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# Group Theory

Contents
Chapter 1: Review ................................................................................................................................ 2 Chapter 2: Permutation Groups and Group Actions ...................................................................... 3 Orbits and Transitivity .................................................................................................................... 6 Specific Actions The Right regular and coset actions .............................................................. 8 The Conjugation Action .................................................................................................................. 8 Chapter 3: Sylows Theorems ........................................................................................................... 11 Direct Products ............................................................................................................................... 14 Group Presentations (From Algebra II) ...................................................................................... 15 Semi Direct Products ..................................................................................................................... 15 Groups of Small Order .................................................................................................................. 16 Classification of Groups with ...................................................................................... 17

............................................................................................................................................ 17 .............................................................................................................................. 18 .......................................................................................................................................... 19 .......................................................................................................................................... 19 .......................................................................................................................................... 20 .......................................................................................................................................... 21 .......................................................................................................................................... 21 Chapter 4: Nilpotent and Soluble (Solvable) Groups ................................................................... 22 Commutators and Commutator Subgroup ................................................................................ 24 Characteristic Subgroups .............................................................................................................. 25 Soluble Groups and Derived Series............................................................................................. 26 Composition Series and the Jordan-Holder Theorem .............................................................. 28 Chapter 5: Permutation Groups and Simplicity Proofs ................................................................ 31 Normal Subgroups of Permutation Groups ............................................................................... 33 The Finite Simple Groups (Classified ~1981/2004) .................................................................. 35 Properties of Finite Fields ......................................................................................................... 36 A Closer Study of ( ) for small ................................................................................... 41

Chapter 6: The Transfer Homomorphism ...................................................................................... 43 Chapter 7: Classification of Simple Groups of order 500 ......................................................... 46

Chapter 1: Review
Notations or means that is a subset of (not necessarily subgroup), while or means that is a subgroup of . { } is a right coset while { } is a left If and , coset. We know from Algebra II that and if is finite, | | | | and the distinct right cosets partition .

Theorem 1.1 (Lagranges Theorem) If is finite and then | ||| |. Index of a subgroup The value |
| | |

in

and is denoted |

if .

## } the set of cosets with group

operations

{ } and All groups have normal subgroups { } and . A group is called simple if are the only normal subgroups (this is equivalent to having exactly two normal subgroups).

and

Abelian finite simple groups are exactly those groups which are cyclic of prime order. The classification of finite simple groups was completed in 1981. The aim of this module is to classify all finite non-abelian simple groups of order up to 500 with proofs. It turns out there are only three such examples which have orders 60, 168 and 360. First we recall some more statements proved in Algebra II. Proposition 1.2 If then subgroups of

with ( ) (

## Homomorphism A map is a homomorphism if (

( ) is a monomorphism if ( ) is an epimorphism if ( ) is an isomorphism if it is both a monomorphism and an epimorphism is an automorphism if is an isomorphism with

Kernel If is a homomorphism then the kernel of ( ). Note that Claim is a monomorphism iff Claim For ( )

denoted

( )

( )

}.

## , the quotient map

given by ( ) ( )

is an epimorphism.

Theorem 1.3 (First Isomorphism Theorem) Let be a homomorphism and denote i. ii. iii. ( ) The map (not necessarily normal)

( ) defines an isomorphism ( )

( ). Hence

Order of an element For , the order of denoted | | is the least such that or if there is no } such . For , the set { is the cyclic subgroup generated by . Remark If | | , finite then { } while if | | then

} is the subgroup generated by More generally for { , and is defined to be the intersection of all subgroups containing which is equivalent to the set of all products of any length of and Cyclic Group A group is called cyclic if it is generated by one element for example | | | | { } | | | | {| | | | | | | |

## Chapter 2: Permutation Groups and Group Actions

Let be a set. ( ) be the group of all permutations Permutation A permutation of is a bijection ( ) where | | and

. Define

## Notation ( ) and If write the image of so means first apply then .

under

as

not ( ), so we get

Example { Take

} and denote

( ) as follows: ( )( ) ( )( )

In cyclic notation ( )( ) ( )( ) and have the same So and have a cycle of length 2 and a cycle of length 3 hence ( ) cycle type? Why? is a conjugate of : For above, | | ( ) denote | | | | | | o len ths o | |

## Lemma 2.1 If is a finite set, any permutation of generated by transpositions.

Proof ( ) and express it as a product of cycles, so it is enough to express cycles as a Take composition of transpositions: ( ) ( )( ) ( ) Even and Odd Permutations ( ) is called even or odd if transpositions respectively.

## is a product of an even or odd number of

Theorem 2.2 No permutation is both even and odd. Proof Not instructive, but in the lecture notes. Clearly, e en e en homomorphism odd. o ( ) o e en and o e en e en o o , so there is a { } where ( ) if is even and ( ) if is { ( ) is e en} is a subgroup of
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) by

, ( )|

( )

so

## We will later prove that

is simple for

Group Actions We did these in Algebra II, but will use right actions not left actions and use different notation: An Action of a Group the map and Then Denote ( ) { ( ) by on a set
(

mapping ( and )

## (not for all

). By . For

is a permutation of

, we have

( )

and

## Faithful Action The action on is called faithful if

( )

or equivalently if

Dihedral Group Recall that is the dihedral group of order Example : Consider the regular hexagon below

).

## Define three actions of

on subsets of : actions on ( ) ( )( ) } ( ( ) )( )( )

erti es

On

es

On

ia onals

} ( ( ) ) } and in fact,

Observe that

and

such that

## Orbits and Transitivity

Let act on . Define for if there exists such that be an equivalence relation. The equivalence classes are called the orbits of of is written as . Example { } and take Let }{ }{ The orbits of are { }{ are { The orbits of so hence . Similarly, orbit but applying to { }. . Similar for Transitive is called transitive if there exists Observe that . This is clear to on . The orbit

( )( )( ) and ( )( )( ) where . } { } while the orbits of are { } { } { } { } { }. }. This is deduced because so also so so { } is are all in the same

for all

## in the previous example is not transitive.

-transitive For , is called -transitive if: 1. | | 2. Given , define pints that for and distinct . )-transitive implies -transitive. . Then there exists so

## Observe that 1-transitive is the same as transitive and ( Examples 1. 2.

} is -transitive on { } )-transitive on { , the alternating group is ( Proof Take distinct and . Then { where and are the other two points. Also Certainly there exists a unique with for are done. Otherwise let be the transposition ( and for

{ . If ) then

} }. then we and so

and

## . Define the stabiliser of

in

as

( )

and

( ) is a subgroup of : ( ) then so ( ) so } so ( ) is a

Let subgroup.

Note that the kernel of the action is { action. Theorem 2.3 (Orbit-Stabiliser Theorem) If acts on with finite and then | | Proof Suppose ? | ||

## is the kernel of the

| or equivalently |

|.

so there exists

with

## may not be unique so for which

is

So is in the same right coset of as . So this defines a bijection between | | | as claimed. cosets of in . So | Notation For , denote If denote
( )

## and the right

the two point stabiliser. Similarly, { { } ( . )( ) and } pointwise sta iliser setwise sta iliser { } then and , but if

} and
( )

( )

but
( )

## in an orbit. is transitive implies | | | || | If is -transitive and | | then | |

| is constant for

)|

| for any

Proof i. ii. iii. This follows immediately from the Orbit-Stabiliser Theorem This follows immediately from part i. We use induction on . When ,| | | | from part ii. Assume true for ; that is is -transitive implies that { }|
{ }

is (

)-

## transitive straight from the definition since |

. So by induction

)(

)|

| also | |

result follows.

