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PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH INTERMEDIATE ENGINEERING HANDBOOK Teacher Alejandra Cabrera Casillas Grammar: Students will be able to identify the

ify the parts of speech. Students will have mastered correct usage of parts of speech and basic punctuation marks. Students will be introduced to the following aspects of sentence structure: subjects and predicates, simple clauses, complex and compound sentences. Students will be introduced to the following punctuation marks: comma, apostrophe, semi-colon, colon, quotation marks, end marks and capitalization. Students will have a full working knowledge of sentence structure, including compound and complex sentences and clauses. Students will have mastered knowledge regarding clause and phrase structures. Students will understand and practice the following aspects of grammar: pronoun case, tenses and verbal phrases.

1. Parts of speech and their functions within sentences Nouns and nominals (infinitives, gerunds, etc.) Articles Verbs Pronouns Adjectives Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Interjections

2.

THE MAIN ELEMENTS OF THE SENTENCE Subject Verbs and verb phrases Direct and indirect object(s) Complements with verbs that express feeling, appearing, being and seeming Modifiers (Adjectives and Adverbs) Clauses Phrases Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases

2 A. Types of sentences and their syntax Sentence structure Simple Compound Complex Basic & variations on basic sentence patterns

3. Verb Usage Agreement E.I. ALEJANDRA CABRERA CASILLAS, C.P.E.

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Tense Sequence and consistency of tenses Regular Verbs Irregular Verbs Mood Active or passive voice Modals Phrasal verbs

REVIEW I.The Eight Parts of Speech Noun: A word which is a person, place, thing or idea. Examples: Mount Everest, book, horse, Peter, strength, car, Empire State Building, China, house, child Pronoun: A word that is used to take the place of a noun. Examples: I, they, their, ourselves, itself, your, my, nobody, who, which, her, we Adjective :A word that is used to describe a noun or pronoun. Examples: proud, purple, French, few, this, huge, sad, second, none Verb: A word that indicates an action, being or state or being. Examples: play, run, think, study, smell, wait, be, drive, renounce, fill Adverb: A word that is used to describe a verb which tells how, where, or when something is done. Examples: carefully, often, very, intelligently, quite, too, rarely, never Conjunction: A word that is used to join words or groups of words. Examples: and, or, but, neither, because, while, since, although Preposition: A word used indicating the relationship of a noun or pronoun to another word. Examples: in, until, of, from, after, under, beyond, across, toward Interjection: A single word used to express strong emotion. Examples: Wow! Ah! Oh! No! Sentences The basic element of English grammar is the sentence. A sentence, simply put, contains a subject and a predicate, and expresses a complete thought. Sentences can be quite complex, but in a simple sentence, someone or something performs an action. The subject of the sentence is the person or thing that performs the action. The predicate of the sentence is the action that is performed. Consider the following examples: He runs. Subject: He Predicate: runs Joe ate dinner. Subject: Joe Predicate: ate dinner I am hungry. Subject: I Predicate: am hungry Tuktoyaktuk is in the Arctic. Subject: Tuktoyaktuk Predicate: is in the Arctic

Sometimes the subject can be left out, if the sentence is giving a command. In the following examples, the subject is "you," and it is implied: Stop. Go away. Help me!

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SENTENCE STRUCTURES REVIEW AFFIRMATIVE SUBJECT I He Susan They Will and Susan NEGATIVE SUBJECT He We They

VERB bought is became got jog

WHAT a book tired. an engineer. a fabulous painting.

COMPLEMENT WHERE in the library

WHEN yesterday.

in the park. OBJECT the door him her WHAT open. president Jane. COMPLEMENT WHERE of the U.S.A.

AUXILIARY +NOT+VERB didnt leave shouldnt have elected named

WHEN

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES PATTERNS There are 2 kinds of questions in English: Yes/No Answer questions and Complete Answers questions. Yes/No Questions. AUXILIARY VERB Do Has SUBJECT you he MAIN VERB have got COMPLEMENT money? a cell phone? ANSWER Yes, I do. Yes, he has. MAIN VERB find like? No, I dont. No, he hasnt. COMPLEMENT? a caf?

QUESTION AUXILIARY VERB SUBJECT EXPRESSION -WORD Where can I ANSWER: There is one on Montejo Avenue. What kind of music do you ANSWER: I like rock and classical music. NOTE: The Who can have a special pattern: WHO Who Who AUXILIARY can XXXXXXXXXXX

MAIN VERB answer wants

COMPLEMENT? the phone? a banana?

COMPOUND SENTENCE A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. The coordinators are as follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. (Helpful hint: The first letter of each of the coordinators spells FANBOYS.) Except for very short sentences, coordinators are always E.I. ALEJANDRA CABRERA CASILLAS, C.P.E. Pgina 3 de 79

preceded by a comma. In the following compound sentences, subjects are in yellow, verbs are in green, and the coordinators and the commas that precede them are in red.

A. I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak English. B. Alejandro played football, so Maria went shopping. C. Alejandro played football, for Maria went shopping. The above three sentences are compound sentences. Each sentence contains two independent clauses, and they are joined by a coordinator with a comma preceding it. Note how the conscious use of coordinators can change the relationship between the clauses. Sentences B and C, for example, are identical except for the coordinators. In sentence B, which action occurred first? Obviously, "Alejandro played football" first, and as a consequence, "Maria went shopping. In sentence C, "Maria went shopping" first. In sentence C, "Alejandro played football" because, possibly, he didn't have anything else to do, for or because "Maria went shopping." How can the use of other coordinators change the relationship between the two clauses? What implications would the use of "yet" or "but" have on the meaning of the sentence? COMPLEX SENTENCE A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses. A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since, after, although, or when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which. In the following complex sentences, subjects are in yellow, verbs are in green, and the subordinators and their commas (when required) are in red.

A. When he handed in his homework, he forgot to give the teacher the last page. B. The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error. C. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow. D. After they finished studying, Juan and Maria went to the movies. E. Juan and Maria went to the movies after they finished studying. When a complex sentence begins with a subordinator such as sentences A and D, a comma is required at the end of the dependent clause. When the independent clause begins the sentence with subordinators in the middle as in sentences B, C, and E, no comma is required. If a comma is placed before the subordinators in sentences B, C, and E, it is wrong. Note that sentences D and E are the same except sentence D begins with the dependent clause which is followed by a comma, and sentence E begins with the independent clause which contains no comma. The comma after the dependent clause in sentence D is required, and experienced listeners of English will often hear a slight pause there. In sentence E, however, there will be no pause when the independent clause begins the sentence. COMPLEX SENTENCES / ADJECTIVE CLAUSES Finally, sentences containing adjective clauses (or dependent clauses) are also complex because they contain an independent clause and a dependent clause. The subjects, verbs, and subordinators are marked the same as in the previous sentences, and in these sentences, the independent clauses are also underlined.

A. The woman who(m) my mom talked to sells cosmetics. B. The book that Jonathan read is on the shelf. C. The house which Abraham Lincoln was born in is still standing. D. The town where I grew up is in the United States. E.I. ALEJANDRA CABRERA CASILLAS, C.P.E.

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Adjective Clauses are studied in this site separately, but for now it is important to know that sentences containing adjective clauses are complex. Tenses in English In English, there are three basic tenses: present, past, and future. Each has a perfect form, indicating completed action; each has a progressive form, indicating ongoing action; and each has a perfect progressive form, indicating ongoing action that will be completed at some definite time. Here is a list of examples of these tenses and their definitions: Simple Forms Present Past Future take/s took will/shall take Progressive Forms am/is/are taking was/were taking will be taking Perfect Forms have/has taken had taken will have taken Perfect Progressive Forms have/has been taking had been taking will have been taking

Simple Forms Present Tense Present tense expresses an unchanging, repeated, or reoccurring action or situation that exists only now. It can also represent a widespread truth.

Example The mountains are tall and white. Every year, the school council elects new members. Pb is the chemical symbol for lead. Past Tense

Meaning Unchanging action Recurring action Widespread truth

Past tense expresses an action or situation that was started and finished in the past. Most past tense verbs end in -ed. The irregular verbs have special past tense forms which must be memorized. Example W.W.II ended in 1945. Ernest Hemmingway wrote "The Old Man and the Sea." Future Tense Future tense expresses an action or situation that will occur in the future. This tense is formed by using will/shall with the simple form of the verb. The speaker of the House will finish her term in May of 1998. The future tense can also be expressed by using am, is, or are with going to. The surgeon is going to perform the first bypass in Minnesota. E.I. ALEJANDRA CABRERA CASILLAS, C.P.E. Form Regular -ed past Irregular form

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We can also use the present tense form with an adverb or adverbial phrase to show future time. The president speaks tomorrow. (Tomorrow is a future time adverb.) Progressive Forms Present Progressive Tense Present progressive tense describes an ongoing action that is happening at the same time the statement is written. This tense is formed by using am/is/are with the verb form ending in -ing. The sociologist is examining the effects that racial discrimination has on society. Past Progressive Tense Past progressive tense describes a past action which was happening when another action occurred. This tense is formed by using was/were with the verb form ending in -ing. The explorer was explaining the lastest discovery in Egypt when protests began on the streets. Future Progressive Tense Future progressive tense describes an ongoing or continuous action that will take place in the future. This tense is formed by using will be or shall be with the verb form ending in -ing. Dr. Jones will be presenting ongoing research on sexist language next week. Perfect Forms Present Perfect Tense Present perfect tense describes an action that happened at an indefinite time in the past or that began in the past and continues in the present.This tense is formed by using has/have with the past participle of the verb. Most past participles end in -ed. Irregular verbs have special past participles that must be memorized. Example Meaning

The researchers have traveled to many countries At an indefinite in order to collect more significant data. time Women have voted in presidential elections since 1921. Past Perfect Tense Past perfect tense describes an action that took place in the past before another past action. This tense is formed by using had with the past participle of the verb. By the time the troops arrived, the war had ended. Future Perfect Tense Continues in the present

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Future perfect tense describes an action that will occur in the future before some other action. This tense is formed by using will have with the past participle of the verb. By the time the troops arrive, the combat group will have spent several weeks waiting. Perfect Progressive Forms Present Perfect Progressive Present perfect progressive tense describes an action that began in the past, continues in the present, and may continue into the future. This tense is formed by using has/have been and the present participle of the verb (the verb form ending in -ing). The CEO has been considering a transfer to the state of Texas where profits would be larger. Past Perfect Progressive Past perfect progressive tense describes a past, ongoing action that was completed before some other past action. This tense is formed by using had been and the present perfect of the verb (the verb form ending in -ing). Before the budget cuts, the students had been participating in many extracurricular activities. Future Perfect Progressive Future perfect progressive tense describes a future, ongoing action that will occur before some specified future time. This tense is formed by using will have been and the present participle of the verb (the verb form ending in -ing). By the year 2020, linguists will have been studying and defining the Indo-European language family for more than 200 years. What are transitive verbs? Transitive verbs take objects. That is, these verbs carry the action of a subject and apply it to an object. They tells us what the subject (agent) does to something else (object). Examples: He bought a shirt. (agent) (did something) (object- answers the question "what?") She brushes her hair every hour. Marina will lose the race. Note that the transitive verb can take any tense What are intransitive verbs? Intransitive verbs do not take an object; they express actions that do not require the agent's doing something to something else. Examples: Tom danced. The intransitive verb "danced" is a complete action by itself and does not require a direct object to receive the action. They ran down the road. They ran, but they do not run "something" in this sentence. E.I. ALEJANDRA CABRERA CASILLAS, C.P.E.

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The sentence contains no object. Jack fell on the rocks in the alley. Tip: Some verbs can function as both transitive and intransitive verbs. Example: intransitive: She dances. transitive: She dances the rhumba. Linking Verbs Linking verbs link the relationship between the agent and the rest of the sentence. They explain the connection between the subject and its complement or that which completes the subject's description. The most common linking verb is "to be." Some other linking verbs are: appear become continue feel remain grow seem look smell sound stay taste

Examples: Opera seems overly dramatic to the music novice. "overly dramatic" describes the agent or subject "opera" but it does not express an action that "opera" performs. He appeared jubilant at the news of the inheritance. I am pathetically inept in such situations. He is a doctor of bioethics. Note: while "a doctor" answers the question "what?" the verb is not an action verb, but rather a "state of being" verb. Therefore, is is not a transitive verb; it links the subject (he) with his state of being (doctor).

Remember, however, if what follows the verb can provide an answer to the question "what," then the verb is not a linking verb. Compare: He tastes the soup as he cooks it.

"tastes" is transitive: he tastes "what?" The fruit tastes rotten. "rotten" describes or complements the state of the fruit, and therefore tastes links the agent (fruit) and its condition (rotten). Problem: The two pair of verbs lay/lie and raise/rise are often misused. In each set there is a transitive verb and an intransitive verb, but they are often confused because of their similar sounds. LIE is intransitive and means to recline or be situated. LAY is transitive and means to place or put something. E.I. ALEJANDRA CABRERA CASILLAS, C.P.E. Pgina 8 de 79

RISE is intransitive and means to get up. RAISE is transitive and means to lift something up. (Intr.) (Tr.) (Intr.) (Tr.) Infinitive lie lay rise raise Past Tense lay laid rose raised Past Participle lain laid risen raised Present Participle lying laying rising raising S-form lies lays rises raises Examples: Intr: She lay on the couch watching television. Tr: He laid the child gently on the bed. Intr: The alligator rose out of the water. Tr: She raised the child above the crowd, so he could see.

Identify whether the highlighted verb or compound verb is used transitively or intransitively:

1. The old woman struggled up the hill, pulling a grocery cart that had lost one wheel
behind her.

2. Hermione is editing her uncle's memoirs of his lifetime as a green grocer. 3. Much to the amusement of the onlookers, Paul danced a minuet to the polka music that
drifted out of the beer tent.

4. At the beginning of the play, the entire cast dances manically across the stage. 5. Stella is reading quietly in the upstairs bedroom instead of doing her chores. 6. This term I am reading all of the works of Sylvia Townsend Warner. 7. At the feast, we will eat heartily. 8. Charles opened up his lunch, examined the contents carefully, and ate his dessert first. 9. The Stephens sisters are both very talented; Virginia writes and Vanessa paints. 10. When I was three years old, my father left a can of paint open in my bedroom, and early
one morning, I painted my baby brother's face green.

