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# UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA

## MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS REPORT

ANDRI MUBARAK (0906489555) NOVANDRA RHEZZA PRATAMA (0906515793) NOVELLY SIONITA SIMANJUNTAK (0906557190) RENALDA KRISSALAM (0906636560)

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING DEPOK DECEMBER 2012

TITLE PAGE ........................................................................................................... i TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................ ii LIST OF PICTURES ............................................................................................. iii LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................. iv CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................... 1 1.1 Research Background .......................................................................... 1 1.2 Research Objectives............................................................................. 3 1.3 Research Information........................................................................... 3 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................. 4 2.1 Concept of Factor Analysis ................................................................. 4 2.2 Design Factor Analysis Experiment .................................................... 5 CHAPTER 3 DATA PROCESSING ................................................................... 7 3.1 Developing Questionnaires .................................................................. 7 3.2 Data Collection .................................................................................... 7 3.3 Steps on Data Tabulation with Factor Analysis .................................. 7 CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS ................................................................................... 12 4.1 Factor Analysis .................................................................................. 12 4.2 Result Data Tabulation and Analysis ................................................ 12 4.3 Correlation Between Variables .......................................................... 13 4.4 Factor Analysis Test .......................................................................... 17 4.5 Anti Image Analysis ....................................................................... 18 4.6 Process Data after Variable X3 Turn Out From Tabulation Data ..... 22 4.7 Communalities of Variables .............................................................. 26 4.8 Determine Number of Factor ............................................................. 27 4.9 Interpreting Factor ............................................................................. 30 4.10 Component Transformation Matrix ................................................... 35 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION ............................................................................ 36 REFERENCES .................................................................................................... 37 THE ATTACHMENTS CHAPTER ................................................................. 38

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LIST OF PICTURES

Figure 2.1 The Common Factor Model ............................................................... 5 Figure 3.1 Data Reduction.................................................................................... 9 Figure 3.2 Insert Variabel .................................................................................... 9 Figure 3.3 Descriptive Window .......................................................................... 10 Figure 3.4 Extraction Window ........................................................................... 10 Figure 3.5 Rotation Window .............................................................................. 11 Figure 3.6 Score Window ................................................................................... 11 Figure 4.1 Scree Plot for the Data...................................................................... 29 Figure 4.2 Component Plot in Rotated Space ................................................... 35

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1 Correlation Between Variables ......................................................... 14 Table 4.2 KMO and Bartletts Test ................................................................... 17 Table 4.3 Anti-Image Metrics ............................................................................ 19 Table 4.4 The New KMO and Bartlett's Test ................................................... 23 Table 4.5 The New Anti-Image Metrics ............................................................ 24 Table 4.6 Communalities .................................................................................... 26 Table 4.7 Total Variance Explained .................................................................. 27 Table 4.8 Initial Eigen Values ............................................................................ 28 Table 4.9 Extraction Sum of Squared Loadings .............................................. 29 Table 4.10 Rotation Sum of Squared Loadings ................................................ 30 Table 4.11 Component Matrix ........................................................................... 31 Table 4.12 Rotated Component Matrix ............................................................ 32 Table 4.13 Classified Factor from Variables .................................................... 33 Table 4.14 Component Score Coefficient Matrix ............................................. 34 Table 4.15 Component Transformation Matrix ............................................... 35

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Research Background According to Cronin and Taylor in Baharet al (2009:972), customer satisfaction is a major factor in assessing the quality of products and services. Customer assesses the performance of the products and services, they directly comparing what they received and what they perceived to services and products. Quality of services or products is determined by the level of compatibility between the services given to those expected by the consumer. The higher the received service equality will be higher levels of customer satisfaction. Marketing managers recognize that customer satisfaction proved to be very useful in the business so they often held management survey on customer satisfaction with the product produced by a company. Customer satisfaction can be used to measure the market a product or service so that company can further expand or repair their existing production. company use customer satisfaction as input for subsequent products and services, because if a customer satisfied with the products or services it wishes to purchase very high, after the purchase, the customer would recommend the product or service to other people starting families and the closest so they will be motivated to buy products or services. After purchasing the products or services and the customer is satisfied its possible to buy the products or services back the next time and it could be a repeat for several times if the level of satisfaction is high. If customers are not satisfied then it is not going to happen so there should be measurement of customer satisfaction possible by asking their customers and if customers are not satisfied, the customer will provide a critical commentary. Many companies believe that customer satisfaction is important. As reflected from the vision, mission and business plan that they formulated. Measuring customer satisfaction is a concrete manifestation of the company's commitment to customer satisfaction. Based on the experience of doing research for many companies in Indonesia, there are 5 things to optimize the benefits of the
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research. The first step is to involve top management. Prior research conducted, very important or even should, to seek approval and support from top management. If top management is still in doubt, it is better to delay the conduct customer satisfaction research. The second step is to involve the relevant department. Measuring customer satisfaction often involves many departments such as marketing department, service, human resources, production, business development and even financial. In the manufacturing industry, R&D department is also important to be involved. The higher the company's orientation towards the customers, the more departments should be involved. Customer satisfaction is the responsibility of all departments and not just the departments that deal with customers on a daily basis. Third, research should have high credibility. Therefore, the measurement of customer satisfaction research must be carried out to the correct method. The company can actually do the research yourself if measurements have sufficient resources, i.e. at least some researchers who controlled research methodology, statistics and basic concepts of customer satisfaction. When internally is not possible, it is better to outsource the research firm that has credibility. Without credibility, let alone take advantage of the results, to simply listen to the presentation of the results of his research-also, they will be reluctant. Fourth, the results of this survey should be presented and disseminated. It is important; the results of this research are communicated to the level of front-line staff. Fifth, the preparation of a new program based on the results of this research should be done as quickly as possible. At the latest, one month after the research is completed; the company should be ready with the customer satisfaction program after learning how effective customer satisfaction program length based on research. Making this program should be initiated with the objective to be achieved such as how much the rate of increase of customer satisfaction will be achieved. Sixth, scheduling customer satisfaction measurement. Time, depending on the speed of change in the business environment and how much of the planned program has been implemented. In general, the measurement of large-scale customer satisfaction can be done once or twice a year. Seventh, to use the results of customer satisfaction measurement is to