## Specific Actions The Right regular and coset actions

Right Regular Action Let be any group. Take action. Given , } { } so it is faithful. . For and we define . This is clearly an ( ) {

and take ) }

{ {

}. Define (

## { } gives the right regular action. Note that ( } { ( ) {

so it is transitive. Then } .

As the stabiliser is a subgroup, this particular subgroup is called a conjugate of In general, this action is not faithful: Example Take i. { { } }. We have two cosets { }. Then

and

ii.

} kernel of the action so it is not faithful. ( ) ( ) so { Observe that so kernel so }. We have three cosets { } then { ( a 3-cycle on . Notice that so ( ) . Then ( ). Therefore | | | | so the action is faithful.

) is

Theorem 2.5 Any transitive action of on is equivalent to some coset action. (That is, a bijection between , so that the group action is preserved. Proof Let act transitively on . Let on . Define by ( ) First we check that and for { . Let . We claim that } we have a coset action is a bijection: . Now

((

) )

) .

## The Conjugation Action

acts on by . This is clearly an action.

## Remark The default meaning of

for

is

is a conjugate of in . The orbits are called the conjugacy classes of and denoted { } so the action is not transitive if | | ( ). Note that ( ) { . } { } ( ) otherwise known as the Centraliser of . ( ) ( ) { } Note that As a generalisation we can take ( ) { Then is the centraliser of Remark It can be proved that Summary of Notation: Take then: ( ) is the conjugacy class of which is { ( ) is the centraliser of which is { ( )|| ( )| finite implies that | | | ( ) is the centre of which is { } } } { } the subgroups of and define an action by ( )

## ( ) called the normaliser of }

in . Also

( ).

Conjugacy of permutations Let is ( ( ) suppose )( and . Then so if a cyclic decomposition of )( ). is ( ; that is )( )( ) then

Example ( )( ) and ( )( ) then ( Let note that conjugate permutations have the same cycle type. Theorem 2.7 Two permutations cycle types. ( ) are conjugate in

)(

). In particular

## ( ) if and only if they have the same

Proof From the above, we conclude that is true. ( ) of the same cycle type: that is Conversely, take and ( )( )( ). Then simply choose and all . This is possible because all and . It then follows that

( ( ) so that

)(

)( ) for all .

} and

)(

) and

( (

)(

) As )(

and ) then

## have the same satisfies

is not unique.

-groups: For prime, a finite group is called a -group if | | group if all elements have order a power of ). Note for { } Observe that Lemma 2.8 If then Proof As that ( ) but for {

for

(for

infinite } ( )

is a -

## is a union of conjugacy classes of ( )

and

for all

. Therefore

. ( )

Theorem 2.9 Let be a finite -group where is prime and with ( ) particular if take to conclude that .

then

. In

Proof ( ) for some By Lemma 2.8, . This is a disjoint union because ( ) { }. We have conjugacy classes are either equal or disjoint. Choose so | | | ( )| | ( )| | ( )| by the Orbit-Stabiliser | ( )| Theorem. Now observe that for some . Since ,| | mo y La ran es Theorem. There ore in or er to a oi a ontra i tion some with since otherwise we get mo . ( )| ( ) and so ( ) That is | for some hence ( ) so .

## Chapter 3: Sylows Theorems

Product of subsets: If then Lemma 3.1 Let i. ii. Proof i. Suppose ( )( . Take and . Then ) ( )( ) and since is normal, so ) so ( . Similarly ( ) ( ) since by normality. Therefore . ( ) Let and . Then because and by normality of and . Hence is normal. If If or and then then { }

ii.

then

so

## . Then consider the restriction ( ) so applying the

First Isomorphism Theorem, we yield the result The on erse to La ran es Theorem says: i en finite and | | and | , does there | | exist a subgroup so that . In eneral this statement is not true: has no subgroup of order 6 but | power. Sylow -subgroup Let | | , prime and subgroup of . Denote | . However the answer is yes if is a prime

for ( ) {

. A subgroup } | |

of order

is called a Sylow -

Theorem 3.3 (Sylows Theorem) For a finite group let | | , prime and i. ( )

for

## ii. iii. iv.

(containment) Any -subgroup of is contained in some Sylow -subgroup of . ( ) then there exists (conjugacy) If with ( )| (number) | mo .

We will pro e Sylows Theorem in two separate Theorems. The irst one implies Proposition 3.4 Let be a finite group and ( ). Proof Let | | (

of order

{ ). If

| | and

}. Let | | then

where {

## . This is clearly an action. . (I.e. there exists that is

Let be an orbit of . If and then there exists ( ) then by definition an element with ). If ( ) . Now we consider two cases: Case 1: ( )

so

{ ( ) is a subgroup since and the orbit | | | | by the orbit-stabiliser is the set of right cosets of . Then | | theorem. In particular, is the only subgroup in the orbit. So if is a subgroup of order then the orbit of has size . . Then Case 2: Suppose ( ) . Then | |
| | | ( )| | | | |

, so by Case 1

contains no

subgroups of . As | | Let { | |

then

| | | because | ||| |

} then we have shown that equals the number of orbits of size and the remaining orbits in have || |. Then for some , | | therefore | | ( ) As is prime there exists a unique inverse
| | ( )

} with

mod . Therefore

( (

that

).

( )

The number

## so it must be the same for all groups of

order | |, in particular

## is the same for the cyclic group of order | |. Cyclic Groups

have a unique subgroup of order for all groups of order | |. Proposition 3.5 ( ), Let . Proof Take | | that is ( with )

for all

|| | so

mod

a -subgroup of

for some

## {ri ht osets o . Let . This is clearly an action.

in }.

acts on

by right multiplication

Consider the restriction of the action to . Orbits of where . This is a power of , possibly . Suppose the orbit of . has size 1. That is (

on

have size | | |

)|

) therefore

Proof of Theorem 3.3 Follow immediately from the conclusion of Proposition 3.4 Since is a subgroup of order | | we have ( ) then | | | | so we must have If thus . Corollary 3.6 (Cauchys Theorem) If is a finite group and || | for prime then Proof Choose | . Then as Corollary 3.7 ( )| Let | | | | | |. ( ). Take Then ( ) so ( we must have { }. Then | | ) | hence | . . That is | for some for

## has an element of order .

. Then and so

and so

. Then

| | |

( )| where

( )

} In particular

Proof ( ) and let act on by conjugation. By definition, ( ) ( ). By Let Theorem 3.3, part iii, this action is transitive. By the orbit stabiliser theorem we have | | | | | ( )| ( ) by definition we have | | | ( )| and so In particular as | | | | | | | | | | | | | Corollary 3.8 | ( )| iff

| | ( )|

iff

( ) iff

for all

iff

( )

( )

## Corollary 3.10 (Frattini Lemma) ( ) then If and Proof

( )

Direct Products
Let ( {( be groups. Then define )( ) ( ). In particular | | | ) | | | }. Then

Proposition 3.11 Let i. ii. iii. Proof Easy Theorem 3.12 Let where . Let {( ) } . Then:

If Every

and

with

then where

## can be written uniquely as

and

and

. Then

Proof We first prove that for all , . Consider (called the commutator of ). Observe ( ) and because is normal so . Similarly, is normal so . So and so that is . Define (( hypothesis. )) If (( and thus then so ( ) . Therefore therefore is injective and so by ( )) (( ) . First (( )). Therefore )( )) (

) and because

) is surjective by

is a homomorphism.

