,
Civilizations began from the nomadic (Paleolithic) to the sedentary ( Neolithic.) Paleolithi c Neolithi c MARTIN,

Civilizations began from the nomadic (Paleolithic) to the sedentary( Neolithic.)

Paleolithic

Civilizations began from the nomadic (Paleolithic) to the sedentary ( Neolithic.) Paleolithi c Neolithi c MARTIN,

Neolithic

Civilizations began from the nomadic (Paleolithic) to the sedentary ( Neolithic.) Paleolithi c Neolithi c MARTIN,

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

stages of mans social development, which was constituted first by separate clans and tribes composed of
stages of mans social development, which was constituted first by separate clans and tribes
stages
of
mans
social
development,
which
was
constituted
first
by
separate
clans
and
tribes

composed of kinship and family relations and

eventually bonded to form separate various

communities that later elaborated into sophisticated cultures and civilizations.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

The first recorded origins of society came from early civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt, from the
The first recorded origins of society came from early civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt, from the

The first recorded origins of society came from early

civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt, from the west

and the orient such as that of the ancient Greeks, Rome , china and india.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Long before Auguste Comte ( 1798-1857) coined the term sociology, philosophers like plato, Aristotle and many
Long before Auguste Comte ( 1798-1857) coined the term sociology, philosophers like plato, Aristotle and many

Long before Auguste Comte ( 1798-1857) coined the term sociology, philosophers like plato, Aristotle and

many scholastic theologians , like, St. Augustine (had

already propounded theories on human society.

Sociology- from Greek word socius, companion”, logos connotes wordor study

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Plato, in his republic, laid down his standards for an ideal society ruled by philosopher kings
Plato, in his republic, laid down his standards for an ideal society ruled by philosopher kings

Plato, in his republic, laid down his standards for an

ideal society ruled by philosopher kings assisted by equally and intellectually gifted “ guardians”.

Aristotle stated in his work politics that no man is self- sufficient and that those who are unable to live in society and who have no needs in life must be either beasts” or gods”.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

St Augus tine in his city of god, described society’s ultimate pilgrimage towards the kingdom of
St Augus tine in his city of god, described society’s ultimate pilgrimage towards the kingdom of

St Augustine in his city of god, described society’s ultimate pilgrimage towards the kingdom of god. In later centuries, thinkers like Sir Thomas More and

Tomasco Campanella formulated their respective ideal societies or utopias as forms of protest and

indictment of their societies their time.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Greek and Roman heritage had a powerful influence in the shaping of social thought in many
Greek and Roman heritage had a powerful influence in the shaping of social thought in many

Greek and Roman heritage had a powerful influence

in the shaping of social thought in many other areas of

western societies. Without the initial determination of Greek philosophers to study all things in the spirit of dispassionate and rational inquiry, there would be no social sciences today.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

On the other hand, the works such as the analects of Confucius and the bushido or
On the other hand, the works such as the analects of Confucius and the bushido or

On the other hand, the works such as the analects of Confucius and the bushido or the code of ethics of the samurai in Japan were also some of the Asian

counterparts of the concepts of ideal social behavior

and society.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

L ong periods of time during the middle age (particularly the dark ages) saw almost the
L ong periods of time during the middle age (particularly the dark ages) saw almost the

Long

periods

of

time

during

the

middle

age

(particularly the dark ages) saw almost the extinction

of

knowledge.

But

the

re-discovery

of

classical

philosophy or

social

thought

through

the

help

of

commerce in Venice and Milan in Italy, and through the Arabs in Cordova, Spain and in the Mediterranean

ushered the very essence and basis of the

renaissance

history.

and the age of reason in the modern

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

With the age of enlightenment in the 17 and 18 centuries, humanity is forced to explore
With the age of enlightenment in the 17 and 18 centuries, humanity is forced to explore

With the age of enlightenment in the 17 th and 18 th centuries, humanity is forced to explore the natural

environment and the social institutions around them.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

The Enlightenment ( the period between 17 and 18 centuries in Europe) . Interrelated ideas about
The Enlightenment ( the period between 17 and 18 centuries in Europe) . Interrelated ideas about

The Enlightenment ( the period between 17 th and 18 th centuries in Europe). Interrelated ideas about reason, nature and science which allowed the human

mind to transcend the prevailing barriers of traditional modes of thought such as superstition, religious beliefs, and even bigotry. Side by side with the scientific experiments made notable by roger bacon,

were , the impressive changes in technology, which

occurred during this period until the advent of the

renaissance and the reformation.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Efforts to improve agricultural productivity; the manufacture of gunpowder with the consequent development of guns; growth
Efforts to improve agricultural productivity; the manufacture of gunpowder with the consequent development of guns; growth

