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1 International Biological Conference: Biodiversity & Nature Conservation in the Middle & Central Asia

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Ostrava, Czech Republic 6th 8th September 2012

Organizing Committee
Vtzslav Plek, Department of Biology & Ecology, University of Ostrava and Institute of Environmental Technologies (IET), Chittussiho 10, Ostrava, CZ-710 00, Czech Republic. Marcin Nobis, Department of Plant Taxonomy, Phytogeography and Herbarium, Institute of Botany, Jagiellonian University, Kopernika 27, PL-31-501 Krakw, Poland. Arkadiusz Nowak, Laboratory of Geobotany and Plant Conservation, Department of Biosystematics, Opole University, Oleska 48, PL-45-022 Opole, Poland. Grzegorz Kusza, Department of Land Protection University of Opole, Oleska 22, PL-45-051 Opole, Poland. rka Cimalov, Department of Biology & Ecology, University of Ostrava, Chittussiho 10, Ostrava, CZ-710 00, Czech Republic. Tom Tureek, Department of Biology & Ecology, University of Ostrava, Chittussiho 10, Ostrava, CZ-710 00, Czech Republic.

HOST PREFERENCE OF BRYOPHYTE COMPOSITION B. Y. Abubakar, S. Abdullahi Department of Biological Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria 810261, Nigeria The epiphytic bryoflora from northern Nigeria has been reported. Host specificity was shown by the recorded species in which pH value accounted for the marked variation in composition. Erpodium coronatum (Hook f. Wilson) Mitt. is the most abundant epiphyllous moss while Fissidens glauculus C.Mfill. was noted to be growing on a particular tank wall substrate. Other common bryoflora encountered include Brachymenium leptophyllum Bruch & Schimp ex Mull. Hal, Fabronia angolensis Welw. & Duby, Bryum coronatum Schwaegr. and Hyophila crenulata Guim. Senna siamea showed the highest species richness of three bryophyte species whereas the remaining tree species supported less. Generally the studied bryophytes showed a considerable preference to different host trees. This therefore suggests the need for careful management of the tree species growing in the University campus which will help in conserving the local epiphytic bryophyte community for enhanced biodiversity richness.

THE CONCEPT OF RED BOOK OF THE CENTRAL ASIAN LANDSCAPES K. Badora Department of Land Protection, Opole Univeristy, Oleska 22, PL-45-052 Opole, e-mail: kbadora@uni.opole.pl Natural landscape is a limited resource, consumable and not renewable, thus is it necessary to apply measures of its conservation and maintaining. Landscapes of Central Asia are unique and they determine high level of biodiversity of this part of World. Among such measures there are red lists and red books, which are equivalents of this type of lists for wild plants and animals. The aim of preparing a red list is to acquire knowledge about distribution, stage of preservation and threats to certain types of natural landscape. By preparation of a red list the landscape is evaluated and, based on that, its protection is presented and implemented in different types of areas and spatial scales. Preparation of a red book of The Central Asia landscapes should consists of the following stages of the investigation procedure: 1) defining the landscape (various approaches are applied, being effective for different procedures of distinguishing basic natural units, evaluation criteria and categories of threats), 2) choice of the type of area (natural or administrative units), 3) adopting the scale of the study (which is decisive for e.g. basic natural unit of the evaluation), 4) choice of the basic natural unit of the landscape for evaluation (e.g. geocomplexes, partial geocomplexes, ecosystems), 5) choice of criteria of evaluation and categories of threats, 6) choice of the way of presenting the results. Red books of The Central Asia landscapes should consists of The Landscape Status Card prepared to every type of landscapes. There are 13 components of every Landscape Status Card: 1) Type of landscape and threat categories, 2) Typology and classification, 3) Notes on typology and classification, 4) Origin of landscape, 5) Status in Central Asia, Asia and in the world), 6) Regional distribution of landscapes, 7) Description of biotic and abiotic nature, 8) Typical properties of landscape, 9) Anthropogenic changes and threats, 10) Potential of development, 11) Trends of changes of landscapes, 12) Protection areas of landscape, 13) Protection areas proposals, 14) Suggestions for landscape conservation. In the study it has been assumed that the status of the accepted unit (morpho-lithobiotope) in a heterogeneous landscape in The Central Asia depends on: 1) resources of this unit, associated with the number and area of occurrence, 2) stage of degradation and devastation, 3) threats in perspective. Each criterion has been assessed in a 5-score scale. The evaluated types of landscape units have been assigned one of the four levels of threats: I landscapes very strongly threatened, II strongly threatened, III threatened to a medium extent, IV weakly threatened.

THE PROGRAMME OF LANDSCAPE DIVERSITY MONITORING OF REPUBLIC OF TAJIKISTAN K. Badora, R. Wrbel Department of Land Protection, Oleska 22, PL-45-052 Opole, Poland, e-mails: kbadora@uni.opole.pl, rwrobel@uni.opole.pl The monitoring of the environment is a system of measurements, assessments and forecasts of the state of the environment and collecting processing and spreading information about the environment. Gathered information are supposed to serve assisting action for the environmental protection, mainly by handing over of information about the environment for bodies of the civil service and the society. The national landscape diversity monitoring of the landscape should include appearing changes in structure and functioning of entire Republic landscape as well as in individual types of the landscape, which are representative for the landscape diversity of the Republic of Tajikistan. For entire area of the Republic the simplest depicting of changes appearing in management structure is changes assessment in using grounds structure. Such an assessment should be made every year with summaries in five-year periods. For depicting spatial differentiation of changes tendency in using grounds analyses should perform also in basic units which in this case are districts. This monitoring should be treated as the preliminary stage for the detailed monitoring making in the scale of individual types of landscape. Separate analysis which should be made for the entire Republic is an assessment of changes in creating of nature and landscape conservation forms, affected every year. The monitoring of individual types of the landscape being found in a region should start from the assessment of spatial diversity of landscapes and marking representative landscapes out, as well as from the assessment of the state of the landscape - of his status. To this purpose it should be draw up red book of the landscape Among such measures of landscape controlling and protection there are red books, which are equivalents of this type of books for wild plants and animals. The aim of preparing a red book is to acquire knowledge about distribution, stage of preservation and threats to certain types of natural landscape. By preparation of a red book the landscape is evaluated and, based on that, its protection is presented and implemented in different types of areas and spatial scales. Preparation of a red book consists of the following stages of the investigation procedure: 1) defining the landscape (various approaches are applied, being decisive for different procedures of distinguishing basic natural units, evaluation criteria and categories of threats), 2) choice of the type of area (natural or administrative units), 3) adopting the scale of the study (which is decisive for e.g. basic natural unit of the evaluation), 4) choice of the basic natural unit of the landscape for evaluation (e.g. geocomplexes, partial geocomplexes, ecosystems), 5) choice of criteria of evaluation and categories of threats, 6) choice of the way of presenting the results.

After the performance of the state and threats to individual types of the landscape assessment they are making choice of characteristic areas for the monitoring. Being guided by a principle of representativeness a list of monitored landscapes is distinguished. The size of the basic field of changes assessment in the landscape shouldn't be standardized. For some landscapes size of 1 km2, it is sufficient for monitoring, other landscapes must have much greater areas. However every time it should be chosen such area, so that he doesn't constitute the part of the determined type of the landscape, only closed whole. In case of marking out a large number of units for analysis the changes assessment in individual units can be made every 5 years. Monitoring of landscapes in individual fields, units is making in the scale of 1:10000 1:25000 on topographic maps or ortophotomap. A structure of developing, as well as visual values of the space are subject to an assessment. Forming and covering the area and their visual values are analyzed elements. The assessment of forming includes changes in the surface features being an effect of natural and anthropogenic processes. The visualization of changes is being shown on the digital terrain model. The cover changes assessment is being made in individual types of covering the area. The following analyzed elements are being singled out: a) built-up areas: residential single-family housing, residential multifamily housing, areas of services, storage-production areas, areas of the technical infrastructure, areas of the transport, b) unbuilt areas: forests, meadows and pastures, arable lands, orchards, surface waters, rushes, peat bogs, wasteland (with determining the kind on account of the last way of developing and the current state). The first stage of the monitoring is describing places of appearing of changes in landform features and his cover. This stage includes study analyses based on aerial photographs. The second stage includes the quantitative and quality assessment of changes and is being led as field examinations. Landscape indicators are a specific group of landscape ecological characteristics allow to obtain information on the assessment of state and changes of environment ((McGarigal, Marks 1995, McGarigal 2002)), changes in structure and function of different landscapes (Ares et. all, 2001) or quantitative information on ecological resources and the possibility of their functioning (McAlpine, Eyre, 2002).
References:
A r e s J., B e r t i l l e r M., del V a l le H., 2001, Functional and structural landscape indicators of intensification, resilence and resistance in agroecosystems in southern Argentina based on remotely sensed data, Landscape Ecology, 16, s. 221-234. M cA lpine C.A., Ey re T.J., Testing landscape metrics as indicators of habitat loss and fragmentation in continous eucalypt forests (Queensland, Australia), Landscape Ecology, 17, s. 711-728. M cGar i ga l K., Mar k s B.J., 1995, FRAGSTATS: Spatial Pattern Analysis Program for Quantifying Landscape Structure, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-351, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR, M cGar iga l K., 2002, Fragstats documentation, Fragstats metrics, document disclosed on the side http://www.umass.edu/landeco/research/fragstats/documents/Metrics/Metrics%20TOC.htm

