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OTF Seniors Recreation Project 2020: Baseline Data Analysis and Evidence-based Benchmarking for Seniors Recreational Services Funded

OTF Seniors Recreation Project 2020:

Baseline Data Analysis and Evidence-based Benchmarking for Seniors Recreational Services

Funded by the Ontario Trillium Foundation

June 2012

OTF Seniors Recreation Project 2020: Baseline Data Analysis and Evidence-based Benchmarking for Seniors Recreational Services Funded

Acknowledgements

The project is funded by the Ontario Trillium Foundation and overseen by the Ottawa Community Immigrant services Organization (OCISO). The opinions and interpretations in this publication are those of the author and do not necessarily reflects those of the Ontario Trillium Foundation.

A special Thank You to Lynne Fergusson-Bourguignon from the City of Ottawa for her invaluable inputs and dedication throughout this project.

This report was prepared under the direction of:

Wali Farah, Project Sponsor, OCISO Jacqueline Nyiramukwende, Project Coordinator, OCISO Makanza Alain Pae, Lead Senior Consultant, Kafia Holding Inc.

With the assistance from:

Lynne Fergusson-Bourguignon, City of Ottawa John Philippe Melville, OCISO Karen Blakely, Jewish Family Services Ana Maria, Club Casa de los Abuelos Serge Falardeau, Ottawa Community Support Services Leah Miller Ismail Mohamed, Ottawa Council on Aging Lise Richard, Ottawa Community Support Services S. Phurn Ball Alison Marchall, OCISO André Ntela Tayeye, Canadian Congolese Community

And the participation of:

L’Association des Sénégalais de la Région de la capitale nationale Canada Nepal solidarity for Peace Centre de services Guigues Centre Séraphin-Marion d'Orléans Churchill Seniors Centre Club Casa de los Abuelos Congolese Community Association Gujarati Cultural Association Heron Gate Centre Hunt Club Riverside Community Centre Jamaican Community Association Jewish Family Services Kanata Chinese Seniors Support Centre Kanata Resource Centre Nepalese Canadian Association of Ottawa Ottawa Community Immigrant Services Organization Ottawa Orleans Somali Organization Ottawa Tamil Seniors Association Rwanda Community Organization South East Ottawa Community Health Centre Sportplex Nepean Centre The Good Companions

Note to readers

Copies of this report can be obtained from

The Ottawa Community Immigrant Services Organization (OCISO) 959 Wellington Street West Ottawa, Ontario, K1Y 2X5 Tel: (613)725-0202 / (613)725-5671 Fax: (613)725-9054 Email: info@ociso.org Internet: www.ociso.org

Report completed in June 2012

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

8

HIGHLIGHTS

9

THE CONTEXT

10

LIVING IN AN AGING SOCIETY

10

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

10

METHODOLOGY, LIMITATIONS AND DATA QUALITY

11

ANALYSIS

12

PORTRAIT OF RECREATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

12

INCOME AND OUTLAYS FOR SENIORS RECREATION

13

ORGANIZATIONAL CHALLENGES

13

OVERVIEW OF OPERATING BUDGET FOR SENIORS RECREATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

13

RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES

14

MUNICIPALITY FINANCES FOR SENIORS RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES

15

BEST PRACTICES LEARNED FROM RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES

16

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

18

APPENDIX I: LIST OF COMMUNITY AND INSTITUTIONAL PARTNERS AND THEIR CONTACTS

19

APPENDIX II: OTTAWA-CITYRUN COMMUNITY RESOURCE CENTRES AND THEIR CONTACTS

20

APPENDIX III: LIST OF FIGURES

21

APPENDIX IV: BIBLIOGRAPHY

33

Introduction

This report reviews demographic data and establishes evidence-based benchmarks for recommended application for the Seniors Recreation Project 2020. Data were collected from a series of meeting and discussion with community groups and service providers on a one-on-one basis.

