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(Daniel) O'Connell

the Irish nationalist that was elected to Parliament although he was not legally eligible, which helped to end the Anglican monopoly on British government
the leader of the Whigs, who helped Britain form a government by replacing "rotten" boroughs (ones with few voters) with representatives for unrepresented cities, increasing number of voters 50%, and forcing the passage of the reform bill by threatening to reform the House of Lords

(Earl) Grey

(Edmund) Burke

a conservative political theorist a conservative religious theorist and historian


Castlereagh's successor, who was interested in British commerce and trade and supported the Latin American move for independence so that they could dominate trade with them, also ending the War of Jenkin's Ear

(Friedrich) Hegel

(George) Canning

(Jean-Jacques) Dessalines

the Haitian military leader of slave origin who resisted Napoleon and helped his country in 1804 be the first one to achieve independence from a slave-led rebellion the leading general of the Rio de Plata forces who marched over the Andes to secure Chile's independence in 1817, and then sailed to Peru to drive out royalist forces there as well in 1820 a Serbian leader that lead guerrilla warfare against the Ottomans and helped build national self-identity and attracted the interest of the great powers, although unsuccessful

(Jose de) San Martin

(Kara) George

(Karl) Sand

a student and Burschenschaft member that assassinated a conservative, and became a nationalist martyr upon his execution
the British lord whose ministry was unprepared to deal with postwar unemployment and poor harvests, and passed the Six Acts to support the Peterloo massacre and ensure order

(Lord) Liverpool

(Miguel) Hidalgo

a Creole priest that in 1810 organized a rebellion of the Indians, blacks, and mestizos in his parish, capturing several cities and marched to Mexico city, where he was captured and executed
the man who freed Venezuela and was named president, and then recaptured Peru after an unfavorable meeting with San Martin in 1823, marking the end of Spain's effort to retain its South American empire

(Simon) Bolivar

(the) Greek Revolution

the event that caused Philhellenic societies in nearly every country and was famous because it attracted the support and participation of many writers and liberals
a former slave that emerged as the leader of the Haitian slave rebellion that caused enormous violence, caused from the Colonial Assembly's refusal to grant mulattos the right of white men, and eventually abolished slavery with French assistance before getting captured by Napoleon in 1803 who feared Haiti was undermining his authority

(Toussaint) L'Ouverture

1830

the year in which Charles X called for new elections, but the liberals scored a stunning victory, and so he attempted a royalist takeover

Act of Union

William Pitt the Younger's act that allowed Protestant Irish to be elected into Parliament
the Russian tsar that first tried Enlightenment ideas, but then turned away from reform and took the lead in suppressing liberalism and nationalism
the city that Charles X seized control of during his reign, making it later an integral part of France due to merchant ties and French immigrants into its large territory the country to which the programs of liberalism and nationalism were most dangerous due to its wide variety of ethnic groups living under the same rule

Alexander (I)

Algiers

Austria

autocracy

the type of rule the Nicholas I's reign embodied

Belgium

a country that had been merged with Holland in 1815 but fought and won for its independence in 1830, becoming a guaranteed neutral state

Bourbon

the restored rule to France in 1814


the country that the Portuguese royal family fled to, and ended up peacefully obtaining its independence
student associations that advocated a united German state, were often anti-Semitic, and were dissolved later by Metternich after they made clear their strong liberal intentions the 1819 acts issued after Sand's execution that dissolved the Burschenschaften, provided for university inspectors, and allowed censor of the press

Brazil

Burschenschaften

Carlsbad Decrees

Catholic Emancipation Act

the act that allowed Roman Catholics to be members of Parliament, showing the compromise reached between conservatives and liberals
the extremely radical conspiracy headed by the demented Arthur Thistlewood to blow up the entire British cabinet, which helped discredit the movement for parliamentary reform
the French monarch that strongly believed in rule by divine right, took conservative actions against aristocrats that had gained land in the revolution, restored primogeniture, and attempted a royalist seizure of power that ended in his abdication

Cato Street Conspiracy

Charles X

Coercion Acts

the 1817 acts in Britain that temporarily suspended habeas corpus and extended existing laws against seditious gatherings in order to repress discontent
the arrangement for major powers to consult each other on matters affecting Europe as a whole and resolving mutual foreign policy issues, preventing one nation from taking major action in international affairs without obtaining the consent of the others (it was especially directed against France and Russia)

Concert of Europe

Congress of Troppau

the 1820 gathering between the Holy Alliance, Britain, and France that declared stable governments allowed to intervene to restore order in countries experiencing a revolution, aimed towards tumultuous Italy

conservatism

the government form based in legitimate monarchies, landed aristocracies, and established churches
the brother of Tsar Alexander I, who married a woman who was not of royal blood and thus excluded himself from the throne although he was more popular than his brother

Constantine

Corn Law

the 1815 law passed by Parliament that maintained high prices for domestically produced grain by levying import duties on foreign grain

creoles

the merchants, landowners, and professional people of Spanish descent in South America who were most discontented by Iberian rule and secured their countries' independence, although to no benefit of slaves, natives, mulattos, or mestizos

Decembrist Revolt

the refusal of many junior officers to swear allegiance to Nicholas I as tsar, leading to a massacre and investigation of the secret army societies; it was the first rebellion in modern Russian history whose instigators had specific political goals--constitutional government and abolition of serfdom