CEREAL WEEDS ON EXTENSIVELY CULTIVATED FIELDS IN ZONGULDAK PROVINCE (TURKEY) . Cimalov Department of Biology & Ecology, University of Ostrava, Chittussiho 10, Ostrava CZ-710 00, Czech Republic, sarka.cimalova@osu.cz A short study of weed vegetation on cereal fields in Zonguldak province (Turkey) brings new floristic records for the regional vascular plant species list. Field flora has not been systematically studied in this region and in the actual study of plants of Zonguldak province is missing. Floristic and vegetation records taken in June 2012 from localities in Akabey village, Kayklar village and from Degirmenaz bring just a view into weed vegetation composition and should be supplemented by further research. A total of 68 recorded taxa belong to 23 families, of which the most frequent are Fabaceae (13,24%), Asteraceae (11,76%), Poaceae (8,82%), Apiaceae (7,35%), Rosaceae (7,35%) and Ranunculaceae (5,88%). None of the species is mentioned in Red Data Book of Turkish plants and there is no endemic species among the taxa determined in this study. Identified taxa are mostly unknown by their phytogeographical origin (55), but some of them belong to three phytogeographical elements: Euro-Siberian (6), Mediterranean (4) and EastMediterranean (1). The other taxa are cosmopolitan (2). This taxonomical and phytogeographical distribution is comparable with other studies from agricultural areas in Turkey.

GENUS ORTHOTRICHUM IN CENTRAL ASIA L. hal1, V. Plek1 & J. Sawicki2 1Department of Biology & Ecology, University of Ostrava and Institute of Environmental Technologies (IET), Chittussiho 10, Ostrava CZ-710 00, Czech Republic, corresponding autor: vitezslav.plasek@osu.cz
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Department of Botany & Nature Protection, University of Warmia & Mazury in Olsztyn, Plac dzki 1, PL-10-727 Olsztyn, Poland

The research is focused on the species within genus Orthotrichum in Central Asia. Comprehensive survey was started in 2008 by second author. Till the present many localities of Tajikistan territory (together with Pamir Mts) were visited. The next field trips will take place in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan during next years. Moreover, a revision of Asian-origin herbarium specimens housed in Dushanbe, St. Petersburg and Vienna was done. According to literature data, 17 taxa from Orthotrichum genus were historically recorded in Tajikistan. Three of them are recently newly recorded for the country - Orthotrichum alpestre, O. crenulatum, and O. moravicum. In addition, one species -Orthotrichum pamiricum- was described from there as a new for science. Main aims of the project are: preparing of a check list as well as molecular study of phylogenetic relationship within the moss group. Moreover, the identifying key including SEM photos and drawings is preparing.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The study was carried out as a part of the project Institute of Environmental Technologies, reg. no. CZ.1.05/2.1.00/03.0100 supported by the Research and Development for Innovations Operational Program, financed by Structural Funds of the European Union and the state budget of the Czech Republic. Specimen revision in Herbarium of National Museum in Vienna was supported from the SYNTHESYS Project AT-TAF-2070 http://www.synthesys.info/. Field trip to Tajikistan in 2012 was financially supported by SGS grant of University of Ostrava No. 18/PF/2012.

ALGAE AND CYANOBACTERIA OF THE COPPER AND SULFUR MINE SPOILS (SIBAY, RUSSIA) L.A. Gaysina1, S.Yu. Safiullin1, N.V. Sukhanova1, A.I. Fazlutdinova1, A.R. Mansurova1, A.V. Bogdanova1, R.R. Kabirov1, G.R. Bakieva1, J.R. Johansen2, M. Eli3,4 1. Department of Botany, Bioecology and Landscape Design, Bashkir State Pedagogical University named after M. Akmullah, 450000 Ufa, Oktyabrskoi revolucii 3a, Russia. 2. Department of Biology, John Carroll University, University Heights, OH 44118, U.S.A. 3. Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Benatska 2, CZ-128 01 Prague 2, Czech Republic. 4. Department of Biology & Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Chittussiho 10, CZ-71000 Slezska Ostrava, Czech Republic. Microscopic algae and cyanobacteria often take part in the initial recovery of industrial mine spoils (Shtina, Hollerbakh, 1969). The steppe region of the semiautonomous Republic of Bashkortostan (South Ural Mountains, Russian Federation) is rich in copper and other minerals. The region has been mined for copper and sulfur for over 70 years, with much of it processed in a copper-sulfur smelter factory near Sibay. Known as the Sibay branch of the Uchalisnky Mining Company, this smelter has caused edaphic, aerial, and aquatic pollution of the region by copper, sulfur, zinc, vanadium and other heavy metals (Yanturin et al. 2009). Samples were taken in September-October 2009 and June 2010 in spent spoils near Sibay city. Spoils from different parts and habitats (under the trees, in rare grasslands and bare soils) have been studied. Samples were taken from spoils of different age (1-1.5, 15-20 and 30-40 years), because it allowed us to study the patterns of recovery of plants as well as examine the influence of soil chemistry. A total 19 soil and microbiotic crusts samples were examined. Forty- eight taxa representing 5 divisions of algae were found: Cyanobacteria (11 taxa), Chlorophyta (25) (Chlorophyceae 15, Trebouxiophyceae 10), Streptophyta (4), Bacillariophyta (7), and Xanthophyta (1). In young spoils (1-1.5 years old) eleven taxa were found. These sites were the most polluted by heavy metals, and higher plants were represented only by ruderal species. Typical species for these spoils were Leptolyngbya voronichiniana, Pseudophormidium hollerbachianum, Trichocoleus cf. hospitus, Nostoc cf. linckia (cyanobacteria), Bracteacoccus cf. giganteus, Chlamydomonas cf. reinhardtii, Neocystis cf. curvata, Interfilum terricola, Chlorella homosphaera and Chlorella mirabilis (greens), and Hantzschia amphioxys f. capitata (diatoms). For 15-20 year-old spoils 28 taxa were recorded; we observed increasing species diversity in all taxonomic groups. We found mostly the widely-distributed species Microcoleus vaginatus, Phormidium autumnale, Phormidium dimorphum, Hantzschia amphioxys, Mayamaea atomus, Bracteacoccus cf.minor, Stichococcus cf.bacillaris, and Klebsormidium flaccidum. However, some very rare species, such as Hormoscilla pringsheimii and Cystomonas cf. strarrii, were also detected. This report is probably the first record of the latter species in the territory of Russia. In 30-40 year-old spoils the number of taxa increased to 38. We found both widespread species such as Leptolyngbya foveolarum, Pinnularia borealis, Diplosphaera cf.chodatii, Chloroidium saccharophilum, and the relatively rare species Cyanothece aeruginosa, Deasonia cf.bispora and Interfilum massjukiae.

We observed crust formation in 15-20 and 30-40 year old spoils. Crusts included Leptolyngbya voronichiniana, Microcoleus vaginatus, Phormidium dimorphum, Pseudophormidium hollerbachianum, Trichocoleus cf. hospitus, Hantzschia amphioxys f. capitata, Luticola ventricosa, Pinnularia borealis, Chlorella homosphaera, Chlorella mirabilis, Parietochloris cf.cohaerens, and Botrydiopsis cf.arhiza. Our finding of crust communities in mine spoils is surprising and promising for the restoration of these anthropogenically destroyed ecosystems. In conclusion, species composition of algal communities in copper and sulfur mine spoils was represented mostly by filamentous cyanobacteria and mucilaginous eukaryotic algae and reflected different ages of soil recovery since disturbance.