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connect the measurement of customer satisfaction and the reward of the employee. In this case, we use Blackberry as our product, we choose this product because its widely used in Indonesia so that our customer is sufficient for the survey, and we especially survey Industrial Engineering students. This research is useful to measure Blackberry next product market especially among industrial engineering students.

1.2 Research Objectives The research is done to realize the objectives mentioned below: Determine the factors or variables that influence customer satisfactions or customer preference in Blackberry. Find the most significant factors that influence the customer preference for Blackberry. Determine the level of customer satisfaction especially Blackberry users in Industrial Engineering.

1.3 Research Information The detail informations about this research is mentioned below: Title : Blackberrys customer satisfaction using factor analysis method. Methods : Factor Analysis. Samples : Blackberry users especially Industrial Engineering students University of Indonesia. Time : Tuesday, 4th December 2012 Tuesday, 18th December 2012. Place : Mailing list Industrial Engineering 2009 (online),

## Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Indonesia.

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## CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Concept of Factor Analysis Factor analysis is a statistical method used to study the dimensionality of a set of variables. In factor analysis, latent variables represent unobserved constructs and are referred to as factors or dimensions. Factor analysis searches for such joint variations in response to unobserved latent variables. The observed variables are modeled as linear combinations of the potential factors, plus "error" terms. The information gained about the interdependencies between observed variables can be used later to reduce the set of variables in a dataset. Computationally this technique is equivalent to low rank approximation of the matrix of observed variables. Factor analysis originated in psychometrics, and is used in behavioral sciences, social sciences, marketing, product management, operations research, and other applied sciences that deal with large quantities of data. There are basically two types of factor analysis: exploratory and conrmatory. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) Used to explore the dimensionality of a measurement instrument by finding the smallest number of interpretable factors needed to explain the correlations among a set of variables exploratory in the sense that it places no structure on the linear relationships between the observed variables and on the linear relationships between the observed variables and the factors but only specifies the number of latent variables. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) Used to study how well a hypothesized factor model fits a new sample from the same population or a sample from a different population characterized by allowing restrictions on the parameters of the model.

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## Figure 2.1 The Common Factor Model

Both types of factor analyses are based on the Common Factor Model, illustrated in gure 1.1. This model proposes that each observed response (measure 1 through measure 5) is inuenced partially by underlying common factors (factor 1 and factor 2) and partially by underlying unique factors (E1 through E5). The strength of the link between each factor and each measure varies, such that a given factor inuences some measures more than others.

2.2 Design Factor Analysis Experiment In designing experiment which uses factor analysis, we need several steps. Principles of experimental design, following Ronald A. Fisher. Generally there are many steps to conduct factor analysis experiment. There are steps will be explained below: Comparison In some fields of study it is not possible to have independent measurements to a traceable standard. Comparisons between treatments are much more valuable and are usually preferable. Often one compares against a scientific control or traditional treatment that acts as baseline. Randomization Random assignment is the process of assigning individuals at random to groups or to different groups in an experiment. The random assignment of

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individuals to groups (or conditions within a group) distinguishes a rigorous, "true" experiment from an adequate, but less-than-rigorous, "quasi-experiment". Replication Measurements are usually subject to variation and uncertainty. Measurements are repeated and full experiments are replicated to help identify the sources of variation, to better estimate the true effects of treatments, to further strengthen the experiment's reliability and validity, and to add to the existing knowledge of the topic. Blocking Blocking is the arrangement of experimental units into groups (blocks) consisting of units that are similar to one another. Blocking reduces known but irrelevant sources of variation between units and thus allows greater precision in the estimation of the source of variation under study. Orthogonality Orthogonality concerns the forms of comparison (contrasts) that can be legitimately and efficiently carried out. Contrasts can be represented by vectors and sets of orthogonal contrasts are uncorrelated and independently distributed if the data are normal. Factorial experiments Use of factorial experiments instead of the one-factor-at-a-time method. These are efficient at evaluating the effects and possible interactions of several factors (independent variables).

