You are on page 1of 35

Teaching Resource

Principal Writers:
Wayne Lavold, Teacher, Harry Ainlay High School Robert Gardner, Teacher, Harry Ainlay High School

John Humphrey Centre for Peace and Human Rights Coordinators:


Renee Vaugeois, Executive Director Carrie Malloy, Education Coordinator

Resource Design:

frost bytes
Special Thanks to:

Leroy Schulz, Frost Bytes Development Ltd.


http://www.frostbytes.ca

Honourable Douglas Roche, O.C. Honourable Claudette Tardif Honourable Romeo Dallaire, O.C. Gerald Gall, O.C. Joan Cowling Louise De Pape Kiran Choudhry Larry Booi

EDUCATION

Copyright 2008 John Humphrey Centre for Peace and Human Rights. All rights reserved.

Contents

Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 How to Use This Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Lesson 1: Exploring the Challenges in Achieving World Peace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Lesson 2: The Nature of Conflict/Evaluating Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Lesson 3: Developing an Informed Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Lesson 4: Watching a Video Presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Lesson 5: Responding to a Speech or Presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Lesson 6: Exploring Possibilities for Citizenship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Lesson 7: Human Security vs. National Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Lesson 8: Debating Human Rights in Conflict Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Lesson 9: Role Play Debate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Lesson 10: Developing a Conclusion and Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Handout 1: Watching a Speech or Documentary Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Handout 2: Questions About Romeo Dallaire's Speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Handout 3: Case Study: Children as Instruments of War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Handout 4: Emerging Issues and Challenging Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Appendix 1: Simplified Version of the Universtal Declaration of Human Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Appendix 2: Selected Recommendations from the Building World Peace Conference . . . . . . . . 27 Appendix 3: Concluding Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Edmonton, Alberta 780-453-2638 http://www.johnhumphreycentre.org


Phone:

Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

Introduction
The John Humphrey Centre for Peace and Human Rights

The John Humphrey Centre for Peace and Human Rights, named in honour of the Canadian-born principal writer of the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights, was established in Edmonton, Alberta in June 2000 as an outgrowth of the Human Rights Education Foundation. The primary purpose of the Centre is to educate the public, particularly children and youth, on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The underlying belief is that many social problems such as poverty, conflict, bullying, racism, civil strife and other ills may be overcome through a commitment to human rights.

Building World Peace: The Role of Religions and Human Rights, October 2006
In October 2006, the John Humphrey Centre sponsored a conference entitled Building World Peace: the Role of Religions and Human Rights. The conference brought together representatives of various faith backgrounds, including Aboriginal, Buddhist, Christian, Hindu, Jewish and Muslim, to discuss various understandings of faith and spirituality, the origins of conflict and its potential resolution. Conference organizers argued that [t]he need for our Conference stems from recent international events that have harmfully impacted various communities. Some of the issues negatively affecting Canadian societies include increased fear of society-wide crime; fear of personal victimization; religious misunderstanding; racial, ethnic, and religious profiling; and outright hate-based crime and violence. Based on this negative social fall-out, it is evident that community and religious leaders ought to take steps towards promoting peace, harmony, and justice. 1 One of the objectives of the conference was to facilitate dialogue and understanding. From the perspective of religious and human rights leaders, our Conference aims to dismantle preconceived notions that hinder societal co-operation, to recognize the importance of educating our children, youth, and the general public against discriminatory practices, and to build social bridges that will enhance life for all. 2 Through keynote presentations, panel discussions, workshops and casual conversations, delegates were able to explore a range of questions about conflict, religion and human rights and to develop conclusions about how to bring about peace in the world. The conference concluded with a participant-generated statement Now We Must Change.

John Humphrey Centre, Building World Peace: the role of Religions and Human Rights, John Humphrey Centre, http://www.buildingworldpeace.com/index.php, (accessed Aug. 19/2007) 2 Ibid.

Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

How to use this resource

The purpose of the Building World Peace resource is to assist teachers in meeting some of the outcome objectives from the Social Studies 10-1 Program of Studies by emulating the general intent of the October 2006 conference. Teachers may use this resource to guide students through the process of identifying issues related to the development of peace and human rights, explore background information related to the topic, and to develop decision-making skills enabling them to take action for change. In this way the resource follows the model outlined by the Alberta Education Program of Studies. The underlying assumption of this resource is that global citizenship means working towards the achievement of peace and human rights and that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights represents a foundation for achieving peace in the world. This represents one perspective on global citizenship and teachers should ensure that alternative perspectives are also presented. Please note: while religion, by its very nature, is a potentially contentious subject area, it need not be the focus of lessons relating to this conference. The emphasis should, instead, be on the nature of the issues discussed as well as on the potential for conferences such as this, in which people experts and laypersons alike get together to seek knowledge, understanding and action as well as to develop a sense of global citizenship in order to find solutions to both local and global problems. This resource is best utilized as students approach the latter portions of the Grade 10 Social Studies curriculum. It could be used as part of an exploration of Related Issue 4: To what extent should I, as a citizen, respond to globalization? 3 In adhering to the pattern of the Program of Studies, students will explore issues and problems relating to world peace, examine and analyze case studies, and evaluate possible responses. In the process of working through this resource, students will develop a number of skills and meet several of the Knowledge and Understanding outcomes identified in the Social Studies 10-1 program. This resource provides ten classroom lessons for teachers which may be used in part or in their entirety depending on time considerations or other classroom needs. Generally, the individual lessons are not dependent upon one another, and it is possible to work through the resource adding or subtracting as required. The resource is thus expandable or contractible in order to accommodate teacher needs.