The Seniors Recreation Project 2020 was funded by the Ontario Trillium Foundation and led by the Ottawa Community Immigrant Services (OCISO), in partnership with the City of Ottawa, Jewish Family Services, Help the Aged, Hunt Club Riverside Community Resource Centre, Council on Aging and the Ottawa Community Support Coalition. By collecting and analyzing information on ethno-cultural Seniors recreational activities in Ottawa, project thrives to develop an action plan and city wide strategy for increasing the outreach and cultural competencies of recreation service providers who wish to respond to the needs of diverse cultural Seniors group.

Benchmark considerations, with the objective of increasing the total percentage of all seniors reached and accessing services, include a review of Statistics Canada data, financial evaluation of seniors recreation funded by province and municipality, local survey on the number of new immigrant seniors in project participating communities, qualitative data on new immigrant community definition of “Senior, numbers of seniors reached from all backgrounds, numbers of partners in project measured by factors such as number of memorandum of understanding and attendance, in comparison to total senior services in Ottawa and a thorough identification of service gaps.

By establishing benchmarks and ensuring an evidence based strategy, data collected would serve as a foundation for future projects to produce replicable results that can be shared across Ontario. This component of the project is guided by the principles of Ottawa’s no community left behind strategy and by the United Nation’s age friendly city concept.

In this report, a grass-root organization is understood as being a small organization with two or three volunteers and which is in the process of developing a governance structure and represents the beginning of establishing itself as a not-for-profit organization. A grass-root organization is usually completely dependent on volunteer donations.

Highlights

Ethno-cultural grass-root organizations are aged between 4 and 10 years, with 67% of which has an annual operating budget of less than $10 000 dollars.

The language most spoken by grass-root organization is neither English nor French.

The main three sources of funding for grass-root recreational organizations are from membership fees, donations and the City of Ottawa.

Lack of appropriate training for identifying funding sources, weak proposal writing skills, lengthy application processes are some of the organizational challenges faced by ethno- cultural Seniors recreational organizations.

Wages, benefits and rent represent approximately 85% of recreational organizations’ operating budget.

Social recreation, performing arts and general interest are the main activities catered to ethno-cultural Seniors in Ottawa.

Transportation issues, language barriers and lack of motivation are the key factors preventing ethno-cultural Seniors from attending recreational activities.

65% of grass-root organizations responded that all Seniors served were from ethno- cultural background.

65% of respondents indicated that community agencies and City-owned community centers were the main providers of space for recreational activities.

Among the organizational challenges in acquiring space for activities by grass-root organizations, time availability and cost of space were the main concerns.

45% of respondents consider individuals 55 years of age and over “Senior”. Only 25%

agree with the official designation of a Senior as being 65 years and over.

As for barriers to reaching out to ethno-cultural Seniors, 63% of respondents indicated that funding is an issue; 35% need a dedicated trained staff for this group of Seniors and need more space.

The Context

Living in an aging society

The senior population of Ottawa will increase considerably in the next two decades as a result of the aging baby boomers. In 2006, the population 65 years and over accounted for 12.4% of the Ottawa’s population. The number of seniors 80 years and over had the fastest increase during the period 1996-2006. There were 90,055 persons in the age group 55-64 who will become seniors in the next decade 1 .

The senior population of Ottawa is increasingly diverse. In the 2006 census, 12% of the total population of Seniors were multicultural Seniors. The five predominant groups were Chinese, South Asian, Black, Arab and Southeast Asian 2 .

These hard facts suggest that we live in an aging society and that we cannot stop aging. Our capacity to affect our health as we age is limited. However, the importance of seniors interacting with other fellow seniors through means such as recreational activities is paramount for their well-being 3 .

Conceptual Framework

The Seniors Recreation 2020 project has been initiated to raise the proportion of all seniors accessing services, improve efficiencies in the use of existing infrastructure; increase community

based seniors’ recreation, and maintain special attention to new immigrant seniors and their

communities.

The positive impact of a community-based recreation strategy improves the quality of life for seniors by reducing isolation, increasing mental and physical health (and reducing other long term costs), increasing civic participation, and increasing long term community engagement.