## and so hence is an isomorphism.

{( )} as in the definition is an external product of Note and whereas in Theorem 3.12 is called the internal direct product of and . As a consequence of Theorem 3.12, we usually just call them direct products. Corollary 3.13 Suppose except ). Assume . For each , let for all . Then .

with

## (the product of all

Proof This is a straightforward induction on , following from Theorem 3.12. Remark It is insufficient to assume

for all

## Group Presentations (From Algebra II)

|equations in the For example, | that is generated by the elements for some es ri es the lar est roup which satisfy the equations on the right.

This is an informal definition. We will only use it when is finite or can be shown to be inite, so lar est makes sense. We woul also nee to pro e that any two su h lar est groups are isomorphic. We need group presentations here because they are so useful for defining small finite groups. The example above is the dihedral group where is the rotation, a reflection. | for However is isomorphic to , the direct product of cyclic groups. In specific examples like the ones above, it is not hard to show that there is a unique largest such group.

## Semi Direct Products

We have seen actions of the action of ( ) on . If on correspond to homomorphisms ( ) and is

( ). That is are groups we can define a group action of on in which ( ) ( ) is a bijective homomorphism from to itself. We still write for the action of ( ) on . Equivalently we define it by the axioms: ( ( ) ) ( ) is a homomorphism

Semi-Direct Product Suppose is a group which and 3.12 but not assuming ) We call an (internal) semi-direct product of

and .

and

(as in Theorem

Note that conjugation of elements of by elements of defines a group action (easy to check it satisfies the three axioms above) ( )( . We write ) ( or

of

on .

) so multiplication in is completely determined by the action denotes the semi-direct product with action . of ) on we can define the external semi} with multiplication defined

Conversely, given groups and an action direct product as follows: {( Given an action on , define by ( Claim is a group. Proof Closure is clear, the identity is ( to check. Examples: Take ( ) and ( ) [In general [In general, Define ( ) ( ), ( ), | ( ) ( ) ( ) then then
( )

)(

) where

) and (

( ) .

where ( )

. Then

( )

and

( ) mapping

( )

then | |

## Groups of Small Order

We will now classify (up to group isomorphism) all groups Claim If | | Proof Easy. Proposition 3.14 If | | with an odd prime then either Proof Let | | , an odd prime. Choose | and | . Observe is a subgroup of by Lemma 3.1 and with | | (except 16).

prime then

or

so . Clearly

. So ( )

## is determined by . ) mo . So assuming and

( ) so if we have or The two possibilities give | Proposition 3.15 If | | for some prime

so |(

then

is abelian and

or

Proof { }. Then | ||| | so | | is abelian by Sheet 2 Q1. Then let or | | . If | | then . { }. Then choose { }, define and choose Assume | | for all . Observe | | | |. Then | | | and let or . But | which is a contradiction. Therefore and so (because is abelian so | | so and we use Lemma 3.1) but | | | | so y La ran es Theorem | | . By theorem 3.12, we have .

Classification of Groups

with | |

Quickly observe that if | | , for prime or | | for an odd prime then we are done by the previous two Propositions. It remains to classify | | .I start off with another quick Lemma: Lemma If is any group and | | Proof { }. Then ( Take | | Take { } then . Moreover

for all )

is abelian. so .

as | ||

we must have | |

Case 1: { }. Then by the Lemma, Assume | | for all cyclic groups; that is either or { } the only possibility is that .

## is abelian, so is a direct sum of or . As | | for every

{ } for prime then writing with the [In General if is abelian and for all operation addition, can be made into a vector space over a finite field with elements. So if finite, then . Groups of this property are called elementary abelian. Case 2: If not, there exists with | | so | |

. Let

hence

. Choose

## so . Claim Given Proof { } { }, {

has order

so

( )

so

. Also

implies that

and

is defined uniquely.

{ }

} { }

## , { } so the Claim is true. or . . then | |

The possibilities are that . If We now consider the possibilities that or | | | Observe that | so or Case 2a If

and so

then

## Case 2b In this case

and

is non-Abelian.

| If we have | If then we can construct as a group of complex 2x2 matrices. This proves the existence of and is necessary to show the relations above are not inconsistent. Observer that has or order 2 and the other 6 elements are of order 4 so or ( )| . Also by Corollary 3.7, | ( )||| | so | ( )|

( ) so

{ } or

## by Corollary 3.8. Since | | by Proposition 3.15.

we may take

Case 1a | . Then Take Either or ( ) with More formally, both define a homomorphism

; the group automorphism is determined by . and ( ) . Can have ( ) or ( ) ( ) so we get two possible semi-direct products:

| | non a elian (No need to prove the existence of these groups; their existence is guaranteed by the SemiDirect Product.) Case 1b Take If ( ) ( )
(

## ( ). There are four possibilities: ( )

( )

| The other three cases give isomorphic groups: ( ) The groups obtained by the cases ( ) are clearly the same as the case ( ) ( ) since you can simply interchange and . ( ) we can simply replace by If ( ) then ( ) . Since so this choice is isomorphic to the two above. So we have a single group | ( ) ( ) ) (this is in fact isomorphic to as | | Case 2 { ( )| In this case we take | . Let they are all conjugate; that is acts transitively on ( ). homomorphism Let . By Corollary 3.7, | ( )) hence we can assume If ( ) and for ( )|
| | | ( )|

} ( ). By Sylows Theorem by conjugation. That is there is a ( ) so | ( ) for ) and fixes . ( )| . Then ; (as o

for any

and so ( ; that is

then ( ) or ( ) so if necessary replace by to get ( ) so ( ) which has order 12. ( ) ( ) so | ( )| | | so must be an automorphism and ( ).

Summarising, we get 5 groups in total; 4 in Case 1, 1 in Case 2. | | ( )| ( )|| so then By Sylows Theorem, | and by Corollary 3.7 | | ( )| ( )| ( )| Similarly, | and divides 5 so | . Therefore ( ) , ( ) so , implies that . ( (This same argument works with any | | with prime amd and

)).

| | There are 14 isomorphism types. This was proved by Burnside in approximately 1900. The proof is omitted because it is rather long.

| | | ( )| . Take

mo ( ),

and | |

( )| | . So

so |

( )|

. Therefore

( )

| |

and

is a semi-direct product.

