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HVAC Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Guideline

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Technical Report

Reduced Cost

Plant Maintenance Support

Equipment Reliability

HVAC Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Guideline
1003092

Final Report, October 2001

EPRI Project Manager M. Pugh

EPRI • 3412 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304 • PO Box 10412, Palo Alto, California 94303 • USA 800.313.3774 • 650.855.2121 • askepri@epri.com • www.epri.com

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THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED BY THE ORGANIZATION(S) NAMED BELOW AS AN ACCOUNT OF WORK SPONSORED OR COSPONSORED BY THE ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, INC. (EPRI). NEITHER EPRI, ANY MEMBER OF EPRI, ANY COSPONSOR, THE ORGANIZATION(S) BELOW, NOR ANY PERSON ACTING ON BEHALF OF ANY OF THEM: (A) MAKES ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION WHATSOEVER, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, (I) WITH RESPECT TO THE USE OF ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT, INCLUDING MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR (II) THAT SUCH USE DOES NOT INFRINGE ON OR INTERFERE WITH PRIVATELY OWNED RIGHTS, INCLUDING ANY PARTY'S INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, OR (III) THAT THIS DOCUMENT IS SUITABLE TO ANY PARTICULAR USER'S CIRCUMSTANCE; OR (B) ASSUMES RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING ANY CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, EVEN IF EPRI OR ANY EPRI REPRESENTATIVE HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES) RESULTING FROM YOUR SELECTION OR USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT. ORGANIZATION(S) THAT PREPARED THIS DOCUMENT EPRI

ORDERING INFORMATION
Requests for copies of this report should be directed to EPRI Customer Fulfillment, 1355 Willow Way, Suite 278, Concord, CA 94520, (800) 313-3774, press 2. Electric Power Research Institute and EPRI are registered service marks of the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. EPRI. ELECTRIFY THE WORLD is a service mark of the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. Copyright © 2001 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

T. The report is a corporate document that should be cited in the literature in the following manner: HVAC Testing. Palo Alto.CITATIONS This report was prepared by EPRI Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center (NMAC) 1300 W. EPRI. NC 28262 This report describes research sponsored by EPRI. Harris Blvd. Adjusting. Charlotte. CA: 2001. and Balancing Guideline. 1003092. iii .

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REPORT SUMMARY Background Heating. Results This report provides a practical approach that can be used by power plant personnel to diagnose and troubleshoot HVAC system and component performance problems. and flow requirements To provide guidance on nuclear power plant HVAC systems. periodically test and maintain system components. Objectives • To provide guidance to nuclear plant personnel involved in the balancing of HVAC systems for nuclear power facilities • • • To present an overview of the requirements for developing and performing air and hydronic systems balancing in order to optimize system performance and ensure that the system meets all heating. and balancing activities on HVAC systems Approach In cooperation with the Nuclear HVAC Utility Group (NHUG) and interested Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center (NMAC) members. including information on commonly used testing instruments and how they are used. Maintenance and engineering personnel are often required to understand HVAC system operation and purpose. and troubleshooting techniques. is provided. cooling. Reliable operation and maintenance of these systems are crucial to sustained plant operation and availability. which consist of many different components that function together as a dynamic system To provide inexperienced and experienced engineers with the background necessary to perform testing. v . Experience-proven practices and techniques were identified and discussed during this effort and are summarized in this report for use by all power plant personnel. The guideline is valuable for both the component and system engineer and provides fundamental background and techniques for testing. adjusting. adjusting. and useful reference information. commonly used HVAC equipment and systems are discussed. a task group of utility engineers and industry experts was formed. balancing processes and steps. ventilating. and balancing HVAC systems. these systems are required to be operable and functioning according to plant technical specifications. and respond to problems. In many cases. This group met several times during one year to identify and prepare the guidance found in this report. Additionally. The ability of plant personnel to diagnose and troubleshoot HVAC problems quickly and accurately is vital to maintain plant availability. and air conditioning (HVAC) systems serve a key function in nuclear power plants. flow measurement techniques. including commonly used equations and airflow measurement methodologies.

and troubleshooting HVAC systems. operating. Assemblage of this information provides a single point of reference for power plant personnel. and balancing of HVAC systems in power plants.EPRI Perspective The information contained in this guide represents a significant collection of technical information (including techniques and good practices) related to the testing. maintenance. Keywords Design engineers Plant support engineering Plant maintenance Plant operations HVAC vi . adjusting. now and in the future. The intended audience of this guide includes component. This guide will be helpful in evaluating system problems. and system engineers involved in testing. selecting new and replacement components. maintaining. and understanding HVAC system performance and reliability.

Fort Calhoun Pacificorp. Watts Bar TXU. Quad Cities Niagara Mohawk. Browns Ferry TVA. Comanche Peak Vermont Yankee Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Company vii . Nine Mile Point Nuclear Management Company. Vice-Chairman Lee Warnick Mike Pugh Dennis Adams Frank Johnston David Scott Eric Banks Erick Jun Mike Fraughton Clint Medlock John Cichello Ray Rosten Mike Tulay Deep Ghosh Bob Campbell Mark Schwan Mike Walker Sam Linginfelter Tim Parker Lenny Murphy Burt Copeland PSEG. North Anna EPRI NMAC Exelon. Chairman Peter Breglio.EPRI Licensed Material ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The following individuals participated on the task group for this report and provided valuable assistance and plant-specific information during its development: Ray Runowski. Sequoyah TVA. Salem Proto-Power Corp Dominion Generation. Naughton Power Generation Technologies PSEG. Monticello NUCON OPPD. Hope Creek Sequoia Consulting Group Sequoia Consulting Group Southern Company TVA Corporate TVA.

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................ 3-8 3..................1................................1 Communicating Issues at a Nuclear Power Plant..... 3-5 3....1........... 1-1 1..........................2 Common Symptoms Observed/Measured in HVAC Systems.............................. 3-12 3.............................2 Sources of Design Information ......................................................... 3-8 3...............................................................................1.............2. 3-13 3................3 Determine How Measurements Will Be Taken ................................................... 3-6 3.................... 3-10 3.................. 3-13 3......1.....2 Defining the Problem .......1 Determine What Measurements Are Appropriate ............3 Common System Blockage Problems ........1 Comparison to Design Requirements/Historical Performance ............................................EPRI Licensed Material CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................ 2-1 3 HVAC TESTING.. 1-1 Key Points.................1...............................3 Purpose of the Report .................................1..............1..................7.......... 3-1 3....4.......2 Determine Who Will Perform the Measurements.........1...........................1 Generic Process for Existing System Troubleshooting .................................1........................1 General Guidance..................................... 3-1 3...................1.............................2...........................1 1..............4........2 1...........................................1.............6 Perform HVAC System Walkdown/Evaluation ............................................1.................4 Fan Degradation Problems ........................................ 3-7 3...................4 Comparing to Previous Conditions............................1...................7..................1..................... 3-9 3......... 3-11 3...............................................1..................... 3-4 3............................................7 Develop Troubleshooting Plan...... 3-5 3...........1................................... ADJUSTING..................... 3-4 3. 3-3 ix .........1...................... 3-4 3............................. 3-14 3... 1-1 Scope of the Report .......................................................................................2...........3 Determining and Validating Operating Conditions...................................................................... 1-3 2 LIST OF ACRONYMS ...........1.... AND BALANCING GUIDANCE ..5 Determine If Symptoms Could Adversely Affect HVAC System Performance or Reliability .................7..................1.......1.................2. 3-3 3.....................................1 Identifying the Issue......2 Common Ventilation System Problems ..........

.....10....... 3-17 3.........4.........................................................................2...........................4 Operate System to Determine Overall System Flow .............................. 3-18 3........................1 Evaluating HVAC System Performance Problems ........4...................8 Simulate Dirty Filter and Wetted Coil Conditions............................... 3-14 3..............................5...........................................4 Generic Process for New/Existing Water System Balancing..7 Re-Measure Total System Flow........... 3-22 3................ 3-30 x .........2..........5 Water Balancing Process ................................................................................ 3-25 3....... 3-19 3..................................................1 Planning Steps ....2......................... 3-24 3...................................................... 3-18 3..................1...2 Perform Walkdown of the Water System ........ 3-28 3.......... 3-28 3...................................................... 3-26 3.....................1 Planning Steps ......................... 3-23 3... 3-21 3.......3..........1.........................................6 Measure/Adjust Each Terminal Device in Each Branch .......2........6.......6.............5 Generic Process for Temporary Water System Balancing or Rebalancing .5....................... 3-22 3....1........................................8 Perform Recommended Tests/Measurements......2.......................................................................... 3-21 3..............5.4 Operate System to Determine Overall System Flow ......3 Prerequisites ..... 3-23 3...........................2...........2..................... 3-14 3............2.............2 Execution............... 3-14 3.........1.............2....1 Review Design and System Documentation ................................................................ 3-20 3.................. 3-18 3.......9 Final Balance or Adjustment in the Clean Mode ......................4........................1 Typical Adjustments for HVAC System Performance Problems ...................................................2.......10 Develop Corrective Actions ............................9..1.......... 3-25 3................. 3-16 3............1................................. 3-27 3........2 Generic Process for New/Existing Air System Balancing.............................................10......3................. 3-21 3.........................5 Measure Flow in Branch Ducts ...........................................1 General Considerations .......................3 Review and Documentation....................................................3 Review and Documentation................2 Typical Causes of HVAC System Performance Problems............9 Determine If Troubleshooting Plan Provides Adequate Indication of the Problem .....................EPRI Licensed Material 3............2 Execution................ 3-25 3.....4..3............................. 3-15 3..........2 Rebalancing HVAC Systems .................................2.................... 3-22 3...................1..............................9..........2 Balancing by Ratio Method .................4.......................................................................3 Generic Process for Temporary Air System Balancing or Rebalancing ............. 3-21 3....2 Perform System Walkdown ............................................. 3-29 3.................................... 3-24 3....................1 Review Design and System Documentation ......................................................... 3-27 3....................................3 Define Critical System Lineup......... 3-21 3.....................