Efforts to improve agricultural productivity; the manufacture of gunpowder with the consequent development of guns; growth of trade and commerce which led to the increased interests in ships and navigation, including the use of telescopes, and the whole range of such mechanical arts in the Middle Ages and Renaissance as Architecture, engineering, optics and the construction of watches and clocks, were also

the contributory factors that tremendously aided people to simpler understanding of mechanics, physics, astronomy, and in time, chemistry.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

By the time of Copernicus and Galileo in the 16 century, a solid physical science with
By the time of Copernicus and Galileo in the 16 century, a solid physical science with

By the time of Copernicus and Galileo

in

the

16 th

century, a solid physical science with empirical and

theoretical foundations was readily available. The

detailed and accurate painting and sculpture produced by the renaissance masters also contributed to the

careful and deliberate studies of human anatomy.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

The emergence of sociology coincided with the rise of the industrial revolution in Europe during the
The emergence of sociology coincided with the rise of the industrial revolution in Europe during the

The emergence of sociology coincided with the rise of the industrial revolution in Europe during the 18 th century. The founders of sociology were economists

humanist, philosophers, and political thinkers.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Henri Saint Simon first wrote his ideas on the science of society between 1760 and 1825.
Henri Saint Simon first wrote his ideas on the science of society between 1760 and 1825.

Henri Saint Simon first wrote his ideas on the science of

society between 1760 and 1825. He based his writings

on the assumption that the law of human behavior could

be determined in the same manner that the laws of

nature had been arrived at by astronomers, physicists, biologists, geologists, chemists and other natural scientists. He also believed that the power of reason or

logic could still improve social life by either mitigating or

eliminating social problems.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Auguste Comte (1798-1857) is considered the founder of sociology . he encouraged the application of science
Auguste Comte (1798-1857) is considered the founder of sociology . he encouraged the application of science

Auguste Comte (1798-1857) is considered the founder of sociology . he encouraged the application of science

to human affairs, and that only the empirical sciences

are true knowledge. He called the process positivism. Comte stressed that the study of society requires concern for both the sources of order and continuity, and the source of change.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) An English liberal philosopher who advanced the thesis that social, as well as
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) An English liberal philosopher who advanced the thesis that social, as well as

Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) An English liberal philosopher who advanced the thesis that social, as well

as natural life had been drawn by progressive evolution.

He pioneered the principle of survival of the fittest as

applied to human societies. He was among the first proponents of social Darwinism Society, according to Spencer was analogous to a giant organism with parts

interacting to help the whole. His thesis helped the

formulation of structural functionalism.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Emile Durkheim-(1857-1917) was a French scholar who devoted his study to understanding the stability of society
Emile Durkheim-(1857-1917) was a French scholar who devoted his study to understanding the stability of society

Emile Durkheim-(1857-1917) was a French scholar who devoted his study to understanding the stability of society and the importance of social participation for individual happiness. He emphasized the study of patterned social regularities as the subject matter of

sociology and he called these Social Facts. Moreover

,he also believed that positivism should be used to

investigate social facts and that, associations from

friendship groups, to marriages, and to society itself, are held together by mutual dependence created by division

of labor.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Karl Marx (1818-1 883) was a philosopher, economist, social activist, and originator of the conflict theory.
Karl Marx (1818-1 883) was a philosopher, economist, social activist, and originator of the conflict theory.

Karl Marx (1818-1883) was a philosopher, economist, social activist, and originator of the conflict theory. In his

books communist Manifesto and Capital, he viewed

inequality, poverty, and alienation as the products of the

private ownership of property and the capitalist system.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Thus, he sought to eliminate capitalism through his writings. His famous line- “Man’s social existence determines
Thus, he sought to eliminate capitalism through his writings. His famous line- “Man’s social existence determines

Thus, he sought to eliminate capitalism through his writings. His famous line- “Man’s social existence determines his consciousness”, also influenced the conflict theory of economic determinism, which is the

process where social institutions such as family, law, and

other socio-political, and cultural systems are all developed after and adapted to the economic structure.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Marx predicted that communism ( classless society) as the last stage of man’s economic development would
Marx predicted that communism ( classless society) as the last stage of man’s economic development would