Clauses A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a predicate. An independent clause can form a sentence all by itself. Every sentence contains at least one independent clause. A sentence can also contain one or more subordinate clauses. Two independent clauses can even be linked together in one sentence. Independent Clauses An independent clause can stand on its own as a complete sentence. Here are some simple examples: It is warm outside. I am done my work. I am going for a walk. Independent clauses can be linked together with a semicolon or with coordinating conjunctions. Coordinating conjunctions are words like "and," "but," and "yet." It is warm outside, and I am done my work. It is even possible to link more than two independent clauses in one sentence: It is warm outside, I am done my work, and I am going for a walk. Dependent Clauses A dependent clause cannot stand on its own as a complete sentence. Usually, the dependent clause begins with a linking word that makes it dependent. If the first word was removed, the E.I. ALEJANDRA CABRERA CASILLAS, C.P.E. Pgina 9 de 79

dependent clause could stand on its own as an independent clause. Here are some examples of dependent clauses: Although it is early Because of the summer sun While the sun is up Here are some examples of a dependent clause linked to an independent clause: Although it is early, I am done my work. It is warm outside because of the summer sun. I am going for a walk while the sun is up. Active Voice In sentences written in active voice, the subject performs the action expressed in the verb; the subject acts.

In each example above, the subject of the sentence performs the action expressed in the verb. You can see examples of all the verb tenses in active voice at http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/grammar/g_tenses2.html. Passive Voice In sentences written in passive voice, the subject receives the action expressed in the verb; the subject is acted upon. The agent performing the action may appear in a "by the . . ." phrase or may be omitted.

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(agent performing action has been omitted.)

Sometimes the use of passive voice can create awkward sentences, as in the last example above. Also, overuse of passive voice throughout an essay can cause your prose to seem flat and uninteresting. In scientific writing, however, passive voice is more readily accepted since using it allows one to write without using personal pronouns or the names of particular researchers as the subjects of sentences (see the third example above). This practice helps to create the appearance of an objective, fact-based discourse because writers can present research and conclusions without attributing them to particular agents. Instead, the writing appears to convey information that is not limited or biased by individual perspectives or personal interests. You can recognize passive-voice expressions because the verb phrase will always include a form of be, such as am, is, was, were, are, or been. The presence of a be-verb, however, does not necessarily mean that the sentence is in passive voice. Another way to recognize passivevoice sentences is that they may include a "by the..." phrase after the verb; the agent performing the action, if named, is the object of the preposition in this phrase. You can see examples of all the verb tenses in passive voice at http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/grammar/g_tenses2.html. Choosing Active Voice In most nonscientific writing situations, active voice is preferable to passive for the majority of your sentences. Even in scientific writing, overuse of passive voice or use of passive voice in long and complicated sentences can cause readers to lose interest or to become confused. Sentences in active voice are generally--though not always-- clearer and more direct than those in passive voice.

passive (indirect)

active (direct):

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Sentences in active voice are also more concise than those in passive voice because fewer words are required to express action in active voice than in passive. passive (more wordy) active (more concise)

Changing passive to active If you want to change a passive-voice sentence to active voice, find the agent in a "by the..." phrase, or consider carefully who or what is performing the action expressed in the verb. Make that agent the subject of the sentence, and change the verb accordingly. Sometimes you will need to infer the agent from the surrounding sentences which provide context. Passive Voice Agent most of the class Changed to Active Voice

agent not specified; most likely agents such as "the researchers"

the CIA director and his close advisors

agent not specified; most likely agents such as "we" Choosing Passive Voice While active voice helps to create clear and direct sentences, sometimes writers find that using an indirect expression is rhetorically effective in a given situation, so they choose passive voice. E.I. ALEJANDRA CABRERA CASILLAS, C.P.E. Pgina 12 de 79

Also, as mentioned above, writers in the sciences conventionally use passive voice more often than writers in other discourses. Passive voice makes sense when the agent performing the action is obvious, unimportant, or unknown or when a writer wishes to postpone mentioning the agent until the last part of the sentence or to avoid mentioning the agent at all. The passive voice is effective in such circumstances because it highlights the action and what is acted upon rather than the agent performing the action. active The dispatcher is notifying police that three prisoners have escaped. Surgeons successfully performed a new experimental liver-transplant operation yesterday. "Authorities make rules to be broken," he said defiantly. passive Police are being notified that three prisoners have escaped. A new experimental liver-transplant operation was performed successfully yesterday. "Rules are made to be broken," he said defiantly.

In each of these examples, the passive voice makes sense because the agent is relatively unimportant compared to the action itself and what is acted upon. Changing active to passive If you want to change an active-voice sentence to passive voice, consider carefully who or what is performing the action expressed in the verb, and then make that agent the object of a "by the..." phrase. Make what is acted upon the subject of the sentence, and change the verb to a form of be + past participle. Including an explicit "by the..." phrase is optional. Active Voice Agent The presiding officer Changed to Passive Voice

The leaders

The scientists

In each of these examples, the passive voice is useful for highlighting the action and what is acted upon instead of the agent. What are Modal Verbs? Modal verbs are special verbs which behave very differently from normal verbs. Here are some important differences: 1. Modal verbs do not take "-s" in the third person. E.I. ALEJANDRA CABRERA CASILLAS, C.P.E. Pgina 13 de 79

Examples: He can speak Chinese. She should be here by 9:00.

2. You use "not" to make modal verbs negative, even in Simple Present and Simple Past. Examples: He should not be late. They might not come to the party.

3. Many modal verbs cannot be used in the past tenses or the future tenses. Examples: He will can go with us. Not Correct She must study very hard. Not Correct

Common Modal Verbs Can Could May Might Must Ought to Shall Should Will Would

For the purposes of this tutorial, we have included some expressions which are not modal verbs including had better, have to, and have got to. These expressions are closely related to modals in meaning and are often interchanged with them.

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Modal can can can can can could could may may may might shall shall should should must

Traditional definitions Present/Future ability request permission possibility past ability request possibility request(formal) permission(formal) probability slight probability polite question formal future advice expectation necessity Could you hold this for me? I can juggle. Can I look at your costumes? You can look at my costumes. You can pet the lion if you want.

Past I could juggle when I was young.

I could juggle when I was young.

I could be up there right I could have been now. juggling now. May I pet the lion? Yes, you may pet the lion. The trapeze artist may The acrobats may have be tired after the show. performed already. The clown might be tired, too. Shall we go say hello to the crown? Ladies and gentlemen, the circus shall begin shortly. Jugglers should practice everyday. The circus should begin in a minute. Children must be careful around lions. The lion does not hurt his trainer. They must have known each other for a long time. We will see the seals today. We will see them by 9:30. When I was young, we would go to the circus. I were you, I would be careful around the lions. Would you mind if I borrow your make up today? I should have tried juggling. They should have started by now. The children had to leave before the clowns began. They must be friends. They must have known each other for a long time. The elephants might have performed, too.

must

logical deduction

will will would would

intention or promise future time certainty past time habit conditional3

would

polite question

I would rather have I would rather juggle would preference E.I. ALEJANDRA CABRERA CASILLAS, C.P.E. than do trapeze stunts. juggled than done de 79 Pgina 15 trapeze stunts.

Sentences in English can be simple, brief, and clear, or they can be elaborate and marvelously complex. Make sure that each sentence expresses a complete thought, and enjoy the wonderful range of choices that English offers.

THERE IS AN EXERCISE WHICH WILL HELP YOU READ AND UNDERSTAND ENGLISH SENTENCES MUCH BETTER; THIS IS DIAGRAMMING. As you surely can remember; a sentence (to be a sentence) at the very least must have a Subject (noun or pronoun) and a Predicate (verb). The remaining words in a sentence serve to describe, clarify or give us more information about the subject or the verb. A diagram arranges the parts of a sentence like a picture in order to show the relationship of words and groups of words within the sentence. Let us take a look at how this is done. We will begin learning how to diagram sentences and use this tool to become better readers and writers. Step #1 Look for the VERB in the sentence. A verb is a word that shows action (dance, sing, walk, run, etc.) or state of being (am, is, are, was, were, etc.) Ask the question, "What action is taking place, or what happened in the sentence?" The answer you get will let you know which word (or group of words) serves as the verb in the sentence. The VERB is placed on the right hand side of the base line. Examples: Aunt Polly punished Tom for ditching school.

Tom started a fight with the new boy in town.

Try these: Toms friends were painting the fence for him. Huck Finn was a homeless boy.

Step #2 Find the SUBJECT of the verb (the person or thing that performs the action).

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Ask the question, "Who? or What?" before the verb. The answer you get will let you know which word (or group of words) serves as the subject of the verb. The SUBJECT is placed on the left hand side of the base line. Examples: Aunt Polly punished Tom for ditching school.

Tom started a fight with the new boy in town.

Try these: Toms friends were painting the fence for him. Huck Finn was a homeless boy.

Step #3 Find the DIRECT OBJECT. (If there is one in the sentence, it is the person or thing that receives the action of the verb.) Ask the question, "Whom? or What?" after the verb. The answer you get will let you know which word serves as the direct object of the verb. The DIRECT OBJECT is placed on the base line to the right of the verb separated by a line that goes upward from the base line. Examples: Aunt Polly punished Tom for ditching school.

Tom started a fight with the new boy in town.

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We will buy a farm. The evil beauty killed a man.

Step #4 Look for ARTICLES (a, an, the) or POSSESSIVES (my, your, his, hers, its, their, Joes, Marias, etc.) Ask the question, "Whose?" ARTICLES and POSSESSIVES are attached to the base line beneath the word they describe. Examples: Toms friends were painting the fence for him.

Now try these: A child has painted the toy. Junes son is my friend.

Step #5 Look for ADJECTIVES (words that describe or limit a noun or pronoun). Ask the questions, " Which one? How many? What kind? What size? What color? " ADJECTIVES are connected beneath the words they modify. Examples: Becky Thatcher wore two long braids

Toms little brother discovered the black thread.

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Huck Finn was a homeless boy.

Cathy has become a great dancer. Her strict father wanted to whip the naughty boy.

Step #6 Look for ADVERBS (words that modify verbs, adjectives or other adverbs). Ask the questions, "How? When? Where? How much? Why?" ADVERBS are connected beneath the words they modify.

Examples: Injun Joe ran away.

Huck bravely saved the Widow Douglas

Now, try these: Now Cathy started early every morning. Nobody could clearly notice her true plans. E.I. ALEJANDRA CABRERA CASILLAS, C.P.E. Pgina 19 de 79

Step #7 Look for PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. (These are groups of words that begin with a preposition and end with a noun or pronoun which is the object of the preposition. Together they serve the same function as an adjective or an adverb.) PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES are connected beneath the line of the words they modify. Examples: Huck overheard a conversation between two men.

Tom was exploring the cave with Becky.

The two of them were lost in the cave.

Now, try these: Cathy had learned about her true story. The Big Bad Wolf had run through the forest.

Now let's put what you have learned into practice. Try these sentences: E.I. ALEJANDRA CABRERA CASILLAS, C.P.E. Pgina 20 de 79

We read a book about Tom Sawyer in English class.

Each student made a report on a chapter from the story.

These are more examples.

Simple subject and predicate Samson slept.

Understood subject (for commands, directives) Sit!

Questions Where are you going?

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What were you reading this morning?

Whose bike were you using?

May I postpone this assignment?

Compound predicate The cat howled and scratched ferociously.

Compound subject and predicate Juanita and Celso worked hard and then rested.

Three subjects Juanita, Federica, and Celso are working.

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Direct object Tashonda sent e-mail.

Compound direct objects Tashonda sent cards and letters.

Three direct objects Tashonda sent e-mail, cards, and letters.

Compound predicate with direct objects Joselyn cooked breakfast and ate it.

Compound predicate with one direct object Samantha proofreads and edits her essays.

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Compound adverbs Dr. Turveydrop waited patiently and quietly at the door.

Prepositional phrase Charles is working in the garden.

Prepositional phrase modifying another prepositional phrase Charles is working in the garden by the river.

Preposition with compound objects The thought of getting up and working is alarming.

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Prepositional phrase modifying an adverb Carlita does her best work early during the semester.

Prepositional Phrase as Subjective Complement She felt under the weather..

Participle The crumbling bridge must be repaired.

Participle/Participial Phrase The screaming crowd watched the bridge falling into the river.

Gerund phrase as subject Working hard can be profitable.

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Terminita hates eating broccoli.

NOMINALS Nominals consist of any grammatical structure that can fill the same function as a noun or a noun phrase in a sentence. Present Participles (the -ing form of the verb) when used to substitute for a noun phrase are called gerunds. Examples: Drinking makes me sick. Telling the truth was her doom. The man couldn`t believe her constant lying. Other kind of nominals are infinitives (to run, to buy) Examples: To wait for a chance was her only option. Harry Potter knew that to learn spells was necessary. Clauses: Clauses used in this way are called nominal clauses. Nominal clauses are introduced by two methods: the expletive that and interrogative words, such as what or how. However, there is one form of a nominal that is not a substitute for a noun phrase. Instead it simply duplicates the noun phrase and occurs in the same slot. These structures are called appositives. An appositive is imply a noun phrase placed next to another noun phrase, as in this sentence: Sophie, my German shepherd, died last year. The underlined phrase is the appositive. It simply provides extra information about who Sophie is. Because the appositive in this sentence provides extra informationthat is its only purpose it is set off from the rest of the sentence by commas. Sometimes, the appositive provides information necessary to the meaning of the sentence. In this sentence, for example, I am describing a situation in which I have two dogs: My dog Sophie can catch a Frisbee in her teeth. Grice, on the other hand, was never able to master this trick. In this case, the appositive Sophie is not set off with commas because it provides information that is necessary to the meaning of the sentence. The appositive is being used to identify which dog I am talking about. Notice that this is the same principle that you use to determine when to put commas around a relative clause. It is as if there is such a thing as a restrictive appositive and a nonrestrictive appositive. Only the latter uses commas. RESTATING: Gerund is the name given to a present participle when it substitutes for a noun phrase. Not all -ing verbs are gerunds. A gerund can fill any one of the NP (noun phrases) slots as described in the opposite column: Subject: Running through the kitchen has become Bonnies favoriteactivity. Direct object: Bonnie really likes running. E.I. ALEJANDRA CABRERA CASILLAS, C.P.E. Pgina 26 de 79

Subject complement: One of her favorite activities is running. Object of preposition: Bonnie can burn up extra energy in the evening by running around the backyard. The it test: The easiest way to detect a gerund is to see if you can substitute the word it or something for the phrase that you think is a gerund. For example, for the sentence above, we would come up with these sentences: EXAMPLE: It has become Bonnies favorite activity. What is it? RUNNING. Bonnie really likes it. What does Bonnie really like? RUNNING. One of her favorite activities is something. What is that something? RUNNING. Bonnie can burn up extra energy in the evening by something. What is that something? RUNNING! Notice that the -ing constructions in the following sentences fails the it test: Running around the house, Bonnie slipped on the corner in the kitchen. Bonnie was running past the bed when Charlie jumped on her. They fail this test because there are no gerunds in these sentences. It is important to recognize that a gerund has a pattern of its own that is based on the sentence that it comes from. In the sentence above, the gerund comes from a Type VI sentence like Bonnie runs. But in the sentence below, the underlying pattern is more complex: Bonnies favorite activity is chasing the cat. ADJECTIVES: An adjectives job is to modify a noun or pronoun. They are always near the noun or pronoun they are describing. Be careful how you use adjectives such as interesting, beautiful, great, wonderful, or exciting. Many adjectives like these are overused and add little definition to a sentence. Adjectives are often used to describe the degree of modification. The adjective forms are positive, comparative, and superlative. This tree is tall. (positive) That tree is taller. (comparative) The last tree in the row is the tallest. (superlative) A handful of adjectives have irregular forms of positive, comparative, and superlative usage.