.....................3..... 4-18 4....................... 4-18 4............ 4-4 4......................................2 Inclined/Vertical Manometer.................1 Airflow Measuring Instruments...................................................................11 Smoke Devices..... 4-18 4.........1...................................................................1..................................4..3....1 Pressure Test Gauge ................. 4-14 4..................................................................................1..........................................6 Psychrometers ..............4....................8 Color Strip Temperature Indicators .1.......................9 Thermal Anemometer ........................1.1..............................................1..5 Electrical Measuring Instruments .......... 4-17 4........ 4-17 4........ 4-20 4..................... 4-1 4................1.................2 Differential Pressure Gauge ....1.............................1 Types of TAB Instrumentation ..................................................................1........10 Flow Measuring Hood.................................. 4-13 4.............1.....................4................. 4-19 4...............................................5 Pressure Gauge (Magnehelic®).......................................................................................................................... 4-20 4..1....1...................................................3... 4-13 4............1.............. 4-14 4............................... 4-15 4.......................5 Portable Noncontact Thermometers....................... 4-8 4..........EPRI Licensed Material 4 INSTRUMENTATION .......................................................................................1...1...........1.. 4-2 4. 4-15 4......4 Pitot Tube .3................................. 4-8 4.................1...1......................1......................1............................................................................3 Thermocouple Thermometers ..... 4-9 4................1 Chronometric Tachometer..............................1.................... 4-20 4............1..2...............1........1.................................1...........................................1...........4................7 Electronic Rotating Vane Anemometer............................2.....1................8 Deflecting Vane Anemometer .........................1........5 Dual-Function Tachometer......1.................... 4-3 4.....1.............. 4-12 4...............1 Voltammeter ........................ 4-10 4...............3..........4 Electronic Tachometer (Stroboscope) .4 Temperature Measuring Instruments ..........5..............3 Rotation Measuring Instruments ............................................ 4-1 4......1.......6 Rotating Vane Anemometer (Mechanical Type) ............................................................. 4-18 4................. 4-14 4...............1............................................................................................. 4-12 4...1.............1........1.4.1 Glass Tube Thermometers............................4.. 4-11 4............1...2 Contact Tachometer (Digital) ...........................1.......................3 Electronic (Digital) Manometer............. 4-14 4.........3 Optical (Photo) Tachometer .........................................1 U-Tube Manometer..........4 Electronic Thermometers ........................ 4-17 4.........................................................1.......7 Electronic Thermohygrometers ...1...1....................1......2 Hydronic Instruments.......2 Dial Thermometers........................... 4-1 4.4........ 4-1 xi ....................................1.....................................................................................................4............ 4-16 4...............

1 Airflow Measuring Instruments............... 4-26 4.................4 Pitot Tube Traverse ......................................................................2 Log Linear Method................................................................3 Calibrated Balancing Valves ....1......................3 Recommended Accuracy of TAB Instrumentation .. 5-19 5.....2................................................1 Airside Flow Measurement ...... 4-22 4.............. 5-12 5......................6..................................................... 4-25 4............2 Applications for TAB Instrumentation .....2..... 4-21 4............ 5-18 5..........5 Airflow Traverse Qualification....1...............2 Differential Pressure Producers ...... 5-2 5.....................................1 Venturi Tube and Orifice Plate ......................................... 5-20 5..........................1................1 Principle of Measurement ................................................................. 5-1 5............................................. 5-20 5..............................4.....2...5....................................EPRI Licensed Material 4.....................2... 4-23 4.................................................................1.................................2.3 Multiport Averaging Pitots .. 4-21 4.....................................6................2............................................................................. 5-10 5..5 Ultrasonic Flow Meters ......6 Hydronic Flow Measuring Devices... 4-23 4..........................4 Ultrasonic Flow Meters... 5-12 5....................... 5-1 5.......................................................2 Annular Flow Indicator ..............1..........6.................................1.....................2........1...... 5-18 5....................................1..........................................................4 Documentation of Traverse Data.................... 5-6 5................1..................................1 Principle of Measurement ........................................................ 4-21 4......................... 4-23 4....2.................1........2....................................................................6 Coriolis Flow Meter ..........8 Location of Flow Devices .................2.....................1................1.........1.................................2 Hydronic Measuring Instruments .....6.2..7 Vortex Shedding Flow Meter ........... 4-27 5 AIR AND WATER FLOW MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES .............6..............................6 Examples .........1.......................................6................. 5-19 5............ 4-22 4................................................................1 Equal Area Method ................... 5-19 5.2.........1 Principle of Measurement .....................................................................................1........................ 5-19 5........................ 5-19 5........................................................6................1....1....................1 Pitot Tube Traverse Methods...................4 Temperature Measuring Instruments ........ 5-13 5.....6...............................1 Principle of Measurement ...........................................2......................1 Background .... 4-23 4.. 4-22 4.................. 5-19 5............1.................................2 Water Side Flow Measurement ....3...................................................................................................5 V-Cone Flow Meters ................2.....................1......3 Rotation Measuring Instruments .......................................................3 Tchebycheff Method.. 4-22 4.1....1.......................... 4-25 4....................1.......................................................................................................................................... 5-1 xii ........................

..............1 Principle of Measurement ..................A-1 A.......6 Magnetic Flow Meters........................................ 6-2 Typical Failure Mechanism for an Inlet Damper.......2............................................. A-3 xiii ..........................5 Containment Refueling Purge .......1... A-4 A............. 5-20 6 LESSONS LEARNED......................................................1 General Description .....6 Containment Combustible Gas Control ................ 6-7 6...............................2............................................................................ 6-2 Pitot Tube Employment and Failure Mechanisms......... 6-6 6....1.1.4 6... A-3 A........1..1.............. 5-20 5.............................1.................................1.......................1.................................. A-1 A.................. A-2 A.....3 Containment Cooling..................................2................................................................6......2 Standby Gas Treatment System ............2....... 6-7 7 REFERENCES ............................3 Radioactivity Control Ventilation ................9 How Abnormal Flow Alignment Affects Fan Performance .............................................................................2................................... 5-20 5..........................1 Generic HVAC Functions ........... A-4 A....................EPRI Licensed Material 5.......................1 Containment/Reactor Building . 5-20 5........... A-4 A...........................1.....1 Nuclear Air Cleanup ......................... A-4 A....... 6-1 Typical Failure Mechanism for Duct Access Doors...................................... A-2 A................1 Principle of Measurement ......1 General Area Ventilation...1............1 6....................3................ A-1 A..................................................... 7-1 A TYPES OF HVAC SYSTEMS....................................................2 6..........................................................................2 Equipment/Area Cooling...11 Consideration of System Operating Conditions ............2......................................................10 Proper Use of an Electronic Micromanometer ........... A-3 A............................................................ 6-6 6................4 Containment Power Access Purge or Minipurge .......7 Turbine Flow Meters ........... 6-1 6.......... A-2 A.....2.............................................................2...............5 6.........................2...................3 6.....6 6.........................................7.................2................................................ 6-5 How Flow Disturbances Can Affect Flow Measurement ................................ 6-3 Misuse of Measurement Equipment ..............................2....8 6........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Air Systems Designated by the Buildings Serviced.. A-1 A..................................................................... 6-4 System and Component Interactions.................. 6-2 Typical Failure Mechanism for an Air-Handling Unit Fan ...........12 Low Airflow in the Auxiliary Building Ventilation System................................. 6-2 Estimating Filter Pressure Gradients for Clean and Dirty Conditions ................................7 6...................

................................................................................................. A-8 A..........3 Hot and Chilled Water Systems with Ethylene or Propylene Glycol ............................................2.................................................................................. B-9 B...................13 Technical Support Center ............ A-9 B TYPES OF HVAC EQUIPMENT...2..........3............................................................................................1..................... A-6 A...1...........2 Chilled Water Systems ...................................................4 Example of an HVAC System Diagram ........................... A-6 A...........................2.......... A-7 A.....................................2.........2.......................1 Fans...3..............7 Diesel Generator Building ........................................................................................... A-7 A....2.................................... B-5 B..................................................2 Dampers ............................................. B-9 B..........................1.............................................................................1.....2..................... B-4 B........ B-9 B...........1.............................................. A-5 A.......1.................................................... B-8 B....... B-8 B......................3................1 Types of Dampers ....4 Propeller Fans .......6 Coil Performance Equations .......................2...........5 Raw Water or Service Water Flow ..1 Isolation Dampers.........................................................................B-1 B.............. B-9 B.............................2 Types of Fan Drivers and Drives ..........................................12 Radwaste Building ............................ A-5 A.EPRI Licensed Material A.............................1 Centrifugal Fans ...................4 Chiller Condenser Water Flow ... A-6 A... A-8 A................................................................1.......................................... A-7 A...................................................2........... A-8 A.................1................................................................................5 Emergency Electrical Switchgear Rooms ......................................2 Turbine Building..............................3 Auxiliary Building ................................1.....2.......10 Personnel Facilities.................................................................................................................1............................................2 Direct Drive................. A-9 A..................................2.1 Types of Fans.............................. B-1 B...... A-7 A....................... B-4 xiv .2..............................................................................................1.................2..................................................3 Tubular Centrifugal Fans ........ A-6 A........................3 Types of Water Systems Supporting HVAC Systems .........1 Belt Drive........................................................................... A-9 A..................................................2..........................2...................................2.....1 Hot Water Heating Systems..................... A-9 A................... B-8 B........................................................2 Axial Fans..3.............4 Control Room ........................3 Variable Speed Motor Drive............. B-9 B................................................1........................................................................................................2.....6 Control Cable Spreading Room ...................................... A-5 A.............................. A-7 A.......................... A-6 A...........1..............................3......11 Pump Houses ........................1...3.............................................9 Fuel-Handling Building............................. B-8 B.....8 Battery Rooms..........

.......1................... Quiet ......................... Mixing ..............................3.......5............................1 Steam Coils ...................................................................................................................................4 Sand Filters .....................................................2........................................................... B-14 B.. B-23 B............. B-14 B....................................... B-24 B........ B-14 B............ B-18 B...........2 HEPA Filters............................................3................ Low-Profile ................ B-18 B................... B-19 B........................................................... B-18 B.............5 Fan-Powered................................... B-17 B.............................5......2....... B-15 B.....3 Inlet Vane Dampers .... B-17 B... B-10 B.......6...................................................... B-20 B.......................................................4.2...................... B-13 B.. B-23 B..3 Charcoal Adsorbers..........................7 Louvers.....................................................5 Fire Dampers.............1 Refrigerant/Direct Expansion Coils .......................2 Duct Leakage Classifications......................... B-23 B....................................3 Cooling Coils ............................................................6.............................................. B-21 B........................................4.....................................................................................................................................1 Allowable Leakage by Radiological Control Criteria ......................................... B-22 B............ Variable Volume (Parallel) ............. B-14 B......3..2......................2.......................4...EPRI Licensed Material B..............2...6 Ductwork ..............2............................ B-19 B.................................................................................................................................................. B-13 B.......................................3 Dual-Duct......................................................................... B-16 B.4 Single-Duct with Heating Coil ........................ B-21 B...................................4............................................................3..........1..8 Fan-Powered. B-15 B....................5.....6 Fan-Powered...................... B-24 B.............5 Terminal Devices ..........................6......... B-17 B.. Nonmixing..........................5..................................................................................................3.......2 Control Dampers .........................7 Low-Temperature Fan Terminals......................................... B-22 B.2.........1 Dust Filters/Prefilters/Postfilters............1 Single-Duct.......................................................................................9 Fan-Powered........................................................................5...................3.2......2 Hot Water Heating Coils .... B-15 B...............................2 Additional Leakage Criteria.........................................1....... B-17 B......................................2 Chilled Water Cooling Coils .......5..6 Smoke Dampers .....................2 Dual-Duct.........................................................1...........................................5....6.............................................2 Damper Actuators....1 General ... B-15 B..............1......................1......................5.................3.................................................4 Electric Heating Coils.. B-20 B....................................................................................................................... B-25 xv ....................... Constant Volume (Series)...........5. B-15 B......4 Filters ...3 Heating and Cooling Coils..3...............................................4 Backdraft Dampers .........................