Case 1 cyclic. As then the usual argument involving the automorphism group shows or each giving the cases or respectively. Case 2

with

## Claim For a suitable choice of or

and .

we can assume

or

and similarly

Sketch Proof ( ) In general, if then as we have and so (since is abelian). Moreover, so we can replace by and can assume or . Now suppose or :

by . So we

( {so we must ha e

) or

## In this ase repla e y

so an et

There are four possibilities but two are isomorphic by interchanging get three groups: Now observe that in | | for all | | the element and so

and . Therefore we

## has order 6 but no element of . has order 6 because

Summarising we get five groups of order 18; 2 in case 1 and 3 in case 2, two of which are abelian.

## | | ( )| By Sylows Theorem | ( ) and . Take possibilities for ; either Case 1 Assume

and | ( ), then or .

( )|| so | . Where

( )| |

## and so . There are two

( )| ( ) are the maps . Then | and the elements of ( ) ( ) can be any element of ( ) so we . For the possible get 4 possibilities: If ( ) then ) then If ( ) ( | . As we have ( ) ( ) and so So by replacing by we get the same semi-direct product as the previous case. ). Then The final case is that ( ) ( | Observe that in order 10. But in . , , ( ) so and ( ) ( ) and centralises ; in fact and has no element of order 10 so has

Case 2 as usual we get Suppose | | case 1b. This leads to two possible groups and |

and

similar to

Therefore we get 5 groups of order 20: three in case 1 and two in case 2. | | | ( )| | | Let Need action and divides 3 so | . ( ). Then ( ) and ( ) so If so and get two groups corresponding to the cases | . so . give isomorphic groups (swap and respectively: ). So we
( )

( )|

hence

( ) and

denote

## for some with

. Then

Observe that the second group is non-abelian so we get two isomorphism classes. Note that in all our cases, all our groups were constructed from cyclic groups as direct or semi-direct products, apart from which we had to construct as a matrix group.

## Chapter 4: Nilpotent and Soluble (Solvable) Groups

Theorem 4.1 (Third Isomorphism Theorem) Let be a group, and with an [Note that Proof Define { by ( } ) { . Because } . So , is well defined and ( ) . and so by the first isomorphism theorem and does not automatically imply that ]. (hence ). Then

Theorem 4.2 Let be a finite group. The following are equivalent: 1. | 2. 3. ( )| for all | | | prime. ( ) for all | | | prime. for all ( ) where where

## To prove 2 3: Let be the primes dividing | | Let | | . Then (excluding

by hypothesis. || | | |
| |

where
| |

## by Lemma 3.1. In particular for .

we have

| | | so

and thus since it is divisible by all . In addition, elements are coprime. Then by Corollary 3.13

## since orders of all the

Nilpotent Group A finite group satisfying the three properties of Theorem 4.2 is called nilpotent. The definition for infinite groups is different; see sheet 5. Theorem 4.3 Let be a finite nilpotent group. Then: 1. If 2. If 3. If Proof , then ( ) (nontrivial centre) then is nilpotent then is nilpotent

## . As for ( ) { } then we have ( ( ) for some hence

and , so by Theorem 2.9 ( ) . ) ( ). because nilpotent and so . By the which has order coprime to , so are normal in . Then and so for any is nilpotent. by Lemma 3.1 which has are normal in

second isomorphism theorem ( )so the Sylow -subgroups of ( ) for some and so 3. Let therefore

## order coprime to and so Examples:

is nilpotent.

Abelian Groups are nilpotent All groups of order for prime are nilpotent. Direct products of nilpotent groups are nilpotent. (Condition 3 of 4.2) . is not nilpotent since it has 3 Sylow 2-subgroups so they cannot be normal subgroups.

## Maximal Subgroup A subgroup of a group

is maximal if

but then

implies

or

Note that if is finite and with infinite groups have maximal subgroups.

## for some maximal . Not all

Theorem 4.4 The following are equivalent for finite groups: 1. is nilpotent ( ) 2. and implies that 3. All maximal subgroups are normal. Proof ( ) ( ) Let so . As is nilpotent by Theorem 4.3, ( ) We proceed by induction on | |. If | | there is nothing to prove. Case 1: ( ) So
( )

so
( )

( )

( )

. By induction so

( )

nilpotent so ( ).

( )

(
( )

( )

( )

for some .

implies that

Case 2: ( )

but ( ) ( ).

( ) and also

( ) so ( ) implies

( )

( ) and

( ) so

( )

( ) Let

be maximal in .

( )

so

( ) ( ) Assume ( ). If is not nilpotent, then for some for some maximal in . By condition iii, ( ) Contradiction.

but

( ) so ( )

so ( ) by Corollary 3.9.

( )

## Commutators and Commutator Subgroup

Commutator Let . Define the commutator to be [ Notice that [ ] and [ ] ] [ ].

Commutator Subgroup ] is by definition The Commutator subgroup of , denoted [ [ ] [ ]| ] } is not a subgroup. The smallest counterexample is of In general, the set {[ order 32. Theorem 4.5 1. [ 2.
[ ]

]

3. If

## is the lar est a elian quotient

group of . Proof 1. It follows from Theorem 4.7 (i) and (iv). [ ] therefore 2. For all , [ 3. [ ] [ ] so
[ ]

] [ so

## is abelian. for all therefore

abelian implies ] .

Remark ] It should be clear that [ is abelian. that non abelian simple groups are perfect. Examples: is done in the notes, and [ Take similarly ( In fact | | so ]

is called perfect if

]. It follows

on Sheet 5. )( ] ) [ ] so

)( )] ( )( )( )( ) ( then [( ] and ( )( ) [ ]. Therefore )( ) [ { ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )} [ because it is a union of conjugacy classes. Moreover is abelian so [ ] by Theorem 4.5 part 3.

Characteristic Subgroups
Characteristic A subgroup this to . is called characteristic in if for all ( ). We abbreviate

For any group and any the map ( ). is an automorphism and so Inner Automorphisms The group of inner automorphisms is denoted Observe that this truly is a group because In fact it is a normal subgroup: Let ( ) ( ). and thus

(conjugation by ) mapping

( ) { and ( ) (

} so ) ( ) ( ) ( ) so

( ). Then

Outer Automorphisms and the Outer Automorphism Group ( ) ( ) is called an outer automorphism and ( )
( ) ( )

is the Outer

Automorphism Group. Lemma 4.6 All Characteristic Subgroups are normal. Proof Let . Then ( ) so this means Theorem 4.7 Let be a group. Then: 1. 2. 3. ] 4. [ 5. ( ) 6. Proof 1. This is Lemma 4.6. 2. This follows from 3 and 1 ( ). Then 3. Let Claim ( ). The restriction of implies Proof injective and a homomomorphism immediately imply that homomorphism. We only need to check surjectivity. Take then ( ) ( ) so because and and for all ( ). In particular, for all and so . ( )

for all

( ),

and

finite

## is injective and a . Then

so is surjective. Therefore since so . ] [ ] so permutes the Commutators ( ) so [ ( ) 4. Let ] [ ]| ] [ ] that is [ ] char . so [ then [ ] ] ( ) and let ( ) then [ 5. Take for all implies [ for ] all so [ for all . As is a bijection from to we have [ ] ( ). Hence ( ) ( ) that is ( ) for all so ( ). If | ( )| ( ). Then 6. Take then there exists a unique | | | | ( ) so that is .

so

## Soluble Groups and Derived Series

Let be a group and suppose is a series of length . Subnormal series, Normal Series The above is called a subnormal series if for all (in this case subnormal subgroup of ). It is called a normal series if for all . Soluble For a group , we say it is Soluble if it has a subnormal series with each quotient Examples: Observe that Abelian Groups are Soluble. Let be the set { ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )} then has series ] and as [ , and because it is a union of conjugacy classes. Moreover, are abelian and is abelian so this proves is Soluble. { } { } implies is soluble. Note that this series is a subnormal series but not a normal series. All groups up to order 23 are soluble. In fact, of order 60 is the smallest group which is not soluble. Moreover is simple for so this implies that are not soluble for .
( ) ( )

is called a

abelian.