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## CHAPTER 3 DATA PROCESSING

3.1 Developing Questionnaires To get customer satisfaction data to the Blackberry, we conduct research with the use of a detailed questionnaire. In developing the questionnaires, we should decide the characteristics and the variables needed to make good questionnaires. A good questionnaire should be valid and reliable. Valid means the study is able to scientifically answer the questions it is intended to answer. Reliable means the study is consistent and the study may not measure what it wants to be measuring. Both validity and reliability should be fulfilled so that we could analyze the real situation accurately.

3.2 Data Collection We gathered data by distributing questionnaire to Blackberry users. From the gathered data, we already collect 50 (fifty) data that can represent the Blackberry users. The distributed questionnaires and the data result will be attached in The Attachments Chapter.

3.3 Step on Data Tabulation with Factor Analysis We use SPSS 17.0 software for tabulated data in factor analysis. Furthermore, step for doing factor analysis using SPSS 17.0 are shown below: 1. Open SPSS 17.0 2. Create new data. a. b. c. Click on file toolbar. Choose new and the data. Insert the data in data sheet. (by typing data on the data sheet or import data from Ms.Excel)

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1. If data already exist, open the data file. (click Analyze toolbar, choose data reduction and then factor)

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## Figure 3.1 Data Reduction

2. Select the variables you want the factor analysis to be based on and move them into the variable(s) box.

## Figure 3.2 Insert Variabel

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3. Click descriptive button. a. b. On statistic cluster, check initial solution. On correlation matrix cluster, check coefficients, significance levels, determinant, KMO and Bartletts test of sphericity and anti-image. c. Click continue button.

## Figure 3.3 Descriptive Window

4. Choose extraction button. a. b. On display cluster, check unrotated factor solution, scree plot. Then continue.

## 5. Click rotation button.

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a. b.

## Figure 3.5 Rotation Window

6. Choose scores button. a. b. c. d. Check save as variable. On method cluster, choose Bartlett. Check display factor score coefficient matrix. Then continue.

## Figure 3.6 Score Window

7. Click OK button

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CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS

4.1 Factor Analysis Factor analysis is a multivariate method used for data reduction purposes. The basic idea is to represent a set of variables by a smaller number of variables. In this case they are called factor. There are two kinds of factor analysis that often used, which are: a. Data reduction analysis. Use to remove redundant (highly correlatd) variables from the data file, perhaps replacing the entire data file with a smaller number of uncorrelated variables. b. Structure detection analysis. Use to examine the underlying (or latent) relationships between the variables. We would use data reduction analysis as the procedure in accomplishing this research, considering the objective of this factor analysis is to reduce 10 attributes into fewer numbers, which are the linear combination of those attributes. We also used structure detection in order to see the correlation between variables.

4.2 Result Data Tabulation and Analysis Determinant using to show something or in this case factor that establish. KMO Bartlett used to determine if data was suitable or not. In the Descriptives window above, we select KMO and Bartletts test of sphericity. KMO is a statistic which tells whether you have sufficient items for each factor. Barletts test test is used to check that the original variables are sufficiently correlated. Whereas, anti image can be using to seeing when factor model are good or not from the value number of element. On extraction, correlation matrix and eigenvalue over 1 are checked, it use to be based on extraction. Raw data are reducted into factor that amount appropriate with number of data with eigenvalue more than 1. Unrotated factor solution displayed extraction on side of communalities. It indicates how well a variable representing on the factor. Scree plot used to display graph of eigenvalue from each component in the initial solution. The scree plot also helps you to
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determine the optimal number of components. Data then classified into that factor based on correlation of each variable to factor created. Usually, from the correlation matrix, there is a data which hard to classified because the correlation to factor almost same. While, correlation matrix used because variables on our analysis are measured on different scales. To solve this, we can used rotation. Rotation method that used in this data tabulation are Variamax. Variamax simplifying the columns of the factor matrix so there tend to be some high loading (i.e, close to -1 or +1 ) and some laodings near to 0 in each column of matrix. The reason to choose this method are Variamax The reason to choose this method are Variamax has a simple structure (near -1 or +1 high correlation and near 0 indicating lack of correlation). Compared with Quartimax which has simpler analytical. Varimax give a clearer separation of the factor. When different subsets of variables are analyzed, factor pattern that obtained from Varimax tend to be more invariant than that obtained by Quartimax method. Furthemore, data that has been tabulated saved as Bartlett. This factor will be use again on the develop linear regression as an independent variable.