Alberta Education, Social Studies Kindergarten to Grade 12; Social Studies 10-1: Perspectives on Globalization (Edmonton: Alberta Education, 2007), pp. 24-25

Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

LESSON 1: Exploring the Challenges in Achieving World Peace


Objective:

Students will consider the prospects and obstacles for achieving sustainable global peace through the advancement of human rights. They will develop some questions for inquiry and research, and brainstorm some possible responses to those obstacles to peace in the context of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Skills and Processes:


S.1.5 S.1.9 S.4.2 S.7.4 evaluate personal assumptions and opinions to develop an expanded appreciation of a topic or an issue analyze current affairs from a variety of perspectives develop inquiry strategies to make decisions and solve problems develop proficiency in the use of research tools and strategies to investigate issues

Activity 1: Explore the Problem


While there is some evidence to suggest that the number of wars and civil conflicts has declined in recent decades, the world is still a considerable distance from the goal of universal or even widespread peace, security and prosperity. By some measures, there are more conflicts today than at any time in the past half-century. Invite students to brainstorm, individually at first, the reasons for conflict and wars in the world and what world peace would be like if it could be achieved. They may do this in point form notes or a mind map in their notebooks, but they should be prepared to share their ideas. Using think-pair-share instructional strategy, have student duos present their conclusions to each other and then to the rest of the class. Next, ask students to think about possible strategies or approaches for addressing the obstacles to peace. This is not a proposal for solutions, as that is unrealistic, but some thoughts about how to begin to work towards finding solutions. Again, have students share. In a class discussion present these key questions:

1. 2.

How can young people of diverse backgrounds and perspectives work together to create a world community to build peace? To what extent can a global community be founded on common:
n n n n n n n n

Values Religion Spirituality Political perspectives Traditions Ideologies Supranationalism or some other guiding principle?
Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

4
3.
What challenges exist in finding common ground and in developing common goals when there are differences between people?

Activity 2: Examine the Universal Declaration of Human Rights


Hand out copies of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (see Appendix 1 for an abridged copy). Ask students to respond to the following questions:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Conduct some on-line research. Learn how the Declaration was developed and the context in which it was written. (Find out when it was written. What significant world events had recently taken place? Would these have influenced the development of the Declaration in some way?) What seem to have been the goals of the creators? Which of the Articles would be easiest to achieve? Which ones would be most difficult or could lead to conflict? Who might disagree with some of the Articles? Are there any thoughts or concerns about how to define or interpret terms or words in any of the Articles? Are there any Articles whose meaning or intent may be interpreted differently now compared to in the past? Are all of these rights protected in Canada? Is the protection of human rights only an issue in developing countries?

Ask students to discuss the extent to which the application of the Declaration could serve as a strategy for addressing the obstacles to world peace. If nations and governments adopted the Articles of the Declaration, how close could we get to peace? What obstacles might get in the way? In order to cultivate class discussion and to clarify thinking, ask students to use a Likert scale to express their agreement or disagreement.

If the world adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights there would be global peace.

Adoption of the Declaration will not relieve conflict.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Adoption of the Declaration will bring peace to the peoples of the world.

Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

5
This helps students to explore nuance in their thinking and to focus their ideas. Why might some students choose 2 instead of 3, or 9 instead of 7? Many students enjoy making a visual representation of their position on the scale; have them stand and make a line from one end of the classroom to the other, grouping in numerical order. Ask the students to explain why they placed themselves where they did in the line with one another. Ask students to identify any Articles from the Declaration which might be or should be incorporated into every nation's constitution or legal system. Expect and encourage a variety of perspectives but expect them to justify their opinions. Teachers might refer to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms here. 4

4 For a youth-friendly reference to the Charter, the John Humphrey Centre for Peace and Human Rights has published a bilingual Youth Guide to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. This is available on the website at http://www.jhcentre.org.

Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

LESSON 2: The Nature of Conflict/Evaluating Sources

Objective:
Students will identify and research three contemporary conflicts, either wars or civil conflicts. Students will examine the origins and nature of the conflicts in order to develop a better understanding of the prevalence of conflict in the globalized world, despite the assumption that, as nations become less independent and people become more interconnected (the global village concept), warfare (either internal or external) has not, in fact, become less common. In addition, students will develop an understanding of how violations of human rights play a large role in the violence throughout the world and how this makes the solution to conflict difficult to attain. Ultimately, should the teacher wish to complete this mini-unit in its entirety, this information will provide the basis for the role-play debate that concludes the examination of human rights and world peace.