For new immigrant seniors, these benefits are amplified. New immigrant communities have been struggling to support the recreational needs of their seniors in isolation from established service providers. Many new immigrant communities have had no sustained, publicly funded support for their seniors or have been operating from project funding only.

The project creates a model for culturally competent and sustainable, publicly funded recreation for the growing diversity of seniors in Ottawa. Established service providers will propose new administrative and financial models that will allow them to reach out to and partner with culturally diverse communities. Service delivery will flow to all seniors, especially new immigrant seniors, in locations, at times, and in languages suitable to each community.

The objectives of this evaluation process are to increase efficiencies in the use of existing infrastructure and other resources, increase quality of life for all seniors in a culturally diverse city, maintain sustained ability to measure changes in the seniors demographic, and to provide a provincial platform or model for changes in service delivery

  • 1 Statistics Canada, Census of 1996, 2001 and 2006

  • 2 This is Who We Are: A Social Profile of Ottawa Based on the 2006 Census, Social Planning Council of Ottawa, 2008

  • 3 Statistics Canada, Elder care and the complexities of social networks, Canadian Social Trends, no. 77, Summer 2005

Methodology, limitations and data quality

Considering the exploratory character of the project as well as the time and budgetary constraints inherent to the project, it was suggested to adopt a non probabilistic sampling approach based on the judgement and the rational choice of organizations to be observed. This voluntary approach does not require a costly sampling base. It is less expensive than random sampling and results can be achieved very quickly.

As opposed to the random sampling, the non probabilistic sampling is less stringent, easier to apply, and does not involve taking representativeness into consideration as the desirable purpose of the sample description. The intimate knowledge of the observed organizations by the project team was sufficient to decide which organizations should be selected. For the purpose of this project, thirty-five community-run or city-run service providers were selected. The selection was motivated by available information on these organizations, as well as their implication in the project. The sample representativeness was driven by the perceived importance of the organization, and by the quality of data series related the financial and non-financial information on Seniors recreational activities.

The main limitation of this non probabilistic sampling approach is that it is not possible to assign to the selected unit. It is therefore unreasonable to calculate probability as a statistical unit to be included in the sample, nor can a confidence interval be built around a population parameter. Because of the unknown size of the probability, it is not possible to evaluate the size of an estimator. In addition, there are problems of representativeness and sampling principles in the sense that the quality of the data and in particular a selection bias which limits the validity of the sample.

Here are some facts are facts about the data collection process:

Total number of selected organizations:

35

Organizations "off target":

8

Organizations retained for survey:

27

Never responded:

7

Participated and responded:

20

Response rate:

74.07%

Analysis

Portrait of recreational organizations

This analysis is based on data collected for Seniors recreational activities that have taken place in 2009. For this exploratory study of the landscape of recreational activities for seniors in the City of Ottawa, it is important to note the absence of a sampling frame from which to draw a random sample and that could assign a weight to each of its units. The wealth of experience and judgment of the Ottawa Council on Aging members were the sole determinant a non-probabilistic sample with a distribution shown in Figure 1 (Appendix III).

Indeed, it is important to note that since the project's objective was about developing a better understanding of Seniors recreational activities within ethno-cultural groups, special attention was paid to grass-roots organizations with a weight 45% in our sample. Seniors Recreations Centres represent 30% of our sample, followed by a cumulative total of 25% for Community Health Centres and Community Houses.

Larger organizations such as Seniors Recreations Centres tend to have an Centre Director with a professional management team and a Board, whereas grass-root organizations are run by volunteers. Equally important is to note that some Seniors Recreations Centres are managed and others receive funding contribution from the City of Ottawa.

Structure of governance that one would encounter in organizations actively participating in Seniors recreations activities differ on the size and type of an organization. However, the most frequent structures are depicted in Figure.2, whereby 50% of observed organizations have appointed an executive director with a management team, a volunteer Board of Directors from a

community and elected by the members of the community.

Grass-root organizations are aged between 4 and 10 years, with 67% of which has an annual operating budget of less than $10 000 dollars (Figure 6). City-sponsored Seniors Recreations Centres have an operating budget of between $100 000 and $ 250 000.