................................3..........................8 Instrument Test Ports ..8.......................................6...........................................................6..........................................6.............................1 Materials....6.....................C-1 Testing.......................... B-27 B.................................9.............................................6............... and Balancing Forms ... B-25 B.................................... and Duct Friction Loss Equations................................3 Flat Oval Ducts ...........6.............................................9.......1 D...3.........................1 C.................................................................3 Pitot Traverse Station ...................................... B-27 B....................... B-25 B..........8...................................................................................6............ B-28 Airflow Measuring Stations.......D-5 Airflow Equations .................................3........3 Electrically Heated................... B-25 B......... B-33 B...............3................................. B-32 B..... Self-Contained Steam Humidifiers...................................................................8........7 Acoustical Treatment ...6......9 Humidifiers ..................................................D-13 xvi ............................................................................................................................ Adjusting......2 Traverse Probe................................................................................ B-34 B....C-1 C.............................................................. B-29 B................... B-35 C TYPICAL HVAC TAB DOCUMENTATION ...... B-31 B....................6.........9................... B-27 B................5 Orifice Plates ......................................................................................... B-33 B................................................................... B-29 B.......................3............EPRI Licensed Material B................ B-34 B............ B-27 B.................... B-27 B.......................................................D-10 Fan Equations.. B-30 B..............C-1 D EQUATIONS AND CALCULATIONS........1 Heated Pan Humidifiers.....................2 Rectangular and Round Ducts..............7 B..............3... B-33 B............................................................................3 Duct Construction ...................................4 Hot Wire Sensor ...................................... B-29 B.....................8................................................6 Plenums and Apparatus Casings.........3..........................................................................................5 Wetted Media Humidifiers........10 Dehumidifiers .............................................. B-33 B.........3 D.......................4 Fibrous Glass Ducts ..............2 D........................................................8.....................6......1 Multiport with Integral Air Straightener ...... B-26 B.4 Atomizing Humidifiers ....2.............3......8 Hangers.........................................................................................................4 Fundamental Equations .......9.........................................................................................2 Direct Steam Injection Humidifiers........................... Pipe..D-1 D................. B-32 B..................................2 Typical Documentation Requirements.............. B-27 B...9..................D-1 Conduit..................................11 Centrifugal Pumps .....................................................................................................................5 Flexible Ducts ......3 Air Cleaning System Configuration and Leakage Classes ..........................................

.....G-2 G...................G-1 G....................................................................................................3.................................... E-3 E............................................................................2.......................1 HVAC Heat Exchanger Analysis......................................D-26 E ANALYTICAL METHODS ..................................................... E-4 E....3 Effect of Moisture Variation on CFM..2 Analysis Using Generic and Custom Computer Modeling Software........... F-1 G DEFINING ACFM AND SCFM WHEN PERFORMING TAB ACTIVITIES ....................................................................4 Correction Formulas for ACFM and SCFM...............D-20 Noise and Vibration Equations ............H-1 xvii ......9 Pump Equations...................................................................................................................................2..............................................2 Effect of Pressure on CFM ............. and Pulleys......................... Belts..................1 E.........D-24 Areas and Circular Equivalents of Ducts ....................................2.............EPRI Licensed Material D........................................................D-23 Drives.........................2.....................G-3 G....................1 Effect of Temperature on CFM ...............G-1 G.............1 Generic Spreadsheet Software...........................2......................3 Thermal and Pressure Loss Analysis and Balancing of HVAC Water/Liquid Systems ..2 Computer Modeling Software ............................D-18 Electrical Equations....5 D............................................................... E-2 E......... E-1 System Airflow and Pressure Loss Analysis...................... E-1 E...............................6 D............................................ E-2 E............................................................ E-4 F ALTERNATE FLOW MEASUREMENT USING TRACER GAS .. E-3 E....................... E-1 E..........................8 D................................................................2................................7 D...................................................................G-5 H LISTING OF KEY POINTS ....2 Introduction .....................................................................................................................................1 System Diagram Development ..............................................................

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..................... 4-13 Figure 4-13 Typical Contact Reflective Tachometer ....................... 4-19 Figure 4-16 Typical Electronic Hygrometer ... B-2 Figure B-2 Fan Outlet Velocity Profiles.............................. 4-15 Figure 4-14 Typical Electronic Tachometer .................................................................................................. 4-10 Figure 4-10 Typical Thermal Anemometer ......EPRI Licensed Material LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1-1 Fundamental Elements of the HVAC TAB Process Addressed in this Report ............................................ B-5 Figure B-4 Terminology for Axial and Tubular Centrifugal Fans ................................ 4-8 Figure 4-8 Typical Mechanical Rotating Vane Anemometer .... 4-6 Figure 4-7 Typical Pressure Gauge................................. B-3 Figure B-3 Terminology for Centrifugal Fan Components...................................... 3-10 Figure 3-4 Detailed HVAC System Troubleshooting and TAB Activities ................ 3-8 Figure 3-3 Factors Affecting the Need for Detailed HVAC System Troubleshooting ............................................ 4-12 Figure 4-12 Typical Smoke Gun............................................. 4-5 Figure 4-5 Typical Negative Static Pressure Pitot Tube and Manometer or Micromanometer Hookup ................................................................................................................. 3-2 Figure 3-2 Operating Conditions Measured for HVAC System Troubleshooting ....................... 4-11 Figure 4-11 Typical Flow Hood ................................................................................................. 3-11 Figure 4-1 Typical U-Tube Manometer................. 5-13 Figure A-1 Turbine Room Ventilation One-Line Diagram ................................................................ B-7 Figure B-5 Multiblade Volume Dampers..... B-19 xix ...................................................................................................................................................... B-16 Figure B-7 Single-Duct Configuration ............................................................................................................................................................ 4-5 Figure 4-6 Typical Positive Static Pressure Pitot Tube and Manometer or Micromanometer Hookup ............................................................................................................................................................ 4-3 Figure 4-3 Typical Electronic (Digital) Manometer ...... 4-9 Figure 4-9 Typical Electronic Rotating Vane Anemometer ...................................................................................................... 4-20 Figure 5-1 Traverse Qualification ....................................................................... 1-2 Figure 3-1 Preliminary Evaluation for Troubleshooting and Rebalancing HVAC Systems ........ 4-2 Figure 4-2 Typical Inclined/Vertical Manometer......................... 4-4 Figure 4-4 Pitot Tube Details.......................................................................... 4-16 Figure 4-15 Typical Sling Psychrometer.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... B-12 Figure B-6 DX Coil ...................................... A-10 Figure B-1 Typical Fan Performance Curve ................................................................................................................................................

....... Mixing Configuration ............... B-29 Figure B-17 Traverse Probe Air Measuring Station ......................... B-21 Figure B-12 Fan-Powered.............................................................................................. Variable Volume................... B-28 Figure B-16 Multiport Air Measuring Station with an Integral Air Straightener...................................................... Low-Profile Configuration .................................................................................................................................................................................. B-20 Figure B-9 Dual-Duct.....G-4 xx ...................................................... Constant Volume Series Configuration............... F-2 Figure G-1 Change in Air Volume as a Function of Temperature .........................................................C-3 Figure C-3 Rectangular Duct Traverse Data Sheet .................................................................................................................... Quiet Configuration.................................................................................................................... B-22 Figure B-14 Fan-Powered................................... B-22 Figure B-13 Fan-Powered................................................... Parallel Configuration .. B-30 Figure B-18 Pitot Traverse Station .................................................................................................................................. B-31 Figure B-19 Multipoint Insertion Mass Flow Element... B-31 Figure B-20 Single-Stage Horizontal Pump (Single-Suction)............................................................................... B-20 Figure B-10 Single-Duct with Heating Coil Configuration.................................................................C-4 Figure C-4 Grille/Register Data Sheet ............................ B-21 Figure B-11 Fan-Powered.............................. F-1 Figure F-2 Tracer Gases Exhausted into a Room with a Single Exhaust Point ............................... B-23 Figure B-15 Instrument Test Port ....G-3 Figure G-3 Change in Air Volume as a Function of Temperature for Various Percentages of Moisture Content..........................C-5 Figure F-1 Typical Schematic for Using Tracer Gas Testing Methods .................................................... B-36 Figure C-1 Fan Data ....... B-36 Figure B-21 Single-Stage Horizontal Pump (Double-Suction) ....................C-2 Figure C-2 Round Duct Traverse Data Sheet ....EPRI Licensed Material Figure B-8 Dual-Duct.........................................................................................G-2 Figure G-2 Change in Air Volume as a Function of the Change in Absolute Pressure for a Constant Mass... Nonmixing Configuration .....

................................................... 3-18 Table 4-1 Airflow Measuring Instruments ........................................................................... 5-6 Table 5-5 Tchebycheff Method for a Rectangular Duct ..................................................................................... 3-17 Table 3-2 Typical Adjustments for HVAC Fans ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4-25 Table 4-3 Rotation Measuring Instruments.. 4-24 Table 4-2 Hydronic Measuring Instruments ........................................................................................................................................................... 5-17 Table B-1 General Fan Attributes ......................... 5-3 Table 5-2 Equal Area Method for a Round Duct ................ 5-6 Table 5-4 Log Linear Method for a Round Duct................................................................................................ B-32 xxi ................................................................ B-6 Table B-2 Orifice Plate Characteristics............................................................................................... 4-27 Table 5-1 Equal Area Method for a Rectangular Duct ......................... 5-10 Table 5-6 Tchebycheff Method for a Round Duct ...................................................................................................... 5-16 Table 5-10 Weighting Values to Be Applied to Each Velocity ..................................................... 5-15 Table 5-9 Log Linear Method for a Rectangular Duct........ 5-12 Table 5-7 Example of the Equal Area Method for a Rectangular Duct................................................................................ 5-5 Table 5-3 Log Linear Method for a Rectangular Duct.............. 5-13 Table 5-8 Example of the Log Tchebycheff Method for a Round Duct...EPRI Licensed Material LIST OF TABLES Table 3-1 Typical Adjustments for HVAC Dampers ............................................. 4-25 Table 4-4 Temperature Measuring Instruments............................ 4-26 Table 4-5 Air and Hydronic Measuring Instruments.............. 5-16 Table 5-11 Velocities after the Weighting Values Are Applied ............................