Define
( )

and

( )

] and

()

()

] for all

## . Then the series

( )

is called the derived series for . Moreover by Theorem 4.7 hence this series is a normal series.
( ) The series may stabilise ( ) for some . (this is always true if infinite groups this may not be the case e.g. free groups.

( )

for all

( )

for some .

## 1. [ ] is clear since ( hence is soluble. [ ] Let induction that

() ( )

implies that the derived series for be a subnormal series with for all .

## is a normal series abelian. We prove by

Take then . Assume true for then by induction and using the fact that ( ) ] [ ( ) ( )] [ Because abelian so
( )

is abelian,

2. [ ] by definition [ ] If is soluble then ( ) for some normal series with abelian quotients. Lemma 4.8.1 Let Proof [ Corollary 4.8.2 ( )
( )
( )

## by 1. But then the derived series is a

. Then [

for all

Proof We apply induction. The Lemma gives us the induction step. Theorem 4.9 1. If 2. If 3. If is soluble and and and and then is soluble is soluble is soluble

is soluble then

( ) ( ) ( )

for some .
( )

so
( )

so so
( )

( )

## soluble implies so is soluble. is soluble then

{ }

3.

If

( )

( )

( )

for some

so

( )

.
)

4.

) ( If is soluble then ( ) for some and so ( soluble. Let be a nilpotent group. We now apply induction on | |. When | | we get the desired result.

so

is

For | | soluble so

then ( )

## by Theorem 4.3 1. So by induction

( )

and ( ) are

is soluble by part 3.

Now observe we have an ascending chain of sets: elian roups ilpotent roups

Solu le

roups

roups

## Composition Series and the Jordan-Holder Theorem

Maximal Normal Subgroup is a maximal normal subgroup of Simple Group A Group is simple if So if and implies or .

and

implies is simple.

or

## is a maximal normal subgroup

A subnormal series is a composition series of ). simple. Not all groups have them for example ( Example: Take

if each

is

| of ? or . Since

What are the maximal normal subgroups implies So | | So | | abelian. so | | so there is a unique subgroup We consider these in turn: There is no normal subgroup of order 2 so of . Similarly, with composition series Since and so we have two composition series

( ),

since

( ),

. Then

so that | |

## which has two normal subgroups

Therefore has four composition series altogether. ( ) be two composition and there is a permutation of

Equivalent Series ( ) and Let series of . Then we say those series are equivalent if { } such that
() ()

for all

Theorem 4.11 (Jordan-Holder) Any two composition series of a finite group Proof We apply induction on | |. When | | Let ( ) and ( ) be two series as above. Case 1 If Case 2 If Moreover

are equivalent.

this is clear.

and

so simple and

(because

and .

simple implies

## be a composition series for

we then

We have four composition series in the diagram: () ( ) ( ) ( ) Now by Case 1, the series ( ) and ( also equivalent so ( ) and ( ) are equivalent using ) are equivalent so and the series ( ) and ( ) are

) since

and ( ) .

## As equivalence of series is an equivalence relation, it follows that ( )

Composition Factors The multiset of isomorphism types of factors in the composition series of are } and for it is called the composition factors of . So in the Example above, it is { { } Proposition 4.12 A finite group is soluble if and only if it its composition factors are all prime order. Proof [ ] If all the composition factors are cyclic then

that is cyclic of

is soluble by definition.

[ ] Conversely, if is soluble then it has a subnormal series with abelian factors, so its composition factors are all abelian. So by sheet 1, they are all cyclic of prime order. So soluble and | | then the composition factors are { }

Unfortunately a finite group is not determined by its composition factors but knowledge of the composition factors is useful for studying a finite group.

## Chapter 5: Permutation Groups and Simplicity Proofs

In some sense, Nilpotent Soluble groups can be regarded as a generalisation of Abelian Groups. By the previous chapter all their composition factors are . Now we will study non-abelian simple groups. Block Let act on . A block for or . is a subset with | | and but that for all ,

Primitive Action An action on is primitive if it is transitive and there are no blocks. Imprimitive Action is imprimitive if transitive and there are blocks. (Im)primitivity only applies to transitive actions. Example: { } ( on ) on { generally, for ( e.g. taking , then { Lemma 5.1 If is a block then Proof | | block. Lemma 5.2 Let be transitive and primitive. a block. Then | ||| |. In particular, | | is prime implies | | ) then | ) then { } and { } are blocks but { }, if | and then { } { } is a block. } is not. More } is a block.

## then take is a block so

(so so is a

is

Proof } partition By Lemma 5.1, the sets { } form a block system. So { Example Let { { Then in the case ( )( )( ) we have [ } take ( ), where [

and | |

| for all

hence | |

| |.

] } ]. Then ( )( )( ) and

We have two block systems if . Each row is a block and the set of all rows form a block system. Similarly for the columns. In fact . Theorem 5.3 If is 2-transitive then

is primitive.

Proof Let be 2-transitive. Then for any and there exists so that and . { }. By 2-transitivity there Suppose is a block and so | | . Let . Let exists so that . Therefore so a block implies that . { } arbitrary, hence But so . As . Contradiction. Therefore there are no blocks and so is primitive. So now we have Remarks ) For prime we know ( . This is primitive by Lemma 5.2. Hence by Theorem 5.3 it cannot be 2-transitive. (In particular it cannot map the pair ( ) ( )). ) is transitive but not primitive. For not prime then (

Lemma 5.4 If is transitive and transitive, then . Proof Let as Therefore Theorem 5.5 Let | | and of for any Proof

with

and

## is transitive then there exists so .

with

so

transitive. Then .

## is primitive if and only if

is a maximal subgroup

[ ] Take and assume is maximal in . Let be a block and define { }. } partition replace by Since the sets { if necessary and assume . Then so so . By maximality, or . If then let so there exists with (because is transitive) so so so . But as arbitrary then this implies | | so is not a block. Contradiction. If let so by transitivity of , there exists with . Then now by definition of , so . Now as arbitrary, so is not a block.

## Contradiction. Hence there are no blocks and so

is primitive.

[ ] Assume is primitive. Let for some . We want to prove or . { } implies { } implies Let . If | | then and so . Similarly, if then this implies that is transitive since was arbitrary. Then by Lemma 5.4, . | | | | we will prove is a block, giving a Now we consider the case when contradiction to primitive. Let and so there exists such that . Since there exist so that and ( . But then so So we have proved that if Contradiction to primitive. . So ) then so so by definition is a block. so

## Normal Subgroups of Permutation Groups

Theorem 5.6 Let be transitive and 1. 2. 3. Proof Suppose so for all If so then { }. Then hence . is transitive by definition. . So if and transitive and and for all then implies that { } and so and so is a block. is transitive. with . Then one of the following holds:

In general let . This is a subgroup of by Lemma 3.1 containing and . Assume that both 1. and 2. do not hold. It was proved in Theorem 5.5 that a block, so we have 3. Corollary 5.7 If is primitive and

is

with

then

is transitive.