According to our study sample, 50% of organizations serve seniors of African or European origin, whereas 47% of organizations cater to Seniors of all origins. In general, these organizations are fully integrated with large operating budgets. Grass-roots organizations are, by definition, more specialized according to the uniqueness of the ethnicity of their members. 25% of organizations cater to Seniors from Central and South America. Finally come Seniors of South Asian, Caribbean with less than 20%. Other cultural groups served are the Chinese, Nepali, Somali and Tamil (Figure 7).

The language most spoken by grass-root organization is neither English nor French. Seniors from these groups prefer to be served in their native language such as Spanish, Chinese, Nepali, Tamil, Arabic, Kinyarwanda or Lingala (Figure 8).

Income and outlays for Seniors recreation

As indicated in Figure 9, the top three sources of funding for recreational organizations are from municipalities, membership fees and from the Government of Ontario. A further look in Figure 11 indicates that grass-root organizations are funded differently: membership fees, donations and City of Ottawa (municipality). Among other sources are partners organizations such as United Way.

Organizational challenges

Among the organizational challenges in obtaining funding from government agencies, recreational organizations find in most part that the application process is complicated and lengthy. They need training on how to seek sources of funding. For example, when completing an application, most grass-root organizations feel that they compete against professional proposal writers hired by mainstream organizations. On occasion, they are asked to write a huge proposal for a very little amount of money (Figure 11).

Other grass-root organizations are affected by a lack of consensus during board meetings and as a result of which, applications for funding are often withdrawn because the board of directors is unable to successfully pursue the application process.

It is also important to note that members from grass-root organizations tend not to understand why they are asked to pay to belong to an organization, making these organizations utterly dependable on government subsidies. For that reason, some grass-root organizations simply do not charge membership fees to their members. One of the reasons making it difficult for grass- root organizations to be self-sustainable through membership fees are that 44% find fees too expensive and do not pay their fees on time (Figure 14).

Other organizational challenges in obtaining funding from other sources such as fund raising, donations are:

A need to learn how to devise, implement and deploy an effective fund-raising effort.

An exhaustive cycle of applying and waiting to obtain the funds. Then reporting on a

regular basis on how the funds are being used, while looking for new sources of funding and all this happening within a year or less. Everyone (non-profit) is competing for donor/fund-raising dollars are there is no

designated person for this role within grass-root organizations. Difficulty to find suitable sources of funding.

Donations from community members are not sufficient.

Lack of internal fund-raising resources (i.e. no staff, no budget, etc.)

Overview of operating budget for Seniors recreational organizations

On average 71% of the total operating budget is dedicated to covering wages and benefits of large organizations such as Seniors Recreations Centre. It is roughly an average 54% for smaller organizations such as grass-root organizations (Figures 13 and 14). The top three expenditures are made in wages and benefits, rent and purchases (materials and sub-contracts)

Recreational activities

85% of organizations have responded that they do offer social recreation such as playing cards, group discussions as their main Seniors activity in their programming, followed by performing arts (70%) and general interest (70%) activities (Figure 15).

However, as for grass-root organizations, a group of other activities such as occasional field trips, cultural music, dancing, movie nights, knitting, group outings, reciprocal support, health issues seminars, continuing education and crafts, speeches and poetry, plays an important part in the recreational programming.

40% of organizations responded that Seniors spend on average 0 to 5 hours of their time in organized recreational activities, and 20% said that Seniors spend between 6 and 10 hours weekly. Only 5% of organizations have the capacity to retain Seniors over 16 hours in recreational activities weekly.

As for transportation to recreational centres, 45% responded that Seniors prefer using public transportation, 30% think Seniors prefer to drive themselves to recreational centres.

50% of organizations believe that Seniors live in the community and close to recreational centres. They tend to travel between 5 and 10 km. Other 30% say that although living in the city, Seniors travel 20 km and more.

With regards to money spent by seniors at recreation centres, 70% of surveyed organizations say that Seniors spend between 0$ and $20 in a single visit at a recreation centre.