These include: good/better/best, bad/worse/worst, little/less/least, My lunch was good, hers was better, and yours was the best. much-many-some/more/most, far/further/furthest.

E.I. ALEJANDRA CABRERA CASILLAS, C.P.E.

Pgina 27 de 79

Proper adjectives are derived from proper nouns. They commonly describe something in terms of nationality, religious affiliation, or culture. Like proper nouns, proper adjectives have their first letter capitalized. Some examples of proper adjectives include:

American French Japanese Latino Asian Australian Catholic Lutheran Jewish

E.I. ALEJANDRA CABRERA CASILLAS, C.P.E.

Pgina 28 de 79

Descriptive Adjectives Descriptive adjectives can be divided into different categories such as colors, sizes, sound, taste, touch, shapes, qualities, time, personality and ages. The following lists provide a few examples of descriptive adjectives in each of their categories: Colors are adjectives - list: black, blue, white, green, red Sizes - list: big, small, large, thin, thick Shapes- list: triangular, round, square, circular Qualities- list: good, bad, mediocre Personality - list: happy, sad, angry, depressed Time - list: Yearly , monthly, annually Ages - list: new, young, old, brand-new, second-hand Sound related Adjectives - list: loud, noisy, quiet, silent Touch related Adjectives - list: slippery, sticky Taste related Adjectives - list: juicy, sweet

The following lists are just a sampling of adjectives in the English language. They are categorized by the type of attribute they describe. Use your dictionary or thesaurus to add to each list. NEGATIVE FEELINGS ADJECTIVE defiant hungry depressed hurt disgusted ill disturbed jealous doubtful lonely eerie mad embarrassed naughty envious nervous evil obnoxious fierce outrageous foolish panicky frantic repulsive frightened safe grieving scared guilty shy helpless ADJECTIVE POSITIVE FEELINGS agreeable alert amused brave bright charming cheerful comfortable cooperative courageous delightful determined eager elated enchanting encouraging energetic enthusiastic excited exuberant faithful fantastic friendly frowning funny gentle glorious good happy healthy helpful hilarious innocent jolly kind lively lovely lucky obedient perfect proud relaxed relieved silly smiling splendid successful thoughtful victorious vivacious well witty wonderful

afraid angry annoyed anxious arrogant ashamed awful bad bewildered bored condemned confused creepy cruel dangerous defeated

sleepy sore strange tense terrible tired troubled unusual upset uptight weary wicked

Appearance Adjectives adorable beautiful clean drab elegant fancy glamorous handsome long magnificent oldfashioned plain quaint sparkling ugliest unsightly wide-eyed

Color Adjectives

Condition Adjectives

Feelings (Bad) Adjectives angry bewildered clumsy defeated embarrassed fierce grumpy helpless itchy jealous lazy mysterious nervous obnoxious panicky repulsive scary thoughtless uptight worried

red orange yellow green blue purple gray black white

alive better careful clever dead easy famous gifted helpful important inexpensive mushy odd powerful rich shy tender uninterested vast wrong.

Feelings (Good) Adjectives agreeable brave calm delightful eager faithful gentle happy jolly kind lively

Shape Adjectives

Size Adjectives

Sound Adjectives

broad chubby crooked curved deep flat high hollow low narrow

colossal fat gigantic great huge immense large little mammoth massive

cooing deafening faint hissing loud melodic noisy purring quiet raspy

nice obedient proud relieved silly thankful victorious witty zealous

round shallow skinny square steep straight wide.

miniature petite puny scrawny short small tall teeny teeny-tiny

screeching thundering voiceless whispering

Time Adjectives

Taste/Touch Adjectives

Touch Adjectives

Quantity Adjectives

ancient brief early fast late long modern old old-fashioned quick rapid short slow swift young

bitter delicious fresh greasy juicy hot icy loose melted nutritious prickly rainy rotten salty sticky strong sweet tart tasteless uneven weak wet wooden yummy

boiling breeze broken bumpy chilly cold cool creepy crooked cuddly curly damaged damp dirty dry dusty filthy flaky fluffy freezing hot warm wet

abundant empty few full heavy light many numerous sparse substantial

Forming regular comparatives and superlatives How these forms are created depends on how many syllables there are in the adjective. Syllables are like "sound beats". For instance, "sing" contains one syllable, but "singing" contains two -- sing and ing. Here are the rules: Adjective form Only one syllable, ending in E. Examples: wide, fine, cute Only one syllable, with one vowel and one consonant at the end. Examples: hot, big, fat Only one syllable, with more than one vowel or more than one consonant at the end. Examples: light, neat, fast Comparative Add -R: wider, finer, cuter Double the consonant, and add -ER: hotter, bigger, fatter Superlative Add -ST: widest, finest, cutest Double the consonant, and add -EST: hottest, biggest, fattest

Add -ER: lighter, neater, faster

Add -EST: lightest, neatest, fastest

Two syllables, ending in Y. Examples: happy, silly, lonely

Change Y to I, then add -ER: happier, sillier, lonelier Use MORE before the adjective: more modern, more interesting, more beautiful

Change Y to I, then add -EST: happiest, silliest, loneliest Use MOST before the adjective: most modern, most interesting, most beautiful

Two syllables or more, not ending in Y. Examples: modern, interesting, beautiful

How to use comparatives and superlatives Comparatives are used to compare two things. You can use sentences with THAN, or you can use a conjunction like BUT. Examples: Jiro is taller than Yukio. Yukio is tall, but Jiro is taller. Yuriko is more handsome than Julio. Sonia is more intelligent.

Superlatives are used to compare more than two things. Superlative sentences usually use THE, because there is only one superlative. Examples: Masami is the tallest in the class. Yukio is tall, and Jiro is taller, but Masami is the tallest. Sue is the most attractive girl in the class. June is the most gorgeous.

Adjective Placement

When using more than one adjective to describe a noun place the adjectives in the following order before the noun. NOTE: We usually use no more than three adjectives preceding a noun. 1. Opinion Example: an interesting book, a boring lecture 2. Dimension Example: a big apple, a thin wallet 3. Age Example: a new car, a modern building, an ancient ruin 4. Shape Example: a square box, an oval mask, a round ball 5. Color Example: a pink hat, a blue book, a black coat 6. Origin Example: some Italian shoes, a Canadian town, an American car 7. Material Example: a wooden box, a woolen sweater, a plastic toy Here are some examples of nouns modified with three adjectives in the correct order based on the list above. Notice that the adjectives are not separated by commas. A wonderful old Italian clock. (opinion - age - origin) A big square blue box. (dimension - shape - color) A disgusting pink plastic ornament. (opinion - color - material) Some slim new French trousers. (dimension - age - origin)

Some examples of adjective order Opinion a a a silly huge small Size Age young round red Shape Colour Origin English metal sleeping Material Purpose man bowl bag

Which is the correct order? 1. a Canadian small thin lady 2. a carving steel new knife 3. a sailing beautiful blue boat 4. a square wooden old table

5. 6. 7. 8.

an exciting French new band a red big plastic hat a Japanese small serving bowl a dirty cotton old tie

Regular Verbs List There are thousands of regular verbs in English. This is a list of 600 of the more common regular verbs. Note that there are some spelling variations in American English (for example, "practise" becomes "practice" in American English).

accept add admire admit

allow amuse analyse announce

applaud appreciate approve argue

attach attack attempt attend

advise afford agree alert back bake balance ban bang bare bat bathe battle beam calculate call camp care carry carve cause challenge change charge chase cheat check cheer chew dam damage dance dare decay deceive decide decorate delay delight earn educate embarrass employ empty encourage

annoy answer apologise appear beg behave belong bleach bless blind blink blot blush boast choke chop claim clap clean clear clip close coach coil collect colour comb command communicate

arrange arrest arrive ask

attract avoid

boil bolt bomb book bore borrow bounce bow box brake compare compete complain complete concentrate concern confess confuse connect consider consist contain continue copy correct

brake branch breathe bruise brush bubble bump burn bury buzz

cough count cover crack crash crawl cross crush cry cure curl curve cycle

deliver depend describe desert deserve destroy detect develop disagree disappear end enjoy enter entertain escape examine

disapprove disarm discover dislike divide double doubt drag drain dream

dress drip drop drown drum dry dust

excite excuse exercise exist expand expect

explain explode extend

face fade fail fancy fasten fax fear fence gather gaze glow glue hammer hand handle hang happen harass identify ignore imagine impress improve include jail jam kick kill

fetch file fill film fire fit fix flap grab grate grease greet harm hate haunt head heal heap increase influence inform inject injure instruct jog join kiss kneel

flash float flood flow flower fold follow fool

force form found frame frighten fry

grin grip groan guarantee

guard guess guide

heat help hook hop hope hover

hug hum hunt hurry

intend interest interfere interrupt introduce invent

invite irritate itch

joke judge

juggle jump knot

knit knock

label land last laugh launch man manage march mark marry

learn level license lick lie matter measure meddle melt memorise

lighten like list listen live

load lock long look love move muddle mug multiply

milk mine miss mix moan moor

match mate nail name obey object observe pack paddle paint park part pass paste pat pause peck pedal peel peep perform question

mend mess up need nest obtain occur offend permit phone pick pinch pine place plan plant play please plug point poke polish queue

mourn murder notice number overflow owe own prevent prick print produce program promise protect provide pull pump punch puncture punish push

nod note

offer open order

pop possess post pour practise pray preach precede prefer prepare present preserve press pretend

race radiate rain raise reach realise receive recognise record reduce reflect sack sail satisfy save saw scare scatter scold scorch scrape scratch

refuse regret reign reject rejoice relax release rely remain remember remind shiver shock shop shrug sigh sign signal sin sip ski skip

remove repair repeat replace reply report reproduce request rescue retire return

rhyme rinse risk rob rock roll rot rub ruin rule rush stop store strap strengthen stretch strip stroke stuff subtract succeed suck

soothe sound spare spark sparkle spell spill spoil spot spray sprout

scream screw scribble scrub seal search separate serve settle shade share shave shelter talk tame tap taste tease telephone tempt terrify test thank undress unfasten vanish

slap slip slow smash smell smile smoke snatch sneeze sniff snore snow soak thaw tick tickle tie time tip tire touch tour tow unite unlock visit

squash squeak squeal squeeze stain stamp stare start stay steer step stir stitch

suffer suggest suit supply support suppose surprise surround suspect suspend switch

trace trade train transport trap travel treat tremble trick trip

trot trouble trust try tug tumble turn twist type

unpack untidy

use

wail wait walk wander want warm warn wash x-ray yawn zip

waste watch water wave weigh welcome whine whip yell

whirl whisper whistle wink wipe wish wobble wonder

work worry wrap wreck wrestle wriggle

zoom

IRREGULAR VERBS

Infinitive arise be beat

Simple Past arose was / were beat

Past Participle arisen been beaten

Spanish surgir ser golpear

become begin bet bite bleed blow break bring build buy catch choose come cost creep cut deal do draw dream drink drive eat fall feed feel fight find flee fly forget forgive forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang have hear hide hit hold hurt

became began bet/betted bit bled blew broke brought built bought caught chose came cost crept cut dealt did drew dreamt/dreamed drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found fled flew forgot forgave forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt

become begun bet/betted bitten bled blown broken brought built bought caught chosen come cost crept cut dealt done drawn dreamt/dreamed drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found fled flown forgotten forgiven forsaken frozen got given gone ground grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt

convertirse comenzar apostar morder sangrar soplar romper traer construir comprar atrapar elegir venir costar arrastrarse cortar dar, repartir hacer dibujar soar beber conducir comer caer alimentar sentir pelear encontrar huir volar olvidar perdonar abandonar congelar tener, obtener dar ir moler crecer colgar tener or esconderse golpear tener, mantener herir, doler

keep kneel know lead learn leave lend let lie lose make mean meet pay put quit read ride ring rise run say see sell send set sew shake shine shoot show shrink shut sing sink sit sleep slide sow speak spell spend spill split spoil spread

kept knelt knew led learnt/learned left lent let lay lost made meant met paid put quit/quitted read rode rang rose ran said saw sold sent set sewed shook shone shot showed shrank/shrunk shut sang sank sat slept slid sowed spoke spelt/spelled spent spilt/spilled split spoilt/spoiled spread

kept knelt known led learnt/learned left lent let lain lost made meant met paid put quit/quitted read ridden rung risen run said seen sold sent set sewn/sewed shaken shone shot shown/showed shrunk shut sung sunk sat slept slid sown/sowed spoken spelt/spelled spent spilt/spilled split spoilt/spoiled spread

guardar arrodillarse saber encabezar aprender dejar prestar dejar yacer perder hacer significar conocer, encontrar pagar poner abandonar leer montar, ir llamar por telfono elevar correr decir ver vender enviar fijar coser sacudir brillar disparar mostrar encoger cerrar cantar hundir sentarse dormir deslizar sembrar hablar deletrear gastar derramar partir estropear extenderse

stand steal sting stink strike swear sweep swim take teach tear tell think throw tread wake wear weave weep win wring write

stood stole stung stank/stunk struck swore swept swam took taught tore told thought threw trode woke wore wove wept won wrung wrote

stood stolen stung stunk struck sworn swept swum taken taught torn told thought thrown trodden/trod woken worn woven wept won wrung written

estar de pie robar picar apestar golpear jurar barrer nadar tomar ensear romper decir pensar lanzar pisar despertarse llevar puesto tejer llorar ganar retorcer escribir