Skills and Processes:


S.2.9 S.7.3 S.7.7 S.7.8 S.7.9 S.9.1 S.9.5 use current, reliable information sources from around the world draw pertinent conclusions based upon evidence derived from research develop, refine and apply questions to address an issue select and analyze relevant information when conducting research plan and perform complex searches using digital sources assess the authority, reliability and validity of electronically accessed information demonstrate discriminatory selection of electronically accessed information that is relevant to a particular topic

Activity 1: Research current regional conflicts


Working in pairs, students will conduct on-line or library research into three current conflicts in the world that involve the violation of human rights. They should choose three from different regions of the world that have been in the news recently. A teacher-provided list of conflicts from which to choose might help ensure a wide breadth of regions and types of conflict (civil and international). An excellent starting point for both teacher and student research is http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/index.html. Research may take one or two one-hour class periods depending on the amount of detail desired. Ask students to first develop five questions for each conflict that will lead them to a solid understanding of the conflict: What information do we need to have in order to understand and meaningfully discuss the conflict? They will need to be able to explain how these questions will help them understand the nature of the conflict and how it relates to the violation of human rights as they understand them. Suggest to them that it is important to go beyond simple factual data.

Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

7
Activity 2: Create a chart to reflect information gathered
Once they have built their bank of questions, they should apply them to their research through the creation and use of a retrieval chart. After their information has been gathered, students should discuss the conflicts that they researched and present a completed retrieval chart for one of the conflicts.

Website evaluation:
Students should be reminded that not all websites are equally valuable sources of information. Before the actual retrieval of on-line information begins, students should apply some critical questions to their sources.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Is this an official website, or an individual's own page? Is the information on the site referenced for original sources? Does the site appear to be biased in any way? Why do you believe so? Has the site been updated recently? Is there advertising on the site which may influence the tone or content? Is there enough information to give you a solid understanding?

Based on the students' answers to the questions above, ask students to identify which sites are most valuable. What follows is a sample retrieval chart that students may come up with:

? ??? ??? ??? ??? ???


??

Where is the conflict and how long has it been going on? What events from the past have contributed to the current situation? Who is involved? What groups are represented or engaged in the fighting? What is the conflict all about? Why is there violence? Why are human rights being violated? In what way is this conflict an issue of human rights? Which of the 30 Articles from the Universal Declaration are being assailed here? How might a global community based on the Universal Declaration prevent this conflict?
Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

LESSON 3: Developing an Informed Position

Objective:
Students will create a poster, brochure, PowerPoint presentation or other media which effectively brings attention to the cause of a war or conflict currently taking place in the world. Students could engage in just about any creative act that satisfies the intent of the assignment: a song, a short film, a newspaper or magazine full-page advertisement.

Skills and Processes:


S.8.1 S.8.5 S.8.7 communicate effectively to express a point of view in a variety of situations use a variety of oral, visual and print sources to present informed positions on issues employ technologies to adapt information for context (situation, audience and purpose

Activity: Create a medium to promote awareness


Ask students to select a medium of their choice (poster, PowerPoint, brochure, other) and create an expression of the need to address the problems of a particular conflict in the world today. The medium for presentation must include a description of the conflict with a brief background as to causes and history, an appeal for public assistance, a rationale for assistance, and a suggestion as to the possible solution to the conflict. Students should share their products with the rest of the class before handing them in for assessment.

Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

LESSON 4: Watching a Video Presentation


DVD Presentation by Romeo Dallaire Objective:
Students will watch a presentation by a respected former Canadian military leader well versed in issues regarding conflict, human rights and the United Nations. Students will watch carefully and respectfully, and gather facts and ideas that will inform their decisions and conclusions regarding conflict.

Skills and Processes:


S.1.9 S.7.2 S.9.2 identify main ideas underlying a position or issue develop conclusions based upon evidence gathered through research of a wide variety of sources analyze the validity of various points of view in media messages

Activity: Watch a presentation


Students watch the speech and slide presentation that Senator Romeo Dallaire made at the Building World Peace conference. Students may answer a series of questions which follow the narrative of the presentation and which are intended to help them summarize the main points of the speech and think about the information presented. See Handout 3.

Note to teachers:
Canadian Senator and former military commander Romeo Dallaire presents an explanation and analysis of war and peacekeeping based on his experiences in Rwanda and other fields of conflict. In his speech, Dallaire offers some frank critique of UN, Canadian and other nations' actions in places of conflict and he asks some challenging questions for the audience to grapple with. This speech runs approximately 70 minutes and includes a number of PowerPoint slides that have been integrated into this video. The presentation was made before an adult audience and may be challenging for some grade ten students. Therefore, it may be useful to break up the running of the video into sections played on different days or to skip parts of Mr. Dallaire's speech depending on the objectives of the lesson or unit plan. It should be noted that some of the content of the speech is of a grave nature references to Rape Sites in war-torn villages and a couple of graphic photos of death and human destruction. However, Mr. Dallaire does provide insightful analysis of the changing nature of conflict and warfare and makes a compelling call for action on the part of Canada and other middle powers which students will be able to understand and appreciate. Handout 1 (Keys to successfully watching a speech or documentary video) may be used to give students some strategies and some reminders about how to watch a presentation by an individual speaker.
Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

10
Handout 2 (Questions to accompany Romeo Dallaire's speech) may be used to assist students in following the narrative and main ideas developed in the speech. * Handouts can be found near the end of this resource.