Proof We apply Theorem 5.6. As , condition 1. does not hold. As is primitive there are no blocks so condition 3. does not hold. Therefore we must have 2. and so is transitive. Remark By Theorem 5.3, if is 2-transitive then is primitive. Hence every 2-transitive action with a normal subgroup acting non-trivially on implies that is transitive. We now consider the case where .

Regular Action An action is called regular if it is transitive and Regular normal subgroup For a group action , if Examples

for

, and

is regular then

## is a regular normal subgroup of .

{ ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )}. is a regular normal subgroup of 1. Take and . 2. Affine Groups: ( ) of affine Take for a field, we define a group ( ) transformations. We say that for a map , if there exists and a non-singular linear map such that for all . [If and we restrict to the set of orthogonal maps we get the isometry group of .] We must first prove that is a group. For if with ( ) we have and ( ( ) ) ( ) . (Closure). so

Given define by and then so . As the composition of functions is associative and the identity map is in , we have a group. { } be called the translation subgroup. Then for Let and we have ( so hence . is clearly transitive. Now for , if . was arbitrary so by definition ) ( ) so

## with then so is a regular normal subgroup.

Lemma 5.7.1 Let be a finite set. If is 2-transitive and a regular normal subgroup of then is an elementary abelian -group for some dividing | |. Hence for some and in particular | | . Proof Assume . For { , }. As

so that

## is 2-transitive then for all

{ } there exists { } are with so ( ) . So all elements conjugate in so all have the same order. Therefore every non-identity element has order for some prime so | | for some . By Theorem 2.9 we conclude that ( ) . As ( ) ( ) we must have by Theorem 4.7. As all elements of are conjugate and ( ) this implies that ( ) and so is abelian. Therefore by the Fundamental Theorem of Abelian Groups. Proposition 5.8 has no regular normal subgroup for

## Proof Suppose not and let unique we have ( ) and hence | |

be a regular normal subgroup. As in the previous proof there exist { }. Let ( ) with for all . Since }. As ( ) if and only if . Therefore ( ) { | so ( ) . As we have so

we have

. But by Lemma 5.7.1, for some prime and integer we have but this is impossible since is not a prime power.

## Theorem 5.9 is not simple for

Proof We apply induction on . As is transitive, take a normal subgroup so that . Then by Corollary 5.7 and Theorem 5.3 this implies is transitive. By Proposition 5.8, is not a regular normal subgroup so for some the stabiliser { ( ) ( ) } and as . Moreover;
{ } { }

{ })

so as . Hence

is normal is simple.

we have so

We must now do . Take . Then by Sheet 2, Q4 part ii, the conjugacy classes of have representations ( )( ) ( )( )( ) using combinatorics, the sizes of these conjugacy classes are respectively. Then | | . But any combination will not yield a factor of 60, so we get simple.

## The Finite Simple Groups (Classified ~1981/2004)

0. for prime (the abelian ones) 1. for 2. Groups of Lie type over finite fields. 3. 26 sporadic groups Here we deal with the linear classical groups, ( ).

) be the group of invertible Let be any field. Let ( matrices with entries in , or ) equivalently, invertible non-singular linear maps . Now ( the ) is multiplicative subgroup of which is abelian. We usually assume and so ( non-abelian. There are two actions of ( ): { } { }}.

1. Right multiplication of row vectors by matrices. This has two orbits { } and 2. Let be the set of 1-dimensional subspaces of . That is { . The Projective Action. Then the action is defined Theorem 5.10 ( ) is 2-transitive for 1. 2. The kernel of this action is the subgroup

} of scalar matrices.

Proof 1. Let and . are linearly independent so we can extend to a basis of . Similarly we have a basis of . So there is a linear map mapping for (which is invertible since the domain and the image are linearly independent) hence there exists ( ) with and . 2. The kernel is the set { { }} that is the set { }. ( ) { }} so in particular applying to basis elements { we obtain that Therefore by the first isomorphism theorem ( ) ( ) Moreover { Theorem: ( ) ( ) ( ( ) ) ( ( ) )

## is a homomorphism and } ( ) so by the Second Isomorphism

Properties of Finite Fields All finite fields have order for some prime and For each there is a unique field of order (Galois Theory - the splitting field of ). ( ). Take Also, finite implies cyclic. Let be the rows of . Take so | | . is any non-zero vector (there are possibilities). Su[[pse we have chosen . They must be linearly independent. Choose ; to get linearly independent we must not be in the subspace spanned by { denoted . Hence the number of } so has size possibilities for | ( is )| | )| | Let ( | ( | ( )| ( . Hence )( and | )| |
| ( )|

( | | | | |{ |
( )( )

The order of , | | ( ) is | (

so the order of ( )| }| is |

)|

) then

## | ( )| . For which ( )| possibilities.

( )

So is a multiple of So ( ( ) ) {

; there are {

} so |

)|

Example | | ( ( ( The small )| )| ) ( ( | ( )( )| ( )| . so | ) are: | | | | | | Theorem 5.11 ( For Proof Step 1 ( ) is -transitive. Proof Let and . are linearly independent so we can extend to a basis of . Similarly we have a basis of . So there is a linear map mapping for (which is invertible since the domain and the image are linearly independent) hence there exists ( ) with and ( ) ( ) by . Let and define . and for so and ( ( ( ( ( ( ( )| )| )| )| )| ) )| ( ( | | ( ( ( ( ) )| )| ) )| ) ( ( ) ) )

) and | |

## ) is simple for any field , except for

or 3.

Step 2 Basic Properties of Transvections ( ) is a transvection if its matrix with respect to some basis of ( ) that is the identity matrix but with a 1 in the (

is

) position.

From linear algebra, changing the basis replaces by which shows that all transvections are conjugate. Consider a matrix position ( (

for some

),

## ) that is the identity matrix with a then (

in the and

). If this matrix is using the basis for all so with respect to the basis (

)) the matrix

becomes (

) so

is a transvection.

Observe (

) which is also a transvection. are called elementary matrices. Here is a ). These correspond to elementary row and

Recall that matrices of the form zero matrix but with a 1 in position ( column operations of the first type.