List of Common Adverbs A abnormally absentmindedly accidentally acidly actually adventurously afterwards almost always angrily annually anxiously arrogantly awkwardly B badly bashfully beautifully bitterly bleakly blindly blissfully boastfully boldly bravely briefly brightly briskly broadly busily C calmly carefully carelessly cautiously certainly cheerfully clearly cleverly closely coaxingly colorfully commonly

continually coolly correctly courageously crossly cruelly curiously E easily elegantly energetically enormously enthusiastically equally especially even evenly eventually exactly excitedly extremely F fairly faithfully famously far I immediately innocently inquisitively instantly intensely intently interestingly inwardly irritably J jaggedly jealously joshingly joyfully

D daily daintily dearly deceivingly delightfully deeply fast fatally ferociously fervently fiercely fondly foolishly fortunately frankly frantically freely frenetically frightfully fully furiously G generally generously gently joyously jovially jubilantly judgementally justly K keenly kiddingly kindheartedly kindly kissingly knavishly knottily knowingly knowledgeably kookily

defiantly deliberately delightfully diligently dimly doubtfully dreamily gladly gleefully gracefully gratefully greatly greedily H happily hastily healthily heavily helpfully helplessly highly honestly hopelessly hourly hungrily L lazily less lightly likely limply lively loftily longingly loosely lovingly loudly loyally M madly majestically

meaningfully mechanically merrily miserably

mockingly monthly more mortally

mostly mysteriously

N naturally nearly neatly needily nervously never nicely noisily not O obediently obnoxiously oddly Q quaintly quarrelsomely queasily queerly questionably questioningly quicker quickly quietly quirkily quizzically

offensively officially often only openly optimistically overconfidently owlishly P painfully partially patiently perfectly restfully righteously rightfully rigidly roughly rudely S sadly safely scarcely scarily searchingly sedately seemingly seldom selfishly separately seriously shakily sharply sheepishly shrilly shyly silently

physically playfully

politely poorly positively potentially powerfully promptly properly punctually

sleepily slowly smoothly softly solemnly solidly sometimes soon speedily stealthily sternly strictly successfully suddenly surprisingly suspiciously sweetly swiftly sympathetically T tenderly tensely terribly thankfully

R rapidly rarely readily really reassuringly recklessly regularly reluctantly repeatedly reproachfully

thoroughly thoughtfully tightly tomorrow too tremendously triumphantly truly truthfully U ultimately unabashedly unaccountably unbearably unethically unexpectedly unfortunately unimpressively unnaturally unnecessarily

utterly upbeat upliftingly upright upside-down upward upwardly urgently usefully uselessly usually utterly V vacantly vaguely vainly valiantly vastly verbally very

viciously victoriously violently vivaciously voluntarily W warmly weakly wearily well wetly wholly wildly willfully wisely woefully wonderfully worriedly wrongly

Using Adverb Clauses What is an Adverb Clause? "He saw Mary when he was in New York" and "They studied hard because they had a test" are adverb clauses. Adverb clauses express when, why, opposition and conditions and are dependent clauses. This means that an adverb clause can not stand by itself - in other words, "When he went to New York." is not a complete sentence. It needs to be completed by an independent clause. Example: He went to the Guggenheim museum when he was in New York. Punctuation When an adverb clause begins the sentence use a comma to separate the two clauses. Example: As soon as he arrives, we will have some lunch.. When the adverb clause finishes the sentence there is no need for a comma. Example: He gave me a call when he arrived in town. List of Words (subordinating conjunctions) Introducing Adverb Clauses TIME CAUSE AND EFFECT OPPOSITION although, even though, though, whereas, while CONDITION if, only if, unless, whether (or not), even if, providing (that), in case (that), provided (that), in the event (that) -

after, before, when, because, since, as, as while, as, by the time long as, so long as, due (that), as soon as, since, to the fact that until, whenever, the first time (that), the next time

(that), the last time (that), every time (that) Adverb Clauses Showing Cause and Effect (because, as, since, etc.) Adverb Clauses Expressing Conditions (if, unless, only if, even if, etc.) Adverb Clauses with Time Expressions (when, as soon as, before, etc.) Adverb Clauses Expressing Opposition (though, even though, whereas, etc.)

Collocations have have a bath have a drink have a good time have a haircut have a holiday have a problem have a relationship have a rest have lunch have sympathy take take a break take a chance take a look take a rest take a seat take a taxi take an exam take notes take someone's place take someone's temperature pay pay a fine pay attention pay by credit card pay cash pay interest pay someone a compliment pay someone a visit pay the bill pay the price pay your respects come come close come complete with come direct come early come first come into view do do business do nothing do someone a favour do the cooking do the housework do the shopping do the washing up do your best do your hair do your homework break break a habit break a leg break a promise break a record break a window break someone's heart break the ice break the law break the news to someone break the rules save save electricity save energy save money save one's strength save someone a seat save someone's life save something to a disk save space save time save yourself the trouble go go abroad go astray go bad go bald go bankrupt go blind make make a difference make a mess make a mistake make a noise make an effort make furniture make money make progress make room make trouble catch catch a ball catch a bus catch a chill catch a cold catch a thief catch fire catch sight of catch someone's attention catch someone's eye catch the flu keep keep a diary keep a promise keep a secret keep an appointment keep calm keep control keep in touch keep quiet keep someone's place keep the change get get a job get a shock get angry get divorced get drunk get frightened

come last come late come on time come prepared come right back come second come to a compromise come to a decision come to an agreement come to an end come to a standstill come to terms with come to a total of come under attack

go crazy go dark go deaf go fishing go mad go missing go on foot go online go out of business go overseas go quiet go sailing go to war go yellow

get home get lost get married get nowhere get permission get pregnant get ready get started get the impression get the message get the sack get upset get wet get worried

Miscellaneous Idioms Time bang on time dead on time early 12th century free time from dawn till dusk great deal of time late 20th century make time for next few days past few weeks right on time run out of time save time spare time spend some time take your time tell someone the time time goes by time passes waste time Business English annual turnover bear in mind break off negotiations cease trading chair a meeting close a deal close a meeting come to the point dismiss an offer draw a conclusion draw your attention to launch a new product lay off staff go bankrupt go into partnership make a loss make a profit market forces sales figures take on staff Classifiers a ball of string a bar of chocolate a bottle of water a bunch of carrots a cube of sugar a pack of cards a pad of paper

PHRASAL VERBS Phrasal verbs (to) eat away: roer, carcomer, corroer, desgastar. (to) eat into: corroer, comerse. (to) eat out: comer fuera, cenar fuera. (to) eat up: comerse, consumir, tragar, devorar. (to) egg on: animar, incitar. (to) end in: acabar en, terminar con. (to) end off: acabar, terminar, ir a parar.

(to) face up to: afrontar, enfrentar, enfrentarse a. (to) fall about: troncharse, partirse (de risa). (to) fall apart: romperse, deshacerse, caerse a pedazos. (to) fall away: disminuir/desaparecer/desprenderse. (to) fall back: retroceder, retirarse. (to) fall back on to: recurrir a, echar mano de, apoyarse en. (to) fall behind: retrasarse, quedarse atrs, rezagarse. (to) fall behind with: retrasarse. (to) fall down: caer, caerse/ hundirse, derrumbarse, venirse abajo/fallar/ dejarse engaar por, picar. (to) fall in love: enamorarse de. (to) fall in: desplomarse, venirse abajo/ alinearse, formar filas, ponerse en filas. (to) fall in with: encontrarse con, juntarse con/convenir en, aprobar, aceptar (to) fall into: dividirse en, clasificarse en/ adquirir. (to) fall off: bajar, disminuir/ empeorar/ desprenderse, caerse. (to) fall on: incidir en, recaer en, tocar a/atacar, caer sobre. (to) fall out: reir/ pelearse /romper filas/ caerse. (to) fall over: caer, tropezar con/ caerse (to) fall through: fracasar, quedar en nada. (to) fall to: empezar a, ponerse a/ corresponder a, incumbir a, tocar a. (to) fall under: clasificarse en, estar incluido,-a en. (to) feel for: compadecer a, compadecerse de. (to) feel up to: sentirse con nimos para, sentirse con fuerzas para. (to) figure on: contar con, esperar. (to) figure out: comprender, explicarse/ resolver, calcular. (to) fill in: rellenar/poner al corriente. (to) fill in for: sustituir a. (to) fill out: engordar/rellenar. (to) fill up: llenar/ llenarse. (to) find out: preguntar, averiguar/ enterarse de/ calar, pillar, descubrir el juego/ informarse/ enterarse (to) get about: moverse, desplazarse, salir/ viajar/ difundirse.

(to) get across: cruzar/ atravesar/ hacer comprender, hacer entender/ hacerse entender. (to) get ahead: adelantar, progresar. (to) get along: arreglrselas, aparselas/ marcharse, irse. (to) get along with: llevarse (bien) con/ marchar, ir con. (to) get around: moverse, desplazarse/ viajar/ difundirse/ evitar, sortear. (to) get around to: encontrar tiempo para. (to) get at: alcanzar, llegar a/ insinuar/ criticar/ meterse con. (to) get away: escaparse, irse/ alejar, quitar, sacar. (to) get away with: salir impune de. (to) get back: volver, regresar/ moverse hacia atrs, retroceder/ recuperar. (to) get behind: atrasarse. (to) get by: arreglrselas/ pasar. (to) get down: deprimir, desanimar/bajar/ apuntar, anotar/tragar/bajarse. (to) get down to: ponerse a. (to) get in: llegar/entrar/subir/ser elegido,-a/ meter/recoger, cosechar/ recoger/comprar/llamar. (to) get into: llegar a, entrar en/ subir a. (to) get off: quitarse/ bajarse de/ bajarse/ salir/ comenzar/ escaparse. (to) get off with: ligar. (to) get on: subir a, subirse a, montar a/progresar, avanzar, ir/tener xito/ llevarse bien, avenirse, entenderse/ seguir, continuar/ hacerse mayor, envejecerse. (to) get on for: ser casi. (to) get on to: ponerse en contacto con, localizar/ empezar a hablar de, pasar a. (to) get out: sacar/quitar/salir/bajar de, bajarse de/escapar(se)/llegar a saberse, hacerse pblico,-a. (to) get out of: librarse de/ dejar, perder la costumbre. (to) get over: recuperarse de/ sobreponerse a/ salvar/ vencer/ comunicar, hacer comprender. (to) get over with: acabar con. (to) get round: salvar/ evitar, soslayar/ convencer, persuader/ difundirse, hacerse pblico,-a, llegar a saber. (to) get round to: encontrar tiempo para. (to) get through: llegar/ conseguir hablar ((to, con))/ hacerse comprender ((to, a))/ acabar, terminar/ consumir/gastar/ beber/aprobar. (to) get together: reunirse, juntarse/juntar, reunir/ montar/ recoger, reunir.

(to) get up: levantarse/ subir/ levantarse/despertar/ disfrazarse. (to) get up to: hacer/ llegar a (to) give away: distribuir, repartir/regular/entregar/delatar, traicionar/revelar, descubrir. (to) give back: devolver. (to) give in: darse por vencido,-a, rendirse/ceder/entregar. (to) give in to: ceder ante. (to) give off: despedir, desprender, emitir. (to) give onto: dar a. (to) give out: distribuir, repartir/ anunciar/ acabarse, agotarse/ averiarse, sufrir una avera. (to) give over: entregar/ dedicar, asignar/ dejar de. (to) give up: dejar/ abandonar, renunciar a /ceder, renunciar/entregarse/ darse por vencido,-a, rendirse. (to) give up on: abandonar, desistir. (to) go about: emprender, hacer/ continuar. (to) go after: perseguir, andar tras. (to) go against: ir en contra de/ser desfavorable a. (to) go ahead: proceder. (to) go ahead with: proceder. (to) go along: pasar por/ progresar, ir/ ir. (to) go along with: estar de acuerdo con. (to) go around: bastar, ser suficiente, haber/ correr, circular/ ir, andar/ salir ((with, con))/ andar ((with, con))/ girar, dar vueltas/ recorrer. (to) go away: marcharse. (to) go back: volver, regresar/datar de/ remontarse a. (to) go back on: romper, no cumplir. (to) go by: pasar/ atenerse a, seguir/ dejarse llevar por/ juzgar por. (to) go down: bajar/ deshincharse/ ponerse/ hundirse/ ser acogido,-a. (to) go down with: coger, pillar. (to) go for: atacar/ ir a buscar/ gustar/ valer para. (to) go in: entrar. (to) go in for: participar en, tomar parte en/ presentarse a/ dedicarse a/ ser partidario,-a de.

(to) go into: entrar en/ investigar/ chocar contra. (to) go off: marcharse/ estallar/ sonar/ dispararse/ estropearse, pasarse/ cortarse/ apagarse/ perder el gusto por, perder el inters por. (to) go off with: escaparse con. (to) go on: seguir, continuar/ pasar, ocurrir/ quejarse/ hablar sin parar/ encenderse/ estar a punto de cumplir. (to) go out: salir/ apagarse. (to) go over: revisar, repasar. (to) go over to: pasarse a/ cambiar a, pasar a. (to) go round: dar vueltas, girar/ pasar por casa de, visitar. (to) go through: pasar por, sufrir, padecer/ examiner/ registrar/ gastar/ explicar/ ser aprobado,-a. (to) go through with: llevar a cabo. (to) go towards: destinar a, reservar para. (to) go under: hundirse/ fracasar. (to) go up: subir/ acercarse/ levantarse/ estallar/ to go up in flames, incendiarse. (to) go with: acompaar/ ir con, estar incluido,-a/ hacer juego con. (to) go without: pasar sin, prescindir de. (to) grow apart: distanciarse. (to) grow away from: distanciarse de. (to) grow into: convertirse en, hacerse. (to) grow on: llegar a gustar. (to) grow out of: perder, quitarse/ quedarle pequeo,-a a. (to) grow up: hacerse mayor/ criarse, crecer/ surgir, nacer, desarrollarse. (to) hand around: repartir, ofrecer, pasar. (to) hand back: devolver. (to) hand down: transmitir/ pasar/ dejar en herencia. (to) hand in: entregar/ presentar, notificar. (to) hand on: transmitir, heredar: (give) pasar, dar. (to) hand out: repartir, distribuir/ dar/ aplicar. (to) hand over: entregar/ ceder. (to) hang about / hang around: esperar/ perder el tiempo/ frecuentar.

