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ABSTRACT WIND TURBINE Wind is simply air in motion.

It is caused by the uneven heating of the Earths surface by radiant energy from the sun. Since the Earths surface is made of very different types of land and water, it absorbs the suns energy at different rates. Water usually does not heat or cool as quickly as land because of its physical properties. An ideal situation for the formation of local wind is an area where land and water meet. During the day, the air above the land heats up more quickly than the air above water. The warm air over the land expands, becomes less dense and rises. The heavier, denser, cool air over the water flows in to take its place, creating wind. In the same way, the atmospheric winds that circle the Earth are created because the land near the equator is heated more by the sun than land near the North and South Poles. WIND TURBINE Wind

turbines are designed to exploit the wind energy that exists at a location. Aerodynamic modelling is used to determine the optimum tower height, control systems, number of blades and blade shape. Wind turbines convert wind energy to electricity for distribution. Conventional horizontal axis turbines can be divided into three components.

The rotor component, which is approximately 20% of the wind turbine the blades for converting wind energy to low speed rotational energy.

cost, includes

The generator component, which is approximately 34% of the wind turbine cost, includes the electrical generator, the control electronics, and most likely a gearbox (e.g. planetary gearbox adjustable-speed drive. or continuously variable transmission]) component for converting the low speed incoming rotation to high speed rotation suitable for generating electricity.

The structural support component, which is approximately 15% of the wind turbine cost, includes the tower and rotor yaw mechanism.

A 1.5 MW wind turbine of a type frequently seen in the United States has a tower 80 meters high. The rotor assembly (blades and hub) weighs 48,000 pounds (22,000 kg). The nacelle, which contains the generator component, weighs 115,000 pounds (52,000 kg). The concrete base for the tower is constructed using 58,000 pounds (26,000 kg) of reinforcing steel and contains 250 cubic yards (190 cubic meters) of concrete. The base is 50 feet (15 m) in diameter and 8 feet (2.4 m) thick near the centre.

Like old-fashioned windmills, todays wind turbines use blades to capture the winds kinetic energy. Wind turbines work because they slow down the speed of the wind. When the wind blows, it pushes against the blades of the wind turbine, making them spin. They power a generator to produce electricity. Most wind turbines have the same basic parts: blades, shafts, gears, a generator, and a cable. (Some turbines do not have gearboxes.) These parts work together to convert the winds energy into electricity. 1. The wind blows and pushes against the blades on top of the tower, making them spin. 2. The turbine blades are connected to a low-speed drive shaft. When the blades spin, the shaft turns. The shaft is connected to a gearbox. The gears in the gearbox increase the speed of the spinning motion on a high-speed drive shaft. 3. The high-speed drive shaft is connected to a generator. As the shaft turns inside the generator, it produces electricity. 4. The electricity is sent through a cable down the turbine tower to a transmission line.

The amount of electricity that a turbine produces depends on its size and the speed of the wind. Wind turbines come in many different sizes. A small turbine may power one home. Large wind turbines can produce enough electricity to power up to 1,000 homes.