Biography of LGen, The Honourable Romeo Dallaire (Retd), Senator


Lieutenant General the Honourable Romeo Dallaire, (Retd), Senator had a distinguished career with the Canadian military achieving the rank of Lieutenant General and becoming Assistant Deputy Minister (Human Resources) in the Department of National Defence in 1998. In 1994, General Dallaire commanded the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR). His book on his experiences in Rwanda, entitled Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda, was awarded the Governor Generals Literary Award for Non-Fiction in 2004. Since his retirement with the military, Senator Dallaire has worked hard to bring awareness of post-traumatic stress to the general public. He has also worked as a visiting lecturer to various American and Canadian universities and is also a Fellow of the Carr Center for Human Rights Policy, Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University pursuing research on conflict resolution and the use of child soldiers. LGen. Dallaire (Retd) was appointed to the Senate effective March 24, 2005. He is also a member of the Senate Standing Committee on Human Rights. As a champion of human rights, his activities included:
n public speaking on issues relating to human rights and genocide

Bio

prevention;
n visiting Darfur as a member of Prime Minister Martins Special Advisory

Team on Darfur;
n advocacy for the Canadian Forces mission to Afghanistan; n membership in the United Nations Secretary Generals Advisory

Committee on Genocide Prevention;


n leadership in a project to develop a conceptual base for the elimination of

the use of child soldiers; and


n leadership in activities aimed at the non-proliferation of nuclear

weapons.

Source: LGen the Honourable Romeo A. Dallaire, (Retd), Senator Homepage Accessed April 09, 2008. http://sen.parl.gc.ca/SenWeb/welcome/?lang=en&sen=47

Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

LESSON 5: Responding to a Speech or Presentation


Objective:

11

Students will reflect and deliberate upon some of the important issues that emerge from Dallaire's presentation.

Skills and Processes:


S.4.3 S.5.5 S.5.6 generate and apply new ideas and strategies to contribute to decision making and problem solving respect the needs and perspectives of others collaborate in groups to solve problems

Activity 1: Examine a specific case from the conflict in Rwanda


After watching the video of Romeo Dallaire's presentation, hand out the Case Study: Children as instruments of war. This is a brief recounting of a particular incident which Dallaire describes in his presentation. Ask students to share impressions about the ethical dilemma faced by combat troops in this situation. Working in groups of two or three, students should brainstorm possible responses to the situation that should be focused on saving as many lives as possible. Impress upon the students that for soldiers in the village this was likely a no-win situation. The purpose of this exercise is to generate ideas and explore possibilities; a wide range of ideas could be accepted here.

Note to teachers:
This case study is an especially disturbing account of the terror, tragedy and madness of war. Discretion should be used if this account is to be presented in the classroom.

Activity 2: Consider questions and issues emerging from incidents of conflict


Distribute copies of Handout 4 and have students work in groups of three or four to answer the questions. Invite students to think about their priorities in the decision making process. What should be the most important objective of peace keeping action? What would be the second most important?

Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

12

LESSON 6: Exploring Possibilities for Citizenship

Objective:
Students will examine a number of recommendations that came from the Building World Peace conference and judge how they might work to achieve these outcomes. Students will brainstorm and discuss potential challenges and obstacles to achieving the recommendations and develop strategies for overcoming those challenges.

Skills and Processes:


S.1.9 S.4.1 S.4.3 S.5.2 S.5.5 S.5.6 analyze current affairs from a variety of perspectives demonstrate leadership in groups to achieve consensus, solve problems, formulate opinions, and take action, if appropriate, on important issues generate and apply new ideas and strategies to contribute to decision making and problem solving participate in persuading, compromising and negotiating to resolve conflicts and differences respect the needs and perspectives of others collaborate in groups to solve problems

Activity: Assessing recommendations and planning for action


Provide students with a number of recommendations for actions to achieving world peace. Recommendation 1 is included below in the form of a retrieval chart. Other recommendations are listed in Appendix 2. Working individually at first, then in pairs, and finally in groups of four, students should respond to the following questions regarding each of the recommendations for achieving world peace.

Recommendation 1:
Faith communities come together to form and fund a multifaith organization in Canada. This group, representing all faiths and wisdom traditions, would work together to share ideas, improve understanding of each others' beliefs, and promote peace.

Questions:
(A sample chart is provided to assist students in organizing their ideas.)

Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

13
To what extent would this recommendation be effective in achieving world peace?
(Is the recommendation realistic, purposeful, easily understood, likely to be supported by citizens?)

??

? ? ? ? ?

Ineffective

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Highly effective

??

To what extent would it be possible to achieve this recommendation?


Difficult

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Relatively easy

??

What obstacles or challenges exist in trying to implement this recommendation?

??

How might these obstacles be overcome?

??

What might individual students or small groups do to begin to achieve this recommendation?

After working individually, then in pairs, students in groups of four should discuss their responses to the questions, then collectively record their answers on large poster paper for all classmates to see and discuss. To what extent is there agreement and disagreement? How might the degree of agreement affect the potential to take action or to implement the recommendation?

Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

14

LESSON 7: Human Security vs. National Security

Objective:
Students will examine the issues of human security vs. national security in international relations, United Nations intervention in the domestic affairs of member states, and the promotion of human rights guarantees in all nations through research and jigsaw presentations and the writing of backgrounders.