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heat removal rates. The figure captures the fundamental elements of the HVAC TAB process and relates each major element to a section and/or appendix in this report. 1. and flow requirements. such as component wear and instrument drift—that require periodic system balancing to maintain optimum system performance. System parameters can be air or water flow. ventilating. the engineer should systematically proceed through each element so as not to adversely affect or further degrade system performance. and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for nuclear power facilities.EPRI Licensed Material 1 INTRODUCTION 1. required temperatures. Figure 1-1 illustrates that the fundamental goal of HVAC TAB is to establish or restore system parameters to design conditions. cooling. The guide provides an overview of the requirements for developing and performing air and hydronic systems balancing to optimize system performance and ensure that the system meets all heating. troubleshooting guidelines. and references. documentation of test data. building air pressure. HVAC systems for nuclear power plants consist of many different components. adjusting. These systems are subject to changes—some the result of intrusive modifications and some caused by gradual component changes. and balancing (TAB) procedures as well as an overview of testing instruments used. which function together as a dynamic system. This guide will provide inexperienced and experienced engineers with the background necessary to develop testing.2 Scope of the Report Figure 1-1 shows the scope of this report. 1-1 . To accomplish this restoration.1 Purpose of the Report This report provides guidance to nuclear plant personnel involved in the balancing of heating. and humidity. Much of Section 3 is devoted to troubleshooting techniques that support TAB activities.

EPRI Licensed Material Introduction Figure 1-1 Fundamental Elements of the HVAC TAB Process Addressed in this Report 1-2 .

1. The primary intent of a Key Point is to emphasize information that will allow individuals to take action for the benefit of their plant. Appendix B describes numerous types of components that are installed in HVAC systems and provides fundamental background information on the different types and designs of HVAC components. Appendix C provides numerous examples of typical HVAC documentation used during the TAB processes. Section 3 then offers guidance on conducting HVAC TAB activities for balancing new or existing air and water plant systems as well as temporary balancing or rebalancing of air and water systems. key information is summarized in “Key Points. and Human Performance. 1-3 . The Key Points are organized according to the three categories: O&M Costs. Section 4 describes the various instrumentation used during HVAC TAB activities. Section 5 is supplemented by Appendix F. and Section 5 provides air and water flow measurement techniques.3 Key Points Throughout this report. to draw attention to it when quickly reviewing the guide. as shown below. Appendices D and E provide guidance for calculating HVAC system parameters using standard equations and commercially available software. Appendix A describes various HVAC systems installed in nuclear power plants and provides an example of a typical HVAC system diagram. Section 7 lists the references used to produce this report. Appendix G provides guidance on defining actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) and standard cubic feet per minute (SCFM) when performing TAB activities.EPRI Licensed Material Introduction Section 3 first provides a schematic flow chart for troubleshooting existing plant systems with detailed implementation guidance. Technical. Appendices A through D provide an excellent source of fundamental information regarding HVAC systems and components in nuclear power plants that may be beneficial to less experienced HVAC system engineering personnel.” Key Points are bold lettered boxes that succinctly restate information covered in detail in the surrounding text. Each category has an identifying icon. Section 6 provides the reader with a compilation of lessons learned from the experiences of numerous utility personnel during HVAC system TAB and troubleshooting activities. These three sections constitute the core of the report and are supplemented with information that may be useful to experienced or newly assigned HVAC system engineers. making the key point easier to locate. The information included in these Key Points was selected by NMAC personnel and the consultants and utility personnel who prepared and reviewed this guide. which discusses an alternate method for airflow measurement.

1-4 . By reviewing this listing. Appendix H contains a listing of all key points in each category. operating. Key Technical Point Targets information that will lead to improved equipment reliability. or maintenance costs.EPRI Licensed Material Introduction Key O&M Cost Point Emphasizes information that will result in reduced purchase. users of this guide can determine if they have taken advantage of key information that the writers of this guide believe would benefit their plants. The listing restates each key point and provides reference to its location in the body of the report. Key Human Performance Point Denotes information that requires personnel action or consideration in order to prevent injury or damage or ease completion of the task.

and Air Conditioning Engineers ASTM – American Standards for Testing and Materials BI – backward inclined BWR – boiling water reactor CEDM – control element drive mechanism CFCU – containment fan cooling unit CM – corrective maintenance CREVS – control room emergency ventilation system 2-1 .EPRI Licensed Material 2 LIST OF ACRONYMS AABC – Associated Air Balance Council ABV – auxiliary building ventilation ACFM – actual cubic feet per minute ACU – air control/conditioning/cleanup unit AHU – air-handling unit ALARA – as low as reasonably achievable AISC – American Institute of Steel Construction AISI – American International Supply Incorporated AMCA – Air Movement and Control Association ANSI – American National Standards Institute ASME – American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASHRAE – American Society of Heating. Refrigerating.

ventilating. Inc. and diffusers HELB – high-energy line break HEPA – high-efficiency particulate-air filter HVAC – heating. registers. IGV – inlet guide vane INPO – Institute of Nuclear Power Operation IST – in-service testing JCO – justification for continued operation LCO – limited condition of operation LCD – liquid crystal display LED – light-emitting diode LEL – lower explosive limit 2-2 .EPRI Licensed Material List of Acronyms CRDM – control rod drive mechanism DC – direct current DDC – direct digital controls/dual-duct configuration DI – deionized DOP – dioctyl phthalate DX – direct expansion ECCS – emergency core cooling system ESF – engineered safety feature FSAR – final safety analysis report gpm – gallons per minute GRDs – grilles. and air conditioning I&C – instrumentation and control IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

EPRI Licensed Material List of Acronyms LER – licensee event report LOCA – loss-of-coolant accident NC – noise criteria NEBB – National Environmental Balancing Bureau NFPA – National Fire Protection Association NHUG – Nuclear HVAC Utilities Group NMAC – Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center NP – nuclear power NPSH – net positive suction head NRC – Nuclear Regulatory Commission NSR – non-safety-related O&M – operation and maintenance OBD – opposed blade dampers OEM – original equipment manufacturer OSHA – Occupational Safety and Health Association P&ID – process and instrumentation drawing PM – predictive or preventive maintenance PREACS – pump room exhaust air cleanup system PWR – pressurized water reactor RC – room criteria RG – regulatory guide RH – relative humidity RO – reverse osmosis rpm – revolutions per minute 2-3 .

adjusting. and balancing TOB – terminal opposed blade damper TR – technical report TS – technical specification TSC – technical support center VAV – variable air volume w.g. – water gauge 2-4 .7 psia (101 kPa). these measurements are not converted to SI units in this report. Because not all countries convert SCFM to SI units in the same way.) SBGT – standby gas treatment system (also noted as SGTS) SEF – system effects factors SMACNA – Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors’ National Association SR – safety-related TAB – testing.EPRI Licensed Material List of Acronyms RTD – resistance temperature detector SCFM – standard cubic feet per minute (Note: SCFM is standard cubic feet per minute at 60 °F (16°C ) and 14.

The generic process is divided into a Preliminary Evaluation (see Figure 3-1) and a detailed Troubleshooting Process (see Figure 3-4) that may lead to testing. or balancing the HVAC system under evaluation. adjusting.1 Generic Process for Existing System Troubleshooting This section presents a generic process for troubleshooting HVAC performance problems that lead to TAB activities to rebalance the system. ADJUSTING. 3-1 .EPRI Licensed Material 3 HVAC TESTING. AND BALANCING GUIDANCE 3.

Balancing – The methodical regulation of system fluid flows (air or water) through the use of acceptable procedures to achieve the desired or specified airflow or water flow [1]. rotational speeds. and Balancing Guidance Figure 3-1 Preliminary Evaluation for Troubleshooting and Rebalancing HVAC Systems For the purposes of this report. pressures. adjusting fan speeds and pump impeller sizes. and setting automatic control devices (such as thermostats and pressure controllers) to achieve optimum system performance and efficiency during normal operation [1]. 3-2 . velocities. and air and water quantities for an evaluation of equipment and system performance [1]. the terms used in TAB are defined as follows: Testing – The use of specialized and calibrated instruments to measure temperatures. Adjusting – The final setting of balancing devices (such as dampers and valves). electrical characteristics.EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing. Adjusting.

It is a process of eliminating the “non-issues” and understanding and acting systematically on the remaining issues. TAB.1 Identifying the Issue 3. TAB. In any case. Key Human Performance Point Key to addressing any issue is understanding that the plant-specific design/licensing bases need to be maintained throughout the troubleshooting. and corrective action processes. 3-3 . a symptom of a more serious problem. The issue could be a problem observed by maintenance personnel. or a management directive to take corrective action. plant-specific administrative interfaces should be coordinated in accordance with each plant’s existing procedures (that is. and Balancing Guidance 3.S. control room interface and operator interface). A clear understanding of the issue is therefore essential for this process to be successful in the fewest number of iterations.1.1. In addition. Adjusting.1. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reported industry events Engineer walkdowns Key to addressing any issue is understanding that the plant-specific design/licensing bases need to be maintained throughout the troubleshooting. and corrective action processes.EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing.1 Communicating Issues at a Nuclear Power Plant A performance issue may be communicated to a system/component HVAC engineer in a number of ways. the system/component HVAC engineer must gain a clear understanding of the issue before a root cause determination can be obtained or derived. HVAC system performance issues and component failures may be communicated to an HVAC system/component engineer in any of the following ways: • • • • • • • • • • Maintenance work order Failed in-service test Control room alarms Corrective action report Performance monitoring (condition monitoring reports) Telephone call Operations rounds or turnover sheets Vendor technical bulletins Institute of Nuclear Power Operation (INPO)/U.

EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing. a thorough knowledge of system design is required because many independent factors can affect structure pressures. or NRC Information Notices may also provide insight into whether the problem has occurred on other HVAC systems/components of the same design installed in similar applications. Insufficient cooling or heating may indicate reduced system airflow or a change in branch airflow. however. the HVAC engineer should clearly define the problem before proceeding with system troubleshooting. These conditions are usually most evident during ambient temperature extremes.2 Common Symptoms Observed/Measured in HVAC Systems Insufficient airflow can be evidenced by direct velocity measurement performed as part of routine surveillance.1. Adjusting. the HVAC engineer should understand how the problem could apply to other systems/HVAC components of similar design and applications. and representative of observed conditions. 3. To troubleshoot this condition. technically accurate. To accomplish this. Changes to building/building zone pressure or differential pressure can be evidenced by directional airflow changes at the building or zone boundary. Key O&M Cost Point The HVAC system may operate without an alarm. A face-to-face interview with the personnel communicating the HVAC system performance issue should be considered. The engineer should then identify the scope and nature of the issue to determine the severity of the problem and the extent to which the problem has been previously observed in the plant or operating system.1. improperly maintained system balancing may increase energy costs of operation.1 General Guidance As previously noted. the original equipment manufacturer (OEM).1.1. and Balancing Guidance 3. These symptoms may also be attributed to either heat transfer problems with heating or cooling coils or temperature control system problems. The engineer should also attempt to validate the information (symptom) to ensure that it is reasonable. Lack of attention to the system balancing can be indicated by insufficient cooling and/or heating in the building or by problems with areas that require positive or negative pressure. Key Human Performance Point The HVAC engineer should understand how the problem could apply to other systems/HVAC components of similar design and applications. 3-4 . Contacting outside sources.2. such as the National Environmental Balancing Bureau (NEBB) web site.2 Defining the Problem 3.

dampers. exhaust side. air monitoring devices. data can be taken when the system is controlling at set point. turning vanes. and some fan blades. Before acquiring field performance data for any variable volume system. Some ventilation exhaust systems installed in newer facilities may be designed with velocity control systems. Depending on the station design basis. The velocity controls may be installed on the supply side.3 Common System Blockage Problems Particulates . possibly compromising system performance. For systems that control to a specific static pressure or differential pressure. defective or improperly installed duct lining (insulation) breaks down with time and may cause system performance problems by plugging coils and reducing system airflow. 3-5 . or both.1. velocity diffusers. Over time. System dirt can build up on coils. branch system coils are not often inspected on a regular basis. Because a change in operation of any fan in such a system can affect the performance of other fans in the system.2 Common Ventilation System Problems An exhaust system for potentially contaminated areas typically discharges to the plant stack. and Balancing Guidance 3. These systems have been designed to maintain fan airflow at a constant rate or to vary airflow in order to maintain a structure or a boundary at a prescribed differential pressure.Particulates in the airstream travel through all ventilation systems. This practice can allow for post-test evaluation of discrepancies and can eliminate the need for re-testing the system. these particulates collect on obstructions in the system. Routine preventive maintenance (PM) may include inspecting and cleaning package unit coils or large system coils. these systems might be considered variable volume systems.2. accumulated dirt can have a serious impact on system performance.In some cases. Typical collection points are coils.1. Depending on the installed air filtering system (if any) and the nature of the collection points.2. 3. This is true if the station design allows for portions of the common exhaust system to be secured individually. Most standard filters have limited efficiency and some bypass flow. Coils . however. Insulation . filters. Adjusting. System lineup should be recorded when acquiring air balance data on systems or subsystems that can be affected by other ventilation systems. it must first be determined in what system operating mode the data will be taken. Key O&M Cost Point System lineup should be recorded when acquiring air balance data on systems or subsystems that can be affected by other ventilation systems.EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing.Coils act as an unintended filter in many systems. fan problems can significantly impact overall system operation.

3. many terminal registers are equipped with terminal opposed blade dampers (TOBs). The clearance between the vanes is usually sufficiently wide (typically more than 4 inches [10 cm]) to prevent obstruction by dirt and debris. causing airflow restriction.4 Fan Degradation Problems Belt Drives . This condition can result in a significant “out-of-balance” condition. However. Typically.The clearance between damper blades is typically wide enough to prevent system blockage caused by dirt or debris. Variable pitch sheaves tend to wear faster than fixed sheaves. If previous balancing work has left the TOBs in the nearly closed position. Slipping belts can reduce fan speed significantly. They ensure uniform airflow across coils or velocity sensors. but for diffusers installed in terminal devices (such as variable air volume [VAV] boxes or constant velocity boxes). Dampers . the effective free area of the damper can. Occasionally.Velocity diffusers are obstructions (typically perforated metal plates or screens) usually installed in package equipment or terminal boxes. Over time. If the replacement fixed sheave is sized based on revolutions per minute (rpm) data taken from a drive operating with a severely worn sheave. turning vanes may become blocked with foreign material or debris. In some cases. however. The failure of volume damper linkage has been known to cause a restriction in system airflow. These dampers are installed to facilitate terminal balance in most systems. the damper blade will fail to one side of the “Y” or branch fitting. the condition is usually detected promptly because of the noise generated. Drive axle slippage on control dampers can also result in incomplete opening or closing of the damper. be seriously affected by the buildup of dirt on the damper blades. turning vane blades have been found detached and lodged against internal duct components. the result can be a permanent reduction in fan rpm.1.Belt drive fans are subject to performance degradation caused by a reduction in fan speed. adversely affecting system performance. Adjusting. routine PM may include periodic inspection and cleaning. internal inspections are not typically part of the PM program.5 cm). when splitter damper linkage fails. Sheave wear is typically more severe on smaller sheaves installed on the drive motor. The open blade clearance for this type of damper is typically about 1 inch (2. resulting in an out-of-balance condition. Turning Vanes . over time. effectively reducing the fan speed. debris buildup can cause significant degradation in system performance. 3-6 .EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing. Multiblade volume dampers and control dampers can experience total or partial linkage failure.2. and Balancing Guidance Velocity Diffusers . Sheave wear can also reduce fan speed slightly. in severe cases. For diffusers installed in package equipment. Variable pitch sheaves are factory installed on many fans to allow for field balance during startup.Most systems with rectangular ductwork have turning vanes at elbows throughout the system.

In some cases. 3-7 .Most fan designs are not subject to severe performance degradation as a result of dirt or debris collection on the blades. Backward inclined (BI) blade designs are typically self-cleaning. system. Fan Wheel Clearance . A routine precaution to check fan rotation when work is performed that disconnects three-phase power supplies is recommended. However. Tubeaxial and propeller fans move air in the wrong direction. The output of most centrifugal fans is significantly reduced when the fan operates in the wrong direction. the engineer should consider measuring any of the plant. the next step in the troubleshooting process is to determine which operating conditions should be measured or additional information collected as well as how that information will be validated. Excess wheel clearance increases bypass flow and reduces discharge airflow. rotation can be changed at the junction box.Wheel clearance and centering are critical parameters in some centrifugal fans. Typically. or component parameters noted in Figure 3-2.3 Determining and Validating Operating Conditions After the issue is clearly defined. Wheel clearance can be inadvertently changed by maintenance activities. BI fans that operate at low speed with high particulates have been found with significant buildup of debris on the blades near the hub. Different fan designs result in different symptoms when rotating backwards. Rotation . 3. Care should be taken to ensure that the as-left rotation is correct.EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing. an out-of-balance condition indicated by fan vibration data may be caused by debris accumulation on fan wheels. and Balancing Guidance Dirty Fan Blades . If repeated problems with loaded fan blades are identified. masking the incorrect rotation.1. Adjusting. Refer to the manufacturer’s recommendation for setting wheel clearance.Incorrect rotation is routinely found to be the cause of fan performance problems. The blade shape for this fan is ideally suited to capture any particulate—from fine dust to larger pieces of debris. Forward curve fan designs are susceptible to significant performance degradation as a result of debris caught in the blades. However. such as bearing replacement. single-phase fan motors. For many smaller. consideration should be given to improve filtration for supply fans or changing fan design for exhaust systems. reverse rotation of a BI fan in centrifugal tubular and power roof ventilators can result in near-design flow. Virtually any centrifugal fan design is subject to fouling from large objects.

and Balancing Guidance Figure 3-2 Operating Conditions Measured for HVAC System Troubleshooting Measurements should be taken using calibrated instruments and reviewed for consistency against system design basis documents or outputs. further investigation is warranted. Adjusting. The measured data should be compared against maintenance history and design requirements that can be found in documents such as the following: • • Fan curve Nameplate data 3-8 . The engineer should attempt to detect trends in performance. the first action might be to validate the calibration of the instrumentation used to take the most recent measurement. if the comparison reveals that a number of parameters have changed or that the changes are following a trend and are degrading over time.1. If only one isolated parameter changed since the previous conditions were monitored.1 Comparison to Design Requirements/Historical Performance The next step in troubleshooting is to compare the measured parameter(s) against the most recent or historical operating conditions.1. However. 3.4.EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing.4 Comparing to Previous Conditions 3.

Consideration of industry-wide historical operating conditions of the fan and components.1 might not provide all of the design information related to the HVAC system in which the fan and other components are installed.4. A review of recent performance testing results on related pieces of equipment may also be helpful. A review of recent preventive and corrective work orders for conditions and work performed (including filter changes and vibration readings) should also be considered. should be considered an option at this stage of the troubleshooting process. As such. Adjusting. and Balancing Guidance • • • • • • • Fan configuration drawings In-service testing (IST) baseline data Fan and motor data sheets System pressure curve Vendor technical manuals Parts and materials list Recommended replacement parts list The engineer should consider reviewing equipment history and examining the data trends from the computer monitoring systems to determine if the change has been sudden or gradual. 3. the following sources of design information should also be considered: • • • • • • • • • • HVAC system design calculations HVAC system descriptions Design basis documents System process and instrumentation drawings (P&IDs) HVAC duct/piping drawings and layouts Materials management information system Component/system technical specifications Component procurement specifications Final safety analysis report (FSAR) Component assembly drawings 3-9 .1.EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing.1.4.2 Sources of Design Information The design documents noted in Section 3. either at other nuclear sites or at other utilities.

