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Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

2.1
Van de Graaf 1.

CHARGE AND ELECTRIC CURRENT

What is a Van de Graaff generator? Fill in each of the boxes the name of the part shown. A device that ...................... and ........................................ at high voltage on its dome. +

+ + + +

+ + + +

dome

2.

You will feel a brief _________ shock when your finger is brought close to the dome of the generator.

(B) i.

EXPLANATION When the motor of the Van de Graaff generator is switched on, it drives the rubber belt. This cause the rubber belt to rub against the roller and hence becomes _______ charged. The charge is then carried by the moving belt up to the metal _______ where it is collected. A large amount of _________ charge is built up on the dome.

ii. The electric field around the metal dome of the generator can produced a strong force of ___________ between the opposite charges. ___________ will suddenly accelerate from the finger to the dome of the generator and causes a spark.

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Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

iii. When the wire touches the dome, the microammeter needle is deflected. This shows that a __________ is flowing through the galvanometer. iv. The electric current is produced by the flow of ____________ from earth through the galvanometer to the metal dome to neutralize the positive charges on its surface. The metal dome can be safely touched with the finger as all the positive charges on it have been ________________.

v.

2. What will happen if the charged dome of the Van de Graaff is connected to the earth via a microammeter? Explain. There is a ................of the pointer of the meter. This indicates an electric current .............. The microammeter needle is returned to its .................................. position when the Van de Graaf is switched off. +

+ + +

+ +

3. Predict what will happen if a discharging metal sphere to the charged dome. When the discharging metal sphere is brought near the charged dome, ................. occurs. An electric current .................... + + + + + + +

4. The flow of electrical charges produces .........................................

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Physics Module Form 5 Electric Current

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

1. Electric current is defined as the ................................................................................................ 2. In symbols, it is given as:

I=Q t

where I = ............................... Q = ............................... t = ...............................

(i) The SI unit of charge is (Ampere / Coulomb / Volt) (ii) The SI unit of time is (minute / second / hour) (iii) The SI unit of current is (Ampere / Coulomb / Volt) is equivalent to (Cs // C-1s // Cs-1)

I
(iv) By rearranging the above formula, Q = ( It / t

t
/ I )

3. 1 Coulomb (C) = 1 Ampere Second (As) 4. Example : Charge of 1 electron = .. Charge of 1 proton = .
5. Total Charge :

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Physics Module Form 5 Electric Field

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

a. An electric field is a ................in which an ......................... experiences a ......................... b. An electric field can be represented by a number of lines indicate both the ................ and ....................of the field. c. The principles involved in drawing electric field lines are : (i) electric field lines always extend from a .............................................. object to a .........................-charged object to infinity, or from ................. to a ..................-charged object, (ii) electric field lines never ..................... each other, (iii) electric field lines are ...................in a ....................... electric field. EFFECT OF AN ELECTRIC FIELD ON A PING PONG BALL Observation: (a) The ball will still remain .......................... This is because the force exert on the ball by the ............................ plate is .................. to the force exerted on it by the ........................ plate.

(a) (b) If the ping pong ball is displaced to the right to touch the ............................... plate, it will then be charged with ........................... charge and will be pushed .......................... the

.......................... plate.

(b) (c) When the ping pong ball touches the ........................... plate, it will be charged with ........................... charge and will be pushed ........................... the ............................. plate. This process repeats again and again, causes the ping pong ball ............................ to and fro continuously between the two plates. (c)

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Physics Module Form 5 Conclusion

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

1. Electric field is a ...................................................................................................... 2. Like charges .................. each other but opposite charges ........................ each other. 3. Electric field lines are ...................... in an electric field. The direction of the field lines is from ................... to ..........................

EXERCISE 2.1
1. 5 C of charge flows through a wire in 10 s. What is the current in the wire?

2.

A charge of 300 C flow through a bulb in every 2 minutes. What is the electric current in the bulb?

3.

The current in a lamp is 0.2 A. Calculate the amount of electric charge that passes through the lamp in 1 hour.

4.

If a current of 0.8 A flows in a wire, how many electrons pass through the wire in one minute? (Given: The charge on an electron is 1.6 x 10-19 C)

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Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

An electric current of 200 mA flows through a resistor for 3 seconds, what is the (a) (b) electric charge the number of electrons which flow through the resistor?