Step 3 ( ) is generated by transvections. Proof ( ) can be From Linear Algebra this is equivalent to the statement any reduced to the identity using elementary row and column operations of the first type. This is the operation o a in a multiple o a row or olumn to another row or column. As , we know there is a non-zero entry in the first row. Add a multiple (if then so then ( ) .

necessary) of the relevant column to column 2 to get Now replace column 1 by column

. Now subtract

multiples of the first row and column from other columns to get a matrix of the form ( ) but denote the lower-right hand corner matrix of size ( )

( ) by . Then ( ). Now applying a proof by induction on , the result follows. The case (the product of 0 transvections).

is clear

## Step 4 ( ) is perfect if ] only if [ .

except for

,| |

or . We recall

perfect if and

Proof ] where By Step 3, it is sufficient to prove that all transvections are contained in [ ] char ( ) but [ ( ) so [ ( ) by Theorem 4.7. ] ), the above Furthermore, using the fact that all transvections are conjugate in ( ]. says it is sufficient to find a single transvection in [

## , we compute directly that [( ) ( )] ( ) ] contains a

so when | | there exists with so [ transvection. When and | | we use a similar argument: [( For the case [( and | | ) ( ) ( or | | )] )] we observe that: ( )

That is [

## ] contains a transvection in all cases so in all cases we have [

Step 5 Iwasawas Theorem Let be primitive with perfect. Suppose there exists for any such | . Then that is abelian and is simple. [Note that this is also used in analogous proofs for simplicity of other classical groups.) Proof Let with . primitive implies transitive by Corollary 5.7. Then for , by Theorem 5.5, is maximal so or . In particular, | so hence . Therefore . Then for all so

is abelian so [

is perfect

## arbitrary, we have shown

simple.

Step 6 Completion of the Proof ( ) and We apply Iwasawas Theorem with { ( ). By Step 1 we know that is 2-transitive hence 5.3. By Step 4, is perfect except for the cases and or It remains to find the subgroup . Take ( ). Then . Therefore { ( ) that is ( }. primitive by Theorem . ) ( ) for

{(

Let

be the set (

{(

}. Denote ( ( . ) ( )

by the

expression (

## ). It is elementary to check that ) so is an abelian subgroup of ( ) by ( )

Define a map

. This is a homomorphism:

)(

So Hence

{(

. .

## is the kernel of some homomorphism; .

It remains to show that Let be a transvection. If we show generated by all transvections. We know that there exists Let ( And ( . Observe for the ) ) ( ) ( (

is

).

( (

)(

) .

## . So every transvection is conjugate in

) to some element of

## For the general case, again let

then take

) so

that

is

. Then (

) (

) .

so every transvection is

conjugate in

) to an element of

Therefore all transvections are contained in for some . By Step 3, is generated | . There ore y Iwasawas Theorem by transvections so is simple.

A Closer Study of | ( )| ( |

( )( (

) for small . ) )| | | | ( ( ( )| ) ( ) ( ) )( ) ( ) ( )

First we recall some facts about the case { } { | ( )| | ( )| ( ), and ( ). | | ( Let {( Let | | ) {( ) }. }; the subgroup

## in the previous proof. Hence so

and | |

. Recall | | ( ). {( ) }

## is a Sylow -subgroup of ; that is

Let

.| |

. Define so

) . We

By Theorem 5.5 primitive implies that write down the Generators for small ;

is maximal is

In this case ( So ( )( ) { ) (

( ) so

) ( (

and )( )

( (

). ) (

{( (

)( )(

)( ) ( (

)} ) )

) similarly

). Therefore

} ( )(

{ ) ) so

## }. Then as before and ( )( ( )(

) )

where

| and

} where ( )

and . Let ( )

. Then

and | |

so

for ( ) ) | | ( | ) and so ( ( )( ) ). .

We have Clearly,

)(

) and

)(

( ) and |

| |

{ . We have . We have ( ) ( )(

, ( ) and

} with and ) ( )(

where )

With (

( ) .

} with . We have

and

) (

) ) and ( )( )

## In the same way as before we determine that ( )( )( )( ) and | ( { )|

and is omitted, although it is no more difficult to compute. In this case } where and . { } where

In this case | |

and | and

| .

. We can take

We choose We have

{ , (

and ) ( )(

} where ( )( )( ) )( ) where ( )

) ( )(

( )(

) )

)(

## Chapter 6: The Transfer Homomorphism

Let {
[ ]

be a finite index subgroup of a group ( itself need not be finite). Let } where | | and . Then we can define a homomorphism , the abelianisation of . , giving a ( ). We will for

acts on the coset space by right multiplication. That is, for any some giving a permutation of . depends on and . We can write }. permutation of { We can write order of ( ) for some
[

( )
]

. Define ( )
]

. Since [

## Lemma 6.1 is a homomorphism. Proof Let ( ) ( ) ( ( ) ( ) ([ ( )

. Then

and ( ) ( )

for ( ) ). Hence ]

. Then ( )

]

( ) [

) ]

( ) ( )

( )) ([

] }

( )) }.

} and so { ( ) [

( ) ] ( ).

{ ( )

Therefore ( Note

(assuming

and

## Proof Rather than a proof, I will give an example: Example: ( )( ) then ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

Therefore: ( ) ( ) ( ) So ( ) . Normal -complement Let be a finite group, and so ( ). Then is called a normal -complement in if is a semi- ire t pro u t. (They ont ne essarily exist.) [ ]( ( ) ( )

)(

)(

). Here

and

Example For , it has a normal -complement but no normal -complement. Theorem 6.3 (Burnsides Transfer Theorem) (BTT) ( ). If Let be a finite group, | | | and ( ( )) (that is in the centre of its normaliser) then has a normal -complement. So unless ,| | then is not simple. Note that applied if ( ) ( ) and so ( ( )) is abelian. We need two Lemmas. is abelian. Therefore BTT can only be

## Lemma 6.4 Let be a finite abelian group with is an automorphism.

( | |)

then

mapping ( )

Proof The map is clearly a homomorphism. If this implies that . Hence is injective. As isomorphism and thus an automorphism. Lemma 6.5 Let be finite, conjugate in Proof We have ( ) and abelian. If

then is finite,

( | |) . As is an

## ( ). This is not true in general if

for some . So and . Since are ( ). Therefore abelian, ( ( )). By Sylow Conjugacy ( ) with ( ) applied to ( ) there exists so ( ). Now ( ) . That is, they are conjugate in ( ). Proof of BTT ( ( )) therefore then ( )

is abelian so [ where {

## ( ) that is and thus for , ( )

for some

( ). But

( )) so

| | so ( | |) ( ) so by Lemma 6.4, | is an We have since automorphism of . So let (and so is normal). As | is an automorphism, ( ) so . Let , since | is surjective, there exists with ( ) and so . Therefore . Corollary 6.6 If is finite, | | for odd and then is not simple. [Also, | | odd then is not simple by Feit-Thompson (VERY HARD!)] Proof Take therefore ( ) then | | ( ) hence { } so for so is not simple by BTT. ( ),

so

## Chapter 7: Classification of Simple Groups of order

Proposition 7.1 Let be a finite non abelian simple group.

500

( ) and 1. If acts on with then is faithful (that is ) and | | | | 2. If with then , and (where means isomorphi to a subgroup of) ( )| then 3. If || |, for . | Proof 1. Let be the kernel of on . Then (since ) so simple implies that and hence . ( ) then using the second isomorphism theorem Suppose ( ) ( ) | | | | | | ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )| | ( ) ( )| ( ) Hence | . so | | | Hence If | | so ( )| and hence simple implies ( ) . Therefore is abelian which is a contradiction.