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DIVERSITY OF SSR LOCI IN SPECIES OF THE GENUS VINCETOXICUM N.M. WOLF A.Z. Glukhov, A.Ye. Demkovych, V.M. Ostapko, S.N. Pryvalikhin, S.A. Prikhodko Donetsk Botanical Garden of the NAS of Ukraine, Donetsk 83059, Ukraine; e-mail: donetsk-sad@mail.ru The genus Vincetoxicum N.M. Wolf includes more than 100 species, widespread in Eurasia. The difficulties in taxonomy and the development of methods for conservation of some Vincetoxicum species are associated with a high polymorphism of individual species, a significant spread of apomixis and the capacity for interspecific crossing. We studied applicability of eight microsatellite loci of Vincetoxicum atratum Morr. et Dence (Tada et al., 2009) to the research on the genetic diversity in V. albovianum (Kusn.) Pobed., V. cretaceum (Pobed.) Wissjul., V. donetzicum Ostapko, V. flavum Ostapko, V. hirundinaria Medik., V. intermedium Taliev, V. jailicola Juz., V. laxum (Bartl.) Gren. & Godr., V. maeoticum (Kleopow) Barbar., V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar., V. scandens Sommier & Levier, V. ucrainicum Ostapko). Amplicons for four microsatellite loci (Vinc5, Vinc104, Vinc123, and Vinc102) were detected in the majority of the analyzed species. In general, 64 alleles at four loci were identified for all analyzed species, an average number being 16 alleles per locus. The smallest number of 8 alleles was observed for Vinc104 locus, and the largest one of 25 alleles was detected for Vinc5 locus. There were identified 11 and 20 alleles for loci Vinc123 and Vinc124, respectively. Allelic diversity of the analyzed Vincetoxicum species was higher than that of V. atratum. The number of alleles per locus (A = 16.0) was almost twice higher (A = 7,75) (Tada et al., 2009), expected heterozygosity (HE = 0,817) 20 % higher than those values for V.atratum. Four loci, for which we obtained a valid PCR product, had unequal values of variability indices and were characterized by uneven distribution of genetic variation. It makes their total an applicable set for the analysis of interspecific relationships of the genus Vincetoxicum. Research is performed within the framework of competitive research projects of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine on the theme "Molecular and genetic basis of phylogeny and conservation of plants on the example species of the genera Astragalus L. and Vincetoxicum N.M. Wolf ( 0110U006084).

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FAUNISTIC STUDY OF TAJIKISTAN G. Kys Department of Biosystematics, University of Opole, Oleska 22, PL-45-052 Opole, Poland, e-mail: gklys@uni.opole.pl The research on the fauna of Tajikistan organized four research expeditions in 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2012. During the first expedition started talks on joint research and exchange of experiences between the University of Opole and the National University in Dushanbe. Since the beginning of the work has focused primarily on research chiropterological, searching caves and biospeleology. As a result, the research discovered a new species of bats (Chiroptera) fauna of Tajikistan. Genetic studies are ongoing which aim is to determine whether caught specimen belongs to a species Pipistrellus kuhlii or Pipistrellus lepidus. In 2012, tapes voice bats both in mountainous areas and in the capital Dushanbe. Field work is also conducted in order to discover and describe the caves of the country. In 2005 and 2007, were inventoried caves in the place of Artucz, Rudaki and Pendikent. In 2012, they were catches of beetles (Coleoptera) in the troglobiontic. Collected specimens are being developed.

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SOME PROPERTIES OF THE RIVER SEDIMENTS IN THE SELECTED AREAS OF THE ZERAVSHAN MOUNTAINS IN TAJIKISTAN G. Kusza1, K. Kochanowska1, A. Nowak2
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Department of Land Protection University of Opole, Oleska 22, PL-45-051 Opole 2 Department of Biosystematics University of Opole, Oleska 22, PL-45-051 Opole corresponding author: Grzegorz.Kusza@uni.opole.pl

The Zeravshan Mountains Massif is one of the dominant mountain ranges of the northern Tajikistan. This area is covered with a dense network of rivers characterized by high slope and a very strong current. Valleys found in the vicinity of the rivers are often exposed to the activity of the dynamically developing geomorphological processes, including aeolian erosion - the accumulation of wind-blown silt and the formation of a few meters thick loess cover, which is placed on glacial deposits and fluvial sediments. Additional valleys are covered with deluvial deposits coming from the runoff generated on the bare mountain slopes. Such specific geomorphological processes cause a relatively high diversity of the sediments and soils occurring by the rivers. This research attempts to characterize some of the properties of the river sediments as well as the sediments created by the erosion of alluvial soils. The scope of the research covered the determinations of the following parameters: particle size distribution (granulometric composition), reaction (pH), specific conductivity and calcium carbonate content. The objects of the study were the sediments and soils lying in the valleys of the rivers: Mogien, Zeravshan, Farob, Iskander-Darya and Pasru-Darya. The results revealed a very high spatial variability primarily in terms of particle size distribution in the top 0-20 cm layer of sediments and soils. The majority of the analyzed samples were characterized by an alkaline reaction (high pH values) and a relatively high content of calcium carbonate (in the range of several to 45%). In the course of study the excessive accumulation of easily soluble salts, which measure is specific conductivity, has not been found. The conductivity values of the analyzed samples have not exceeded 300 Scm-1.

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ECOLOGICAL AND CHOROLOGICAL CHARACTERISATION OF LILIACEAE, AMARYLLIDACEAE AND IRIDACEAE FAMILIES IN TAJIKISTAN. W. Lepich Department of Biosystematics; Opole University, Oleska 22, PL-45-052 Opole, Poland; e-mail: weronikalepich@interia.pl Tajikistan is a country located in the central part of middle Asia. This is a typical mountainous area almost entirely comprised within the Pamir-Alai mountain system. Tajikistan is situated in the subtropical zone (southern part) and in the temperate climate zone (northern part). Obviously the alpine climate strongly influences the area. This location makes the country very rich in floristic diversity. There are many relict and endemic species. The flora of Tajikistan comprises 4500-5000 vascular plant species. They are assigned to 116 families. Liliaceae family has 118 species. The most numerous genera are: Gagea (34 species), Eremurus (28 species), Tulipa (25 species) and Asparagus (8 species). Amaryllidaceae family has 84 species. Among the taxa of this family there is very rich genus of Allium (77 species). Iridaceae family has 28 species. It includes: Juno (14 species), Iris (10 species), Crocus (2 species), Gladiolus (1 species) and Gynandriris (1 species). Most of the species occupies one or two geobotanical regions/subregions - the highest concentrations are in the region Hissar-Darvasian. Taxa from the above mentioned families occur in almost all types of vegetation: e.g. mesophilic deciduous forests (Chernolesya), riverside forests (Tugay), xerothermophilous shrubs (Shiblyak), meadows and pastures, rock vegetation (petryphyton), salt-marsh vegetation, steppes and semi-savannas. Among the investigated families 54 belongs to the group of the Tajiks endemics 27 species from Liliaceae family (e.g. Merendera hissarica, Eremurus lachnostegius, Gagea incrustata, Tulipa praestans), 18 species from Amaryllidaceae family (e.g. Allium gracillimum, A. darvasicum, A. pauli, Ungernia tadshikorum) and 9 species from Iridaceae family (e.g. Iris hoogiana, Juno popovii, J. bucharica). The Hissar-Darvasian and South Tajikistanian regions are the richest in endemics as far as the above mentioned families are concerned. The endemic species have been recorded at altitudes between 350 3500 m asl. Most endemics in Tajikistan occur exclusively in one geobotanical region. The endemic species of Liliaceae family, Amaryllidaceae family and Iridaceae family are generally tied to one particular type of biotope or plant community. The degree of republic's endemism is due to natural conditions that prevail in Tajikistan. Especially rich in endemic species are mountains, probably due to their geographical isolation.

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INTRODUCTION OF SOME TREES AND BUSHES FROM FLORA OF EAST ASIA IN AZERBAIJAN T.S. Mammadov, Z.H.Abasova Mardakan arboretum NAS of Azerbaijan Baku, set. Mardakan, str. S.Yesenin 89 (012)454 60 62, dendrary@ mail. az The territory of Azerbaijan is one of the richest botanical and geographical regions of the Caucasus and occupies an area of 86.6 thousand km2. Nature has generously awarded Azerbaijan. It is a peculiar and fantastic world. The wealth of flora of our Republic is a cause for exceptional diversity. There are 5500 species belonging to 150 families and 1000 genera in the flora of Azerbaijan. The territory of the Republic is divided into 20 botanicogeographical areas. Analysis of the taxonomic composition showed that the most abundant species of the mountainous part of the Nakchivan AR, quite close to it is the Kuba mountain range of the greater Caucasus (1700 species). In the central part of the mountain massive of the Lesser Caucasus has found 1316 species, in the southern part of the Lesser Caucasus-1250, Kura-Araks lowland-1215 species. The distribution quality species of flora in seperate regions of Azerbaijan is extremely uneven. The difference among species depends on the floristic nature of region, from the comporative Albizia julibrissin Durazz territories, from the knowledge degree of the region, antiquity of the region and relations with defined countries. The largest area is the Kura-Aras lowland. There are more than 1215 species. We can note that the wealth or species poverty of flora doest depend on the size of the territory. Water-marsh flora of Azerbaijan has been studied monographycally, which has 370 species, 166 genera and 61 families. On the flora of reservoir of Azerbaijan was revealed 110 species. For the first time found 14 relict species. It is known that every 10 of 5500