2.2

IDEAS OF POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE

(a)

(b) X

Y P Pressure at point P is ................... than the pressure at point Q Water will flow from .... to .....when the valve is opened. This due to the ............... in the pressure of water Gravitational potential energy at X is ........ than the gravitational potential energy at Y. The apple will fall from ... to ...when the apple is released. This due to the ................... in the gravitational potential energy. Q

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Physics Module Form 5 (c) Similarly,

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

Point A is connected to .............terminal Point B is connected to ..............terminal Electric potential at A is ......................... than the electric potential at B. Electric current flows from A to B, passing the bulb in the circuit and .........................the bulb. This is due to the electric ............................... between the two terminals. As the charges flow from A to B, work is done when electrical energy is transformed to ......... and .......energy. The .................................... between two points in a circuit is defined as the amount of work done, W when one coulomb of charge passes from one point to the other point in an electric field. The potential difference,V between the two points will be given by:
A Bulb B

W Work V = Quantityofch arge = Q

where W is work or energy in Joule (J) Q is charge in Coulomb (C)

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Physics Module Form 5 EXPERIMENT 1:

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

TO INVESTIGATE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CURRENT AND POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE FOR AN OHMIC CONDUCTOR.

(a)

(b)

Figure (a) and figure (b) show two electrical circuits. Why do the ammeters show different readings? Why do the bulbs light up with different intensity? Referring to the figure (a) and (b) complete the following table: (a) Inference (b) Hypothesis (c) Aim (d) Variables The current flowing through the bulb is influenced by the potential difference across it.

To determine the relationship between current and potential difference for a constantan wire. (i) manipulated variable : (ii) responding variable : (iii) fixed variable :

Apparatus / materials :

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Physics Module Form 5 Method :

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

1. Set up the apparatus as shown in the figure. 2. Turn on the switch and adjust the rheostat so that the ammeter reads the current, I= 0.2 A. 3. Read and record the potential difference, V across the wire. Tabulation of data : Current,I/A 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 Volt, V/V 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5

Analysis of data

Draw a graph of V against I .

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Physics Module Form 5 Discussion :

Chapter 2- Electricity 1. From the graph plotted. (a) What is the shape of the V-I graph?

GCKL 2011

......................................................................................................................I is a straight line that passes through origin (b) What is the relationship between V and I? ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... 2. The resistance, R, of the constantan wire used in the experiment is equal to the gradient of the V-I graph. Determine the value of R.

3. What is the function of the rheostat in the circuit? ...................................................................................................................... Conclusion : rough it increases as long as

Ohms Law (a) Ohms law states

that the electric current, I flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across the ends of the ohmic conductor,

if temperature and other physical conditions remain constant

(b) By Ohms law: V

V = constant I

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Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

(c) The constant is known as .................................... of the conductor. (d) The unit of resistance is Factors Affecting Resistance 1. The resistance of a conductor is a measure of the ability of the conductor to (resist / allow) the flow of an electric current through it. 2. From the formula V = IR, the current I is (directly / inversely) proportional to the resistance, R. 3. Write down the relevant hypothesis for the factors affecting the resistance in the table below.
Factors Diagram Hypothesis Graph

4. From, the following can be stated: Hence, resistance of a conductor, R

The temperature of the conductor

The type of the material of the conductor

The cross-sectional area of the conductor, A

Length of the conductor, l

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Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

So

or

R=

where = resistivity of the substance

5.

i) Electric charge,

Q = ( It /

I t / ) t I

ii) Work done, W = (QV /

V Q / ) Q V

EXERCISE 2.2
1. If a charge of 5.0 C flows through a wire and the amount of electrical energy converted into heat is 2.5 J. Calculate the potential differences across the ends of the wire.

2. A light bulb is switched on for a period of time. In that period of time, 5 C of charges passed through it and 25 J of electrical energy is converted to light and heat energy. What is the potential difference across the bulb?

3. The potential difference of 10 V is used to operate an electric motor. How much work is done in moving 3 C of electric charge through the motor?