9. the engineer should consider continued or increased monitoring of the HVAC system performance parameters. including the test parameters. If the conditions do not warrant detailed troubleshooting. 3-10 .5 Determine If Symptoms Could Adversely Affect HVAC System Performance or Reliability The engineer should make this determination considering the factors shown in Figure 3-3.1.1. and Balancing Guidance 3. If the conditions warrant further investigation and more detailed troubleshooting.EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing. The person performing the troubleshooting should also ensure that the identifier of the issue is made aware of the actions taken to that point as well as the justification for not performing any further troubleshooting activities at that time. the engineer should refer to the detailed troubleshooting guidance provided in Sections 3. Adjusting. This feedback is denoted on Figure 3-1 with a dotted line. Experience and conservatism may result in performing increased monitoring and detailed troubleshooting to a reasonable extent. Figure 3-3 Factors Affecting the Need for Detailed HVAC System Troubleshooting Figure 3-3 illustrates that this determination is subjective and varies depending on the level of conservatism of each engineer and possibly on the work processes and scheduling controls in place.1.6 through 3.

hands-on inspection of the equipment to validate the issue and subsequently define the actual problem. the engineer should be able to understand the issue that was initially communicated. The engineer should then perform an eyewitness. Adjusting.1. and Balancing Guidance 3. hands-on inspection of the equipment to validate the issue and subsequently define the actual problem. A field walkdown of the HVAC system/component(s) is recommended at this point. 3-11 . Key Technical Point The engineer should perform an eyewitness. After these actions are taken. identify the actual symptom(s) of the HVAC system performance.6 Perform HVAC System Walkdown/Evaluation Figure 3-4 Detailed HVAC System Troubleshooting and TAB Activities Figure 3-4 is a continuation of Figure 3-1 and shows the steps associated with the more detailed aspects of troubleshooting at both the HVAC system and component levels. A field walkdown of the HVAC system/component(s) is recommended at this point. and begin to focus the scope of further troubleshooting efforts (including measurement of operating conditions).EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing.

attaching test equipment. Adjusting. the following types of information should be determined and documented: • • • • • System lineup Damper indications and positions Overall system configuration Component configuration Evidence of damaged or broken equipment 3. the troubleshooting plan should address the following issues to ensure that the troubleshooting effort will not adversely affect or jeopardize system performance: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Technically correct problem statement Troubleshooting tools to be used Personnel assignments for implementers and verifiers Actions needed Expected results of each troubleshooting step The process used during troubleshooting Anticipated alarms and actuations Acceptance criteria for each test/inspection/measurement The awareness of possible consequences of initial intrusion into equipment (for example. and Balancing Guidance As a result of the walkdown. a detailed troubleshooting plan should be developed. and applying power) Contingency actions based on the actual readings/measured results Documentation requirements Personnel safety and “as low as reasonably achievable” (ALARA) issues Component/system configuration controls Clear definition of work area boundaries and scope of equipment Appropriate reference material (including drawings. taking into consideration all of the data collected thus far in the evaluation. Prior to making any physical adjustments to the system. technical manuals. procedures.EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing.1. Primarily.7 Develop Troubleshooting Plan Key O&M Cost Point Development of a detailed troubleshooting plan can save money and time by reducing repetitive efforts and providing a structured approach to determining the problem. and visual aids) 3-12 . lifting leads.

7. the level of detail of the plan and the approval authority depend on the risk and complexity of the troubleshooting activities and the significance of the failure. Key Technical Point Prior to making any physical adjustments to the system.1. Adjusting. including pressure.1 Determine What Measurements Are Appropriate Typically.EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing. Personnel should be familiar with the design of the subject HVAC system and the operation of the test equipment.1. and rotation direction Flow Temperature Static pressure Determine Who Will Perform the Measurements 3. speed. 3. taking into consideration all of the data collected thus far in the evaluation. These asfound/baseline readings need only be recorded if they were not already taken during system troubleshooting or if they have changed since the initial measurements were taken. • • • • Fan measurements. the following four critical parameters are measured when troubleshooting an HVAC system that is not performing in accordance with its original design basis. a detailed troubleshooting plan should be developed.7.2 Test/measurement personnel should meet the qualification and certification requirements stipulated by each nuclear utility. 3-13 . power. and Balancing Guidance • • • • • • • • Provisions for the preservation of evidence Communication and work hold-points Degree to which technical measurements and test results are quantified and documented How the system/component will be restored to design conditions Reference to administrative controls to define and manage risk Reference to the appropriate postmaintenance testing procedures Appropriate levels of review/approval in accordance with plant administrative procedures Consideration of plant-specific criteria for performing root cause analysis as well as how the analysis will be handled Typically.

the HVAC engineer should develop the necessary corrective actions to restore the system to design conditions.1.1 Evaluating HVAC System Performance Problems If the troubleshooting plan does not provide an adequate indication of the performance problem. The information collected and/or measured should be evaluated to determine if the root cause(s) of the system performance problems can be identified.1. The tests/measurements should follow the troubleshooting plan and should be taken in a methodical and structured manner. 3-14 . 3.1. 3. physical constraints regarding the measurement. Adjusting.8 Perform Recommended Tests/Measurements Section 5 provides guidance on numerous air and water flow measurement techniques. an appropriate set of tests/measurements should be developed to enable the identification of the root cause of the performance problem. Instrumentation should be selected considering such factors as instrument accuracy. type of system parameter being measured.9.7. and schedule. 3. This is performed by taking any of the following actions: • • • Comparing static pressures Comparing actual flow to the design flow noted on the fan curve Comparing all measured data to any previous TAB reports If the troubleshooting plan provides an adequate indication of the performance problem.EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing. the HVAC engineer should first consider revising the plan. and Balancing Guidance Key Human Performance Point Personnel should be familiar with the design of the subject HVAC system and the operation of the test equipment.1.3 Determine How Measurements Will Be Taken Section 4 provides guidance on the various types of instrumentation available to measure HVAC system parameters. cost.9 Determine If Troubleshooting Plan Provides Adequate Indication of the Problem 3. Through an iterative effort.

9. 3-15 . In these cases. The actual determination of root cause is an iterative process.2 Typical Causes of HVAC System Performance Problems A few of the most common causes of HVAC system performance problems are noted in this section. or missing flow straighteners Improper damper performance or adjustment Loss of pressure boundary (duct leakage) Plugged coils (airside or water side) Improper performance (that is. The following list is for illustrative purposes only and does not necessarily include all causes of system performance degradation: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Inadequate fan performance Worn or damaged turning vanes Worn. and Balancing Guidance 3. Adjusting.1. system adjustments should be performed methodically and documented in order to provide a clear indication of the effect each parameter has on the overall system performance.EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing. inadvertent closing) of fire dampers Airflow monitoring station plugging Dirty/damaged/missing/obstructed air distribution grilles Excessively dirty filters Damaged flex connections Inadvertent changes to system configuration Adverse ambient and environmental conditions Multiple causes may exist for a given system. damaged.

1.1. A list of corrective action options follows: • • • • Perform component maintenance and/or repair Reconfigure the system Adjust system parameters (See Section 3. Adjusting. or missing flow straighteners Improper damper performance or adjustment Loss of pressure boundary (duct leakage) Plugged coils (airside or water side) Improper performance (that is.10 Develop Corrective Actions The resulting corrective actions may encompass HVAC adjusting and rebalancing.EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing.10. damaged.1.2) The following activities are inherent to most utility corrective actions and should not be overlooked when developing a corrective action plan for an HVAC system: • • Perform cause analysis (root cause analysis may take place after the HVAC system performance has been restored) Take the necessary actions to prevent recurrence 3-16 .10.1) Rebalance the HVAC system (See Section 3. and Balancing Guidance Key Technical Point The most common causes of HVAC system performance problems include the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Inadequate fan performance Worn or damaged turning vanes Worn. inadvertent closing) of fire dampers Airflow monitoring station plugging Dirty/damaged/missing/obstructed air distribution grilles Excessively dirty filters Damaged flex connections Inadvertent changes to system configuration Adverse ambient and environmental conditions 3.

10. modifications to fans generally involve modifications that can become costly. Table 3-1 Typical Adjustments for HVAC Dampers Type of Damper Type of Adjustment Isolation Blade position/alignment Spring position Counterweight position Shaft locks/quadrant locks Linkage Actuator adjustment Yes Yes N/A N/A Yes Yes Balancing Yes N/A N/A Yes Yes Yes Backdraft Yes Yes Yes N/A Yes N/A Modulating Yes N/A N/A N/A Yes Yes 3-17 . Adjustments of HVAC systems typically involve adjusting parameters associated with fans and dampers.EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing.1.1 Typical Adjustments for HVAC System Performance Problems Key O&M Cost Point Adjustments to dampers are generally less expensive to perform. In most cases. Table 3-1 describes typical adjustments that may be considered for dampers. and Balancing Guidance 3. Adjusting. the HVAC engineer should first ensure that dampers are in adjustment before changing any fan parameters.

2 Rebalancing HVAC Systems The HVAC system/component engineer should consider retaking the readings as a first option if the corrective actions taken have not alleviated the performance problems. ductwork physical drawings. P&IDs. The data should then be evaluated to determine whether the resulting system/component performance is acceptable.5 provide additional guidance on balancing new or existing air and/or water systems and on temporary balancing/rebalancing of these systems.1 Review Design and System Documentation The first step in the balancing procedure is to become familiar with the complete system operation. Table 3-2 Typical Adjustments for HVAC Fans Type of Fan Type of Adjustment Centrifugal Adjust speed (sheave) Inlet guide vane adjustment Blade pitch Belt tension Re-center fan wheel Drive alignment Yes Yes N/A Yes Yes Yes Axial Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 3. and reference specifications). and general area pressures. such as total fan flow. and Balancing Guidance Table 3-2 describes typical adjustments that may be considered for fans. The engineer should then document the final data and configuration. operating procedures. control logic drawings and details. should be documented prior to performing any system balancing to establish the appropriate acceptance criteria. electrical schematics.1. system descriptions. main line and branch flows.10. and Balancing of Environmental Systems” [1]. 3. Sections 3.EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing. 3-18 . These actions can be repeated as necessary in an iterative fashion until design requirements are met.2 through 3. This requires the engineer to review the reference design documents (such as airflow diagrams. 3. see Section 5 of NEBB “Procedural Standards for Testing.2 Generic Process for New/Existing Air System Balancing For additional or supporting information regarding the process presented in this report. individual terminal flows. Adjusting.2. Adjusting. The system design requirements.

number.2. should be performed to ensure that maintenance activities are not underway or needed. and other penetrations are positioned as required Verify that test equipment is available. and ceilings. windows. 3-19 . simulate their pressure gradients Key Technical Point Prior to starting each system’s TAB work. depicting the locations of airflow measurements. a walkdown of the system should be made to determine testability. A general walkdown of major system components. confirm that all doors.EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing. penetration seals. 3. In order to provide a complete plan of the system balancing. review for adequacy.2 Perform System Walkdown Prior to starting each system’s TAB work. radios and sound-powered phones) Verify that adequate lighting is available at the flow measurement and adjustment locations Inspect the HVAC system room/envelope walls. A general walkdown of major system components. and location). Appendix B provides an overview of the various system components often installed in these systems. floors. The following items should be evaluated at a minimum: • • • • • • • • • Identify test port locations (that is. if not installed. such as fans and filter housings. All test locations should be labeled on the drawing. should be performed to ensure that maintenance activities are not underway or needed. and possesses current calibration certificates Inspect damper positions Ensure that filters are installed or. and installation of test ports) Ensure that communications equipment is available (for example. install new test ports as necessary Ensure that scaffolding and ladders are available for access to test ports and/or balancing devices Inspect the condition of the components (including balancing damper locking devices. Appendix A provides information on various HVAC systems commonly found at nuclear power plants. a markup of the plant physical drawings and/or the P&IDs should be prepared. as-left position indication. and Balancing Guidance Key Technical Point The first step in the balancing procedure is to become familiar with the complete system operation. a walkdown of the system should be made to determine testability. such as fans and filter housings. in working condition. Adjusting.