( ). ( ) is soluble so it has a subnormal series with abelian then quotients. Therefore is soluble which is a contradiction. Therefore | | . 2. We apply part 1 to the special case of the action of on the set of cosets of . 3. If , has a normal Sylow -subgroup so cannot be simple. ( ) by For , apply part 1 to the special case of the action of on conjugation. Theorem 7.2 1. All finite simple groups of order 60 are isomorphic to 2. All finite simple groups of order 168 are isomorphic to 3. All finite simple groups of order 360 are isomorphic to Proof 1. Let be a simple, | | ( )| ( )| By Sylows Theorem, | and divides 15 so | ( ) has It cannot be 1, since then by Corollary 3.8 which would give a contradiction. ( )| 3. If | ( )| ( ) then By Proposition 7.1 part 3, | then for | ( )| so ( ) a group of order 4. So ( ) is abelian and hence ( ( )) then by BTT has a normal 2-complement so not simple. ( )| Therefore | . By Proposition 7.1, but | | | | so . 2. Let be simple, | | ( ). | ( )| ( )| Let and divides 24 so | or 8. It cannot ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) )

## be 1 by Corollary 3.8 so | Let

( )|

. Take

{ . Now, | ( )|

}.
| | | |

( ). We may assume

. Recall that

. If there are only two groups of order 21; and | ( ) is abelian then is not simple by BTT. . Therefore ( ) | Consider the action of on as conjugation so ( ) .| | and so is a 7-cycle. We might as well assume (after reordering the elements of ) that ( ). | | (so is a product of 3-cycles) and so as , must fix some other point in . We may assume that fixes , so . ( ) ( ). Since so , we have Hence ( )( ). Let . | | and implies (as

). Lemma ( ), let ( ) { Let { } Then Proof ( ). We must prove Let and then
( )

}. If

( ).

that is .

for all

since ( ) { } so ( )

## Now using this notation,

that is

( ) fixes

| and or interchanges them. Since | . | { }| Now ( ) cannot be abelian since then it contradicts BTT. Therefore ( ) | so ( ) | As | we have | for any ( is 2-transitive) and so cannot | contain . Therefore is a product of 4 transpositions. The same applies to and since they are all of order 2. ( )( ) and ( )( ). We now Recall so determine : ( ) ( ) ( So ) or . So and so by replacing with or . We can therefore assume wlog that . | | ( )( )( )( ) Now but so is transitive. | | | | | so is generated Now so | ( ) by . We have proved that . 3. Non Examinable, but structured similar to the above with further complications. Theorem 7.3 The only non-abelian simple groups of order Proof If | |

prime then

by Theorem 2.9.

Also, if | |

for

odd then

## is not simple by Corollary 6.6

During this proof we will not use: Theorem (Burnside) Any group of order

for

prime is soluble.

Proof Requires Character Theory. See Groups and Representations. During the rest of the proof, | ( )|. and will denote a Sylow -subgroup of . |
| |

( )|

We can now omit all possibilities except 6 cases, which we postpone until later: Order Reason Not Simple by Definition Prime Powers 2 times odd Prime powers 2 times odd | | | | contradiction to Theorem 7.1 ii.

## 2 times odd | | 2 times odd | | | | 2 times odd | |

From now on, to speed things up, we omit prime powers and 2 times odd: | | | | and | no possible | | | | No possible : | contradiction. | | No possible | contradiction. [ ] [ ] [ ] No possible and | contradiction. | | Must have so is abelian and ( ( )) contradicting BTT.

[ ] By Theorem 7.2 all non-abelian simple groups of order 60 are isomorphic to . Note that if we have some prime and numbers and with | | then we cannot have || | . To speed things up, from now on we exclude such

## 2 times odd | 66 67 | | 2 times odd | | | | no

No

, no

| | but Remark Recall that if a group with | | and prime and and then by Sylow, so abelian. | ( )| so ( ) abelian therefore ( )) contradicting BTT. ( | so | ( )| contradicting BTT. No POSTPONED No No | hence | ( )| . By the Remark ( ) above, is abelian contradicting BTT. POSTPONED No | so but | | | | No No | ( )| ( ) abelian. Contradiction to BTT. | | so ontra i tion to La ran es Theorem. | | No . POSTPONED No . contradicts BTT no No No contradicts BTT | | No | ( )| so ( ) abelian contradicting BTT. | ( )| ( ) abelian by remark, so contradicts BTT. No so | ( )| abelian so contradicts BTT. Remember that we are omitting prime powers, 2 times odd and | | with for some | . | | | | No No POSTPONED No No POSTONED No No

| No

but | | |

No No No No No POSTPONED | (

)|

so

All the above orders were covered by Theorems in the course and arithmetic. The postponed orders need more Group Theory. In all cases, we consider the conjugation action of on ( ) for some suitable . During all cases we will use the following notation: ( ) ( ) { } ( )

( )

Order | | We have . So | ( )| so ( ) by Proposition 3.14. As ( ) abelian, this contradicts BTT, so assume | ( )| | { }| so | . Since | | is a single 11-cycle. We may assume WLOG that ( ). | | so must fix some element other than , say . Therefore ( ) ( ) as maps so we must have ( )( )( )( )( ) but then ( ) which is a contradiction. Lemma Let be a finite group. Then || | and Proof By the Second Isomorphism Theorem, implies As ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( )

( )

and

( )

so

( )

is a -group

( ) ( )

## . Moreover, we cannot have

since

Order We have . contradiction, so . { }. Since | | ( ), ( ), Take , fixes a unique point , ( ) ( ) since if fixes some other by definition of the conjugation action, { }| ( ) | hence contradicting the Lemma. . { } have | | The orbits of on or ; since there exists an orbit of length 3. Let be in such an orbit. | | . Let ( ) then | ( )|
| | | |

by Orbit Stabiliser

Theorem. By the Lemma, so . ( )| ( )| As | so | | ||| | || | | | | If | | then | Therefore | | . Since | | | ( ) but also . | ( )| ( )| and | Order . Let Therefore Order . Then ( or . If so ( ) { ). Let

and

and

## are both abelian. Let

( ) as

. Therefore | | , so If | | then and so contradiction. contradiction to 7.1. ( )| by BTT, has a normal 3-complement with ( ) and ( ) by Theorem 4.4 so | ( ) so . Contradiction.
| |

} and let

so |

( )|

with | | . | ( )| so assume . Then then so action is not faithful. Contradiction to 7.1 ( )( )( ) ( ). Contradiction to 7.1.

| | ( | ( )| Case 1 { } say ( )( then Case 2 { } so permutes the set { } and { of these orbits so . Contradiction. Order { | | . } on
| | | |

} Take ( ) { . Then ( ) | | ( ) { } consists of two 11-cycles. We may assume that )( ). | ( )| ( ) ( ) conjugation have ( ) with so there exists . ) ( ) ( )

so ( ).

## } so fixes at least one point in both

( ) { }. Let ,| |

{ and

}. As in the case | | , has a orbit of length 3 say ( ). By the Lemma, and . But ( ) so ( )| ( ) hence | . ( )|

## ( ) so | contradicting 7.1. Order

}. | { }| { } have size 2,4,8. ( ) { so the orbits of on So there exists an orbit { } of size 2. Let so | | by the Orbit-Stabiliser ( ) so ( ) and hence | ( )| Theorem and then | ; ( ( ))| contradiction since .