Marx predicted that communism ( classless society) as the last stage of man’s economic development would eventually emerge as the world’s new economic order during his time. He left the slogan: “Workers of the world unite, you have nothing to lose but your chains.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Karl Mannheim (1843-1947) was a German philosopher and sociologist who, like Hegel and Marx before him,
Karl Mannheim (1843-1947) was a German philosopher and sociologist who, like Hegel and Marx before him,

Karl Mannheim (1843-1947) was a German philosopher

and sociologist who, like Hegel and Marx before him, believed that changes in the minds of people are not

adequately understood without “relating them to changes

in their concrete existential conditions.” In his sociology

of knowledge (1952), he claims;

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

“The greater art of the sociologist consists in his attempts always to relate changes in mental
“The greater art of the sociologist consists in his attempts always to relate changes in mental

“The greater art of the sociologist consists in his attempts

always to relate changes in mental attitudes to changes in social situations. The human mind does not operate in

a vacuum; the most delicate change in human spirit

corresponds to similarly delicate change in the situation

in which an individual or a group finds itself, and

conversely, the minutest change in situations indicates that men, too, have undergone changes.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Max Weber (1864-1920) was a German economist, historian, and philosopher. He rejected Marx’s thesis of economic
Max Weber (1864-1920) was a German economist, historian, and philosopher. He rejected Marx’s thesis of economic

Max Weber (1864-1920) was a German economist, historian, and philosopher. He rejected Marx’s thesis of economic determinism and instead stressed the interplay

between social and economic factors. In his Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, he argues that

protestant religious values were contributory to the rise of the economic system of Capitalism, His arguments

seemed validated by the historical fact that protestant

countries (US, UK ,Canada, Australia, etc.)are more

progressive and prosperous than their Catholic

counterparts.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Vilfredo Pareto He declared that all history to be the “succession of aristocracies,’ and graveyard of
Vilfredo Pareto He declared that all history to be the “succession of aristocracies,’ and graveyard of

Vilfredo Pareto

Vilfredo Pareto He declared that all history to be the “succession of aristocracies,’ and graveyard of

He declared

that

all

history to

be

the

“succession of aristocracies,’ and graveyard of the aristocracy.Aristocracy pertains to the society dominated by a

few privileged classes. He divided society into two major classifications; the

masses who are composed of non-

rational people and the upper stratum of

society or the elite.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Vilfredo Pareto From a different aspect, Pareto rejected Marx’s division of society into contending classes and
Vilfredo Pareto From a different aspect, Pareto rejected Marx’s division of society into contending classes and

Vilfredo Pareto

Vilfredo Pareto From a different aspect, Pareto rejected Marx’s division of society into contending classes and

From a different aspect, Pareto rejected Marx’s division of society into contending classes and propounded instead a theory based upon a distinction between the governing elite’ and the masses.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Vilfredo Pareto Pareto praised Marx’s concept of class struggle as a major contribution to social theory
Vilfredo Pareto Pareto praised Marx’s concept of class struggle as a major contribution to social theory

Vilfredo Pareto

Vilfredo Pareto Pareto praised Marx’s concept of class struggle as a major contribution to social theory

Pareto praised Marx’s concept of class struggle as a major contribution to social

theory but his idea of a conflict was based on the possession of political

power between an established elite and a rising elite.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Vilfredo Pareto This conflict Pareto explained occurred throughout history and the domination and exploitation of the
Vilfredo Pareto This conflict Pareto explained occurred throughout history and the domination and exploitation of the

Vilfredo Pareto This conflict Pareto explained occurred throughout history and the domination and exploitation of the masses continued. In Pareto’s view, there is no progressive movement toward a classless society in contradiction to the Marxist’s point of view.

Vilfredo Pareto This conflict Pareto explained occurred throughout history and the domination and exploitation of the

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

ANTONIO GRAMSCI and HEGEMONY Antonio Gramsci , an Italian (1891- 1937) was a leading Marxist thinker
ANTONIO GRAMSCI and HEGEMONY Antonio Gramsci , an Italian (1891- 1937) was a leading Marxist thinker

ANTONIO GRAMSCI and HEGEMONY Antonio Gramsci, an Italian (1891-

ANTONIO GRAMSCI and HEGEMONY Antonio Gramsci , an Italian (1891- 1937) was a leading Marxist thinker

1937) was a leading Marxist thinker who

rejected economism insisting on the independence of thought.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

ANTONIO GRAMSCI and HEGEMONY He also rejected crude materialism, offering a humanist version of Marxism, which
ANTONIO GRAMSCI and HEGEMONY He also rejected crude materialism, offering a humanist version of Marxism, which