4.3 Correlation Between Variables The underlying statisticlal assumptions impact factor analysis to the extent that they affect the derived correlation. Departures from normality, homoscedasticity and linearity can diminish correlations between variables. Examining the correlations among the survey items reveals that there is significant overlap among various subgroups of items.

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## Table 4.1 Correlation Between Variables

Correlation Matrix

X3 X4 kehandalan kesesuaian BB, dalam service menangani (program X1 program dan yang X5 X7 X9 kepuasan X2 - kecepatan gangguan dimasukkan) kesesuaian X6 kemudahan X8 promosi X10 anda operasi/penggunaan eksternal dengan harga service dalam kemudahan produk design terhadap program BB yang seperti kebutuhan dengan pasca menggunakan dalam yang yang BB baik terjatuh anda produk penjualan untuk pemula maintenance efektif menarik Correlation X1 - kepuasan anda terhadap BB X2 - kecepatan operasi/penggunaan program BB yang baik X3 - kehandalan BB, dalam menangani program dan gangguan eksternal seperti terjatuh X4 - kesesuaian service (program yang dimasukkan) dengan kebutuhan anda X5 - kesesuaian harga dengan produk 1.000 .678 .678 1.000 .049 .153 .157 .167 .087 .176 .399 .525 .534 .319 .507 .343 .177 .165 -.002 -.063

.049

.153

1.000

.321

.097

.120

-.020

.054

.091

.394

.157

.167

.321

1.000

.514

.136

.169

.115

.443

.432

.087

.176

.097

.514

1.000

.349

.128

.301

.408

.304

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X6 - service pasca penjualan X7 - kemudahan dalam menggunakan untuk pemula X8 - kemudahan dalam maintenance X9 - promosi produk yang efektif X10 - design yang menarik Sig. (1tailed) X1 - kepuasan anda terhadap BB X2 - kecepatan operasi/penggunaan program BB yang baik X3 - kehandalan BB, dalam menangani program dan gangguan eksternal seperti terjatuh X4 - kesesuaian service (program yang dimasukkan) dengan kebutuhan anda X5 - kesesuaian harga dengan produk

.399 .534

.525 .319

.120 -.020

.136 .169

.349 .128

1.000 .359

.359 1.000

.569 .554

.189 -.038

.136 .121

## .261 .460 1.000 .493 .333

.000

.368

.144

.012

.252

.202

.444

.356

.264

.002

.137

.123

.012

.000

.173

.120

.214

.001

.001

.274

.111

.252

.000

.006

.188

.017

.002

.016

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X6 - service pasca penjualan X7 - kemudahan dalam menggunakan untuk pemula X8 - kemudahan dalam maintenance X9 - promosi produk yang efektif X10 - design yang menarik

.002 .000

.000 .012

.202 .444

.173 .120

.005

.000 .000

.094 .398

.174 .201

## .000 .398 .201 .002 .034

.002

.034 .000

.000

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Table above shows the correlation between the factors. It shows the relative value between the variable. As we can see, we cannot conclude anything since too much variability within the numbers above. Thats why continue our analysis to the next figure.

4.4 Factor Analysis Test After examine the correlation between variable, we assess the overall significance of the correlation matrix using KMO ( Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) and Bartletts Test of Sphericity. This test is also effective to check whether factor analysis is suitable to our data or not. Factor analysis is suitable if there is correlation between variable that being measured. If correlation between all variables is low, factor analysis can not be used. The Kaiser - Meyer Olkin measure of sampling adequacy tests whether the partial correlations among variables are small. Bartletts test of sphericity tests whether the correlation matrix is an identity matrix, which would indicate that the factor model is inappropriate. Use of these method is related to structure detection analysis. The result of KMO (Kaiser Meyer Olkin) and Bartletts Test of Sphericity is shown in table below.

## Table 4.2 KMO and Bartletts Test

KMO and Bartlett's Test

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square df Sig.