Danae racemosa (L.) Moench

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species of flora are disappeared. From these, only 140 species mentioned in the Red Book of Azerbaijan. There are rare and disappeared species in the collection of Mardakan arboretum. From them Albizia julibrissin, Danae racomosa, Crocus caspicum, Ruscus hyrcanus, Acer velutinum and etc. Flora of Azerbaijan is seen as a hot spot of biodiversity - one of the 25 regions, which includes more than 600 species of endemic and almost 250 species of relicts belonging to 50 families, 190 genera. Including, in Mardakan arboretum are preserved relict and endemic species: Parrotia persica, Quercus castaneifolia, Acer velutinum Alnus subcordata, Zelkova, hurcana, etc. There are about 800 species of medicinal and 425 species of ether-oil plants in the territory of Azerbaijan. In Mardakan arboretum are also collected about 400 species of these plants: Eucalyptus, Myrtus comminis, Callistemon, Artemisia, Nepeta, Mentha, Rosa and others. At the same time, the Caucasus has extremely rich variety of natural species, some of them are under the growing influence of negative anthropogenic factors and are in need of immediate and effective measures to preserve. Investigation of green space of cities and other settlements, the collection experienced plantation and dendroparks, totals of introduction in the Botanical Garden of Azerbaijan showed that currently, there are 1116 species and forms of trees and bushes belonging to the 93 families and 234 genera in Azerbaijan. Introduction of decorative trees bushes in Absheron peninsula, including in Mardakan arboretum has an ancient history. As a result Ruscus hyrcanus Woronow. of wide introducted work (till 1926) in the collections of Mardakan arboretum contains various species of trees and bushes belonging to the dendroflora of Eastern Asia (Japan, China, Korea, far East). As a result of the carried out scientific - research work and studies of bioecological features of these plants, it was revealed that these species have broad ecological amplitude (variability). Normal phenological phases of development, high quality fruit and seeds in different species of trees - bushes from flora of East Asia in Mardakan arboretum shows the successful introduction and acclimatization of those species. In Mardakan arboretum exhibits of trees - bushes from flora of East Asia occupies a special place and is now updated with new species brought back by members of the Arboretum from foreign countries during scientific visits. As a result of carried out scientific - research work have been increased species adapted to the soil and climatic conditions of Apsheron, studied bioecological characteristics and on the base of landscape architecture are recommended for use in grenery. As a result of study of grenery conditions in selected areas of Azerbaijan, it was revealed 350 species from the flora of East Asia, which accounted for 49.6% in dendroflora of Azerbaijan.

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DISTRIBUTION OF ALNUS GLUTINOSA (L.) P. GAERTN. (BETULACEAE) IN UKRAINE I. Olshanskyi M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, Tereschenkvska st., 2, Kyiv, 01601, Ukraine e-mail: olshansky1982@ukr.net We are considering a family Betulaceae for the new "Flora of Ukraine." As a part of this investigation we examine the morphology, ecology and distribution of Betulaceae species. The purpose of this work was to determine the spread of Alnus glutinosa (L.) P. Gaertn. in Ukraine. Alnus glutinosa is common species in Europe, the Mediterranean region, Western Siberia and Central Asia (Komarov, 1936; Goloskokov, 1960; King & Ferris, 1998). This species is rare in Central Asia; in particular, he is listed in the Red Book of Kazakhstan (Postanovlenie, 2006). Distribution of Alnus glutinosa in Ukraine studied Lonachevskyi & Gryn (1952) and Didukh et al. (2004). To find a modern distribution Alnus glutinosa in Ukraine we make critical revision of materials herbaria: the National Herbarium of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine (KW), Herbarium of V.N. Karazin National University in Kharkiv, Kharkiv, Ukraine (CWU), the Herbarium of Botanical garden of V.N. Karazin National University, Kharkiv, Ukraine (CWB), the Herbarium of V.I. Vernadsky Tavrida National University, Simferopol, Ukraine (SIMF), Herbarium of Nikita Botanical Garden National Science Center, Yalta, Ukraine (YALT), the Herbarium of V.F. Kuprevich Institute of Experimental Botany, Minsk, Belarus (MSK). We also take into account the literature data (Lonachevskyi, Gryn, 1952; Didukh et al., 2004, Zelena ..., 2009). We found Alnus glutinosa in Rivne (Beresne), Chernivtsi (Beregomet), Poltava (Lokhvytsya) and Kyiv (Kyiv, Bila Tserkva) regions. As a result we have summarized the results of critical revisions herbaria, literature data and our own research. We found that Alnus glutinosa grows in Volyn, Rivne, Zhytomyr, Kyiv, Chernihiv, Sumy, Transcarpathian, Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk, Chernivtsi, Ternopil, Khmel`nyts`kyi, Vinnytsa, Cherkasy, Kirovograd, Dnipropetrovsk, Poltava, Kharkiv, Donetsk, Luhansk, Odesa, Mykolaiv, Kherson regions and Autonomous Republic of Crimea. Mostly, Alnus glutinosa occurs in northern and western regions of Ukraine. We made a map of distribution Alnus glutinosa in Ukraine (Figure 1). For clarity we inflicted on the map points to some neighboring countries (Belarus, Moldova). It should be mentioned that Alnus glutinosa is a rare species in Moldova (Cartea ..., 2002).

17

Figure 1. The map of distribution Alnus glutinosa in Ukraine, red for herbaria, blue literature data (Lonachevskyi, Gryn, 1952; Cartea ..., 2002; Didukh et al., 2004, Zelena..., 2009).

Alnus glutinosa is a rare species, is protected in Dnipropetrovsk and Odesa regions (Oficiyni..., 2012). Thus, Alnus glutinosa is spread almost all over Ukraine. More often this species occurs in the western and northern regions.
References:
Cartea Rosie a Republicii Moldova. 2002. The Red Book of the Republic of Moldova. 288 p. Chisinau. D idu k h Ya.P., F it say l o T.V., K oro tch enk o I.A. et al. 2004. Alnus glutinosa (L.) P. Gaertn. P. 442444. in Didukh Ya.P. (ed.) Ecoflora Ukrainy. T. 2. Phytosociotsentr.Kyiv. [in Ukrainian] G o lo s ko k o v V.P. 1960. Alnus glutinosa (L.) P. Gaertn. P. 66. in Flora Kasakhstana. T. 3. [in Russian] K in g R.A., Fer ri s C. 1998. Chloroplast DNA phylogeography of Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. P. 11511161. in Molecular Ecology. Vol. 7. K omar o v V.L. 1936. Alnus glutinosa (L.) P. Gaertn. P. 312315. in Flora SSSR. T. 5. [in Russian] L o nac he vs ky i O.O., Gryn F.O. 1952. Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertner P. 114 116. in Flora URSR. T. 4. [in Ukrainian] Oficiyni pereliky regionalno ridkisnykh Roslyn administratyvnykh terytoriy Ukrainy. 2012. [ed. T.L. A ndri ye nk o , M.M. Peregrym]. 148 p. Alterpres. Kyiv. [in Ukrainian] Postanovlenie Pravitelstva Respubliki Kasakhstan Ob utverzhdenii Perechney redkikh i nakhodyashchikhsya pod ugrosoy ischesnovenia vidov zhivotnykh i rasteniy ot 31 oktyabrya 2006 g. 1034. [in Russian and Kasakhian] Zelena knyga Ukrainy. 2009. [ed. Ya.P. Didukh]. 448 p. Alterpres. Kyiv. [in Ukrainian]

18

TAXONOMY AND DISTRIBUTION OF STIPA NARYNICA (POACEAE) ON THE BACKGROUND OF OTHER SPECIES FROM THE STIPA CAUCASICA GROUP M. Nobis1, A. Nowak2
1

Department of Plant Taxonomy, Phytogeography and Herbarium, Inst. of Botany, Jagiellonian University, Kopernika 27, PL-31-501 Krakw, Poland; m.nobis@uj.edu.pl
2

Laboratory of Geobotany and Plant Conservation, Department of Biosystematics, Opole University, Oleska 48, PL-45-022 Opole, Poland; anowak@uni.opole.pl