ANTONIO GRAMSCI and HEGEMONY

ANTONIO GRAMSCI and HEGEMONY He also rejected crude materialism, offering a humanist version of Marxism, which

He also rejected crude materialism,

offering a humanist version of Marxism,

which focused on human subjectivity. He has been called as the theoretician of the

superstructure because the centrality of the role of intellectuals had always

occupied his thoughts.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

ANTONIO GRAMSCI and HEGEMONY He said “all men are intellectuals … .but not all men have
ANTONIO GRAMSCI and HEGEMONY He said “all men are intellectuals … .but not all men have

ANTONIO GRAMSCI and HEGEMONY

ANTONIO GRAMSCI and HEGEMONY He said “all men are intellectuals … .but not all men have

He said “all men are intellectuals.but not all men have in society the function of intellectuals” Gramsci concluded that “each man, outside his professional activity, carries on some form of intellectual activity-he is a “philosopher”, an artist, a man of taste, he participates in a particular conception of the world, has conscious line of moral conduct, and therefore contributes to sustain a conception of the world or to modify it..

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

ANTONIO GRAMSCI and HEGEMONY Gramsci’s hegemony denotes the predominance of the “intellectuals of the historically and
ANTONIO GRAMSCI and HEGEMONY Gramsci’s hegemony denotes the predominance of the “intellectuals of the historically and

ANTONIO GRAMSCI and HEGEMONY Gramsci’s hegemony denotes

ANTONIO GRAMSCI and HEGEMONY Gramsci’s hegemony denotes the predominance of the “intellectuals of the historically and

the

predominance of the “intellectuals of the

historically and concretely progressive social

class over others because such class

exercises a power of attraction that, in the

last analysis, they end up subjugating the intellectuals of the other social groups.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

ANTONIO GRAMSCI and HEGEMONY Hegemony represented not only political and economic control, but also the ability
ANTONIO GRAMSCI and HEGEMONY Hegemony represented not only political and economic control, but also the ability

ANTONIO GRAMSCI and HEGEMONY

ANTONIO GRAMSCI and HEGEMONY Hegemony represented not only political and economic control, but also the ability

Hegemony represented not only political and economic control, but also the ability of the

dominant class to project its own way of

seeing the world so that those who are

subordinated by it, accept it as “common sense” and “natural.But hegemony meant relationship between dominant and subjected social group be based on willing and active consent.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Sociology in the United States shared the same intellectual roots as European sociology and featured a
Sociology in the United States shared the same intellectual roots as European sociology and featured a

Sociology in

the

United

States

shared

the same

intellectual roots as European sociology and featured a

concern with social

problem reforming

rather

than

a

radical

approach,

and

also

in

its

emphasis

on

the

scientific approach.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Lewis H Morgan in his book ancient society(1877), he introduced three definite stages into the history
Lewis H Morgan in his book ancient society(1877), he introduced three definite stages into the history

Lewis H Morgan

Lewis H Morgan in his book ancient society(1877), he introduced three definite stages into the history

in

his

book

ancient

society(1877),

he

introduced

three

definite

stages

into

the

history of primitive men the stage of

savagery,barbarism,

and

civilization.

Like

Herbert Spencer, he was one of the earliest

pioneers

of

the

evolutionary

theory

of

humanity and behavior. history.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Ruth Benedict in her book Patterns of culture stressed the variability of man’s culture, and the
Ruth Benedict in her book Patterns of culture stressed the variability of man’s culture, and the

Ruth Benedict

Ruth Benedict in her book Patterns of culture stressed the variability of man’s culture, and the

in her book Patterns of culture stressed the

variability of man’s culture, and the

uniqueness of each culture had to be

understood in its terms, free from the biases

of western perspectives. She, therefore,

argued that anything which one cultural group does is worthy of respect by another.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Margaret Mead in her book, Cooperation and Competition among Primitive Peoples (1937), she assumed a random
Margaret Mead in her book, Cooperation and Competition among Primitive Peoples (1937), she assumed a random

Margaret Mead

in
in

her

book,

Cooperation

and Competition

among Primitive Peoples (1937), she assumed

a random distribution of cooperation and competition throughout early society. Mead’s

thesis that genetic or biological make up does

not predetermine roles assigned to males and

females, and that reversal of roles of men and

women may be contingent upon given circumstances, elicited controversial reactions in anthropological circles.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Margaret Mead In her work War: the Anthropology of Armed Conflict and Aggression (1968), Mead argued
Margaret Mead In her work War: the Anthropology of Armed Conflict and Aggression (1968), Mead argued