## .628 177.936 45 .000

Value range of KMO test is 0-1. High values (close to 1.0) generally indicate that a factor analysis may be useful with your data. If the value is less than 0.50, the results of the factor analysis probably wont be very useful. In table

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above, we get KMO 0.628. It means that factor analysis is very useful to our variables. For Bartlett Test, small values (less than 0.05) of the significance level indicate that a factor a factor analysis may be useful with our data. In table above, we get significance level 0.000 which is less than 0.05, so we may conclude that factor analysis may be useful with our data. 4.5 Anti Image Analysis The anti image correlation matrix contains the negatives of the partial correlation coefficient, and the image covariance matrix contains the negatives of the partial covariance. In a good factor model, most of the off- diagonal elements will be small. The measure of sampling adequacy for a variable is displayed on the diagonal of the anti-image correlation matrix. If true factors exist in the data, the partial correlation should be small, because the variables can be explained by the factors (variates with loadings for each variable). If partial correlation are high, then there are no true underlying factors, and factor analysis is inappropriate. From the result of data tabulation we can look at diagonal from left-up to right down the data on anti-image correlation matrix which also measures of sampling adequacy. If the value less than 0.5 then the data must be trun out from the data tabulation and then repeat the process. As seen in the table below, Variable X3 - kehandalan BB, dalam menangani program dan gangguan eksternal seperti terjatuh is less than 0.5, so the data must be turn out from the data tabulation and we must repeat the process.

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## Table 4.3 Anti-Image Metrics

Anti-image Matrices

X3 kehandalan BB, dalam X4 X2 menangani kesesuaian X1 kecepatan program dan service X5 X7 X9 kepuasan operasi/ gangguan (program yang kesesuaian X6 kemudahan X8 promosi X10 anda penggunaan eksternal dimasukkan) harga service dalam kemudahan produk design terhadap program BB seperti dengan dengan pasca menggunakan dalam yang yang BB yang baik terjatuh kebutuhan anda produk penjualan untuk pemula maintenance efektif menarik Anti-image X1 - kepuasan anda Covariance terhadap BB X2 - kecepatan operasi/penggunaan program BB yang baik X3 - kehandalan BB, dalam menangani program dan gangguan eksternal seperti terjatuh X4 - kesesuaian service (program yang dimasukkan) dengan kebutuhan anda X5 - kesesuaian harga dengan produk X6 - service pasca penjualan .381 -.227 -.227 .407 .018 -.106 -.038 -.002 .077 -.028 .048 -.183 -.123 .002 -.087 .065 -.031 -.054 .036 .105

.018

-.106

.710

-.159

.081

-.013

.118

-.044

.138

-.246

-.038

-.002

-.159

.497

-.232

.023

-.133

.135

-.163

-.073

.077 .048

-.028 -.183

.081 -.013

-.232 .023

.595 -.120

-.120 .504

.022 .002

-.062 -.165

-.049 .063

-.017 -.032

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X7 - kemudahan dalam menggunakan untuk pemula X8 - kemudahan dalam maintenance X9 - promosi produk yang efektif X10 - design yang menarik Anti-image X1 - kepuasan anda Correlation terhadap BB X2 - kecepatan operasi/penggunaan program BB yang baik X3 - kehandalan BB, dalam menangani program dan gangguan eksternal seperti terjatuh X4 - kesesuaian service (program yang dimasukkan) dengan kebutuhan anda X5 - kesesuaian harga dengan produk X6 - service pasca penjualan X7 - kemudahan dalam menggunakan untuk pemula

-.123

.002

.118

-.133

.022

.002

.458

-.187

.214

-.088

.034

-.197

.450a

-.268

.125

-.021

.207

-.087

.241

-.394

-.088

-.006

-.268

.598a

-.427

.045

-.279

.321

-.340

-.140

## -.030 -.060 -.176

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X8 - kemudahan dalam maintenance X9 - promosi produk yang efektif X10 - design yang menarik

## -.048 -.351 .658a

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4.6 Process Data After Variable X3 Turn Out From Tabulation Data The result of KMO (Kaiser - Meyer Olkin) and Bartletts Test of Sphericity after we removed Variable X3 is shown in table below, This is the processing of the data.

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## Table 4.4 The New KMO and Bartlett's Test

Table The New KMO and Bartlett's Test

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square Df Sig.

## .657 163.760 36 .000

From the result of data tabulation, we can see the new result of KMO and Bartletts Test. As seen in the table below, all of them more than 0.5, so all of data can be included on data tabulation and classified into factors on extraction.

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## Table 4.5 The New Anti-Image Metrics

Anti-image Matrices

X1 kepuasan anda terhadap BB Anti-image X1 - kepuasan anda Covariance terhadap BB X2 - kecepatan operasi/penggunaan program BB yang baik X4 - kesesuaian service (program yang dimasukkan) dengan kebutuhan anda X5 - kesesuaian harga dengan produk X6 - service pasca penjualan X7 - kemudahan dalam menggunakan untuk pemula X8 - kemudahan dalam maintenance X9 - promosi produk yang efektif .382 -.233

X2 kecepatan X4 - kesesuaian X5 operasi/ service (program kesesuaian |penggunaan yang dimasukkan) harga program BB dengan kebutuhan dengan yang baik anda produk -.233 .423 -.037 -.029 .077 -.016

X6 X7 - kemudahan X8 service dalam kemudahan pasca menggunakan dalam penjualan untuk pemula maintenance .048 -.192 -.132 .021 -.087 .061