Skills & Processes:


S.1.1 S.1.6 S.1.9 S.8.5 evaluate ideas and information from multiple sources synthesize information from contemporary and historical issues to develop an informed position analyze current affairs from a variety of perspectives use a variety of oral, visual and print sources to present informed positions on issues

Activity:
One of the most pressing challenges facing the United Nations in its desire to see a world in which all governments guarantee human rights to their citizens is the conflict between human security and national security. Human security is based on the post-Cold War theory that national security is defined less by traditional issues of defense and military threats, and more by threats to individuals such as those presented by poverty, disease, environmental destruction and the violation of human rights. This issue has been highlighted in recent years by the failure of the United Nations to effectively deal with the growing number of intra-state conflicts in which governments are failing to protect their own citizens. Examples abound, from Darfur to Rwanda, from Somalia to Myanmar, from North Korea to Iraq. Previously, the United Nations Charter itself made interventions in the domestic affairs of member states almost impossible. Intervention was reserved for inter-state conflicts. Nothing contained in the present Charter shall authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state or shall require the Members to submit such matters to settlement under the present Charter; but this principle shall not prejudice the application of enforcement measures under Chapter Vll. (UN Charter, Article 2.7) An increasing number of countries, including Canada, and a large number of international organizations, including the United Nations itself, have begun to press for reform of the Charter to make intervention in these situations easier. They face opposition from a number of countries, including powerful Security Council permanent members such as the United States, Great Britain, Russia and China.

Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

15
With the students, brainstorm arguments and evidence that could be used to support both perspectives. Use a Venn diagram to visually organize the viewpoints in such a way as to determine whether or not there is any common ground for the two sides (they will probably figure out that the goals are the same security). Make reference to some of the case studies and arguments presented by Romeo Dallaire in his presentation (discussed in Lessons 4-5). Find some articles that outline different perspectives on the issue. Using a jigsaw format, have students in small groups read and discuss the articles and then present their findings to the rest of the class. Some suggestions for sources:
n The Human Security Report:

http://www.humansecurityreport.info/content/view/24/59/
n Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada: http://geo.international.gc.ca/cip-

pic/cip-pic/humansecurity-en.aspx
n The Human Security Network: http://www.humansecuritynetwork.org/menu-e.php

As a class, create a solution to the problem. Should the United Nations be reformed to make the protection of human rights in failing states easier? In their groups, have students write a 'backgrounder' on the issue a concise outline of the issues and arguments surrounding the topic. These backgrounders can be used as a source to help create positions in the role-play debate (Lessons 8-10).

Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

16

LESSON 8: Debating Human Rights in Conflict Zones

Objective:
Students will develop positions on a conflict somewhere in the world in preparation for participating in a role play debate.

Skills and Processes:


S.1.1 S.1.6 S.1.7 S.1.9 S.5.2 S.6.2 S.7.6 evaluate ideas and information from multiple sources synthesize information from contemporary and historical issues to develop an informed position evaluate the logic of assumptions underlying a position analyze current affairs from a variety of perspectives participate in persuading, compromising and negotiating to resolve conflicts and differences acknowledge the importance of multiple perspectives in a variety of situations integrate and synthesize argumentation and evidence to provide an informed opinion on a research question or an issue of inquiry

Activity
Discuss the nature of the conflicts that students have researched and presented in earlier lessons. As a class, determine which of the conflicts is most pressing and requires the most immediate attention. This will be the subject of a role-play debate. Create a debate topic based on the following possible template:

Be it resolved that the United Nations Security Council should act to enforce the adoption of the United Nations Declaration on Human Rights by the government of in order to successfully resolve the conflict in that nation.

As a class, determine who the stakeholders in this debate are (clearly, those students who had researched the conflict will lead the discussion) for example, if the students are debating the conflict in Darfur, they might decide that the important stakeholders include:
n n n n n n n n n

the Sudanese government the Sudanese military the Janjaweed militia rebel groups such as the Justice & Equality Movement (JEM) and the Sudanese Liberation Movement (SLM) the United Nations African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) Arab civilians from the Baggara tribes of northern Sudan Black African civilians from the Zaghawa, Massaleit and Fur tribes of the Darfur region The Canadian mission to the United Nations The American mission to the United Nations

Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

17
It should be made clear to students that the debate involves both local issues (the best way to solve the domestic problems plaguing the nation in question) and international issues (human rights/security vs. national security). Brainstorm the base positions (pro/con) for each stakeholder group as a basis for research. On index cards, write numbers corresponding to the stakeholder groups and allow students to pull cards in order to randomly distribute the stakeholders among them. Depending upon the size of the class, there may be three or four groups that will debate the topic. It is recommended that the teacher ensures that at least one member of the group that had done the original research on the debate case study be present in each of the debate groups. Their responsibility will be to help provide a basis of understanding about the conflict that will enable the rest of the group to adequately research their stakeholder positions. Students should be given at least two class periods to research and develop a position statement for their stakeholder that will encapsulate his/her perspective on the issue/s (complete with both arguments and evidence) as well as to anticipate and counter opposition viewpoints. Students will be asked to do the following in preparation for the debate:
n Research the background of the conflict, in particular the identity and stance of the role

being played which may be an individual and/or organization.