such as closed dampers or dirty filters. Define air/water flow parameters. because of a fan’s location in relation to other equipment. SEFs are given in terms of pressure loss value in units of inches of water gauge ( w.g. Check air and/or water flows with the system configured for the other modes of operation. If the system has multiple modes of operation. • • 3-20 . This adds a system effect whose magnitude needs to be determined for the particular configuration. The SEF is added directly to other calculated system losses to determine the system resistance and is used to predict the fan performance when connected to the system. Adjusting. identify and balance the system to the critical mode of operation.3 Define Critical System Lineup The following actions should be taken to properly define the critical system lineup: • • Identify the condition of any filter in the system. When performing air balancing.EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing. System effects are pressure losses that may not be initially accounted for in the initial fan selection and may result from undesirable fan inlet and discharge conditions. To account for low system flows. based on the system effect curves found in AMCA 201-90 [2].2. and Balancing Guidance Air Movement and Control Association (AMCA) Publication 201-90 [2] provides additional information. For troubleshooting purposes. refer to AMCA Publication 202-98 [3] for initial symptom/cause diagnosis. if warranted by the HVAC engineer. Establish room/envelope differential pressure requirements. the HVAC engineer should observe the inlet and outlet conditions of the system fan and determine whether any system effect may have been introduced. may also be attributed to low airflow and high-pressure drops in a system. 3. it may be necessary to install an elbow close to the fan discharge.). such as the following: • • • Improper inlet and/or outlet connections or configuration Nonuniform inlet flow Swirl at the fan inlet System effects are normally introduced because of space or economic restrictions. For example. System effects can be accounted for by pressure drop calculations through the use of system effect factors (SEFs). System effects are normally associated with low airflow or a high-pressure drop in a system. system effects can cause low flow (high-pressure drops). Refer to the fan/ductwork configurations provided in AMCA 201-90 [2] or other design books to determine whether system effects are affecting system airflow. The HVAC engineer needs to be aware that this may occur. and initiate design changes as necessary to document any deviation. Other causes. Guidance for use and determination of SEFs for various fan configurations is provided in AMCA 201-90 [2].

4 Operate System to Determine Overall System Flow The following are key actions necessary to determine overall system flow: • • • • Begin air balancing with the supply system and repeat for the exhaust/return system. Calculate the percentage of outlet flow to design flow at this point. and motor performance with the fan curve. 3-21 .1 General Considerations Flow should be adjusted to achieve approximately ±20% for each grille.2. if zone flow remains acceptable.2. Calculate the percentage of outlet flow to design flow at this point. Obtain the airflow at the last outlet on a branch. and Balancing Guidance 3.6. Verify fan flow.2.6. pressure (total or static). 3. To accomplish this.EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing. Obtain the next outlet flow upstream. Obtain the total system flow.5 Measure Flow in Branch Ducts Typically. 2. Adjusting.2. The HVAC engineer should adjust flow in branches to achieve approximately 10% additional flow using volume dampers for each branch. 3.6 Measure/Adjust Each Terminal Device in Each Branch 3. the measurement should begin with the supply system and be repeated for the exhaust side. Adjust flow as needed to approximately 120% of design flow (within system limitations). 3. the following actions may be considered: – – – – Adjust the inlet and outlet flow control dampers Change the fan blade pitch Adjust the inlet fan vanes (if present) Adjust or replace the fan/motor sheave 3. which could be at the fan suction or discharge or at multiple branch locations. The HVAC engineer should select the flow measurement location.2 Balancing by Ratio Method The ratio method is commonly used to measure/adjust flow at terminal devices in branch lines. 4. Plant-specific acceptance criteria should be referenced to ensure that design conditions are being considered. The following is a summary of this method: 1.2.

zone temperatures.2. If the resulting total airflow requires adjustment. it is necessary to balance such systems with simulated dirty filter and wetted coil conditions. If they are not within 10%. This can be accomplished by adjusting the fan or the main flow control damper. Total flow should again be measured. Compare the percentages of the two points measured. 8. 13. make an adjustment to the most upstream outlet to bring the percentages closer together. make a fan speed or blade adjustment. Dirty filter and wetted coil conditions should be simulated on both the supply and exhaust portions of the system. 12. Adjustments should be performed in an iterative manner to maintain total flow within the design tolerances of the system. If they are not within 10%.2. and these systems should be capable of generating design flows even with a dirty filter condition. considering plant-specific zone differential pressure gradients.EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing. Calculate the percentage of outlet flow to design flow at this point. If the percentages are within 10% of one another. 7. Adjusting. When the individual outlets have been adequately adjusted on the branches. 9. 11. Move to the next branch and repeat the process. Compare the percentages of the two points measured. Obtain the next outlet flow upstream. or readjust the volume dampers and splitters and repeat the process. Perform a final readout of the system.8 Simulate Dirty Filter and Wetted Coil Conditions Certain ventilation systems are needed to maintain credited design conditions.7 Re-Measure Total System Flow Adjustments should be made to total flow to the upper limit of plant-specific design requirements.9 Final Balance or Adjustment in the Clean Mode A final balance or adjustment should be made in the clean mode. Thus.2. 3. and Balancing Guidance 5. Repeat the process until all the outlets on the branch are proportioned. and humidity requirements. do not make adjustments. If the percentages are within 10% of one another. do not make adjustments. 3-22 . 3. the branch line volume dampers can be proportioned using the same process. 6. make an adjustment to the most upstream outlet to bring the percentages closer together. 10. 3.

and the pressure differential is created by the building’s ventilation system.3. Verify system performance under the current configuration. Determine the system configuration necessary to maintain license requirements and design objectives during the temporary condition. 4. The boundary is usually a building structure. 2.3. the licensee should evaluate the proposed configuration for compliance with the applicable license requirements. licensed nuclear facilities have to maintain their ventilation systems in order to comply with their licensing. When system conditions arise that are not explicitly addressed by the facility’s license.EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing. 3-23 . 6. and Balancing Guidance 3. Determine system licensing requirements (for example. breaching a wall). 3. Most nuclear facilities have to maintain their ventilation systems to enhance the movement of air from areas of low contamination toward areas of higher contamination. Determine the sequence of component manipulations required to transition from the current configuration to the temporary configuration. Determine system design requirements and objectives. Adjusting. The basic steps for temporary balancing are addressed in Sections 3. except that the process begins based on the as-found system balance. the consequences of the disruption are not significant. 3. the ventilation system or portions of it may have to be temporarily balanced while any equipment used to maintain that building’s pressure gradient is removed from service for maintenance.3. However. and upsetting the system balance can be tolerated for a short period. 5. Determine the effect of the temporary condition on system performance. If a specific pressure gradient is required to be maintained. FSARs and technical specifications [TSs]). walls and ceilings) are breached for other activities.3. A basic corollary to this requirement is for the facilities to maintain a boundary and pressure differential or pressure gradient (∆P) between the environment and facility components with radioactive materials. Usually activities that could disrupt a building’s ventilation system(s) are of short duration.1 Planning Steps The following preliminary steps should be performed for temporary air system balancing or rebalancing: 1.3 Generic Process for Temporary Air System Balancing or Rebalancing Temporary balancing of a building’s ventilation system may be required when performing maintenance on ventilation system components or while structural boundaries for the system (that is. including changes in the condition (that is.1 through 3. Temporary balancing uses the same techniques as initial balancing.

Document the initial configuration and critical parameters. Prepare work documents as required by the facility’s license and administrative controls. Verify that the configuration is compatible with the planned manipulations for restoration. Document the temporary configuration and critical parameters. If required. 7.2 Execution The following are the steps in executing temporary air system balancing or rebalancing: 1. 5. Evaluate the data collected during the manipulations and temporary balancing described in Section 3.3. Verify that the overall system performance is not affected. pre-brief the personnel involved or affected by the proposed change.and activity-specific forms may be desirable to consolidate data and facilitate review and evaluation.EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing.3. 3. Document the final configuration and critical parameters. Adjusting. however. Verify that the work that required temporary balance has been completed. Determine the sequence of component manipulations required to restore the system to its original configuration and which system parameters to monitor during the transition. 12. Use standard balancing forms whenever possible. 9. Determine which system parameters to monitor during the transition to the temporary condition. 3.2.3. 8. facility. 10. Sequence through manipulations toward the initial configuration. Document the post-work temporary configuration and critical parameters. 3. 4.) 6. and Balancing Guidance 7. including a “back-out” provision for situations in which monitored parameters indicate conditions adverse to license requirements. Sequence through the manipulations toward the temporary configuration.3 Review and Documentation The following steps describe reviewing and documenting temporary air system balancing or rebalancing: 1. 2. Adjust controls to compensate for the actual system performance for the temporary balance. 9. (This is similar to a final balance in an initial test and balance. Adjust controls to compensate for actual system performance to achieve a final balance. 13. Verify that the configuration is compatible with the planned manipulations. 3-24 . 8. 11.

4. Document the entire evolution for future reference. and flows to various coolers and heat exchangers) should be documented and appropriate acceptance criteria established prior to performing any system adjustments. Initiate a work order for insulation removal as deemed necessary according to plant procedure. 3-25 • . The closed-loop water system is the most prevalent design employed at nuclear power plants in support of HVAC systems. Adjusting. 3.1 Review Design and System Documentation The first step in the water balancing procedure is to become familiar with the complete system operation. such as installed orifice plates. The location of the balancing valves in the system should be noted. This requires the engineer to review the reference design documents. a walkdown of the system is recommended. and the plant service/river/raw water system. including the water flow diagrams.5. 3. closed-loop hot-water systems. operating procedures. valve lineup. Balancing of the plant service water system will not be addressed in this document.EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing. The water systems commonly used in HVAC systems are closed-loop chilled-water systems. and create actions for any lessons learned. Section 3. identify flow measurement locations. P&IDs. open-loop chiller-condenser water systems. Appendix B provides an overview of the various system components often installed in these systems. 3.2 Perform Walkdown of the Water System Prior to starting of the water balancing work. The system design flow requirements (such as pump flow. “Generic Process for Temporary Water System Balancing or Rebalancing. the piping layout drawing should be used in conjunction with the water flow diagram and the P&IDs to depict the locations of flow measurements. branch flows. If water flow measurements are taken with the ultrasonic flow meter. In order to understand the scope of the balancing effort.4 Generic Process for New/Existing Water System Balancing 3. piping layout drawing. Determine the minimum critical activities and monitoring parameters for the possibility of future similar work. Appendix A is provided to familiarize the reader with various HVAC systems commonly found at nuclear power plants. The following items should be evaluated at a minimum: • Identify the adequacy of any existing flow measurement stations. and Balancing Guidance 2. and some of the steps may not be applicable to or recommended for rebalancing. and component design requirements.4. The piping systems used in HVAC applications are usually insulated.” considers this type of water system in the description. system head pressure. system descriptions. The processes are provided for an initial balance of the water system.