Section Smirnovia described by Tzvelev (1974) contains about 30 taxa at the species and subspecies level, distributed in the area of southwestern and central Asia, from the Caucasus to Mongolia and central China. However, the main species diversity within section Smirnovia is observed in the mountain areas of the middle Asia, in particular in the area of the Tian-Shan and Pamir Alai Mts, where approximately 24 taxa belonging to thie section occur. The most conspicuous characters for taxa of the section Smirnovia are: ligules of the vegetative shoots: rounded, obtuse or replaced by a line of hairs; awns unigeniculate or indistinctly bigeniculate, columna glabrous or hairy, seta plumose; three lodicules; ovary with two styles. In accordance to the character of the columna (the lower segment of the awn, below geniculation), all taxa from section Smirnovia can be divided in two groups: 1) Stipa caucasica group and 2) Stipa lipskyi group. The main striking feature differing these two groups is the character of the awn below geniculation, which is hairy in the caucasica group and glabrous in the lipskyi group. The caucasica group, comprises about 13 taxa, there belong: S. caucasica Schmelh. s.l. [S. caucasica, S. drobovii (Tzvel.) Czer., S. glareosa P.A. Smirn., S. desertorum (Roshev.) Ikonn., S. barchanica Lomonosova, S. minuscula F.M. Vzquez, S. albasiensis L.Q. Zhao & K. Guo], S. lingua A. Junge, S. aktauensis Roshev., S. magnifica A. Junge, S. mongolorum Tzvel., S. tzvelevii Ikonn., S. narynica M. Nobis. Stipa narynica is an endemic species known only from the western part of the Tian-Shan Mts. To date, its occurrence is known from four localities in the Chatkal and Fergana Mts (western Kyrgyzstan). It grows at an altitude between 500 and 1200 m a.s.l. Morphologically, S. narynica is most similar to S. aktauensis Roshev., but is easily differentiated by the top of the lemma, which is either glabrous or has a poorly developed ring of short hairs, while in S . aktauensis the top of lemma is always distinctly and densely pilose. In comparison to S. aktauensis , S. narynica also has somewhat longer glumes, a longer anthecium, longer awn and hairs on the seta. Moreover, the new species has a densely, all around pilose callus, with an unexpanded, cuneate base. In S. aktauensis the callus is densely pilose on the seam and sparsely in the dorsal part or densely pilose only on the seam and glabrous in the dorsal part, and it has a slightly footlike expanded, pyriform base. In the western Tian-Shan Mts, Stipa narynica grows on soils located on calcareous rocks, whereas in the Aktau Mts of the Kyzyl Kum desert, S. aktauensis grows on soils located on porphyries and granite rocks. Stipa narynica is also somewhat similar especially to two species from the Stipa caucasica group: S. lingua and S. magnifica. In comparison to the two mentioned above species, S. narynica differs by having a callus base of a completely different shape, being unexpanded and cuneate, whereas in S. lingua and S. magnifica the callus base is distinctly foot like expanded. Stipa narynica also has scabrous leaves on the outer surface, while in S. lingua and S. magnifica they are always glabrous and smooth. Illustrations and a key to species are provided in addition to scanning electron microscopy observation of the lemma micromorphology, distributions and habitat.

19

STIPA MACROGLOSSA P. A. SMIRN. (POACEAE) A SPECIES NEW TO THE FLORA OF TAJIKISTAN: TAXONOMY AND DISTRIBUTION M. Nobis1, A. Nowak2, G. azarski1
1

Department of Plant Taxonomy, Phytogeography and Herbarium, Inst. of Botany, Jagiellonian University, Kopernika 27, PL-31-501 Krakw, Poland; m.nobis@uj.edu.pl
2

Laboratory of Geobotany and Plant Conservation, Department of Biosystematics, Opole University, Oleska 48, PL-45-022 Opole, Poland; anowak@uni.opole.pl

Tajikistan is one of the richest regions in plant species diversity in the Middle Asia. According to the ten-volume study of the flora of the former Soviet Socialist Republic of Tajikistan, ca 4550 vascular plant species are known from the country. This number is not final as recently some new species have been described from Tajikistan. During our exploration of the Pamir Alai Mts in Tajikistan, Stipa macroglossa another species new to its flora has been discovered. Stipa macroglossa is an endemic species to the Middle Asia, known from southern Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. It belongs to the section Stipa, which comprised in the area of Tajikistan three additional taxa: S. kirghisorum P. A. Smirn., S. turkestanica Hack. subsp. turkestanica and S. turkestanica subsp. trichoides (P. A. Smirn.) Tzvel. All these taxa have twice geniculately bent awns, plumose in the upper part (on the seta) and glabrous in the lower part (on columna). In Tajikistan Stipa macroglossa was found at eight localities in the Zeravshan mountain range. It grows in high mountain feather grass steppes at an altitude of 1600-2300 m. Populations of the species are different in size, from several to dozen tufts per locality. Morphologically, S. macroglossa is most similar to S. turkestanica subsp. trichoides, but is easily differentiated by longer setas (18-22 vs. 10-14 cm long), which are at the same time 4-6 not 2-3 times longer than column, and by relatively longer ligules of the vegetative shoots (3-11 vs. 2-7 mm long). Stipa macroglossa is also somewhat similar to S. kirghisorum however in comparison to the last species, it differs e.g. by having much longer ligules of the vegetative shoots (3-11 not 0.42 mm long) and shorter awn column (2-4.5 not 6-8 cm long). Illustrations and a key to species are provided in addition to scanning electron microscopy observation of the lemma micromorphology and distributions in Tajikistan.

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SCLEROCHLOO DURAE-POLYGONETUM ARENASTRI SO EX BODROGKZY 1966 CORR. BORHIDI 2003, A NEW PLANT ASSOCIATION TO THE MIDDLE ASIA A. Nobis1, M. Nobis1, A. Nowak2, S. Nowak2
1

Department of Plant Taxonomy, Phytogeography and Herbarium, Institute of Botany, Jagiellonian University, Kopernika 27, PL-31-501 Krakw, Poland; agnieszka.nobis@uj.edu.pl; m.nobis@uj.edu.pl
2

Laboratory of Geobotany and Plant Conservation, Department of Biosystematics, Opole University, Oleska 48, PL-45-022 Opole, Poland; anowak@uni.opole.pl; snowak@uni.opole.pl

Sclerochloa dura (hard grass, fairground grass) is a species of Mediterranean IranoTuranian origin. In the Middle Asia, it occurs on trampled, dry sites mainly along dirt roads and on non-paved shoulders of asphalt roads. It has been observed mainly in the river valleys and urbanized areas, at the altitude of 300-2200 m. The plant grows both on sandy and on clayey substratum, in some cases with a high content of skeletal elements. In Europe, hard grass is a species diagnostic of Polygono arenastri-Potea annuae class which comprises the phytocoenoses of trampled places formed mostly by annuals. Based on abundant occurrence of the studied species, the thermophilous vernal association Sclerochloo duraePolygonetum arenastri was distinguished within this class. This association is considered as frequent in Pannonian Region. It was also reported from Switzerland, Germany, former Czechoslovakia and Poland. The study is based on 66 original relevs with Sclerochloa dura obtained in the Middle Asia (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan). Phytosociological studies followed Braun-Blanquet method. The relevs representing Sclerochloo durae-Polygonetum arenastri from the Middle Asia were compared with 50 published relevs of the association obtained in Central Europe (Czech Republic, Germany and Poland). The relevs were subjected to numerical analysis UPGMA classifications applying presence and cover-abundance values (Jaccard and Ruicka coefficients, respectively). The SYNTAX 2000 software package was used. As a result of comprehensive analyses the occurrence of Sclerochloo durae-Polygonetum arenastri in the Middle Asia was confirmed. In the Asiatic variety of the association, the average number of species per relev is 7. The association reported from the studied area is characterised by the high constancy of another three annual plants characteristic of trampled habitats, i.e. Polygonum aviculare agg., Poa annua and Capsella bursa-pastoris. Matricaria discoidea and Lepidium ruderale which are frequent components of Sclerochloo durae-Polygonetum arenastri phytocoenoses in the Central Europe, in the relevs obtained in the Middle Asia occur only sporadically. In at least 20% of phytocoenoses from the Middle Asia Bromus scoparius, Bromus tectorum, Euclidium syriacum and Hordeum murinum s.l. were noted. All of these species are typical of another ruderal communities occurring in the neighborhood of the studied phytocoenoses. On the ground of the occurrence of Poa bulbosa in almost 50% of the patches, an subassociation Sclerochloo duraePolygonetum arenastri poetosum bulbosae subass. nova can be distinguished.

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THE INTRODUCTION TO THE CLASSIFICATION OF TAJIKISTAN VEGETATION A. Nowak, S. Nowak Laboratory of Geobotany and Plant Conservation, Department of Biosystematics, Opole University, Oleska 48, PL-45-022 Opole, Poland; anowak@uni.opole.pl Tajikistan is one of the richest counties of the northern hemisphere as far as vascular plant species richness is concerned. Also the vegetation cover of this region is considerably diverse. For better understanding the phytosociological characteristic of this poorly studied phytocoenoses, a short overview of the main vegetation types is supplied, with their regional names. These phytocoenoses were specified on the basis of the Russian school of phytosociology which underlines the significance of the dominant species. However several corrections and proposals were suggested. Tajik's vegetation can be generally divided into 20 units (Stanjukovich 1982): mesophilic deciduous forests (so-called Chernolesya with Juglans regia, Platanus orientalis, Acer turkestanica); riverside forests (so-called Belolesya with Betula sp., Populus sp., Salix sp.); river-bed forests (socalled Tugay with Populus diversifolia and P. pruinosa); xerothermophilous shrubs (so-called Shyblyak with Amygdalus bucharica, Pistacia vera); alpine coniferous forests (Artschevniki with Juniperus sp.); river-bed shrubs (with Tamarix sp., Myricaria sp.); meadows and pastures (very diverse with different types of dominant grasses); segetal vegetation (agrocoenoses); alpine meadows and swards (with Astragalus sp., Tulipa sp., Gagea sp., Scutellaria sp.); steppes and so-called semisavannas (with Festuca sp., Stipa sp., Artemisia sp.); xerothermophilous swards (with Saccharum sp., Imperata sp.); xerothermophilous dwarf bushes (so-called Rozaria with Rosa sp. Berberis sp., Cotoneaster sp.); desert and semi-desert vegetation (with Anabasis salsa, Halocneum strobilaceum); bogspring vegetation (so-called sazy with Carex sp., Cobresia sp.); tall-herb vegetation (with Inula sp., Eremurus sp., Nepeta sp.); rush vegetation (with Phragmites australis and Typha sp.), water vegetation (with Salvinia natans, Potamogeton sp. Myriophyllum sp.); scree and slide-rock vegetation (with Rheum sp., Megacarpea sp.); rock vegetation (so-called petriphyton with Dionysia sp., Carex sp., Scutellaria sp.); salt-marsh vegetation (with Halostachys sp., Halocnemum sp. Sueda sp.).