Margaret Mead

Margaret Mead In her work War: the Anthropology of Armed Conflict and Aggression (1968), Mead argued

In her work War: the Anthropology of Armed

Conflict and Aggression (1968), Mead argued that war or aggression is a cultural habit that,

once learned, is passed from generation to

generation.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

William Graham Summet An evolutionary theorist studied American folkways. Sumner used Darwin’s theory of natural selection
William Graham Summet An evolutionary theorist studied American folkways. Sumner used Darwin’s theory of natural selection

William Graham Summet

William Graham Summet An evolutionary theorist studied American folkways. Sumner used Darwin’s theory of natural selection

An evolutionary theorist studied American

folkways. Sumner used Darwin’s theory of

natural selection to justify the competitive economic system (capitalism) of the 19 th century, with its attendant scarcity and misery. Like Thomas Malthus before him,

sumner also insisted that persons who are

competively less fit have no moral right to

subsist on the already scarce resources.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

William Graham Summet Albion Small founder of the first US department of sociology wrote the first
William Graham Summet Albion Small founder of the first US department of sociology wrote the first

William Graham Summet

William Graham Summet Albion Small founder of the first US department of sociology wrote the first

Albion

Small

founder

of

the

first

US

department

of

sociology

wrote

the

first

sociology textbook

and

 

founded

the

American journal of sociology.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Chicago School The University of Chicago dominated American sociology until the middle of the last century.
Chicago School The University of Chicago dominated American sociology until the middle of the last century.

Chicago School

Chicago School The University of Chicago dominated American sociology until the middle of the last century.

The University of Chicago dominated

American sociology until the middle of

the last century. It is renowned for its

interest in social problems and an

emphasis on the subjective meanings of social action. Early sociologists of note

who were at the “Chicago School,” were George Herbert Mead, Robert Park and

W.I. Thomas.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Chicago School George Herbert Mead and Charles Horton Cooley are regarded as the founders of social
Chicago School George Herbert Mead and Charles Horton Cooley are regarded as the founders of social

Chicago School

Chicago School George Herbert Mead and Charles Horton Cooley are regarded as the founders of social

George Herbert Mead and Charles

Horton

Cooley

are

regarded

as

the

founders of social

psychology. They

pinpointed

an

important

area

for

the

study of socialization process there by growing infants develop a sense of

identity and purpose in interaction with

their social environment.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Structural Functionalist Theory has its roots in natural science and in the analogy between society and
Structural Functionalist Theory has its roots in natural science and in the analogy between society and

Structural Functionalist Theory

has its roots in natural science and in the analogy between society and an organism. In this theory, a strong

emphasis placed upon judging structures primarily by the

degree to which they contribute the maintenance of the

status quo in society. This theory holds that society made

up of elements or components that are interrelated in a more or less stable way through a period of time. These

elements have functions, either manifest or latent, to maintain the social equilibrium.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Structural Functionalist Theory has its roots in natural science and in the analogy between society and
Structural Functionalist Theory has its roots in natural science and in the analogy between society and

Structural Functionalist Theory

has its roots in natural science and in the analogy

between society and an organism. In this theory, a strong

emphasis placed upon judging structures primarily by the degree to which they contribute the maintenance of the status quo in society. This theory holds that society made up of elements or components that are interrelated in a

more or less stable way through a period of time. These

elements have functions, either manifest or latent, to

maintain the social equilibrium.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Assumption in Structural Functionalist Theory 1. Stability - whether or not the structure or social pattern
Assumption in Structural Functionalist Theory 1. Stability - whether or not the structure or social pattern

Assumption in Structural Functionalist Theory

  • 1. Stability- whether or not the structure or social pattern contributes to the maintenance of society.

  • 2. Harmony-structures evolve and adapt to the new needs and demands the environment

Consequences in the operation of Structure

  • A. Functions- positive consequences

B. Dysfunctions- negative consequences

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Conflict Theory Conflict Theory views society and world in terms of conflict and change. It critically
Conflict Theory Conflict Theory views society and world in terms of conflict and change. It critically

Conflict Theory

Conflict Theory views society and world in terms of

conflict and change. It critically examines the role of

competition and conflict in society and emphasizes the processes by which some people are winners and others

losers. Conflict is seen as the ultimate source of social

change with the tensions producing conflict arising from

the consequences of inequality and competition.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Assumption in Conflict Theory A. Diabetics- change occurs through stages or processes of conflict rather than
Assumption in Conflict Theory A. Diabetics- change occurs through stages or processes of conflict rather than

Assumption in Conflict Theory

A.