-.037

-.029

.535

-.234

.021

-.120

.136

-.151

-.163

## .013 -.043 -.058

-.087 -.037

.061 -.037

.136 -.151

-.059 -.069

-.168 .070

-.190 .212

.360 -.183

-.183 .489

-.043 -.162

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X10 - design yang menarik Anti-image X1 - kepuasan anda Correlation terhadap BB X2 - kecepatan operasi/penggunaan program BB yang baik X4 - kesesuaian service (program yang dimasukkan) dengan kebutuhan anda X5 - kesesuaian harga dengan produk X6 - service pasca penjualan X7 - kemudahan dalam menggunakan untuk pemula X8 - kemudahan dalam maintenance X9 - promosi produk yang efektif X10 - design yang menarik

-.082

-.062

.605a

-.412

.041

-.237

.310

-.295

-.277

## -.090 -.287 .731a

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4.7 Communalities of Variables Communality shows the amount of variance in a variable that is accounted for by the two factors taken together. The size of the communality is a useful index for assessing how much variance variable is accounted for by the factor solution. Small communalities show that a substantial portion of the variance in a variable is unaccounted for by the factors. Large communalities indicate that a large amount of variance in a variable has been extracted by the factor solution. Communality table of variables is shown in table below:

## Table 4.6 Communalities

Communalities

Initial X1 - kepuasan anda terhadap BB X2 - kecepatan operasi/penggunaan program BB yang baik X4 - kesesuaian service (program yang dimasukkan) dengan kebutuhan anda X5 - kesesuaian harga dengan produk X6 - service pasca penjualan X7 - kemudahan dalam menggunakan untuk pemula X8 - kemudahan dalam maintenance X9 - promosi produk yang efektif X10 - design yang menarik
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Table Communalities

## .540 .552 .511 .624 .601 .562

The first column in table above, which is labeled as initial communalities, are estimates of the variance in each variable accounted for by all components or factors. For principal components extraction, this is always equal to 1.0 for correlation analyses. The second column is labeled as extraction. This column show the estimation of the variance in each accounted for by the components. The
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communalities in this table are all high, which indicates that the extracted components represent the variables well. If any communalities are very low in a principal components extraction, you may need to extract another component. For example, lets take a look in variable Kepuasaan Anda terhadap BB. This variable has value 0.711. It means that 71.1 % variance of variable. Kepuasaan Anda terhadap BB can be determine by the result factor.

4.8 Determine Number of Factor In order to determine the correct number of factor, there are 4 methods that can be used, which are latent root criterion, priori criterion, percentage of variance, and screen plot criterion. In this step, we focus in latent root method. Latent root criterion is the most commonly used technique. This method extracts eigen value to determine how many factors should be included in the research. Eigen value is value that represents the amount of variance accounted for by factor. The rationale of Latent Root Criterion is that any individual factor should account for the variance of at least a single variable if it is to be retained for interpretation. After the calculation has been done, eigen value will continue to decrease, as shown in the table below.

## Table 4.7 Total Variance Explained

Total Variance Explained

Initial Eigenvalues

% of Cumulative % of Cumulative % of Cumulative Component Total Variance % Total Variance % Total Variance % 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3.391 37.679 1.892 21.018 .905 10.057 .786 8.732 .743 8.254 .523 5.807 .336 3.730 .232 2.581 .193 2.142 37.679 58.697 68.754 77.486 85.740 91.547 95.277 97.858 100.000 3.391 37.679 1.892 21.018 37.679 58.697 2.909 32.324 2.374 26.373 32.324 58.697

## Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

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## Table 4.8 Initial Eigen Values

Initial Eigenvalues Component 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Total 3.391 1.892 .905 .786 .743 .523 .336 .232 .193 % of Variance 37.679 21.018 10.057 8.732 8.254 5.807 3.730 2.581 2.142 Cumulative % 37.679 58.697 68.754 77.486 85.740 91.547 95.277 97.858 100.000

The Total column gives the eigen value, or amount of variance in the original variables accounted for by each component. The % of Variance column gives the ratio, expressed as a percentage, of the variance accounted for by each component to the total variance in all of the variables. The Cumulative % column gives the percentage of variance accounted for by the first n components. For example, the cumulative percentage for the second components is the sum of the percentage of variance for the first and second components. For the initial solution, there are as many components as variables, and in a correlation analysis, the sum of the eigen values equals the number of components. We requested that eigen values greater than 1 be extracted in SPSS step. It means that only the components having eigen values greater than 1 are considered significant; all components with eigen values less than 1 are considered insignificant and are disagreed. In table above, only two components that have eigen values greater than 1. They are first two components with eigen values 3.391 and 1.892 respectively. So we may conclude that there are 2 factors that will be retained. Scree plot will show the calculation graphically. The scree plot for the data is shown below:

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## Figure 4.1 Scree Plot for the Data

From scree plot we can obviously see that there are 2 components retained. The second section of the table above show the extracted components.

Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Total 3.391 1.892 % of Variance 37.679 21.018 Cumulative % 37.679 58.697

The % of Variance column gives the ratio, expressed as a percentage; between the eigenvalues with overall eigenvalues (the value of overall eigenvalues is equal to number number of variables, 9). Factor 1 (component 1)
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has 37.679% ratio, and factor 2 has 21.018% ratio. The Cumulative % column gives the cumulative of % variance. The last row of this column contains value of 58.697%. It means 58.697% variability of level of customer satisfaction in the original 9 variables can be described b this factor analysis. So we can considerably reduce the complexity of the data set by using these components, with 41.303% loss of information. The third section of the table above contains rotation sum of squared loading. The rotation maintains the cumulative percentage of variation explained by the extracted components, but that variation is now spread more evenly over the components. The small changes in the individual totals suggest that the rotated component matrix will be harder to interpret than the unrotated matrix. The final Cumulative % is not different.

Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings Total 2.909 2.374 % of Variance 32.324 26.373

4.9 Interpreting Factor After decide number of factor retained, the next step is classify each variables into new factor. First of all, we computed the initial unrotated factor matrix to assist in obtaining a preliminary indication of the number of factor to extract. The factor matrix contain factor loading for each variable on each factor. Factor loading is correlation between the original variables and the factor and the key to understanding the nature of particular factor. The high loading factor means the variables are representative of the factor or have strong correlation. The unrotated factor matrix is shown below:

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## Table 4.11 Component Matrix

Component Matrixa

Component 1 X1 - kepuasan anda terhadap BB X2 - kecepatan operasi/penggunaan program BB yang baik X4 - kesesuaian service (program yang dimasukkan) dengan kebutuhan anda X5 - kesesuaian harga dengan produk X6 - service pasca penjualan X7 - kemudahan dalam menggunakan untuk pemula X8 - kemudahan dalam maintenance X9 - promosi produk yang efektif X10 - design yang menarik
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. a. 2 components extracted.

2 .695 .648 .504 .558 .709 .606 .776 .538 .404 -.478 -.426 .571 .478 -.222 -.380 -.146 .559 .632

X1 factor loading for component (Factor) 1 has 0.695 values. It is obvious that this value is higher than factor loading for other component. So, we can easily put X1 Variable into Factor 1. However, factor loading of X4 for factor 1 (0.504) has similar factor loading for factor 2 (0.571). It is difficult to decide whether X4 is in factor 1 or 2. Based on facts above, we can conclude that unrotated factor solution may not provide a meaningful pattern of variable loading. If the unrotated factors are expected to be meaningful, we have to rotate the data.

Rotation Rotation method can increase interpretation level by decreasing the occurrence of ambiguity that often happen on first extraction. Thats why in this factor analysis we also use rotation method. We conduct rotation for every score that doesnt show any significance between them. The term rotation means exactly what it implies. Specifically the reference axes of the factor are turned about the origin until some other position has been reached.

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The simplest case of rotation is an orthogonal rotation, in which the axes are maintained at 90 degrees. There are 3 methods of orthogonal rotation, Varimax, Quartimax, and Equimax. In this case, we chose Varimax. While quartimax rotation is to simplify the rows of factor matrix, the varimax criterion centers on simplifying the column of the factor matrix. With varimax rotational approach, the maximum possible simplification is reached if there are only 1s and 0s in a column. So, with varimax, we will get clear variable classification.

## Table 4.12 Rotated Component Matrix

Rotated Component Matrix a

Component 1 X1 - kepuasan anda terhadap BB X2 - kecepatan operasi/penggunaan program BB yang baik X4 - kesesuaian service (program yang dimasukkan) dengan kebutuhan anda X5 - kesesuaian harga dengan produk X6 - service pasca penjualan X7 - kemudahan dalam menggunakan untuk pemula X8 - kemudahan dalam maintenance X9 - promosi produk yang efektif X10 - design yang menarik
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. a. Rotation converged in 3 iterations.

2 .843 .775 .091 .188 .710 .714 .722 .126 .000 .016 .756 .710 .219 .030 .320 .765 .749

-.026

We can see on the table above, each factor loading has significant score. So, it makes us to classify variable into factor. Usually, factor loading score + 0.4 is considered minimum bound, + 0.5 considered better and + 0.6 considered significant. Since all factor loading scores is over 0.6, we may say that classifying variable using factor analysis is suitable.