(to) hang back: quedarse atrs/ vacilar. (to) hang down: colgar, caer. (to) hang on: agarrarse/ esperar. (to) hang out: tender/ soler estar. (to) hang up: colgar/ colgar. (to) have on: llevar puesto,-a/ tomar el pelo a. (to) have out: sacarse/ operarse de. (to) hold back: retener/ ocultar/ contener/ reprimir/ guarder/ vacilar, no atreverse/ abstenerse. (to) hold down: dominar/ desempear. (to) hold forth: hablar largo y tendido ((on/about, sobre)). (to) hold off: mantener alejado,-a/ refrenarse. (to) hold on: agarrarse fuerte, agarrarse bien/ esperar/ no colgar. (to) hold on to: cogerse a, agarrarse a/ guardar. (to) hold out: tender, ofrecer/ durar/ resistir. (to) hold over: aplazar. (to) hold up: atracar, as altar/ retrasar/ levanter/ aguantar, sostener/ aguantar, resistir. (to) hold with: estar de acuerdo con. (to) iron out: planchar/ resolver, solucionar. (to) jack in: dejar, colgar. (to) jack off: menersela/ masturbar. (to) jack up: levantar con gato/ subir. (to) jump at: aceptar sin pensarlo. (to) keep at: perseverar en algo/ no dejar en paz, machacar. (to) keep away: mantener a distancia ((from, de)), no dejar a uno acercarse ((from, a))/ mantenerse a distancia, evitar contacto con. (to) keep back: retener, guardar/ ocultar, no revelar/ contener/ tener a raya/ estorbar, impedir/ mantener atrs, contener/ mantenerse atrs, alejarse. (to) keep down: oprimir, sujetar/ mantener bajo/ limitar, controlar/ mantener en el estmago/ agacharse, no levantar la cabeza. (to) keep from: abstenerse de, guardarse de. (to) keep in: no dejar salir/ hacer quedar/ contener/ costear, pagar. (to) keep in with: mantener buenas relaciones con.

(to) keep off: mantenerse a distancia/ no llover/ no dejar entrar, no dejar acercarse/ no tocar, no hablar de. (to) keep on: seguir, continuar/ no quitarse. (to) keep on about: insistir en, no parar de hablar de. (to) keep out: no dejar entrar, no dejar pasar/ no entrar. (to) keep out of: no entrar en/ no meterse en. (to) keep to: atenerse a, cumplir/ no dejar, no salir de. (to) keep together: mantenerse juntos,-as, no separarse. (to) keep under: tener subyugado. (to) keep up: mantener, seguir/ mantener despierto,-a, tener en vela/ aguantar el ritmo/ mantenerse al da. (to) keep up with: seguir/ mantenerse al corriente de/ mantener el contacto con. (to) kick against something: protestar contra, reaccionar contra. (to) kick around: andar por ah/ dar vueltas a. (to) kick in: romper a patadas. (to) kick off: sacar, hacer el saque inicial/ empezar, comenzar/ empezar, comenzar, iniciar/ quitarse. (to) kick out: echar a uno. (to) knock about: rodar, recorrer/ andar con/ pegar, maltratar: (to) knock around: to knock about. (to) knock back: beberse de un trago, rpidamente o en grandes cantidades/ soplar, costar. (to) knock down: derribar/ atropellar/ derribar/ rebajar/ adjudicar ((to, a)). (to) knock off: tirar, hacer caer/ birlar, mangar, chorizar, afanar/ cargarse, liquidar/ descontar/ quitar/ acabar, salir del trabajo. (to) knock out: dejar sin conocimiento/ dejar dormido,-a/ poner fuera de combate, dejar K.O./ eliminar/ hacer rpidamente, producir rpidamente/ dejar pasmado,-a, dejar boquiabierto,-a: (to) knock over: volcar, tirar/ atropellar. (to) knock together: hacer de prisa, hacer rpidamente/ entrechocarse. (to) knock up: despertar, llamar/ hacer de prisa, preparar/ dejar embarazada/ pelotear. (to) lay about: agredir. (to) lay aside: dejar a un lado/ dejar de lado. (to) lay before: presentar. (to) lay by: guarder/ ahorrar. (to) lay down: dejar, soltar/ entregar/ imponer, fijar/ sentar/ guardar. (to) lay in: proveerse de.

(to) lay into: atacar. (to) lay off: despedir/ dejar en paz, dejar de molestar/ parar. (to) lay on: facilitar, suministrar/ cargar. (to) lay out: tender, extender/ disponer, colocar/ presentar, exponer/ hacer el trazado de/ disear/ dejar fuera de combate/ desembolsar. (to) lay over: hacer una parada ((at/in, en)): (plane) hacer escala ((at/in, en)). (to) lay up: almacenar. (to) leave off: dejar de/ acabar, terminar. (to) leave out: omitir, excluir/ excluir. (to) let down: bajar/ alargar/ desinflar/ fallar, defraudar. (to) let in: dejar entrar. (to) let into: dejar entrar / incrustar en/ revelar. (to) let off: dejar/ hacer explotar/ hacer estallar/ perdonar/ dejar marcharse/ dejar en libertad. (to) let on: decir, descubrir/ hacer ver. (to) let out: dejar salir/ soltar ((from, de))/ soltar: he let out a shriek of pain, solt un grito de dolor/ ensanchar/ divulgar, hacer pblico,-a/ alquilar. (to) let through: dejar pasar. (to) let up: parar. (to) let up on: dejar en paz. (to) look after: ocuparse de, atender a/ cuidar (de). (to) look ahead: mirar hacia adelante. (to) look at: mirar, considerer/ mirar. (to) look back: mirar atrs. (to) look down on: despreciar. (to) look for: buscar. (to) look forward to: esperar (con ansia). (to) look in on: pasar (un momento) por. (to) look into: investigar. (to) look on: considerer/observar. (to) look like: parecerse a. (to) look onto: dar a.

(to) look out: ir con cuidado, buscarse. (to) look out for: esperar, estar al tanto. (to) look over: mirar por encima. (to) look round: volver la cabeza/ mirar/ mirar/ visitar. (to) look through: revisar/ ojear. (to) look to: contar con/ centrarse en. (to) look up: mejorar/ consultar, buscar/ ir a ver. (to) look up to: respetar. (to) make after: seguir a, perseguir a. (to) make for: dirigirse hacia/ abalanzarse sobre/ contribuir a, crear, conducir a. (to) make into: convertir en, transformar en. (to) make of: pensar, opinar, parecer/ entender/ dar importancia a. (to) make off: escaparse, largarse, huir. (to) make off with / make away with: llevarse, escaparse con. (to) make out: hacer/ extender, hacer/ redactor/ distinguir, divisar/ descifrar/ entender, comprender/ pretender, hacerse pasar por/ arreglrselas, aparselas/ darse el lote, pegarse el lote. (to) make over: ceder, transferir, traspasar/convertir, transformar. (to) make up: inventar/hacer/ montar/ preparer/ componer/ confeccionar, hacer/ completer/ componer, formar, integrar/ representar/ maquillar/ compensar/ cubrir/ suplir/ recuperar/ maquillarse, pintarse/ hacer las paces, reconciliarse. (to) make up for: compensar. (to) make up to: halagar a/ congraciarse con/ recompensar, pagar. (to) make with: dar, traer. (to) mark down: rebajar el precio de/ bajar la nota de/ apuntar. (to) mark off: separar, dividir, distinguir/ delimiter/ tachar. (to) mark out: marcar, delimiter/ marcar, trazar/ sealar, seleccionar. (to) mark up: subir (el precio de), aumentar (el precio de)/ subir la nota de. (to) mix up: mezclar bien/ preparar/ confundir/ desordenar, revolver, mezclar. (to) nod off: dormirse, dar cabezadas. (to) pan out: salir, resultar. (to) pass away: pasar a mejor vida. (to) pass by: pasar/ pasar de largo.

(to) pass down: pasar/ transmitir. (to) pass for: pasar por. (to) pass off: pasar, transcurrir/ parar/ pasarse/ hacer pasar ((as, por)). (to) pass on: pasar, dar/ contagiar/ pasar a mejor vida/ pasar ((to, a)). (to) pass out: desmayarse, perder el conocimiento/ graduarse/ repartir. (to) pass over: pasar por alto, dejar de lado, olvidar/ atravesar, cruzar. (to) pass through: estar de paso/ pasar por, atravesar. (to) pass up: dejar pasar, dejar escapar, desperdiciar/ rechazar. (to) pick at: tocar/ comer sin ganas. (to) pick off: matar uno a uno. (to) pick on: meterse con/ elegir, escoger. (to) pick out: elegir, escoger/ distinguir/ reconocer/ tocar de odo. (to) pick up: levantar/ recoger/ coger/ coger/ descolgar/ aprender/ adquirir, coger/ descubrir, enterarse de/ pescar, pillar/ conseguir, encontrar/ recoger, pasar a buscar/ coger/ recoger/ ligar con, ligarse/ detener/ captar, recibir/ reanudar/ reprender ((for, por))/ corregir/ darse cuenta de/ mejorar/ subir/ seguir, continuar. (to) pick up on: hacer resea de/ volver a/ sealar. (to) pitch forward: caer de bruces, caer de cabeza. (to) pitch in: empezar/empezar a comer/ cooperar/ contribuir. (to) pitch into: emprender enrgicamente algo/ atacar, arremeter contra, poner como un trapo. (to) pitch off: quitar de encima, sacudir/ caer. (to) pitch out: tirar/ echar, expulsar, poner de patitas en la calle. (to) pitch over: tirar/ volcarse. (to) pitch (up) on: elegir, escoger/ encontrar, dar con. (to) pull about: manosear, estropear. (to) pull along: arrastrar/arrastrarse. (to) pull apart: romper, partir en dos/ desmontar/ criticar duramente/ separar, despegar, desunir. (to) pull away: arrancar/ quitar arrancando/ adelantarse/ seguir remando, tirar enrgicamente de los remos/ apartarse bruscamente de uno. (to) pull back: retirar/ retener, tirar hacia atrs/ tirar hacia s, descorrer/ remontar un gol/retirar/ contenerse/ rajarse. (to) pull down: bajar, tirar hacia abajo, rebajar, hacer caer, tumbar/ derribar, demoler, derribar/ debilitar/ ganar.

(to) pull in: tirar hacia s/ recoger/ cobrar/ detener/ enfrenar/ ganar/ atraer/ parar/ llegar a la estacin/ apretarse el cinturn. (to) pull off: arrancar, separar/ quitar de un tirn/quitarse de prisa/ llevar a cabo/ cerrar/ concluir con xito algo/ ganar/ lograrlo/ llevarlo a cabo/ vencer./ salir. (to) pull on: ponerse (de prisa)/ tirar de. (to) pull out: sacar, extraer/ tirar hacia fuera/ tirar a uno de un hoyo a estirones/ sacar a uno de un ro/ estirar, extender/ retirar/ irse, marcharse/ retirarse/ salirse/ salir (de la estacin)/ sale fcilmente. (to) pull over: acercar tirando/ derribar, volcar/ hacerse a un lado, desviarse hacia un lado. (to) pull round: ayudar a uno a reponerse/ reponerse. (to) pull through: sacar a uno de un apuro o de una enfermedad/ salir de un apuro/ reponerse, recobrar la salud. (to) pull together: reorganizar un escrito, recuperar/ trabajar con un espritu comn, trabajar con espritu de equipo/ sobreponerse, serenarse, recuperar la calma, animarse. (to) pull up: alzar, levantar, tirar hacia arriba/ alzar/ acercar/ arrancar, dessarraigar/ fortalecer/ parar, refrenar/ reprender/ pararse, detenerse/ pararse/ contenerse/ interrumpirse/ mejorar/ mejorar su posicin. (to) put about, (to put around: diseminar, hacer correr/ dar a entender que..., hacer creer que..., hacer correr el rumor de que.../ hacer virar/ virar, cambiar de bordada,. (to) put across: comunicar/ hacer entender/ hacer aceptar/ presentar/ cerrar/ engaar a uno, embaucar a uno/ dar una paliza a uno/ impresionar con su personalidad/ presentarse de manera eficaz/ comunicar eficazmente lo que uno quiere decir. (to) put apart: separar a alguien de otras personas. (to) put aside: rechazar, desechar, dejar, poner a un lado/ dejar de lado, poner a parte/ guardar, poner aparte, ahorrar/ devolver a su lugar/ poner en el garaje/ envainar/ guardar/ desechar/ descartar, repudiar/ encarcelar, recluir en un manicomio/ alojar/ zamparse. (to) put back: devolver a su lugar/ restituir, volver a poner/ guardar/ volver/ restituir/ dejar/ retrasar/ aplazar/ beberse/ volver a puerto. (to) put by: ahorrar, tener dinero ahorrado= (to) put away. (to) put down: poner en tierra/ poner en el suelo/ depositar/ bajar/ soltar/ dejar/ dejar apearse/ djalo/ sultalo/ poner en tierra/ cerrar/ pagar como desembolso inicial/ poner en cava/ suprimir/ sofocar/ dominar/ hacer callar/ dejar sin rplica posible, humillar/ apuntar, poner por escrito/ degradar, pasar a una divisin inferior/ atribuir/ considerar/ sacrificar. (to) put forth: alargar/ tender/ extender/ echar/ emplear, desplegar. (to) put forward: nombrar, presentar, proponer/ hacer/ presentar, proponer, exponer/adelantar/ ofrecerse con poca modestia, ponerse en evidencia, llamar la atencin sobre s. (to) put in: meter, introducir/ insertar/ interponer/ presentar, aducir/ votar a, elegir/ dedicar, instalar, conectar/ plantar, sembrar/ entrar a puerto, hacer escala en un puerto/ presentarse a un puesto, solicitar un puesto. (to) put off: aplazar, postponer, dejar para despus/ disuadir/ desconcertar/ desanimar/ dejar/ quitarse/ apagar/ hacerse a la mar/ salir. (to) put on: ponerse/ aplicar/ acelerar, cobrar velocidad/ asumir/ poner/ representar, poner en escena/