22

VICIO MICHAUXI - CAUCALIDETUM PLATYCARPI A NEW PLANT ASSOCIATION FROM KYRGYZSTAN S. Nowak1, A. Nowak1, M. Nobis2, A. Nobis2
1

Laboratory of Geobotany and Plant Conservation, Department of Biosystematics, Opole University, Oleska 48, PL-45-022 Opole, Poland; snowak@ uni.opole.pl, anowak@uni.opole.pl

Department of Plant Taxonomy, Phytogeography and Herbarium, Institute of Botany, Jagiellonian University, Kopernika 27, PL-31-501 Krakw, Poland; m.nobis@uj.edu.pl; a.nobis@uj.edu.pl

Despite the fact that Middle Asians segetal flora and vegetation are extremely rich in species and relatively well preserved due to low intensity of cultivation, there is no comprehensive analyses of the weed communities of that area. In the neighbouring regions a number of publications concerning segetal vegetation have appeared .,but the researchers only rarely applied the Braun-Blanquet method. What is more they were focused on areas considerably different as far as climate, habitat and agricultural methods are concerned. As a result of of comprehensive analyses based on original relevs conducted on arable fields in Kyrgyzstan, the new association of the segetal vegetation - Vicio michauxi-Caucalidetum platycarpi is proposed. It prefers relatively low altitudes, mostly between 600 and 900 m. The association develops on loose, clayey, alkaline, fertile and fresh soils, and is relatively rich in species. In a single patches there were noted from 25 to 32 species. The average number of species per relev is 28. The total cover value of weed species in the phytocoenoses does not exceed 70%, in most cases it was ca. 45-55%. Among most constant and frequently contributing species are: Vicia michauxii, Caucalis platycarpos, Vicia hyrcanica, Thlaspi perfoliatum, Litvinovia tenuissima, Vicia peregrina, Ixiolirion tataricum, Alyssum desertorum and Ranunculus arvensis. The syntaxonomical position of the association: Cl.: Stellarietea mediae Txen et al. ex von Rochow 1951 O.: Roemerietalia refractae nom. prov. All.: Aveno trichophyllae-Euphorbion falcatae nom. prov. Ass. Vicio michauxi-Caucalidetum platycarpi ass. nova

23

FAGOPYRO TATARICI-LATHYRETUM SATIVI - THE NEW PLANT ASSOCIATION FROM THE WESTERN PAMIRS (TAJIKISTAN) S. Nowak1, A. Nowak1, M. Nobis2, A. Nobis2
1

Laboratory of Geobotany and Plant Conservation, Department of Biosystematics, Opole University, Oleska 48, PL-45-022 Opole, Poland; snowak@ uni.opole.pl ; anowak@uni.opole.pl

Department of Plant Taxonomy, Phytogeography and Herbarium, Institute of Botany, Jagiellonian University, Kopernika 27, PL-31-501 Krakw, Poland; m.nobis@uj.edu.pl; a.nobis@uj.edu.pl

Because of low intensity of cultivation Tajik's agrocoenoses are characterized by a good state of preservation and significant richness. Unfortunatelly, the weed communities of Taijikistan are still poorly recognised. In the neighbouring regions a number of studies were conducted on field crops, but the researchers only rarely applied the Braun-Blanquet method. What is more they were focused on areas considerably different as far as climate, habitat and agricultural methods are concerned. As a result of of comprehensive analyses based on original relevs conducted on arable fields in Taikistan in 2007-2011, the new order of the segetal vegetation - Roemerietalia refractae with several Irano-Turanian and Mediterranean species as diagnostic: Galium spurium, Roemeria refracta, Lepyrodyclis holosteoides, Turgenia latifolia, Vaccaria hispanica, Brassica campestris, Scandix pectenveneris, Vicia villosa is proposed. The Fagopyro-Lathyretum association develops in wheat and rye on sandy, slightly alkaline, moderately fertile and fresh soils. It prefers relatively high altitudes, mostly between 1700 and 3500 m. Patches of the studied association are rather poor in species. In a single relve there were from 7 to 18 species present. The average number of species per relev is 11.. The total cover value of weed species in the phytocoenoses does not exceed 65%, in most cases it was ca. 35-40%. Among most constant and frequently contributing species are: Fagopyron tataricum, Lathyrus sativus, Brassica campestris, Pisum arvense, Arenaria serpyllifolia, Vicia sativa and Potentilla orientalis. The syntaxonomical position of the association: Cl.: Stellarietea mediae Txen et al. ex von Rochow 1951 O.: Roemerietalia refractae nom. prov. All.: Lathyrion sativi nom. prov. Ass. Fagopyro tatarici-Lathyretum sativi ass. nova

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A SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF SELECTED SPECIES COMPLEXES OF CALAMAGROSTIS AND DEYEUXIA IN CENTRAL ASIA B. Paszko W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lubicz 46, PL-31-512 Krakw, Poland; email: b.paszko@botany.pl Calamagrostis Adans. and Deyeuxia Clarion ex P. Beauv. (Poaceae: Agrostidinae) are two closely related northern hemisphere genera, which include closely related species complexes and numerous hybrids. A systematic study was conducted to better define poorly understood species and to lay the foundation for a revision of this group for the Flora of Nepal and the Flora of Pan-Himalayas. Research utilized study of more than 3000 herbarium specimens and types from most important worldwide herbaria using multivariate analysis in order to reach robust conclusions for the revision of these two genera in Himalaya Mountains in the context of comparative studies of related species from Bhutan, China, Nepal, India, Russia and former Russian Republics. One of the most widespread small reeds in Euroasia is Calamagrostis pseudophragmites s.l., but there are two main problems associated with its identification. A systematic study of the worldwide variation of Calamagrostis pseudophragmites s.l. suggests that across its entire range it comprises at least six distinct taxa (comprising Calamagrostis pseudophragmites, C. dubia Bunge, C. nepalensis Nees ex Steud., C. pseudophragmites subsp. tartarica (Hook. f.) Tzvel., C. onoei Franch. & Sav., and C. persica Boiss.). Furthermore, members of the complex are morphologically close to species such as C. stoliczkae Hook. f., C. turkestanica Hack., C. balkharica P.A. Smirn. and C. macrolepis Litv., and are difficult to distinguished from them. The study of relationships among Calamagrostis pseudophragmites s.l. and its relatives in the Northwest India, such as C. emodensis Griseb., C. garhwalensis C. E. Hubb. & Bor, C. stoliczkae, C. macrolepis and C. epigeios s.s. revealed some interesting information about these taxa. Examination of morphological characters indicated: (1) the distinctness of Calamagrostis pseudophragmites complex from C. stoliczkae, C. emodensis, and C. garhwalensis; (2) the discovery of a new species of Calamagrostis in Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh (NW India) (it is distributed in the Garhwal Himalayas Mountains at the elevation between 1800 and 3000 m, and based on spikelet morphology it is similar to C. stoliczkae and the Chinese C. moupinensis Franch.); (3) the new records of C. garhwalensis in NW India; (4) the identity of C. emodensis var. breviseta Hack.; (5) a need for typification of the name C. emodensis; (6) first record of C. emodensis from Myanmar.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This study is partly supported by the statutory funds of the Institute of Botany of the Polish Academy of Sciences (Krakw, Poland). The research visits (2011) in the following herbaria: CAL (Kolkata, India), BSD and DD (Dehradun, India) were supported by the exchange program between the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Indian National Science Academy (INSA); and at E (Edinburgh, UK), BM and K (London, UK) were supported from the SYNTHESYS Project http://www.synthesys.info/ which is financed by European Community Research Infrastructure Action under the FP7 "Capacities" Program.