n Use that research to develop a position statement on one side of the resolution. It should

include, where appropriate: n Background information on the individual's involvement in the conflict n Background information on the organization or group the individual is involved with (i.e. goals and methods used to obtain them) n A brief outline and explanation of the organization's stance on both the local and international issues (the position on one may need to be inferred from the position found on the other). These must be consistent with the background research. n Anticipated counter-arguments from those opposing the individual's perspective and a plan to deal with them. n Prepare a two-minute introductory statement designed to outline the student's role and position to be given orally at the beginning of the debate. Depending on the circumstances, the teacher might decide not to enter into the actual debate and use the finished position statements as assessment. If so, the debate resolution might act as an essay question and the position statements as finished essays.

Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

18

LESSON 9: Role Play Debate

Objective:
Students will participate in a role-play debate designed to highlight the issues and perspectives surrounding the role of human rights in areas of conflict. This is designed to work in tandem with Lesson Eight.

Skills and Processes:


S.8.1 S.8.2 S.8.3 S.8.4 communicate effectively to express a point of view in a variety of situations use skills of formal and informal discussion and/or debate to persuasively express informed viewpoints on an issue ask respectful and relevant questions of others to clarify viewpoints listen respectfully to others

Activity:
Once students have developed their position statements to act as the foundation for their role play, it is time for the debate. The number of debaters depends upon the number of stakeholder positions that have been developed. It is likely that several separate debates will be required in order to enable everyone in the class to participate. The teacher needs to ensure that all roles are represented. Observing students should be encouraged to take notes both during and after the debate.

Debate format:
n The teacher will act as Chair, organizing the speeches and moderating the debate. The

Chair will ensure that the debate stays focused and that all have the opportunity to participate. n Each debater will present his/her two-minute oral statement of position to the rest of the stakeholders, introducing themselves (in character) and outlining his/her perspective on the issues. n Staying in character, the students will then engage in open debate on the issues surrounding the resolution. Assessment, depending on the needs of the teacher and the classroom, could take a number of forms. Using any one of a number of easily accessible debating rubrics, students could be assessed for knowledge and communication skills during the debate itself. If assessment in written form is preferred, students might be asked to revise their position statements in light of the arguments and evidence given at the debate and then hand in the revised copy for grading.

Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

LESSON 10: Developing a Conclusion and Resolution


Objective:

19

Based on the perspectives developed during the role-play debate, students will work in groups to develop a resolution or concluding statement which could be submitted to government or the United Nations or presented for public consumption. The concluding statement will provide some general thoughts about the nature of conflict and how best to address conflict in the context of advancing human rights and assuring human security.

Skills and Processes:


S.4.1 S.5.1 S.5.2 S.5.4 S.6.2 S.8.1 demonstrate skills needed to reach consensus, solve problems and formulate positions demonstrate leadership by persuading, compromising and negotiating to resolve conflicts and differences make meaningful contributions to discussion and group work consider the needs and perspectives of others promote and respect the contributions of team members when working as a team communicate effectively in a variety of situations

Activity:
Working in groups of four or five, students are to write a single joint statement which will explain the nature of a particular world conflict (likely the one discussed in the role-play debate) and provide a suggestion for resolving the dispute(s). The joint statement must reflect the views of all group members and must be endorsed unanimously. Thus, compromise and negotiation are key to the successful completion of the task. This is an excellent opportunity to discuss the nature of consensus-building and methods for pursuing consensus. The concluding statement from the October 2006 Building World Peace conference may be used as a sample for students. See Appendix 2.

Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

20

HANDOUT 1: Watching a Speech or Documentary Video

Keys to successfully watching a speech or documentary video


For most people, watching a video or listening to a speaker is a much more difficult task than reading a news article or a book. While that may seem contrary to what our intuition tells us, consider that you cannot stop a speaker in mid-sentence or turn back the page the way you can with a book. As well, typically a speaker or even a video will offer a huge amount of information with fewer words than in a book. Speakers do not expand or elaborate in the same detail that a book does; we need often to interpret a speaker's remarks as they proceed through their presentation. With all this in mind, we need to develop strategies for thinking and gathering information that are different from the way we work when reading text.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Give the speaker or the video your complete concentration. Avoid distractions, and do not stop to discuss an idea or concept with a friend or colleague during the speech; you'll simply miss the next piece of information that the speaker presents. When taking notes, use only point form or select words to capture ideas. You do not have time to write full sentences and cannot record enough information quickly enough while the speech is in progress. Synthesize ideas and information as you go by constantly thinking about how the information just presented fits with previous ideas and content, and what direction the presentation seems to be going. A speech or presentation is like an oral essay: there is an introduction, a middle, and a conclusion, but it may be difficult to remember that while we are listening. Watching slides and listening to the speaker requires multitasking. Glance at the slide or picture then go back to attending to the speaker's words. Develop questions in your mind as you go along. What would you ask the speaker at the end of the presentation? What information would you like to know more about?

Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

HANDOUT 2: Questions About Romeo Dallaires Speech


Questions to accompany Romeo Dallaire's speech to the Building World Peace Conference
The following questions reflect the order of the content in Mr. Dallaire's speech. Some questions ask you to simply recall the information presented, and other questions ask you to interpret the meaning of Mr. Dallaire's remarks, so listening carefully is essential.

21

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

What is the purpose of Mr. Dallaire's speech at this conference? What is Mr. Dallaire's view of the United States? What are the revolutions of the 1990s? What is the nature of today's revolution? What will be our tasks of the future? How did we eliminate the human side of our institutions? What was the Old World Order? Why was there a perceived reduced need for security after 1990? How has the concept of conventional warfare changed? What example does Dallaire use? What dilemma exists for soldiers in the field? In what way might classic war be obsolete? How has traditional peacekeeping changed? What is an imploding nation? Summarize the New World Disorder. How is war and conflict shaped and influenced by:
n n n n

poverty fear nationalism citizen militias

13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

Why did so little information about the genocide in Rwanda get to TV viewers in North America? What are the causes of genocide? What is the era of new extremes? Give an example. How have children been affected by new forms of conflict after the end of the Cold War? Why is it difficult to get NGOs to work together?
Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

22
18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.
According to Dallaire, why did the United States pull out of Mogadishu (the Black Hawk Down incident)? Are you convinced of his analysis? What questions would you ask Dallaire or others about the case? What was the U.S. explanation for the withdrawal? What is the difference between the Mission and Task verbs of the Cold War era and current peacekeeping and combat objectives? What are the considerations of governments when deciding whether or not to intervene in other countries in crisis? Summarize Dallaire's key arguments for taking greater action in the world. According to Dallaire, what are the options for future involvement in world affairs? What is Dallaire's process or plan for conflict resolution in the world? How might the middle powers better provide leadership in the world? What strengths and advantages does Canada have as a middle power?

Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

HANDOUT 3: Case Study: Children as Instruments of War

23

In the speech, Mr. Dallaire recalls a disturbing case of Canadian UN soldiers on patrol in a village in Rwanda that underlines the difficult challenges and dilemmas faced by peacekeepers in the modern age of combat. United Nations soldiers were on patrol through various villages surveying the destruction, seeking out injured civilians, survivors of violence, and others in need of assistance. The UN troops came across a church where, inside, there are about one hundred people hiding from local militiamen. It is unusual to find people still alive in a church because the militiamen typically misled the villagers into believing that seeking sanctuary in a church will provide safety. In fact, this is a ploy to gather villagers in a single enclosed place to easily kill them. Upon the discovery of the villagers, the sergeant of the patrol radioed the nearby UN camp headquarters for the area requesting transport trucks to move the villagers to safety. As the peacekeepers and villagers left the church to prepare for the coming trucks, militiamen suddenly opened fire on the group. At one end of the village were the militias child soldiers of ages nine to sixteen - firing automatic rifles at the unarmed civilians and the UN peacekeepers. At the other end of the road was another militia group also firing weapons. This second group is actually standing behind and firing over the shoulders of a human shield of young girls, some of them pregnant. In this terrible moment, the UN soldiers are faced with an impossible dilemma. Do they return fire on a group of child soldiers? Should they shoot at the young girls to disable or kill the attackers? Many child soldiers are themselves victims of war because they have been abducted from their villages and forced to serve in the militia. Many are often under the influence of drugs and only somewhat aware of their actions. Should UN peacekeepers kill children who kill?

Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

24

HANDOUT 4: Emerging Issues and Challenging Questions

??

? ? ? ? ?

What is the best way for the United Nations' or Canadian peacekeepers to deal with child soldiers?

??

How can we promote power sharing and cooperation between former enemies and combatants?

??

Should we negotiate with criminals in order to resolve problems and secure peace?

??

Which should take priority, national independence and self-determination or human rights?

??

To what extent do we in Canada or the United Nations have a right to interfere in the internal affairs of another sovereign country?

Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

APPENDIX 1: Universal Declaration of Human Rights


Simplified Version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights Summary of Preamble
5

25

The General Assembly recognizes that the inherent dignity and the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, human rights should be protected by the rule of law, friendly relations between nations must be fostered, the peoples of the UN have affirmed their faith in human rights, the dignity and the worth of the human person, the equal rights of men and women and are determined to promote social progress, better standards of life and larger freedom and have promised to promote human rights and a common understanding of these rights.

A summary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.


5

Everyone is free and we should all be treated in the same way. Everyone is equal despite differences in skin colour, sex, religion, language for example. Everyone has the right to life and to live in freedom and safety. No one has the right to treat you as a slave nor should you make anyone your slave. No one has the right to hurt you or to torture you. Everyone has the right to be treated equally by the law. The law is the same for everyone, it should be applied in the same way to all. Everyone has the right to ask for legal help when their rights are not respected. No one has the right to imprison you unjustly or expel you from your own country. Everyone has the right to a fair and public trial. Everyone should be considered innocent until guilt is proved. Every one has the right to ask for help if someone tries to harm you, but no-one can enter your home, open your letters or bother you or your family without a good reason. Everyone has the right to travel as they wish. Everyone has the right to go to another country and ask for protection if they are being persecuted or are in danger of being persecuted.