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Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

Bulb

4. When the potential difference across a bulb is 20 V, the current flow is 3 A. How much work done to transform electrical energy to light and heat energy in 50 s?

3A A

20 V

5. What is the potential difference across a light bulb of resistance 5 when the current that passes through it is 0.5 A?

6. What is the value of the resistor in the figure, if the dry cells supply 2.0 V and the ammeter reading is 0.5 A?

7. If the bulb in the figure has a resistance of 6 , what is the reading shown on the ammeter, if the dry cells supply 3 V?

8. If a current of 0.5 A flows through the resistor of 3 in the figure, calculate the voltage supplied by the dry cells?

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Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

9. Referring to the diagram on the right, calculate I (a) The current flowing through the resistor.

5 12 V

(b) The amount of electric charge that passes through the resistor in 30 s (c) The amount of work done to transform the electric energy to the heat energy in 30 s.

10. The graph shows the relationship between the potential difference, V and current, I flowing through two conductors, X and Y. a) Calculate the resistance of conductor X.
8

V/V
X

Y 2 0 0 2

I/A

b) Calculate the resistance of conductor Y.

c) If the cross sectional area of X is 5.0 x 10-6 m2, and the length of X is 1.2 m, calculate its resistivity.

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Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

2.3

SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS

Current Flow and Potential Difference in Series and Parallel Circuit SERIES CIRCUIT PARALLEL CIRCUIT

1. Effective Resistance: R= 2. Current: 3. Potential Difference: V= 1. Effective Resistance: R= 2. Current: 3. Potential Difference: V=

Effective resistance, R

(a) (b)

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Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

(c)

(d)

(e) (f)

(h) (g)

EXERCISE 2.3 1.
The two bulbs in the figure have a resistance of 2 and 3 respectively. If the voltage of the dry cell is 2.5 V, calculate (a) the effective resistance, R of the circuit

(b) the main current, I in the circuit

(c) the potential difference across each bulb.

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Physics Module Form 5 2.

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

There are two resistors in the circuit shown. Resistor R1 has a resistance of 1. If a 3V voltage causes a current of 0.5A to flow through the circuit, calculate the resistance of R2.

3.

The electrical current flowing through each branch, I 1 and I2, is 5 A. Both bulbs have the same resistance, which is 2 . Calculate the voltage supplied.

4.

The voltage supplied to the parallel is 3 V. R1 and R2 have a resistance of 5 and 20. Calculate (a) the potential difference across each resistor

(b) the effective resistance, R of the circuit

(c) the main current, I in the circuit

(d) the current passing through each resistor

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Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

2.4
Electromotive force

ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE AND INTERNAL RESISTANCE

Figure (a)

Figure (b)

Voltmeter reading, e.m.f.

Voltmeter reading, potential difference, V < e.m.f., E

E,r

R No current flow Current flowing

1. An electrical circuit is set up as shown in figure (a). A high resistance voltmeter is connected across a dry cell which labeled 1.5 V. a) Figure (a) is (an open circuit / a closed circuit) b) There is (current flowing / no current flowing) in the circuit. The bulb (does not light up / lights up) c) The voltmeter reading shows the (amount of current flow across the dry cell / potential difference across the dry cell)

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Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

2. The switch is then closed as shown in figure (b). a) Figure (b) is (an open circuit / a closed circuit) b) There is (current flowing / no current flowing) in the circuit. The bulb (does not light up / lights up) c) The voltmeter reading is the (potential difference across the dry cell / potential difference across the bulb / electromotive force). d) The reading of the voltmeter when the switch is closed is (lower than/ the same as / higher than) when the switch is open. e) State the relationship between e.m.f , E , potential difference across the bulb, VR and drop in potential difference due to internal resistance, Vr.

3.

a) Why is the potential difference across the resistor not the same as the e.m.f. of the battery? The potential drops as much as V across the internal resistance

b) Determine the value of the internal resistance.

Since

= = r =

+ +

Ir r

Therefore, the value of the internal resistance is

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Physics Module Form 5 EXERCISE 2.4 1

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

A voltmeter connected directly across a battery gives a reading of 1.5 V. The voltmeter reading drops to 1.35 V when a bulb is connected to the battery and the ammeter reading is 0.3 A. Find the internal resistance of the battery.