25

CHEMICAL DIVERSITY OF CLADONIA CARIOSA AND C. SYMPHYCARPA (LICHEN-FORMING ASCOMYCOTA: CLADONIACEAE) AND GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF THEIR CHEMICAL RACES K. Rola1, P. Osyczka2
1

Department of Plant Taxonomy, Phytogeography & Herbarium, Institute of Botany, Jagiellonian University, Kopernika 27, PL-31-501 Krakw, Poland
2

Department of Polar Research and Documentation, Institute of Botany, Jagiellonian University, Kopernika 27, PL-31-501 Krakw, Poland

Cladonia is known as the lichen genus that forms two types of thallus: primary, usually in a form of horizontal squamules and secondary, which constitute rather vertical, fruticose, variously shaped podetia. Similarly to other lichens, the individuals of Cladonia contain different specific chemical substances, which are secondary metabolites of fungal component. Some of Cladonia species are chemically diverse and represented even by several chemical races. The study deals with the chemistry of the most common species of the section Helopodium (Ach.) S. Stenroos: Cladonia cariosa (Ach.) Spreng. and C. symphycarpa (Flrke) Fr. The chemical diversity of both studied species is especially high. We have recognized several chemical races from different parts of the world - nine chemotypes of Cladonia cariosa and six of C. symphycarpa. Our study indicates that the presence of rangiformic acid is exclusive for some C. cariosa chemical races. On the contrary, bourgeanic acid appears only in C. symphycarpa. The most common and widespread for C. cariosa are races with atranorin only and with atranorin plus rangifomic acid. We recorded their presence on almost every continent (Europe, Asia, North and South America, Antarctica). A chemotype with atranorin, fumarprotocetraric and rangiformic acids is also relatively widespread (on all the above mentioned continents except Antarctica), but is less common. We observed that the chemical diversity is the highest in North America, but neither chemotype is dominant on that continent. The situation is quite different in Europe. We found six races, but only two (atranorin only and atranorin plus rangiformic acid) predominate on the continent, whereas the others occur sporadically. Three chemical races dominate in Asia (atranorin only, atranorin plus rangiformic acid and atranorin plus fumarprotocetraric and rangiformic acids). The most frequent and widespread for C. symphycarpa is the race with atranorin, norstictic and connorstictic acids. This chemotype is considered as typical for the species and we noted it from different areas of the world. In Europe, the race ranges from the Arctic to the Mediterranean region, whereas in North America, it occurs throughout Canada, the USA, as far as the subequatorial zone. The least common and rare chemical race of C. symphycarpa is characterized by atranorin, bourgeanic and psoromic acids and it originates from the mountain region of Mongolia.

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QUANTITATIVE POLYMORPHISM OF THE NUCLEOLI ORGANIZERS IN DIFFERENT SPECIES OF THE GENUS PICEA A. DIETR. Yu. A. Tkachova Donetsk Botanical Garden of the NAS of Ukraine, Donetsk 83059, Ukraine; e-mail: donetsk-sad@mail.ru Nucleolar areas of chromosomes are responsible for the synthesis of rRNA. Nucleolus participates in the regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis and aging processes (Olson et al., 2002, Lempiainen, Shore, 2009). It has been revealed by in situ methods and FISH, that in the genus Picea A. Dietr., 18S and 25 26S rRNA genes are localized in nucleolar areas (Brown, Carlson, 1997). The formation of nucleoli and their number in the nucleus is related to the functional activity of nucleoli organizers, which is determined by the physiological state of a cell and molecular-genetic processes in it (Schwazzacher et al., 1993; Severine et al., 2010). We have studied the features of formation of the nucleolus in P. abies (L.) Karst. in Ukraine, as well as the published data on the characteristics of the nucleolus in P. obovata Ledeb., P. ajanensis Fisch. ex Carrire, P. schrenkiana Fisch. et. C.A. Mey., P. koraiensis Nakai, P. jezoensis Carrire, P. glehnii Mast., P. meyeri Rehder & E.H. Wilson, growing in the Asian part of Russia. The number of chromosomes in these species is the same (2n = 24). The number of chromosomes with secondary constriction varies from 4 to 12 pairs and can be modified in various growth conditions. All the studied species differ in their frequency of occurrence and in specific characters of nuclear area localization. Our research has shown that the number of nucleoli in the interphase nuclei of P. abies cells varies from 2 to 11. For other species of different populations there were observed from 1 to 15 nucleoli (Vladimirova, 2004, Karpyuk, 2007). In ornamental forms of P. obovata 15 16 nucleoli are found (Milyutin, 2003, Vladimirova, 2008). With that, the maximum number of nucleoli does not always corresponds to the number of nucleolus forming chromosomes, that can be an indirect evidence of not all secondary constrictions in chromosomes of this species being nucleolar. Therefore, nucleolar polymorphism is one of the main sources of karyotypic diversity in the genus Picea.

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DEVELOPMENT OF ECOLOGICAL TOURISM IN BAIKAL REGION M. Wyszyski Department of Land Protection, University of Opole, ul. Oleska 22, PL-45-052 Opole Baikal Lake is one of the most known lakes in the world as unique environment with 23 000 km3 of fresh clear water, great groups of endemic species, great biological and geographical diversity. The nature of Baikal Region is also unique with low level of anthropogenic transformation and great variety of landscapes between Siberian dark taiga, Siberian lightconiferous and Mongolian forest steppe. The most important nature values are protected in complex landscape conservation system. This natural potential creates possibilities to organize of sustainable tourism. Ecological tourism may have a considerable input in the protection of their biodiversity and geodiversity. It should be based on appropriate spatial planning and management. One of the most important aspects of ecotourism is creating of economical possibilities for local communities. This paper shows of ecotourism creating process in Baikal Region.

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ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI (AMF) AND DARK SEPTATE ENDOPHYTE (DSE) ASSOCIATIONS OF PLANTS ENDEMIC TO THE PAMIR ALAY MTS OF CENTRAL ASIA Sz. Zubek1, M. Nobis2, J. Baszkowski3, A. Nowak4
1

Laboratory of Mycology, Department of Plant Taxonomy, Phytogeography and Herbarium, Institute of Botany, Jagiellonian University, Lubicz 46, PL-31-512 Krakw, Poland; szymon.zubek@uj.edu.pl Department of Plant Taxonomy, Phytogeography and Herbarium, Institute of Botany, Jagiellonian University, Kopernika 31, PL-31-501 Krakw, Poland
3

Department of Plant Protection, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Sowackiego 17, PL-71-434 Szczecin, Poland
4

Laboratory of Geobotany and Plant Conservation, Department of Biosystematics, Opole University, Oleska 48, PL-45-022 Opole, Poland

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophyte (DSE) associations of 16 species from 12 families of plants endemic to the Pamir Alay Mts of Central Asia are presented. The plants and soil samples were collected in the Zeravshan and Hissar ranges within the central Pamir Alay mountain system. AMF colonization was found in 15 plants; in 8 species it was of the Arum type and in 4 of the Paris type, while 3 taxa revealed intermediate arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) morphotypes. Matthiola integrifolia (Brassicaceae) was found to be nonmycorrhizal. The AM status and morphology are reported for the first time for all the species analyzed and for the genera Asyneuma, Clementsia, and Eremostachys. DSE accompanied the AMF colonization in 10 plant species. The frequency of DSE occurrence in the roots was low in all the plants, with the exception of Spiraea baldshuanica. However, in the case of both low and higher occurrence, the percentage of DSE root colonization was low. Moreover, the sporangia of Olpidium spp. were sporadically found inside the root epidermal cells of 3 plant species. Seven AMF species (Glomeromycota) found in the trap cultures established with soils surrounding roots of the plants were reported for the first time from this region of Asia; Archaeospora trappei, Claroideoglomus claroideum, Claroideoglomus drummondii, Funneliformis constrictum, Funneliformis mosseae, Paraglomus majewskii and Racocetra fulgida. Additionally, one morphotype with glomoid, small, pale yellow spores of an unknown generic position was isolated. Our results provide information that might well be of use to the conservation and restoration programs of these valuable plant species.

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THE MICROMORPHOLOGY STUDY OF ENDANGERED SPECIES GLADIOLUS IMBRICATUS L. (IRIDACEAE JUSS.) IN UKRAINE S. L. Zhygalova1 , O. A. Futorna1,2
1

Department of Systematics and Floristics of Vascular Plants, M.H. Kholodny Institute of Botany National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
2

O.V. Fomin Botanical Garden, Educational-Scientific Centre "Institute of Biology", National Taras Schevchenko University of Kyiv

The genus Gladiolus L. includes about 250 species (Goldblatt, 1990). There four species are indicated for Ukrainian flora (Mosyakin, Fedoronchuk, 1999). Gladiolus imbricatus is entered in Red Data Book of Ukraine (2009) as endangered. It occurs in Central Europe and Mediterranean. In Ukraine there is the south-east border area of this species. The north-east border area is in Muhodzhary at north-west of Kazakhstan. G. imbricatus included to the Red Data Book of Kazakhstan as very rare:
(http://aktobe.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/d181d0bfd0b8d181d0bed0bad180d0b5d0b4d0bad0b8d185d180d0b0d181d182d0b5d0bdd0b8d0b9.pdf).