Among the top 3 reasons preventing ethno-cultural seniors from participating in recreational activities, transportation, language barrier and lack of motivation were the highly ranked ones (Figure 16).

56% of grass-root organizations served between 50 and 100 seniors in 2009, while 70% of mainstream Seniors Recreation Centres served in a range of 100 to 500 Seniors. 67% of Grass- root organizations have catered to ethno-cultural immigrant Seniors with same ethnic background (Figures 17 and 18).

33% of grass-root organizations have responded that they use private homes for recreational activities; 33% have obtained a space from either a City-owned Community Centre or a Community Agency such as Community Health Centre. With 65% of all respondents, Community Agencies and City-owned Community Centres were their main space providers for recreational activities for Seniors (Figure 19).

As for organizational challenges in accessing space for recreational activities, 56% of grass-root organizations believe that time availability is an issue, while 56% think that space is too costly (Figure 20).

45% of all responding organizations agreed with definition of a “Senior” as individual who has reached the age of 55. Only 25% of organizations are comfortable with the official definition of a Senioras a person aged 65 and over (Figure 21)

From a managerial perspective, 35% of responding organizations have five or more partners. However, 90% of grass-root organizations have none or one partner which tends to be a community agency. Many grass-root organizations are not aware that they can approach a community agency for help. 50% of organizations operate with no contract at all, while 20% have recourse to MOUs.

As a main barrier to reaching out to Seniors, 63% responded that funding is the main issue, while 38% said that they would need a dedicated and trained staff for the ethno-cultural group of Seniors. A detailed look at the barrier is depicted in Figure 23.

Municipality finances for Seniors recreational activities

It is important to note that data on projected tax collection and projected tax expenditure on Seniors recreational activities for 2012, 2013 and 2014 were not available because budgets are not established or calculated by demographic, rather by service area within many City Departments. However, $92 million were allocated to the budget for the Department of Recreation in 2009/2010, of which $42.5 million went to support Seniors Recreation Programs.

All Canadian municipalities support recreation services form their tax base. Recreation projects represented $92 million in expenditure for 2009. This $92 million is offset by $49.5 million in revenue (user fees, sponsorship, etc.). The tax-based investment in recreation over the last four years has been three to four percent of the City’s overall operating budget.

For 2009/20010, Seniors Centres received a total of $517,875 funding contributions in Ottawa. In 2011, 29 Seniors’ organizations, representing 35 programs, received a total of $1,447,201 in City Renewable Community Funding for core operational and programming related costs. This support includes $30,451 in Recreation Funding through the Parks, Recreation and Culture Department. City funds support a range of Seniors services including Community Support Services, Seniors Centres, Seniors Councils and Seniors Clubs/Associations.

Also in 2011, the City’s Non-Renewable Project Funding envelope allocated $90,000 in funding to 7 one year projects serving multicultural seniors.

There are 8 Seniors Centres, 3 Senior Councils and 10 Seniors Association and Clubs that receive funding a contributions to assist with the operational costs. City-run Seniors recreation programs are offered through 4 designated Seniors Centre and 19 other City Centers: 47% through Churchill, 32% through Heron and 20% through Kanata. About 10,580 rental hours were made to Seniors organizations in 2010. There were 333 identified Seniors (65+) that used $53,445 of City’s financial assistance.

Best practices learned from recreational activities

The following are what organizations had to say when asked when what made their organization stand out:

Partnership and openness is model of collaboration.

Relationship is developed on the basis on trust, respect and acceptance.

Cultural aspects are taken into consideration when designing activities, for ex. cooking

ethnic foods. Programs are created based on the needs, interest and suggestions coming from the

culturally diverse clients. An opportunity to meet with other members from the community.

An opportunity to introduce home culture to children born and raised in Canada.

An opportunity to introduce home artists to the Canadian public

As a community group, the main human resources are volunteers. It is not always easy to

be available for non paid work. Speaking the same language, sharing the same culture, therefore it is easy to pick up a

phone and call up a Senior or even pop in at their residence. Trust comes easy, social moments are less tense, so Seniors anticipate to meet over any

activity such as dancing, eating or in a general socialization. The kind of recreation the group practices is of low budget considering the tools needed

for activities such as dancing (CD player and dancing space are the main requirements). Trust in what we do for the seniors and their families.