2 A circuit contains a cell of e.m.f 3.0 V and internal resistance, r. If the external resistor has a value of 10.0 and the potential difference across it is 2.5 V, find the value of the current, I in the circuit and the internal resistance, r.

A simple circuit consisting of a 2 V dry cell with an internal resistance of 0.5. When the switch is closed, the ammeter reading is 0.4 A. Calculate (a) the voltmeter reading in open circuit

(b) the resistance, R

(c) the voltmeter reading in closed circuit

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Physics Module Form 5 4

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

Find the voltmeter reading and the resistance, R of the resistor.

e.m.f.

A cell of e.m.f., E and internal resistor, r is connected to a rheostat. The ammeter reading, I and the voltmeter reading, V are recorded for different resistance, R of the rheostat. The graph of V against I is as shown. From the graph, determine a) the electromotive force, e.m.f., E
6 2 2 /A /V

b)

b) the internal resistor, r of the cell

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Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

2.5
Electrical Energy

ELECTRICAL ENERGY AND POWER

Electrical Energy and Electrical Power 1. Potential difference, V across two points is the energy,E dissipated or transferred by a coulomb of charge, Q that moves across the two points. 2. Therefore,

Potential difference, V = E = VQ Power, P = Energy dissipated, E time, t

Electrical energy dissipated, E Charge, Q

3. Hence,

4. Power is defined as the rate of energy dissipated or transferred. 5. Hence,

Electrical Energy, E From the definition of potential difference, V

Electrical Power, P Power is the rate of transfer of electrical energy,

Electrical energy converted, E

; where Q = It

Hence,

; where V = IR

Hence,

; where I = V R

SI unit :

SI unit :

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Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

Power Rating and Energy Consumption of Various Electrical Appliances 1. The amount of electrical energy consumed in a given period of time can be calculated by Energy consumed E = = Power rating Pt where x Time energy, E is in Joules power, P is in watts time, t is in seconds

COST OF ENERGY Energy Consumed (kWh) Bulb Refrigerator Kettle Iron 5 1 1 1 60 400 1500 1000 8 hours 24 hours 3 hours 2 hours

Appliance

Quantity

Power / W

Power / kW

Time

Total energy consumed, E

= = kWh kWh x RM 0.28

Cost

= = RM

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Physics Module Form 5 EXERCISE 2.5

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

1. How much power dissipated in the bulb? R = 10

(a)

5V

(b)

R = 10 R = 10 5V

2.

V= 15V

R1=2

R2=4

R3=4

Calculate : (a) the current, I in the circuit (b) the energy released in R 1 in 10 s.

(b) the electrical energy supplied by the battery in 10 s.

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Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

3. An electric motor is used to lift a load of mass 2 kg to a height 5 m in 2.5 s. If the supply voltage is 12 V and the flow of current in the motor is 5.0 A, calculate (a) Energy input to the motor

(b) Useful energy output of the motor

(c) Efficiency of the motor

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Physics Module Form 5

Chapter 2- Electricity

GCKL 2011

REINFORCEMENT EXERCISE CHAPTER 2 Part A: Objective Questions 4. Which of the following diagrams shows the correct electric field? A current of 5 A flows through an electric heater when it is connected to the 240 V main supply. How much heat is released after 2 minutes? A 1 200 J B C D 5. 2 400 J 14 400 J 144 000 J

An electric bulb is labeled 240V, 60W. How much energy is used by the bulb in one minute if the bulb is connected to a 240V power supply? A B 60 J 360 J 600 J 3600 J

2.

C D

Diagram 1 Diagram1show a lamp connected to a resistor and a battery. Calculate the power used by the light bulb. A B C D 6W 12 W 20 W 50 W

6.

The diagram shows a cell of negligible internal resistance connected to two resistors

3. When the switch is on, the current that flows in an electronic advertisement board is 3.0 x 10 -5 A. What is the number of electrons flowing in the advertisement board when it is switched on for 2 hours ?
[ Charge of an electron = 1.6 x 10 -19 C ]

What is the value of current, I? A B C 0.45 A 0.40 A 0.25 A

A 3.84 x 1011 B 1.67 x 1014 C 1.35 x 1018

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