poner/ encender/ aplicar/ echar/ poner a calentar/ adelantar/ dar el nombre, sugerir un nombre, tomar el pelo a . (to) put out: sacar, poner fuera, mandar a pasearse, echar, expulsar, poner en la calle/ desahuciar/ tender la ropa, poner la ropa a secar/ echar al mar/ alargar, tender/ sacar, extender/ asomar, sacar/ echar/ ordenar, disponer, desplegar/ apagar, sofocar/ desconcertar/ enojar, irritar/ incomodar/ dislocarse/ publicar/ sacar a la luz/ hacer/ diseminar/ hacer correr/ , poner el dinero a inters/ hacerse a la mar/ salir de/ tomarse la molestia, molestarse. (to) put over= (to) put across. (to) put one over on sb.= ganar por la mano a uno, engaar a uno, dar a uno gato por liebre. (to) put through: cerrar/ despachar/ hacer aprobar/ poner una llamada/ someter a uno a una prueba. (to) put together: poner juntos, juntar, reunir/ sumar/ aadir/ montar, armar/ juntar, reunir, formar/ confeccionar/ jugar realmente bien. (to) put up: alzar, levantar, poner en alto, levantar, abrir, alzar/ montar, poner/ izar/ colgar/ pegar, fijar, poner/ envainar/ construir/ aumentar, subir/ ofrecer/ presentar/ hacer/ oponer/ nombrar, proponer/ poner una cosa en venta/ dar, poner/ preparar, hacer/ hospedar, alojar/ incitar/ levantar/ presentar/ ofrecerse. (to) put up with: aguantar, resignarse a, conformarse con. (to) put upon: molestar a uno, incomodar a uno, pedirle mucho a uno, abusar de la amabilidad de uno. (to) ride about, (to) ride around: pasearse a caballo, en coche, en bicicleta. (to) ride away: alejarse, irse, partir. (to) ride back: volver a caballo, en bicicleta, etc. (to) ride on: depender de. (to) ride out: aguantar hasta el final de. (to) rip off: arrancar/ timar. (to) rip up: romper, hacer pedazos. (to) round down: redondear (a la baja). (to) round off: completar, acabar. (to) round on: volverse contra. (to) round up: redondear (al alza)/ acorralar/ reunir, juntar. (to) run across: cruzar corriendo/ encontrar, tropezar con. (to) run after: perseguir. (to) run along: irse. (to) run away: irse corriendo, escaparse. (to) run away with: escaparse con/ no te vayas a creer que/ te dejas llevar por. (to) run down: atropellar/ criticar/ agotar/ bajar corriendo/ agotarse/ pararse.

(to) run in: rodar/ detener/ entrar corriendo. (to) run into: entrar corriendo en/ chocar con/ tropezar con. (to) run off: imprimir/ irse corriendo. (to) run off with: escaparse con, llevarse. (to) run out: salir corriendo/ acabarse/ agotarse/ caducar. (to) run over: atropellar/ rebosar/ derramar. (to) run through: ensayar/ repasar/ echar un vistazo a. (to) run up: subir corriendo/ acumular/ izar/ subir corriendo. (to) set about: empezar a, ponerse a/ atacar, agredir. (to) set against: enemistar con, poner en contra de/ contraponer, sopesar, comparar con/ desgravar. (to) set apart: distinguir ((from, de)), hacer diferente ((from, de)). (to) set aside: guardar, ahorrar/ dejar/ reservar/ dejar de lado/ anular. (to) set back: apartar, retirar/ retrasar, atrasar/ costar. (to) set down: poner por escrito, escribir/ dejar/ establecer, fijar. (to) set forth: emprender marcha, partir. (to) set in: empezar, comenzar/ surgir/ declararse. (to) set off: salir, ponerse en camino/ hacer estallar, hacer explotar/ hacer sonar/ lanzar, tirar/ hacer empezar, provocar, desencadenar/ hacer resaltar, realzar. (to) set on: echar/ atacar, agredir. (to) set out: partir, salir ((for, para))/ proponerse ((to, -)), tener la intencin de, querer/ disponer, exponer/ exponer. (to) set to: ponerse a, empezar a. (to) set up: levantar, erigir/ colocar/ montar/ montar, armar/ poner, server/ montar, poner/ fundar/ abrir/ crear/ proveer de/ ayudar a reponerse/ tender una trampa a/ establecerse ((as, como))/ pretender ser/ establecerse ((as, como)). (to) slip away: pasar, irse/ irse. (to) slip by: pasar, transcurrir. (to) slip into: ponerse. (to) slip off: quitarse. (to) slip on: ponerse. (to) slip out: escaparse. (to) slip out of: quitarse.

(to) slip up: equivocarse, cometer un error/ cometer un desliz, meter la pata. (to) stand aside: apartarse, quitarse de en medio/ no tomar parte, mantenerse al margen. (to) stand back: apartarse, echarse hacia atrs, alejarse/ distanciarse ((from, de)). (to) stand by: cruzarse de brazos, quedarse sin hacer nada/ estar preparado,-a, estar listo,-a/ estar en estado de alerta/ no abandonar, respaldar, apoyar, defender/ atenerse a/ cumplir. (to) stand down: retirarse/ dimitir/ retirarse, abandonar el estrado. (to) stand for: significar, querer decir/ representar/ defender, apoyar, ser partidario,-a de/ tolerar, permitir, consentir. (to) stand in for: sustituir, suplir. (to) stand out: destacar, sobresalir/ destacarse, sobresalir/ oponerse ((against, a)). (to) stand over: vigilar a, velar a. (to) stand to: estar en estado de alerta/ poner en estado de alerta. (to) stand up: ponerse de pie, levantarse/ estar de pie/ ponte derecho/ resistir ((to, -)), soportar ((to, -))/ poner en posicin vertical/ dejar plantado,-a a, dar un plantn a. (to) stand up for: defender: (support) apoyar. (to) stand up to: hacer frente a, resistir a. (to) show off: fardar, fanfarronear, presumir, lucirse/ hacerse el/la gracioso,-a/ hacer resaltar, realzar/ hacer alarde de, presumir de, fardar con, lucirse con. (to) show up: hacer resaltar, hacer destacar/ revelar, sacar a la luz, poner de manifiesto/ dejar en ridculo, poner en evidencia/ notarse, verse/ acudir, presentarse, aparecer. (to) stand aside: apartarse, quitarse de en medio/ no tomar parte, mantenerse al margen. (to) stand back: apartarse, echarse hacia atrs, alejarse/ distanciarse ((from, de)). (to) stand by: cruzarse de brazos, quedarse sin hacer nada/ estar preparado,-a, estar listo,-a/ estar en estado de alerta/ no abandonar, respaldar, apoyar, defender/ atenerse a/ cumplir. (to) stand down: retirarse/ dimitir/ retirarse, abandonar el estrado. (to) stand for: significar, querer decir/ representar/ defender, apoyar, ser partidario,-a de/ tolerar, permitir, consentir. (to) stand in for: sustituir, suplir. (to) stand out: destacar, sobresalir/ destacarse, sobresalir/ oponerse ((against, a)). (to) stand over: vigilar a, velar a. (to) stand to: estar en estado de alerta/ poner en estado de alerta. (to) stand up: ponerse de pie, levantarse/ estar de pie/ resistir ((to, -)), soportar ((to, -))/ poner en posicin vertical/ dejar plantado,-a a, dar un plantn a. (to) stand up for: defender/ apoyar.

(to) stand up to: hacer frente a, resistir a. (to) take after: parecerse a. (to) take apart: desmontar, deshacer/ echar por tierra. (to) take aside: llevar a un lado. (to) take away: llevarse, quitar/ restar/ llevar. (to) take back: recibir otra vez, aceptar algo devuelto/ readmitir/ devolver/ retirar, retractar/ hacer recordar. (to) take down: quitar, bajar/ desmontar/ apuntar/ humillar. (to) take for: tomar por. (to) take in: dar cobijo a, alojar, recoger/ engaar/ asimilar, entender, captar/ incluir, abarcar/ meterle a, estrechar. (to) take off: quitarse/ quitar, sacar/ llevar/ tomarse/ imitar/ descontar, rebajar/ despegar/ irse, marcharse/ hacerse popular, tener xito, ponerse de moda. (to) take on: hacerse cargo de, encargarse de, aceptar/ asumir/ contratar, coger/ desafiar, enfrentarse con/ asumir, tomar, adquirir/ agitarse, ponerse nervioso,-a. (to) take out: sacar, quitar/ invitar a salir/ llevar de paseo/ hacerse, sacar/ obtener/ llevar comida a casa/ eliminar. (to) take out on: tomarla con, desquitarse con, descargarse. (to) take over: tomar (posesin de), apoderarse de/ ocupar/ absorber, adquirir/ hacerse cargo de/ asumir/ tomar el poder, hacerse con el poder/ entrar en funciones, relevar/ repasar/ ensear, mostrar. (to) take over from: relevar, sustituir. (to) take to: tomar cario a/ darse a/ empezar a, aficionarse a. (to) take up: ocupar/ llevar, subir/ quitar, levantar/ ocupar/ ocupar, llevar/ continuar, reanudar/ aceptar/ dedicarse a/ volver a/ acortar. (to) take upon: encargarse de. (to) take up on: hacer puntualizaciones sobre/ aceptar (una oferta). (to) take up with: empezar a salir con, entrar en relaciones con/ hablar de. (to) tell against: obrar en contra de. (to) tell apart: distinguir. (to) tell off: regaar, reir/ destacar. (to) tell on: chivarse de. (to) tick away: transcurrir. (to) tick off: marcar, sealar/ regaar, reir/ fastidiar, dar rabia. (to) tick over: marchar al ralent, estar en marcha/ ir tirando. (to) throw about: derrochar.

(to) throw away: tirar/ desaprovechar, perder/ malgastar, derrochar/ lanzar al aire. (to) throw back: devolver/ echar atrs. (to) throw back on: obligar a recurrir a. (to) throw in: incluir gratis/ sacar de banda. (to) throw off: deshacerse de, librarse de/ despistar/quitarse. (to) throw on: ponerse. (to) throw out: echar, expulsar/ rechazar/ tirar, tirar a la basura/ juntar de prisa/ improvisar/ juntar. (to) throw up: vomitar, devolver/ abandonar, renunciar a/ arrojar, dar, aportar/ revelar, poner en evidencia/ vomitar, devolver. (to) try for: tratar de obtener. (to) try on: probarse. (to) try out: probar, ensayar. (to) turn against: poner en contra/ ponerse en contra de. (to) turn around / turn round: volverse, darse la vuelta/ volver, darle la vuelta a. (to) turn away: no dejar entrar/ volver la cabeza, volver la espalda. (to) turn back: hacer retroceder, hacer volver/ retrasar/ volverse atrs. (to) turn down: rechazar, no aceptar/ denegar/ bajar/ doblar. (to) turn in: entregar a la polica/ acostarse. (to) turn off: desconectar/ apagar/ cerrar/ repugnar, dar asco a/ salir de/ apagarse/ salir. (to) turn on: conectar/ encender/ abrir/ poner en marcha, encender/ atacar, arremeter contra/ apuntar, dirigir/ excitar, entusiasmar/ depender de, girar en torno a/ encenderse. (to) turn out: apagar/ producir, fabricar/ vaciar/ desmoldar/ expulsar, echar/ salir, resultar/ salir/ asistir, acudir/ salir a la calle. (to) turn over: dar la vuelta a, volver, poner al revs/ dar vueltas a/ entregar/ volver/ facturar, hacer/ darse la vuelta/ volcar/ marchar en vaco, funcionar. (to) turn to: acudir a, recorrer a, recurrir a/ buscar, pasar a/ pasar a/ dedicarse a, recurrir a, darse a, empezar. (to) turn up: llegar, presentarse/ aparecer/ doblar hacia arriba, levantar/ acortar/ subir, poner ms fuerte/ descubrir, encontrar. (to) wait about, (to) wait around: esperar, perder el tiempo. (to) wait behind: quedarse, quedarse para esperar a uno. (to) wait in: estar en casa esperando a uno. (to) wait on, (to) wait upon: servir a uno, desvivirse por mimar a uno.

(to) wait out: quedarse hasta el final de, esperar ms que uno. (to) wait up: velar, no acostarse, seguir sin acostarse. (to) wait upon: cumplimentar a uno, presentar sus respetos a uno. (to) walk about: pasearse, ir y venir. (to) walk across: cruzar. (to) walk around: dar una vuelta, pasearse. (to) walk away: irse, alejarse, negarse a, evadirse de. (to) walk away with: llevarse, copar, largarse con, robar. (to) walk back: volver a pie, regresar andando. (to) walk down: bajar a pie. (to) walk in: entrar, entrar sin llamar/ interrumpir a alguien. (to) walk into: entrar/ caer en una trampa/ ser embaucado/ chocar con/ dar con o contra/ topar/ tropezar con o contra/ devorar, zampar/ atacar a uno, arremeter a uno/ conseguir fcilmente un puesto. (to) walk off: quitarse un dolor de encima dando un paseo/ dar una vuelta para quitarse un dolor/ bajar la comida dando un paseo. (to) walk on: seguir andando o caminando/ salir de figurante. (to) walk out: salir, retirarse/ declararse en huelga/ marcharse/ abandonar a uno/ dejar plantado a alguien/ plantar a alguien. (to) walk over: atropellar a uno, tratar a uno a coces/ dar una paliza a alguien en algn deporte/ ganar/ ganar la carrera por ser el nico caballo que participa. (to) walk through: ensayar por primera vez. (to) walk up: subir a pie http://www.usingenglish.com/reference/phrasal-verbs/g.html (Here you can find more phrasal verbs)