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From 9 variables, 5 variables are put into factor 1, and 4 variables into factor 2. The next step is giving name for each factor. The name of the new factors can be seen in table below:

Factor

## Harga dan Desain

Variables kepuasan anda terhadap BB kecepatan operasi/penggunaan program BB yang baik service pasca penjualan kemudahan dalam menggunakan untuk pemula kemudahan dalam maintenance kesesuaian service (program yang dimasukkan) dengan kebutuhan anda kesesuaian harga dengan produk promosi produk yang efektif design yang menarik

Besides classification variables into factor, the other important result of factor analysis is factor score. The factor score is composite measures created for each observation on each factor extracted in factor analysis. The factor score then can be used to represents the factor in subsequent analysis. The factor score of our project is shown in table below:

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## Table 4.14 Component Score Coefficient Matrix

Component Score Coefficient Matrix

Component 1 X1 - kepuasan anda terhadap BB X2 - kecepatan operasi/penggunaan program BB yang baik X4 - kesesuaian service (program yang dimasukkan) dengan kebutuhan anda X5 - kesesuaian harga dengan produk X6 - service pasca penjualan X7 - kemudahan dalam menggunakan untuk pemula X8 - kemudahan dalam maintenance X9 - promosi produk yang efektif X10 - design yang menarik
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. Component Scores.

2 .312 .285 -.092 -.077 .333 .302 .022 -.064 .066 .333 .343

## -.049 -.008 .239 .261 .232 -.037 -.091

For each case and each component, the factor score is computed by multiplying the cases standardized variable values (computed using listwise deletion) by the components score coefficients. The resulting four component score variables are representative of, and can be used in place of, the 9 original variables.

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## Figure 4.2 Component Plot in Rotated Space

4.10Component Transformation Matrix The factor transformation matrix describes the specific rotation applied to your factor solution. This matrix is used to compute the rotated factor matrix (Component Score Coefficient matrix) from the original (unrotated) factor matrix.

## Table 4.15 Component Transformation Matrix

Component Transformation Matrix

Component 1 2

1 .824 -.567

2 .567 .824

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.

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CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION

From the research that we conducted, we take some conclusions, such as: 1. Customer satisfaction is an important for the company sustainability because the customer is the reason for the company to create their products and deliver their services. 2. The company must hear their voice of customer by conducting surveys and improve their subsequent product for the higher level of customer satisfaction. The company not only should conduct the survey but they also should processing the data with the appropriate method. 3. In this research we use factor analysis to process the data that we had gotten from the questionaire, which all questions are about aspects that influencing customer satisfaction. 4. From the questionaire, we know that 9 from 10 factors has great influence on customer satisfaction. This aspect is grouped into two, and the details shows in the table below.

Factor Name

## Price and design

Variables Satisfaction for BB Operation /program speed excellence After sales service Easy to use for beginner Easyto maintenance Suitability betwee available service to customer needs Value for money Effective product promotion Attractive design

8. Factor number three about Blackberry reliability is not significantly affected customer preference for blackberry.

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REFERENCES

DeCoster, J. (1998). Overview of Factor Analysis. Retrieved <December 18, 2012> from http://www.stat-help.com/notes.html Hair, Joseph F. Jr., Anderson, Rolph E. Multivariate Data Analysis. Fifth Edition. 1984. New Jersey: Prentice Hall

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## Kuesioner Pengguna Blackberry

Kami mahasiswa Teknik Industri Universitas Indonesia akan mengadakan penelitian tentang kepuasaaan konsumen terhadap penggunaan Blackberry untuk kebutuhan tugas perkuliahaan. Diharapkan saudara/i membantu kami dengan mengisi kuisioner ini.

## Jenis Kelamin Usia Jenis Blackberry

: : :

Untuk menjawab pertanyaang dibawah ini. Silahkan lingkari jawaban yang sesuai dengan pilihan anda. 1. Apakah anda puas dengan Blackberry yang anda miliki? Ya Tidak

2. Apakah yang paling anda perhatikan ketika membeli Blackberry? Apakah hal tersebut telah terpenuhi? (sebutkan dengan singkat)

3. Berikan skala pada aspek penilaian dibawah ini (1 = sangat tidak puas dan 10 = sangat puas) dengan melingkari pilihan yang ada.

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## Kecepatan operasi/penggunaan program Blackberry yang baik. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Kehandalan Blackberry dalam menangani program dan gangguan eksternal seperti terjatuh. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

## Kemudahan dalam maintenance. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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## Design yang menarik. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

4. Jika ada produk Blackberry baru, apa yang menjadi keinginan anda terkait faktor-faktor diatas? ..

5. Jika ada produk Blackberry baru, dengan service yang sama pada saat ini, apakah anda akan membelinya? Ya Mungkin akan membeli Ragu-ragu Mungkin tidak akan membeli Tidak

6. Jika ada produk Blackberry yang mengalami perbaikan dalam faktor diatas (dalam tabel), apakah anda akan membeli? Misalnya pengurangan jumlah program yang belum dibutuhkan oleh mahasiswa. Ya Mungkin akan membeli Ragu-ragu Mungkin tidak akan membeli Tidak

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