The aim of this study is to give a complete description of the surface structure of the leaves, seeds and pollen grains of G. imbricatus and to investigate whether these characters are useful systematically. The material for the study selected of herbarium specimens of the M.G Kholodny Institute of Botany of NAS of Ukraine (KW) from five different habitats of species area. The research of ultrastructure of leaves determined that lamina of G. imbricatus is characterized by: amphystomatic, immersed stomata brahyparacytic type, high stomata index, cuticle rugose type, winding or straight shape and elongated projections of epidermal cells, colliculate-mesh and colliculate relief, evenly thickened anticlinal walls of epidermal cells, concave walls of periclinal epidermal cells, presence wax plates and wax crusts. The seeds of plants of G. imbricatus obovoideum, with pappus covering the seeds from chalazial to mikropylar parts of seed. Cicatricle is square, small, by position - basal. Cuticle is rugose type. Well developed in all the studied seeds. The cells of test are polygonal, their boundaries are clearly seen. The periclinal cell walls of seed coat are different: convex (on pappus and sometimes on the seed body), flat or concave (on the seed body). The anticlinal cell walls are always uniformly thickened, straight. The ultrastructure of G. imbricatus seeds characterized by different types of relief (scalariform, rugose to scrobiculate). A comparison of our results with published data on the structure of seeds of other species of the genus Gladiolus (Erol, zen, Kker, 2006), found that the type of surface ultrastructure of seed coat may be diagnostic feature for genus. In all the investigated specimens pollen grains are monads, large (51-100 m), heteropolar. The shape varies from oblate to oblate-spheroidal. The outline of pollen grains from the equatorial side - elliptic. Pollen grains three-merged-furrow. On the distal side of pollen grains are three long furrows that merge at the equator. Furrows with more or less distinct smooth

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edges, covered with ornamental membranes. The sculpture of pollen grains on the proximal side and between the furrows is spinulose.
References
Er o l, O., zen , E., K ker , O., 2006. Preliminary SEM Observations on the seed testa structure og Gladiolus L. species from Turkey. International Journal of Botany 2 (2): 125-127. G oldblatt , P., 1990. Phylogeny and classification of the Iridaceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 77: 607627. M o sya k i n, S.L., F edor o nch u k, M.M., 1999. Vascular plants of Ukraine: a nomenclatural checklist. Kiev.: 32. Red Book of Ukraine. Flora, 2009. Kiev, Hlobalkonsaltynh: 912 p.

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LIST OF PARTICIPANS Z. Abbasova S. Adbullahi B.Y. Abubakar K. Badora G.R. Bakieva J. Baszkowski A.V. Bogdanova . Cimalov L. hal A.Ye. Demkovych M. Eli A.I. Fazlutdinova O. Futorna L. Gaysina M. Gbala A. Glukhov H. Hisoriev J.R. Johansen R.R. Kabirov E. Klichowska G. Klys K. Kochanowska S. Kolesnikov G. Kusza G. azarski W. Lepich T. Mamadov A.R. Mansurova I. Markov M. Nobis A. Nobis S. Nowak A. Nowak M. Olonova I. Olshanskyi University of Baku Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria Opole University Department of Botany, Bioecology and Landscape Design, Bashkir State Pedagogical University named after M.Akmulah Department of Plant Protection, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin Department of Botany, Bioecology and Landscape Design, Bashkir State Pedagogical University named after M.Akmulah Dept. of Biologie and Ecology, University of Ostrava Dept. of Biologie and Ecology, University of Ostrava Donetsk Botanical Garden of the NAS of Ukraine Dept. of Biologie and Ecology, University of Ostrava Department of Botany, Bioecology and Landscape Design, Bashkir State Pedagogical University named after M.Akmulah M.G.Kholodny Institute of Botany NAS of Ukraine Department of Botany, Bioecology and Landscape Design, Bashkir State Pedagogical University named after M.Akmulah Agency for Concervation of Environment, Opole Donetsk Botanical Garden of the NAS of Ukraine Institute of Botany, Plant Physiology and Genetics, Tajik Academy of Science Department of Biology, John Carroll University, U.S.A. Department of Botany, Bioecology and Landscape Design, Bashkir State Pedagogical University named after M.Akmulah Institute of Botany, Jagiellonian University Opole University Opole University Donetsk National University Opole University Jagiellonian University Institute of Botany, Department of Plant Taxonomy, Phytogeography and Herbarium Opole University University of Baku Department of Botany, Bioecology and Landscape Design, Bashkir State Pedagogical University named after M.Akmulah National Park esk vcarsko, Krsn Lpa Jagiellonian University Institute of Botany, Department of Plant Taxonomy, Phytogeography and Herbarium Jagiellonian University Institute of Botany, Department of Plant Taxonomy, Phytogeography and Herbarium Opole University Opole University Tomsk State University M.G.Kholodny Institute of Botany NAS of Ukraine

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V.M. Ostapko P. Osyczka B. Paszko O. Pelegrym V. Plek S.A. Prikhodko S.N. Pryvalikhin K. Rola S.Yu. Safiullin J. Sawicki N.V. Sukhanova I. Tatanov Y. Tkachova T. Tureek R. Wrbel M. Wyszyski S. Zhygalova Sz. Zubek

Donetsk Botanical Garden of the NAS of Ukraine Department of Polar Research and Documentation, Institute of Botany, Jagiellonian University Polish Academy of Science, Krakw M.G.Kholodny Institute of Botany NAS of Ukraine Dept. of Biologie and Ecology, University of Ostrava and Institute of Environmental technologies, Ostrava Donetsk Botanical Garden of the NAS of Ukraine Donetsk Botanical Garden of the NAS of Ukraine Department of Plant Taxonomy, Phytogeography & Herbarium, Institute of Botany, Jagiellonian University Department of Botany, Bioecology and Landscape Design, Bashkir State Pedagogical University named after M.Akmulah University of Warmia and Mazury, Poland Department of Botany, Bioecology and Landscape Design, Bashkir State Pedagogical University named after M.Akmulah Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences Donetsk Botanical Garden of the NAS of Ukraine Dept. of Biologie and Ecology, University of Ostrava Opole University Department of Land Protection, University of Opole M.G.Kholodny Institute of Botany NAS of Ukraine Institute of Botany, Jagiellonian University

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PROGRAM OF THE CONFERENCE

THURSDAY 6.9.2012

Arriving and registration of participants.


You are welcome from 3:00 p.m. at the University of Ostrava, Chittussiho 10, main hall. All of You who have not pay the fee yet, should do it during the registration! At 7:00 p.m. common visiting the downtown of Ostrava

FRIDAY 7.9.2012

1st Conference Day


10:00 Official beginning of the conference, Chittussiho 10, hall No. M 427 (4th floor) 10:30 Lectures, hall No. M 427 (4th floor) 12:00 Lunch (hotel Metropol, 200 m from the University building) 13:00 Lectures, hall No. M 427 (4th floor) 14:30 Poster session, main hall together with snack 19:00 Dinner, Social evening, Music (Slezsk pub, Podbradova street)

SATURDAY 8.9.2012

2nd Conference Day


8:30 18:00- 19:00

Excursion (Czech and Polish naturally valuable locations) Return from excursion, finish of the Conference

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FIELD TRIPS Czech locality Field trip in Czech Republic will be focussed on the locality of wetland flora situated near the city of Ostrava. Specially protected area, Nature Reserve Pond tpn is the lowest pond before the confluence of the rivers Odra and Opava. Pond tpn and the adjacent wetland represent a valuable area with critically endangered taxa. Between rare and threatened plants which could be seen belong Trapa natans, Salvinia natans, Utricularia australis, Nuphar lutea, Nymphaea candida, Rumex hydrolapathum, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae. Wetland plant communities represented here are for example: Phragmition communis, Nymphaeion albae, Batrachion aquatilis, Hydrocharition, Utricularion australis and Litorelion uniflorae. Polish localities The aim of the field trip in southern Poland is to present the xerothermophilous swards and subcontinental broad-leaved forest Tilio-Carpinetum on their distributional outskirts in Europe. Those types of vegetation we will see in two nature reserves (Rozumice and Gra Gipsowa) located within the Gubczycki Plateau within the Czech-Polish borderland. In Nature Reserve Gra Gipsowa, one of the oldest protection area in Opole Silesia, we will find a different type of xeric phytocoenoses, among others Thalictro-Salvietum pratensis and community with Inula salicina. Within the reserve several rare and threatened plants occur, e.g. Inula hirta, Orobanche elatior, O. caryophyllacea, Cirsium pannonicum, Carlina acaulis, Prunella grandiflora. Majority of them have in this place the westernmost stands in Poland. The spread of alien Heracleum sosnovskyi and several shrub species endangered the flora and vegetation of Gra Gipsowa. This unwanted processes are going to be stopped by different conservation actions aiming to maintain the xerotermophilous swards. In Rozumice Nature Reserve located just on the Czech-Polish border, we will see quite natural and in some places almost primeval wood belonging to Tilio-Carpinetum association which has generally its western range limit along the line of the Odra River. In Opole Silesia this type of vegetation goes further to the west with some patches scattered in southern part of the region. Despite the Tilio-Carpinetum, also Carici remotae-Fraxinetum in some lowerings of the brook valeys could be found. Within the nature reserve several rare and vanishing species could be observed, among aothers Epipactis purpurata, Hacquetia epipactis, Lilium martagon, Carx strigosa, Daphne mezereum and Primula veris.

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