We are consistent in our policies and programming. Having a house makes it very simple

for the seniors to remember where we are, and gives all of them a sense of identity. Freshness of programming: run and designed by the Seniors themselves.

Chronic lack of money: it may sound odd to always talk about money most of the time as

the main issue but $10 000 per year to serve over 100 seniors and keep them busy 6 days a week in the Capital region is not easy. We have proved to be accountable, as we put every cent we get and many cents we

contribute to good use. We are strategically located nearby major ethno-cultural group. We attend cultural events

in these communities. Informal partnerships with those communities, partnerships with resource centres in our community and we offer program spaces to various centres. English as a Second Language program is taught in our Centre. We provide service in the language spoken by the Seniors.

We are culturally sensitive and will change program to accommodate our Seniors.

We have built strong partnership with other service providers.

We build governance around strengthening our organization through capacity building by

offering a variety of activities. We connect with community members on a daily basis thanks to common culture, religion and language we all share. We are a well known organization by the City of Ottawa, the provincial and federal

governments. We are the best on youth and family programs which makes it easier for the organizations

to outreach to Seniors. We outreach to City of Ottawa aging place buildings and invite Seniors in those buildings

for an information session on our services. We offer chair exercise classes and dance fit for Seniors at no cost.

We offer a gender-based multicultural Seniors programming and it is very successful

We provide community program that is within community; so no traffic or transportation

is an issue. Our workers understand the cultural sensitivity and devise programs based on the Community needs.

Engaging Seniors in their language, helping them to get involved with the events.

We are committed to making services accessible to all, including ethno-cultural seniors

We are a culturally competent and multilingual staff.

We have recreational activities in the neighbourhoods where Seniors live.

We have referrals and connections from outside agencies

Conclusion and recommendations

The project “Seniors 2020 Baseline Data analysishas enabled to obtain ground-breaking data from recreational activities for Seniors in ethno-cultural communities of the City of Ottawa. As indicated in statement of the project, the effort was aimed at obtaining evidence-based data to better understand the landscape, the design, the development and the evaluation of recreational activities for Seniors in ethno-cultural communities.

Indeed, the project has allowed exploring and better understanding the socio-cultural, demographic and financial aspects in the recreational context of ethno-cultural communities. From this exploratory study, it is now plausible to argue, with some reservations, that grass-root organizations in ethno-cultural communities would be better equipped in reaching out to Seniors and cost-efficiently delivering recreational activities in ethno-cultural communities because of their special cultural position in addressing the needs of Seniors from these communities.

Recognizing the lack of a comprehensive sampling frame of grass-root organizations that specialize in providing recreational activities for Seniors in their respective communities, it would be prudent to avoid generalizing the results from this project on all the grass-root organizations in the National Capital Region.

Nevertheless, data from this project can still qualitatively be used to validate many of the assumptions relating to the special context of recreational activities for Seniors in ethno-cultural environment of the City of Ottawa. City-funded Community Agencies should try to make themselves known to most of the grass-root organizations because they are an important resource and a must for these communities.

A further project focusing on the realities of Seniors in ethno-cultural community would be welcome. However, community agencies should begin by conducting a census of all grass-root ethno-cultural organizations in their respective geographical areas, so as to allow drawing conclusions statistically compelling for future projects.