Amnesty International, First Steps: A Manual for Starting Human Rights Education (London: Amnesty International Secretariat, 1997). Available online at Human Rights Education Association Simplified Version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, http://www.hrea.org/feature-events/simplified-udhr.html (accessed Aug. 19/2007).

Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

26
15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.
Everyone has the right to belong to a country. No one has the right to prevent you from belonging to another country if you wish to. Everyone has the right to marry and have a family. Everyone has the right to own property and possessions. Everyone has the right to practice and observe all aspects of their own religion and change their religion if they want to. Everyone has the right to say what they think and to give and receive information. Everyone has the right to take part in meetings and to join associations in a peaceful way. Everyone has the right to help choose and take part in the government of their country. Everyone has the right to social security and to opportunities to develop their skills. Everyone has the right to work for a fair wage in a safe environment and to join a trade union. Everyone has the right to rest and leisure. Everyone has the right to an adequate standard of living and medical help if they are ill. Everyone has the right to go to school. Everyone has the right to share in their community's cultural life. Everyone must respect the 'social order' that is necessary for all these rights to be available. Everyone must respect the rights of others, the community and public property. No one has the right to take away any of the rights in this declaration.

Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

APPENDIX 2: Selected Recommendations


Selected Recommendations from the Building World Peace Conference October 2006 Recommendation 2
Faith communities press governments to pass legislation to implement UN covenants. The UN covenants should form the basis for ending violence in the world. Faith communities could create the political will to legislate and enforce those covenants at home and around the world.

27

Recommendation 3
The Canadian government should work toward reconciliation with Canada's First Nations people. Canada should work to create peace, cooperation and inclusion at home a well as abroad.

Recommendation 4
Canada and other countries which accept large numbers of immigrants should explicitly address issues of racism and subtle discrimination. Education should be the tool for overcoming fear of other people and ideas. Governments need to safeguard the rights of all individuals in workplaces and communities.

Recommendation 5
Women should be encouraged to assume stronger roles of political leadership. Women and children are most affected by violence and war. Governments need to make changes, to fund development, and bring women into the decision making process.

Recommendation 6
Governments need to ratify the treaty banning nuclear testing and strongly encourage other governments to do so. Nuclear weapons represent the ultimate evil, and ridding the world of these weapons is a political and religious responsibility.

Recommendation 7
Individuals should become actively involved in directing public discourse. Public discourse is the practice of bringing people together to share ideas, exchange plans and work to take action. Politicians, students, workers, activists, religious leaders, educators and many others all have an obligation and responsibility to work toward global peace. Individuals
Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

28
average citizens need to become more involved in setting the agenda for peace and getting involved in shaping policy.

Recommendation 8
Individuals should take personal action to make peace a reality. Individuals in their daily lives need to live the principles of peace, support all people in their efforts to enjoy freedom and to fight injustice.

Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

APPENDIX 3: Concluding Statement


Concluding Statement from the Building World Peace Conference October 2006

29

Sadly acknowledging that hate and violence have taken place in the name of God, religious leaders today must speak out to protect human rights everywhere and build the conditions for peace through an alliance of civilizations. This was a dominant finding in the conference, which brought together representatives from many faiths and cultures: Aboriginal, Buddhist, Christian, Hindu, Jewish, Muslim and others. Religions of the world should provide a powerful example in their common rejection of violence and defence of universal values of respect for life and the dignity and human rights of all individuals as enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. At this critical juncture of human history, when differences threaten not simply to divide but actually destroy all life on the planet, religions must unite across boundaries to instil non-violence as a way of life. In short, religions must affirm that violence can never be justified in the name of God and condemn terrorism and extremism of any form as well as attempts to justify them by religion. This responsibility is shared by every individual in society. In the words of Federico Mayor, Co-chairman of the Alliance of Civilizations Commission, now we must change. With the existence of 27,000 nuclear weapons as but one example of the warring posture of nations, religions must work to transform the world from a culture of war to a culture of peace. Religions must change their present complacent attitude and enter the modern world in a humble and co-operative mode, reaching out to help heal a suffering humanity. The conference recognized that respectful dialogue among civilizations is a prerequisite to the healing qualities of reconciliation and forgiveness. This dialogue should take place not only internationally but also locally. It must occur not only within religions but also among religions and, further, between religions and secular society. To this end, the conference examined ways to improve peace education, media relations and inter-faith programs. Human rights learning must be the foundation of this dialogue. Telling our own stories to one another is important. Increased attention must be paid to the needs of women and children who, overwhelmingly, are the victims of war and economic and social discrimination. Canada, composed of a pluralism of religions and cultures, has a special responsibility to contribute to the human security agenda: e.g., by doing much more to stop the killings in strifetorn areas, including Darfur; promoting the Nuclear Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; achieving the Millennium Development Goals; protecting the world from further global warming and other environmental despoliation. All this, and more, is the practical work of building peace in the 21 century. Religions must project the values of peace or be left behind in these turbulent times.
st

Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

30

Notes

Building World Peace: Some Assembly Required Teaching Resource

Edmonton, Alberta Phone: 780-453-2638 http://www.johnhumphreycentre.org