Diabetics-

change

occurs

through

stages

or

processes of conflict rather than through evolution. G.W.Hegel’s (1970-1831) dialectical method believed that human beings were working out a universal history moving out toward “the consciousness of freedom on the part of spirit.

Any given stage could serve as the thesis.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Symbolic Interaction Theory addresses the subjective meanings of human acts and the processes through which people
Symbolic Interaction Theory addresses the subjective meanings of human acts and the processes through which people

Symbolic Interaction Theory

addresses the subjective meanings of human acts and

the processes through which people come to develop

and communicate shared meanings and focuses on the everyday aspects of social life. It views individuals as living in a world of symbols and meaningful objects, which are parts of their social communication.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Assumption in Conflict Theory a. interaction is made possible by the development of shared symbolic meanings.
Assumption in Conflict Theory a. interaction is made possible by the development of shared symbolic meanings.

Assumption in Conflict Theory

a. interaction is made possible by the development of shared symbolic meanings.

b.

Symbolic

inter-

actionists

process

through

which

people

frameworks of their culture.

are

concerned

with

learn

the

symbolic

c. Mechanisms for learning include what we learn from our family and friends as well as the roles set for us by society.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Symbolic Interaction Theory Symbolic interaction focuses on small groups and the daily face to face interaction.
Symbolic Interaction Theory Symbolic interaction focuses on small groups and the daily face to face interaction.

Symbolic Interaction Theory

Symbolic interaction focuses on small groups and the

daily face to face interaction. It explains how roles and

social structure become inseparable or natural parts of human existence. Its major weakness stems from a lack of emphasis on larger social structures.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Feminist Theory Feminist theory is one of the most recent theories ever conceived in relation to
Feminist Theory Feminist theory is one of the most recent theories ever conceived in relation to

Feminist Theory

Feminist theory is one of the most recent theories ever

conceived in relation to sociology. Two of the prominent

women thinkers were Harriet Martineau and simone de Beauvior

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Harriet Martineau (1802-1876) a pioneering British journalist and write, whose theory of education advocated a kind
Harriet Martineau (1802-1876) a pioneering British journalist and write, whose theory of education advocated a kind

Harriet Martineau (1802-1876)

Harriet Martineau (1802-1876) a pioneering British journalist and write, whose theory of education advocated a kind

a pioneering British journalist and write,

whose theory of education advocated a kind

and affectionate treatment of women and

children. She is best remembered for her

contributions to the emerging women’s movement and for the example she set

herself as a woman, powerful in a society

dominated by men.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Slimone de Beauvior Slimone de beauvior – in her work second sex (1972), beauvior rejected the
Slimone de Beauvior Slimone de beauvior – in her work second sex (1972), beauvior rejected the

Slimone de Beauvior

Slimone de beauvior in her work second sex (1972), beauvior rejected the socio-biological concepts of gender differentiation, freud’s psychoanalytical theory of women’s inferiority, and Engels’ theory of women’s

subjugation. He theories on gender embody

contemporary feminist ideas.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

Slimone de Beauvior In summary, according to Merton, all sociological perspectives, whether they are conflict theory
Slimone de Beauvior In summary, according to Merton, all sociological perspectives, whether they are conflict theory

Slimone de Beauvior

In summary, according to Merton, all sociological

perspectives, whether they are conflict theory or

structural functionalism are better suited for the study of

larger social structure, or macro-sociology, while symbolic interaction is better suited to the study of

interactions among individuals or micro-sociology.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN

3. Sociological imagination approach according to C. Wright Mills, its pioneer proponent, is an awareness of the relationship between the person’s problem and

3. Sociological imagination approach according to C. Wright Mills, its pioneer proponent, is an awareness of
3. Sociological imagination approach according to C. Wright Mills, its pioneer proponent, is an awareness of

SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION

Sociological imagination approach according to C. Wright Mills, its pioneer proponent, is an awareness of the relationship between the person’s problem and society’s structures, social phenomena and events. A person must

have the ability to survey and analyze society free from

the restricted perspectives cultural biases and

experiences of his group or peers.

MARTIN, JOHN PAUL R.

DELA CRUZ, CHRISTOPHER

PINEDA, LLOYD CHRISTOPHER DESALIZA, CARL DUANN