PREPOSITIONS AND PREPOSITIONALS PHRASES AT at first at least at most at times at any rate at last at the latest at once at short notice at an advantage BY by accident by far by all means by heart by chance by and by by the way by the time by no means FOR for now for instance for example for sale for a while for the moment for ages for a change for better or worse FROM from now on from then on from bad to worse from my point of view from what I understand from personal experience UNDER under age under control under the impression under guarantee under the influence of under obligation under no obligation under suspicion under his thumb

at a disadvantage at risk at a profit / loss

by name by sight by now by then

under discussion under consider

Adjective Preposition Combinations ABOUT Use the following adjectives followed by 'about'. Each group of adjectives have the same or related meanings. Use the verb 'to be' with these expressions. angry / annoyed / furious about something Example: I'm really angry about our losses on the stock market! excited about something Example: He's excited about his birthday party next week. worried / upset about something Example: He's worried about his upcoming examinations. sorry about something Example: I'm very sorry about Losing your book. AT Use the following adjectives followed by 'at'. Each group of adjectives have the same or related meanings. Use the verb 'to be' with these expressions. good / excellent / brillant at something OR at doing something Example: They are excellent at planning fun parties. bad / hopeless at something OR at doing something Example: Unfortunately, I'm hopeless at being on time. AT / BY Use the following adjectives followed by 'at' or 'by'. Each group of adjectives have the same or related meanings. Use the verb 'to be' with these expressions. amazed / astonished / shocked / surprised at OR by something Example: I was amazed at his stamina. FOR Use the following adjectives followed by 'for'. Each group of adjectives have the same or related meanings. Use the verb 'to be' with these expressions. angry with someone for something Example: I'm really angry with John for his total lack of responsibility. famous for something Example: She's famous for her watercolor paintings. responsible for something Example: You'll have to speak to John, he's responsible for customer complaints. sorry for doing something Example: He says he's sorry for shouting at you. (to feel or be) sorry for someone Example: I really feel sorry for Pam. FROM Use the following adjectives followed by 'from'. different from someone / something Example: His photographs are very different from his paintings. 'of / on / to / with' OF Use the following adjectives followed by 'of'. Each group of adjectives have the same or related meanings. Use the verb 'to be' with these expressions. nice / kind / good / generous of someone (to do something) Example: It was very nice of him to buy me a present. mean of someone (to do something) Example: It was very mean of Susan to say that to Tom. stupid / silly of someone (to do something) Example: I'm afraid it was stupid of me to come.

intelligent / clever / sensible of someone (to do something) Example: That was quite sensible of Tom. polite of someone (to do something) Example: It was very polite of Peter to invite my sister to the party. impolite / rude of someone (to do something) Example: I can't believe how rude it was of Jack to shout at his daughter in front of all those people. unreasonable of someone (to do something) Example: Don't be so hard on yourself! It's unreasonable of you to expect to understand everything immediately. proud of something or someone Example: I'm very proud of my daughter's wonderful progress in school. ashamed of someone or something Example: She's ashamed of her bad grades. jealous / envious of someone or something Example: She's really envious of her sister's wealth. aware / conscious of something Example: Teens are often overly conscious of skin blemishes. capable / incapable of something Example: Peter is quite capable of conducting the meeting on his own. fond of someone or something Example: She is so fond of her niece. short of something Example: I'm afraid I'm short of cash tonight. tired of something Example: I'm tired of your complaining! ON Use the following adjective followed by 'on'. Use the verb 'to be' with these expressions. to be keen on something Example: She is very keen on horses. TO Use the following adjectives followed by 'to'. Each group of adjectives have the same or related meanings. Use the verb 'to be' with these expressions. married / engaged to someone Example: Jack is engaged to Jill. nice / kind / good / generous to someone Example: She was very generous to me when I was staying with her. mean / impolite / rude / unpleasant / unfriendly / cruel to someone Example: How can you be so unfriendly to your neighbors? similar to something Example: His painting is similar to Van Gough. WITH Use the following adjectives followed by 'with'. Each group of adjectives have the same or related meanings. Use the verb 'to be' with these expressions. angry / annoyed / furious with someone for something Example: I'm furious with my brother for having lied to me! delighted / pleased / satisfied with something Example: He is quite satisfied with his results. disappointed with something Example: She's really disappointed with her new car. bored / fed up with something Example: Let's go. I'm fed up with this party. crowded with (people, tourists, etc.) Example: Disneyland is crowded with tourists in July. Prepositions of Place and Direction Look at this plan of the ground floor of a skyscraper: Here are a number of preposition combinations that can be used to describe the floor plan:

Prepositions of Position at the back of at the bottom of at the top of behind between in the corner of in the middle of next to to the left of on the other side of to the right of on the side of on top of opposite Example Sentences There is a large garden in the middle of the skyscraper. The smallest room is located to the left of the internal garden. The entrance to room number three is opposite the entrance to room number two. Prepositions of Direction Here are a number of prepositions that can be used to show direction and movement around the floor plan: across between into out of past round through towards Example Sentences Walk through the exit of room two and enter into building number three. Walk across the indoor garden to reach room number five. Walk past the side entrance to reach the main entrance. CONJUNCTIONS The Case of Then and Than Than is used to make comparisons. In the sentence "Piggy would rather be rescued then stay on the island," we have employed the wrong word because a comparison is being made between Piggy's two choices; we need than instead. In the sentence, "Other than Pincher Martin, Golding did not write another popular novel," the adverbial construction "other than" helps us make an implied comparison; this usage is perfectly acceptable in the United States but careful writers in the UK try to avoid it (Burchfield). Generally, the only question about than arises when we have to decide whether the word is being used as a conjunction or as a preposition. If it's a preposition (and Merriam-Webster's dictionary provides for this usage), then the word that follows it should be in the object form. He's taller and somewhat more handsome than me. Just because you look like him doesn't mean you can play better than him. Most careful writers, however, will insist that than be used as a conjunction; it's as if part of the clause introduced by than has been left out:

He's taller and somewhat more handsome than I [am handsome]. You can play better than he [can play]. In formal, academic text, you should probably use than as a conjunction and follow it with the subject form of a pronoun (where a pronoun is appropriate). Then is a conjunction used to connect two independent clauses; usually, it will be accompanied (preceded) by a comma. Omitting That The word that is used as a conjunction to connect a subordinate clause to a preceding verb. In this construction that is sometimes called the "expletive that." Indeed, the word is often omitted to good effect, but it must be translated into Spanish like que. Isabel knew [that] she was about to be fired. She definitely felt [that] her fellow employees hadn't supported her. I hope [that] she doesn't blame me.

Sometimes omitting the that can be adequately bridged with the use of a comma: The problem is, that production in her department has dropped. Remember, that we didn't have these problems before she started working here. The boss said yesterday that production in this department was down fifty percent.(Notice the position of "yesterday.") Our annual report revealed that some losses sustained by this department in the third quarter of last year were worse than previously thought. The CEO said that Isabel's department was slacking off and that production dropped precipitously in the fourth quarter. (Did the CEO say that production dropped or was the drop a result of what he said about Isabel's department? The second that makes the sentence clear.) Authority for this section: Dos, Don'ts & Maybes of English Usage by Theodore Bernstein. Gramercy Books: New York. 1999. p. 217. Subordinating Conjunctions A Subordinating Conjunction (sometimes called a dependent word or subordinator) comes at the beginning of a Subordinate (or Dependent) Clause and establishes the relationship between the dependent clause and the rest of the sentence. It also turns the clause into something that depends on the rest of the sentence for its meaning. He took to the stage as though he had been preparing for this moment all his life. Because he loved acting, he refused to give up his dream of being in the movies. Unless we act now, all is lost. Notice that some of the subordinating conjunctions in the table below after, before, since are also prepositions, but as subordinators they are being used to introduce a clause and to subordinate the following clause to the independent element in the sentence. Common Subordinating Conjunctions

after although as as if as long as as though because before even if even though

if if only in order that now that once rather than since so that than that

though till unless until when whenever where whereas wherever while

The Case of Like and As Strictly speaking, the word like is a preposition, not a conjunction. It can, therefore, be used to introduce a prepositional phrase ("My brother is tall like my father"), but it should not be used to introduce a clause ("My brother can't play the piano like as he did before the accident" or "It looks like as if basketball is quickly overtaking baseball as America's national sport."). To introduce a clause, it's a good idea to use as, as though, or as if, instead. Like As I told you earlier, the lecture has been postponed. It looks like as if it's going to snow this afternoon. Johnson kept looking out the window like as though he had someone waiting for him. In formal, academic text, it's a good idea to reserve the use of like for situations in which similarities are being pointed out: This community college is like a two-year liberal arts college. However, when you are listing things that have similarities, such as is probably more suitable: The college has several highly regarded neighbors, like such as the Mark Twain House, St. Francis Hospital, the Connecticut Historical Society, and the UConn Law School. Beginning a Sentence with Because Because e-mail now plays such a huge role in our communications industry. Because e-mail now plays such a huge role in our communications industry, the postal service would very much like to see it taxed in some manner.

Correlative Conjunctions Some conjunctions combine with other words to form what are called correlative conjunctions. They always travel in pairs, joining various sentence elements that should be treated as grammatically equal. She led the team not only in statistics but also by virtue of her enthusiasm. Polonius said, "Neither a borrower nor a lender be." Whether you win this race or lose it doesn't matter as long as you do your best. Correlative conjunctions sometimes create problems in parallel form. Click HERE for help with those problems. Here is a brief list of common correlative conjunctions.

both . . . and not only . . . but also not . . . but either . . . or Conjunctive Adverbs

neither . . . nor whether . . . or as . . . as

The conjunctive adverbs such as however, moreover, nevertheless, consequently, as a result are used to create complex relationships between ideas. Refer to the section on Coherence: Transitions Between Ideas for an extensive list of conjunctive adverbs categorized according to their various uses and for some advice on their application within sentences (including punctuation issues).

Tenses in English In English, there are three basic tenses: present, past, and future. Each has a perfect form, indicating completed action; each has a progressive form, indicating ongoing action; and each has a perfect progressive form, indicating ongoing action that will be completed at some definite time. Here is a list of examples of these tenses and their definitions: Simple Forms Present Past Future take/s took will/shall take Progressive Forms am/is/are taking was/were taking will be taking Perfect Forms have/has taken had taken will have taken Perfect Progressive Forms have/has been taking had been taking will have been taking

Simple Forms Present Tense Present tense expresses an unchanging, repeated, or reoccurring action or situation that exists only now. It can also represent a widespread truth.

Example The mountains are tall and white. Every year, the school council elects new members. Pb is the chemical symbol for lead. Past Tense

Meaning Unchanging action Recurring action Widespread truth

Past tense expresses an action or situation that was started and finished in the past. Most past tense verbs end in -ed. The irregular verbs have special past tense forms which must be memorized. Example W.W.II ended in 1945. Form Regular -ed past

Ernest Hemmingway wrote "The Old Man and the Sea." Future Tense

Irregular form

Future tense expresses an action or situation that will occur in the future. This tense is formed by using will/shall with the simple form of the verb. The speaker of the House will finish her term in May of 1998. The future tense can also be expressed by using am, is, or are with going to. The surgeon is going to perform the first bypass in Minnesota. We can also use the present tense form with an adverb or adverbial phrase to show future time. The president speaks tomorrow. (Tomorrow is a future time adverb.) Progressive Forms Present Progressive Tense Present progressive tense describes an ongoing action that is happening at the same time the statement is written. This tense is formed by using am/is/are with the verb form ending in -ing. The sociologist is examining the effects that racial discrimination has on society. Past Progressive Tense Past progressive tense describes a past action which was happening when another action occurred. This tense is formed by using was/were with the verb form ending in -ing. The explorer was explaining the lastest discovery in Egypt when protests began on the streets. Future Progressive Tense Future progressive tense describes an ongoing or continuous action that will take place in the future. This tense is formed by using will be or shall be with the verb form ending in -ing. Dr. Jones will be presenting ongoing research on sexist language next week. Perfect Forms Present Perfect Tense Present perfect tense describes an action that happened at an indefinite time in the past or that began in the past and continues in the present.This tense is formed by using has/have with the past participle of the verb. Most past participles end in -ed. Irregular verbs have special past participles that must be memorized. Example The researchers have traveled to many countries in order to collect more significant data. Meaning At an indefinite time

Women have voted in presidential elections since 1921. Continues in the

present Past Perfect Tense Past perfect tense describes an action that took place in the past before another past action. This tense is formed by using had with the past participle of the verb. By the time the troops arrived, the war had ended. Future Perfect Tense Future perfect tense describes an action that will occur in the future before some other action. This tense is formed by using will have with the past participle of the verb. By the time the troops arrive, the combat group will have spent several weeks waiting. Perfect Progressive Forms Present Perfect Progressive Present perfect progressive tense describes an action that began in the past, continues in the present, and may continue into the future. This tense is formed by using has/have been and the present participle of the verb (the verb form ending in -ing). The CEO has been considering a transfer to the state of Texas where profits would be larger. Past Perfect Progressive Past perfect progressive tense describes a past, ongoing action that was completed before some other past action. This tense is formed by using had been and the present perfect of the verb (the verb form ending in -ing). Before the budget cuts, the students had been participating in many extracurricular activities. Future Perfect Progressive Future perfect progressive tense describes a future, ongoing action that will occur before some specified future time. This tense is formed by using will have been and the present participle of the verb (the verb form ending in -ing). By the year 2020, linguists will have been studying and defining the Indo-European language family for more than 200 years. What are transitive verbs? Transitive verbs take objects. That is, these verbs carry the action of a subject and apply it to an object. They tells us what the subject (agent) does to something else (object). Examples: He bought a shirt. (agent) (did something) (object- answers the question "what?") She brushes her hair every hour. Marina will lose the race. Note that the transitive verb can take any tense

What are intransitive verbs? Intransitive verbs do not take an object; they express actions that do not require the agent's doing something to something else. Examples: Tom danced. The intransitive verb "danced" is a complete action by itself and does not require a direct object to receive the action. They ran down the road. They ran, but they do not run "something" in this sentence. The sentence contains no object. Jack fell on the rocks in the alley. Tip: Some verbs can function as both transitive and intransitive verbs. Example: intransitive: She dances. transitive: She dances the rhumba. Linking Verbs Linking verbs link the relationship between the agent and the rest of the sentence. They explain the connection between the subject and its complement or that which completes the subject's description. The most common linking verb is "to be." Some other linking verbs are: appear become continue feel remain grow seem look smell sound stay taste

Examples: Opera seems overly dramatic to the music novice. "overly dramatic" describes the agent or subject "opera" but it does not express an action that "opera" performs. He appeared jubilant at the news of the inheritance. I am pathetically inept in such situations. He is a doctor of bioethics. Note: while "a doctor" answers the question "what?" the verb is not an action verb, but rather a "state of being" verb. Therefore, is is not a transitive verb; it links the subject (he) with his state of being (doctor).

Remember, however, if what follows the verb can provide an answer to the question "what," then the verb is not a linking verb. Compare: He tastes the soup as he cooks it.