Dom Pedro

the regent of Brazil that embraced the cause of Brazilian independence and became emperor of a peacefully independent Brazil, succeeded by his son Spain's ruler after Napoleon who ignored his pledge for a Constitution until officers rebelled, but the Holy Alliance came and suppressed the revolution, restoring him to the throne
the 1820 act issued by the German Confederation that limited the subjects that the constitutional chambers of Bavaria, Wurttemberg, and Baden could discuss, and asserted the right of the monarchs to resist demands of constitutionalists

Ferdinand (VII)

Final Act

Four Ordinances

Charles X's act that restricted the press, dissolved the Chamber of Deputies, called for new elections, and limited franchise to the wealthiest citizens, which lead to a rebellion in Paris and Charles' abdication

Frederick William (III)

the Prussian ruler that promised a constitutional government in 1815, but instead created a Council of State responsible to him alone and eight diets headed by Junkers, supressing reform
the thirty-nine states established under Austrian leadership that replaced the Holy Roman Empire under the Vienna settlement, that Austria was determine to dominate to prevent the formation of a national state and the dissolution of Austria

German Confederation

Great Reform Bill

the British law published in 1832 that expanded the size of the English electorate but kept property and gender as qualification for voting, which just widened the variety of voters; this was the reason why revolution in Britain was not necessary, because they had the same institutions, just influenced by different people

Haiti

the country that achieved independence during its revolution 17911804, sparked by the policies of the French Revolution, and that demonstrated that slaves of African origins could lead a revolt against white masters and mulatto freemen

Hispanola

the island that Haiti is part of


the country that continuously caused trouble for Great Britain because they were not represented in the Parliament
the prince regent of Brazil that addressed many local complaints of the Creoles such as expanding trade before being forced to return to Portugal
the French regime headed by Louise Philippe, that made a constitution in which Catholicism was not the official religion, censorship was abolished, and the king had to cooperate with the Chamber of Deputies

Ireland

Joao

July Monarchy

juntas

local Creole political committees that claimed the right to govern different regions of South America, which ended the privileges of peninsulares

liberal

the 19th century term for people who wanted toleration, equality, parliamentary monarchy, constitutionalism, and free trade with no tariffs or barriers; the most prominent advocators of privilege based on wealth and property, not birth

Louis Philippe

the french king that replaced Charles X and headed a more liberal government with a constitution and a restored Chamber of Deputies, although socially the rule proved conservative
the political realist that became the constitutional monarch of France under his constitution, the Charter, and although he was at first open to liberalism, he was persuaded by ultraroyalists to drive liberals to near illegal status

Louis XVIII

Metternich

the Austrian diplomat that epitomized conservatism and was the chief architect of the Vienna settlement
the leader of the Serbian rebellion that gained administrative autonomy for Serbia and in 1830 independence, and became hereditary prince of the expanding nation

Milos (Obrenovitch)

nationalism

the single most powerful European political ideology of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries
people who believed that groups of people from the same ethnicity, language, culture, and history, should be administered by the same government
the tsar whose reign was disputed and was faced within days by rebellious junior offices, leading to the Decembrist Revolt and repression of liberalism and nationalism
the Russian program that placed the church as a basis for morality, education, and intellectual life, taught Russians to spurn social mobility, and glorified the Russian nationality as a source of perennial wisdom that separated them from the corruption and turmoil of the West

nationalists

Nicholas (I)

Official Nationality

Organic Statute

the 1832 declaration that Poland was an integral part of the Russian empire, triggered by riots in Warsaw and a small revolution that tried to depose Nicholas as king of Poland

Peterloo

the 1819 massacre the ensued after panic broke out during a radical reform campaign due to the militia in the crowd, and resulted in the Six Acts

Poor Law

the law that many of Britain's taxpaying classes wanted to abolish, that provided public relief for the destitute and unemployed, showing the abandonment by the British ruling class of its traditional role of the paternalistic protector of the poor

Rio de la Plata

the first region in South America to assert its independence, by thrusting off Spanish authority in 1810, as well as sending forces to liberate Paraguay and Uruguay, although these battles were lost the country that gained close support from Russia because of their Slav heritage and Eastern Orthodox church, while having tension with Austria because of their expansion of territory
the 1819 acts that prevented radical leaders from agitation and gave the authorities new powers by banning public meetings and armed groups, tightening laws on libel, increasing newspaper taxes, and allowing for searching of homes

Serbia

Six Acts

the Charter

the constitution of France that provided for a hereditary monarchy and bicameral legislature, religious toleration, and did not challenge the property rights of landowners that had benefited from the revolution

Treaty of Adrianople

the 1829 agreement that gained Ottoman holdings in Romania for Russia and allowed Britain, France, and Russia to decide the future of Greece

Treaty of London

the 1827 agreement that demanded Trukish recognition of Greek independence the 1830 agreement that declared Greece an independent kingdom and Otto I the first king of the new Greek kingdom supporters of the monarchy in France that strongly opposed liberalism and stopped its spread in France the German name for the last part of conflict with Napoleon, that resulted in his defeat

Treaty of London

Ultraroyalists

Wars of Liberation

White terror

the bloodbath of royalists in France against former revolutionaries and supporters of Napoleon out of a need for revenge for their suffering during the revolution