Appendix I: List of Community and Institutional Partners and their Contacts

Community Partners

Club Casa de los Abuelos Regroupement des Affaires Femmes

Rwanda Community Organization Members of the Coalition of New Immigrant Seniors

Institutional Partners

Jewish Family Services Community Support Coalition Council on Aging HelpAge Ottawa Community Immigrant Services Organization (OCISO) Hunt Club Riverside Community Centre City of Ottawa

Appendix II: Ottawa-Cityrun Community Resource Centres and their Contacts

Institution Name

Phone numbers

Heron Seniors Centre:

(613-247-4802)

Churchill Seniors Centre:

(613-798-8927)

Nepean SeniorsCentre:

(613-580-2828)

Kanata Seniors Centre:

(613-599-4480)

Appendix III: List of Figures

Figure 1 – Organization characteristics Figure 2 – Structure of governance
Figure 1
Organization characteristics
Figure 2
Structure of governance
Appendix III: List of Figures Figure 1 – Organization characteristics Figure 2 – Structure of governance
Figure 3 – Age distribution of surveyed organizations
Figure 3
Age distribution of surveyed organizations
Figure 4 – Age distribution of grass-root organizations
Figure 4
Age distribution of grass-root organizations
Figure 5 – Operating budgets among surveyed organizations Figure 6 – Operation budgets for grass-roots organizations
Figure 5
Operating budgets among surveyed organizations
Figure 6
Operation budgets for grass-roots organizations
Figure 5 – Operating budgets among surveyed organizations Figure 6 – Operation budgets for grass-roots organizations
Figure 7 – Seniors ethnic groups served
Figure 7
Seniors ethnic groups served
Figure 8 – Languages spoken
Figure 8
Languages spoken
Figure 9 – Frequency of sources of income for Seniors organizations
Figure 9
Frequency of sources of income for Seniors organizations

Figure 10

Frequency of sources of income for grass-root Seniors organizations

Figure 9 – Frequency of sources of income for Seniors organizations Figure 10 – Frequency of
Figure 11 – Frequency of organizational challenges in obtaining funding from government agencies
Figure 11
Frequency
of
organizational
challenges
in
obtaining
funding
from
government
agencies
Figure 12 – Frequency of organizational challenges in obtaining funding from government agencies by grass-root organizations
Figure 12
Frequency of organizational challenges in obtaining funding from government
agencies by grass-root organizations

Figure 13

Frequency of organizational challenges in obtaining funding from membership in grass-root organizations

Figure 13 – Frequency of organizational challenges in obtaining funding from membership in grass-root organizations Figure

Figure 14

Operating expenses for Seniors recreation organizations

Figure 13 – Frequency of organizational challenges in obtaining funding from membership in grass-root organizations Figure

Figure 15

Operating expenses for grass-root organizations

Figure 15 – Operating expenses for grass-root organizations Figure 16 – Types of recreations for Seniors

Figure 16

Types of recreations for Seniors in recreational organizations

Figure 15 – Operating expenses for grass-root organizations Figure 16 – Types of recreations for Seniors
Figure 17 – Top three reasons preventing ethno-cultural Seniors from participating in recreational activities
Figure 17
Top three reasons preventing ethno-cultural Seniors from participating in
recreational activities
Figure 18 – Number of ethno-cultural seniors served by grass-root organizations
Figure 18
Number of ethno-cultural seniors served by grass-root
organizations
Figure 19 – Percentage of ethno-cultural seniors served by grass-root organizations
Figure 19
Percentage of ethno-cultural seniors served by grass-root organizations

Figure 20

Space providers for recreational activities

Figure 19 – Percentage of ethno-cultural seniors served by grass-root organizations Figure 20 – Space providers

Figure 21

Organizational challenges in acquiring space for activities by grass-root organizations

Figure 21 – Organizational challenges in acquiring space for activities by grass-root organizations Figure 22 –
Figure 22 – Definition of Seniors
Figure 22
Definition of Seniors
Figure 23 – Main barriers in reaching out to ethno-cultural Seniors
Figure 23
Main barriers in reaching out to ethno-cultural Seniors

Appendix IV: Bibliography

Statistics Canada, Census of 1996, 2001 and 2006

This is Who We Are: A Social Profile of Ottawa Based on the 2006 Census, Social Planning Council of Ottawa, 2008

Statistics Canada, Elder care and the complexities of social networks, Canadian Social Trends, no. 77, Summer 2005

A portrait of Ottawa Older Adults: Demographic and Socio-Economic Characteristics, Ottawa City Council, 2011