"tastes" is transitive: he tastes "what?" The fruit tastes rotten.

"rotten" describes or complements the state of the fruit, and therefore tastes links the agent (fruit) and its condition (rotten). Problem: The two pair of verbs lay/lie and raise/rise are often misused. In each set there is a transitive verb and an intransitive verb, but they are often confused because of their similar sounds. LIE is intransitive and means to recline or be situated. LAY is transitive and means to place or put something. RISE is intransitive and means to get up. RAISE is transitive and means to lift something up. (Intr.) (Tr.) (Intr.) (Tr.) Infinitive lie lay rise raise Past Tense lay laid rose raised Past Participle lain laid risen raised Present Participle lying laying rising raising S-form lies lays rises raises Examples: Intr: She lay on the couch watching television. Tr: He laid the child gently on the bed. Intr: The alligator rose out of the water. Tr: She raised the child above the crowd, so he could see.

Identify whether the highlighted verb or compound verb is used transitively or intransitively:

11. The old woman struggled up the hill, pulling a grocery cart that had lost one wheel behind her. 12. Hermione is editing her uncle's memoirs of his lifetime as a green grocer. 13. Much to the amusement of the onlookers, Paul danced a minuet to the polka music that drifted out 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.
of the beer tent. At the beginning of the play, the entire cast dances manically across the stage. Stella is reading quietly in the upstairs bedroom instead of doing her chores. This term I am reading all of the works of Sylvia Townsend Warner. At the feast, we will eat heartily. Charles opened up his lunch, examined the contents carefully, and ate his dessert first. The Stephens sisters are both very talented; Virginia writes and Vanessa paints. When I was three years old, my father left a can of paint open in my bedroom, and early one morning, I painted my baby brother's face green.

Active Voice In sentences written in active voice, the subject performs the action expressed in the verb; the subject acts.

In each example above, the subject of the sentence performs the action expressed in the verb. You can see examples of all the verb tenses in active voice at http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/grammar/g_tenses2.html. Passive Voice In sentences written in passive voice, the subject receives the action expressed in the verb; the subject is acted upon. The agent performing the action may appear in a "by the . . ." phrase or may be omitted.

(agent performing action has been omitted.)

Sometimes the use of passive voice can create awkward sentences, as in the last example above. Also, overuse of passive voice throughout an essay can cause your prose to seem flat and uninteresting. In scientific writing, however, passive voice is more readily accepted since using it allows one to write without using personal pronouns or the names of particular researchers as the subjects of sentences (see the third example above). This practice helps to create the appearance of an objective, fact-based discourse because writers can present research and conclusions without attributing them to particular agents.

Instead, the writing appears to convey information that is not limited or biased by individual perspectives or personal interests. You can recognize passive-voice expressions because the verb phrase will always include a form of be, such as am, is, was, were, are, or been. The presence of a be-verb, however, does not necessarily mean that the sentence is in passive voice. Another way to recognize passive-voice sentences is that they may include a "by the..." phrase after the verb; the agent performing the action, if named, is the object of the preposition in this phrase. You can see examples of all the verb tenses in passive voice at http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/grammar/g_tenses2.html. Choosing Active Voice In most nonscientific writing situations, active voice is preferable to passive for the majority of your sentences. Even in scientific writing, overuse of passive voice or use of passive voice in long and complicated sentences can cause readers to lose interest or to become confused. Sentences in active voice are generally--though not always-- clearer and more direct than those in passive voice.

passive (indirect)

active (direct):

Sentences in active voice are also more concise than those in passive voice because fewer words are required to express action in active voice than in passive. passive (more wordy) active (more concise)

Changing passive to active If you want to change a passive-voice sentence to active voice, find the agent in a "by the..." phrase, or consider carefully who or what is performing the action expressed in the verb. Make that agent the subject of the sentence, and change the verb accordingly. Sometimes you will need to infer the agent from the surrounding sentences which provide context. Passive Voice Agent most of the class Changed to Active Voice

agent not specified; most likely agents such as "the researchers"

the CIA director and his close advisors

agent not specified; most likely agents such as "we"

Choosing Passive Voice While active voice helps to create clear and direct sentences, sometimes writers find that using an indirect expression is rhetorically effective in a given situation, so they choose passive voice. Also, as mentioned above, writers in the sciences conventionally use passive voice more often than writers in other discourses. Passive voice makes sense when the agent performing the action is obvious, unimportant, or unknown or when a writer wishes to postpone mentioning the agent until the last part of the sentence or to avoid mentioning the agent at all. The passive voice is effective in such circumstances because it highlights the action and what is acted upon rather than the agent performing the action. active The dispatcher is notifying police that three prisoners have escaped. Surgeons successfully performed a new experimental liver-transplant operation yesterday. "Authorities make rules to be broken," he said defiantly. passive Police are being notified that three prisoners have escaped. A new experimental liver-transplant operation was performed successfully yesterday. "Rules are made to be broken," he said defiantly.

In each of these examples, the passive voice makes sense because the agent is relatively unimportant compared to the action itself and what is acted upon.

Changing active to passive If you want to change an active-voice sentence to passive voice, consider carefully who or what is performing the action expressed in the verb, and then make that agent the object of a "by the..." phrase. Make what is acted upon the subject of the sentence, and change the verb to a form of be + past participle. Including an explicit "by the..." phrase is optional. Active Voice Agent The presiding officer Changed to Passive Voice

The leaders

The scientists

In each of these examples, the passive voice is useful for highlighting the action and what is acted upon instead of the agent. What are Modal Verbs? Modal verbs are special verbs which behave very differently from normal verbs. Here are some important differences: 1. Modal verbs do not take "-s" in the third person. Examples: He can speak Chinese. She should be here by 9:00.

2. You use "not" to make modal verbs negative, even in Simple Present and Simple Past. Examples: He should not be late. They might not come to the party.

3. Many modal verbs cannot be used in the past tenses or the future tenses. Examples: He will can go with us. Not Correct She musted study very hard. Not Correct

Complete the sentences using the words listed in the box below, then click the "Check" button to check your answers. Don't forget to capitalize when necessary. Some gaps may have more than one correct answer. can could have to must might should 1. Ted's flight from Amsterdam took more than 11 hours. He be exhausted after such a long flight. He prefer to stay in tonight and get some rest. 2. If you want to get a better feeling for how the city is laid out, you walk downtown and explore the waterfront. 3. Hiking the trail to the peak be dangerous if you are not well prepared for dramatic weather changes. You research the route a little more before you attempt the ascent. 4. When you have a small child in the house, you leave small objects lying around. Such objects be swallowed, causing serious injury or even death. 5. Dave: you hold your breath for more than a minute? Nathan: No, I can't. 6. Jenny's engagement ring is enormous! It have cost a fortune. 7. Please make sure to water my plants while I am gone. If they don't get enough water, they die. 8. I speak Arabic fluently when I was a child and we lived in Egypt. But after we moved back to Canada, I had very little exposure to the language and forgot almost everything I knew as a child. Now, I just say a few things in the language. 9. The book is optional. My professor said we read it if we needed extra credit. But we read it if we don't want to. 10. Leo: Where is the spatula? It be in this drawer but it's not here. Nancy: I just did a load of dishes last night and they're still in the dish washer. It be in there. That's the only other place it be. 11. You take your umbrella along with you today. The weatherman on the news said there's a storm north of here and it rain later on this afternoon. 12. we pull over at the next rest stop? I really use the bathroom and I don't know if I hold it until we get to Chicago. 13. Oh no! Frank's wallet is lying on the coffee table. He have left it here last night. 14. Ned: I borrow your lighter for a minute? Stephen: Sure, no problem. Actually, you keep it if you want to. I've given up smoking. 15. I believe she said that to Megan! She insult her cooking in front of everyone at the party last night. She have just said she was full or had some salad if she didn't like the meal. 16. Do you chew with your mouth open like that? Geez, it's making me sick watching you eat that piece of pizza. 17. Mrs. Scarlett's body was found in the lounge just moments ago, and it's still warm! Nobody has left the mansion this evening, so the killer be someone in this room. It be any one of us!!! 18. Ted: I don't know why Denise starting crying when I mentioned the wedding. Pamela: It have been what you said about her brother. Or, perhaps she is just nervous. After all, the big day is tomorrow. 19. you always say the first thing that pops into your head?

ACTIVITIES If you continually use short sentences in your writing, your paragraphs will sound very choppy. Read this paragraph and notice how it sounds. It was my birthday. I ask for a bike. My parents bought me a red bike. It had white strips on the fenders. I like to ride my bike everywhere. I like to ride on smooth payment best. I am not allowed to ride on the sidewalk. People walk on the side walk. If I have time. I ride on the bike trail in the park. To make your writing more interesting, you can combine the short sentences to make longer sentences. The longer sentences can be either compound or complex. Read the revised paragraph below. Notice how the paragraph flows much better with longer sentences. It was my birthday, so I ask for a bike. My parents bought me a red bike, and it had white strips on the fenders. I like to ride my bike everywhere, but I like to ride on smooth payment best. I am not allowed to ride on the sidewalk because people walk on the sidewalk. Whenever I have time, I ride on the bike trail in the park. Did you notice the kind of changes that were made in the second paragraph? Conjunctions and commas were used to connect the sentences. What are conjunctions? The most common conjunctions used in compound sentences are: and, as, but, or, so When you make a compound sentence you are joining two or more simple sentences together with a conjunction and a comma. If you took the conjunction away, the sentences would be complete and they would still make sense. Look at this example: Sentence 1: I like to ride my bike everywhere Sentence 2: I like to ride on smooth payment best Compound sentence: I like to ride my bike everywhere, but I like to ride on smooth payment best. Complex sentences use conjunctions and sometimes commas also. However, complex sentences don't just divide into neat, complete, simple sentences if you take out the conjunctions. In complex sentences the conjunction is used to join together clauses. These conjunction are used most often in complex sentences: after, although, because, before, until, since, when, whenever, while What is a clause? A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. Sometimes clauses are complete short sentences, but in a complex sentence at least one of them will depend on the conjunction for its meaning. This means if you take the conjunction away, the sentence won't divide into complete units that make sense by themselves. Look at these examples: Clause 1: I am not allowed to ride on the sidewalk Clause 2: People walk on the sidewalk Complex sentence: I am not allowed to ride on the sidewalk because people walk on the sidewalk.

Clause 1: If I have time Clause 2: I ride on the bike trail in the park Complex sentence: Whenever I have time, I ride on the bike trail in the park. Revise these paragraphs using compound and complex sentences. (Source: http://www.unt.edu/writing_center/wssentencecombining.htm) Paragraph 1: It was a dark and stormy night. The wind was high. The trees waved and crashed against the barn. I looked around me and saw that I wasnt alone. A man stood behind me. He was tall. He was mean. He had a knife. It was shining in the moonlight. It was long and slender. He reached back. He stabbed with it. I jumped out of the way. I ran away. Paragraph 2: Tom prefers baseball to basketball. Baseball seems more interesting to Tom. Tom feels baseball is a gentlemans sport. Baseball is more structured than basketball. Baseball requires athletes to use more skill than aggression when playing. Tom respects baseball players the most because of this. Here are more resources on combining sentences: http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar/combining_skills.htm http://www.bgsu.edu/departments/writing-lab/sentence_combining_b.html http://rhet.csustan.edu/3009/sentcomb.htm http://pigseye.kennesaw.edu/~slamos/

Passive Voice Exercises Cited and adapted from Winkler, Anthony C., and Jo Ray McCuen. Writing Talk: Paragraphs and Short Essays with Readings. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000. 369-372. Practicing I Read the paired sentences aloud. Write "A" in the blank beside the sentence in the active voice, "P" in the blank beside the sentence in the passive voice. a. _______ Louise made the coffee. b. _______ The coffee was made by Louise. c. _______ The package was advertised by the travel agent. d. _______ The travel agent advertised the package. Practicing II Rewrite these sentences to put them in the active voice. a. The sugar water was relished by the hummingbirds. ____________________________________________________________________ b. Jogging is done by many people for exercise. ____________________________________________________________________ c. A standing ovation was given to the guitar player. ____________________________________________________________________ d. The syllabus was handed out by the professor. ____________________________________________________________________ Practicing III Using either a computer or a piece of scratch paper, rewrite the following paragraph in the active voice. Last summer our house was painted by me. The job took about two weeks. First, the exterior was washed using warm water and a mild detergent. Then all the chinks and pores in the

walls were sealed with putty. After the putty had had a chance to dry, the exterior could be painted. A latex paint was used because it is easy to apply and cleans up with water. A whole week was needed to finish this part of the job. I was very careful to apply the paint evenly because I did not want to have to apply two coats. A color was used that was very close to the original color. Our house is a two-story house, which meant that a tall ladder was needed to do the second story. The paint can had to be balanced on the top rung of the ladder while I worked. When the job was finished, a great deal of satisfaction was felt by me. I had to pat myself on the back. Even my dad said that a good job was done. READ THE FOLLOWING ARTICLES AND DO THE FOLLOWING EXERCISES. 17th September 2010 Good news for Chilean miners Words in the News British Broadcasting Corporation 2010 Workers trying to reach the 33 trapped miners in Chile say they hope to rescue them by early November. Initially, the government said it could take until Christmas, but engineers say their work is going well. From Chile, Gideon Long reports. The engineers are digging two escape tunnels for the men and plan to start on a third one soon. Work on the second of the tunnels is going particularly well. Ren Aguilar, one of the chief engineers at the site, said he expected the drill to reach the area where the miners are sheltering this weekend. Then, the engineers will haul the drill up to the surface and start digging again, to widen the shaft until it's big enough to serve as an escape route. Aguilar said the team expected to rescue the men in early November. The news has been welcomed by relatives of the men, who have been celebrating the birth of one of the miners' daughters. Baby Esperanza was born on Tuesday. Her father Ariel Ticona is trapped below ground. Video images of the birth were sent down a supply chute to the miners' refuge so that he could watch them. Vocabulary and definitions escape tunnels passages to help the miners to safety drill machine used for making holes sheltering staying in a safe place haulup lift up something heavy shaft long narrow passage serve as be used as rescue bring to safety trapped stuck, unable to escape supply chute passage for sending essential items refuge safe place FIND AT LEAST ONE NOMINAL:

CHOOSE A COMPLEX-COMPOUND SENTENCE AND DIAGRAM IT.

FIND AT LEAST ONE PASSIVE AND ONE ACTIVE SENTENCE.