if present). and Balancing Guidance • • • • • • • Ensure that scaffolding and ladders are available for access to flow measurement stations and balancing valves. 5. if one is present in the system. Inspect the lineup of the various components in the system (including pump. 4. Key Technical Point Prior to starting the water balancing work. Verify that the system makeup water valve is fully open and the pressure reducing valve is correctly set. Ensure that communications equipment is available (for example. For cooling or heating systems with three-way (thermostatically controlled) mixing valves. 10. 11. Clean all strainers (and remove startup strainers. Adjusting. Verify that the system has been flushed and the water is clean. 7. 3-26 . a walkdown of the system is recommended. 6. Check the expansion tank for proper charge. Verify that the system has been adequately vented and the air vent valves are closed. Check the operation of all three-way mixing valves. On the recirculation pump curve. and pressure gauges). Check the pump rotation. Verify that all required pressure and temperature gauges are calibrated. 3. 2. Note the design features of the various components in the system. radios and sound-powered phones).EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing.4. 8. note the design point. balancing valves. close the valve port to the bypass line and open the valve port to the coil/terminal unit/heat exchanger. 9.3 Prerequisites The following actions should be taken prior to starting any system adjustments to properly define the critical system lineup: 1. Open all isolation and balancing valves to the full-open position. verify the correct setting of any relief valve. In addition. Ensure that the pump suction strainer is flushed and/or clean. Verify that adequate lighting is available at the flow measurement and adjustment locations. 3. Verify that test equipment is available and in working condition and properly calibrated.

EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing. 13. With the three-way mixing valve open to the bypass line and closed to the coil/terminal unit/heat exchanger. identify and balance the system to its critical mode of operation. With the three-way mixing valve open to the coil/terminal unit and closed to the bypass line. Verify that the operating point is on the pump curve.5 Water Balancing Process A reverse-return system is characterized by water that flows through similar components (that is. For systems with three-way (thermostatically controlled) mixing valves. and it is not necessary to adjust the flow through those similar components. and Balancing Guidance 12. Ensure that applicable sections of the system air balancing are complete. starting with the one at the farthest location. Check and set the operating temperature of the chiller or the boiler. If the system has multiple modes of operation. • • 3-27 . Adjusting. adjust flow through each unit. adjust the balancing valve in the bypass line to obtain the same pressure drop as previously recorded through the coil/terminal unit/ heat exchanger. The following items should be considered in the water balancing process: • In a multiple chiller or boiler system. the following actions may be considered: – – Adjust the main system balancing valve Change the pump impeller size (personnel may need to procure a new impeller if a larger size is needed or grind off the impeller to obtain a smaller size) • 3. To accomplish this. Each coil/terminal unit should have a balancing valve for flow adjustments.4. note the pressure drop through the coil/terminal unit/heat exchanger.4. Make adjustments as necessary to obtain about +110% of the design flow. adjust the balancing valve in the coil/terminal unit bypass piping.4 Operate System to Determine Overall System Flow Perform the following steps to determine overall system flow: • Start the recirculating water pump and adjust the balancing valve at the discharge of the recirculating pump to obtain system design water flow. those components with the same pressure drops) and is configured so that the flow to the first component is the last one out to the return loop. Check the flows with the system aligned for the other modes of operation. and initiate design changes as necessary to document any deviation. The system is self-balancing. +10%) through the coil/terminal units while verifying and maintaining pump design flow. 3. Adjust the balancing valve to obtain design flow (-0. Adjust flow as needed to approximately 110–120% of the design flow without overloading the pump motor.

FSAR and TSs). 5.EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing. inlet and outlet temperatures and pressures. Use information from the pump curve if it is not provided in the design documents. 3-28 . adjust the pump bypass valve to obtain the necessary minimum flow for maintaining pump stability. a temporary system consisting of a temporary chiller(s) with a pump may be installed to provide chilled water to the permanent system. and ∆P • 3. Verify system performance under the current configuration. Determine the process to functionally test the temporary system. and record the following data: – – – Pump and pump motor data: nameplate data. flow. For example. Determine system licensing requirements (for example. Determine makeup water requirements. 6. and Balancing Guidance • In systems with two-way (thermostatically controlled) valves. volt amps. The basic steps for temporary balancing are addressed in the Sections 3. it will be necessary to balance it.5. Determine the process to hydrostatically test any temporary piping installation prior to putting the temporary section in service.5 Generic Process for Temporary Water System Balancing or Rebalancing A temporary water system is often installed to facilitate maintenance activities or replacement of a component in the permanent system.5. however. the pump usually has a pump bypass or minimum system flow line with a modulating valve. 3.5.1 through 3. and volt amps Chiller or boiler: nameplate data. if a chiller(s) in a vital system (system necessary for plant operation) must be replaced while the plant is online. 3.3. Allow the system to operate for 4 to 12 hours to let it equalize. and ∆P Coil/terminal units: flow. inlet and outlet pressures. With the two-way valves closed. inlet and outlet temperature and pressures. Temporary balancing requires the same techniques that initial balancing does. the permanent system may not need any adjustments. Adjusting. If such a system is installed. 4.1 Planning Steps The following steps compose the planning phase of temporary water system balancing or rebalancing: 1. volt amps. 2. Determine the effect of the temporary system on the permanent system design requirements and objectives. flow.

Document the final configuration and critical parameters. 3. Sequence through the manipulations toward temporary configuration. 10. Adjust or install controls to allow the system to perform adequately in the temporary balance configuration. 2. 11. Verify that the overall system performance is not affected.2 Execution The following are the steps in executing temporary water system balancing or rebalancing: 1. 8. 11. Determine which system parameters to monitor during the transition to the temporary condition. Verify that the configuration is compatible with the planned manipulations for restoration. Adjusting. Sequence through the manipulations toward initial configuration. Verify that the configuration is compatible with the planned manipulations. 4. Document the post-work temporary configuration and critical parameters. Adjust controls to compensate for actual system performance to achieve a final balance. 9. Determine the effect of the temporary system on the permanent system performance. Determine the sequence of component manipulations required to transition from the current configuration to the temporary configuration and vice versa. Verify that the work that required temporary balance has been completed. 12. 5. 7. Determine the system configuration necessary to maintain license requirements and design objectives during the temporary condition. 6. 8. Document the temporary configuration and critical parameters. pre-brief the personnel involved or affected by the proposed change. and Balancing Guidance 7. 3-29 .EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing. 3. 9. Determine the sequence of component manipulations required to restore the system to its original configuration and which system parameters to monitor during the transition. 13.5. Document the initial configuration and critical parameters. 10. If required.

Adjusting. 2.3 Review and Documentation The following steps describe reviewing and documenting temporary water system balancing or rebalancing: 1.EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing. and Balancing Guidance 3. 3-30 .5. Document the entire evolution for future reference. 3. Evaluate the data collected during the manipulations and temporary balancing described in Section 3.2. and create actions for any lessons learned.5. Determine the minimum critical activities and monitoring parameters for the possibility of performing similar work in the future.

EPRI Licensed Material

4
INSTRUMENTATION
Section 4.1 presents various types of TAB instrumentation commonly used to measure the system or component parameters presented in this report. Section 4.2 provides several tables that illustrate the proper application of many of these instruments. Section 4.3 provides a table that illustrates recommended ranges, accuracy, and calibration schedules for different types of TAB instrumentation.

4.1

Types of TAB Instrumentation

4.1.1 Airflow Measuring Instruments
4.1.1.1 U-Tube Manometer

The manometer is a simple and useful means of measuring partial vacuum and pressure for air and hydronic systems. It is so universally used that both the inch (mm) of water and inch (mm) of mercury have become accepted units of pressure measurements. In its simplest form, a manometer consists of a U-shaped glass tube partially filled with a liquid, such as tinted water or oil. The difference in height between the two fluid columns denotes the pressure differential. U-tube manometers are made in different sizes and are recommended for measuring pressure drops above 1.0 inch w.g. (250 Pascals [Pa]) across filters, coils, fans, terminal devices, and sections of ductwork; they are not recommended for readings less than 1.0 inch w.g. (250 Pa). Key Technical Points Manometer tubes should be chemically clean to be accurate and filled with the correct fluid. Mercury is not an acceptable fluid for HVAC TAB work because of its potential hazardous effects on personnel and on plant equipment. Figure 4-1 illustrates a typical U-tube manometer commonly used in HVAC systems.

4-1

EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation

Figure 4-1 Typical U-Tube Manometer (Courtesy of Meriam, Inc.)

4.1.1.2

Inclined/Vertical Manometer

The inclined and/or vertical manometer for airflow pressure reading is usually constructed from a solid, transparent block of plastic. It has an inclined scale that provides accurate air pressure readings below 1.0 inch w.g. (250 Pa) and a vertical scale for reading greater pressures. Instead of water, this instrument uses colored oil that is lighter than water. This means that although the scale reads in inches (mm) of water, it is longer than a standard rule measurement. Whenever a manometer is used, the oil must be at the same temperature as the environment in which the manometer will be used and of the correct specific gravity; otherwise, the reading will not be correct. The manometer must be set level and mounted so that it does not vibrate. Key Technical Point When air pressures are extremely low, a micromanometer (hook gauge) or some other more sensitive instrument should be used to ensure accuracy. Figure 4-2 illustrates a typical inclined/vertical manometer commonly used in HVAC systems.

4-2

EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation

Figure 4-2 Typical Inclined/Vertical Manometer (Courtesy of Meriam, Inc.)

4.1.1.3

Electronic (Digital) Manometer

The electronic manometer is designed to provide accurate readings at very low differential pressures. Some multimeters measure an extremely wide range of pressures from 0.0001 to 60.00 inches w.g. (0.025 to 15,000 Pa). Airflow and velocity are automatically corrected for the density effect of barometric pressure and temperature if the appropriate sensors are attached. Readings can be stored and recalled with average and total functions. A specially designed grid enables the reading of face velocities at filter outlets, coil face velocities, and exhaust hood openings. Some multimeters provide additional functions, such as temperature measurements. Because the meter uses a time-weighted average for each reading, it is often difficult to measure and identify the pulsations in pressure. For this reason, it may be difficult to repeat single-point readings, especially at lower velocities. Key Technical Point The technical manual for the electronic manometer should be referenced to determine if it provides results in ACFM, SCFM, or both. If the temperature sensor is not used, the instrument reading on at least one electronic manometer should be adjusted by calculation to either actual or standard conditions (ACFM or SCFM).

4-3

EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation

Figure 4-3 illustrates a typical electronic (digital) manometer commonly used in HVAC systems.

Figure 4-3 Typical Electronic (Digital) Manometer (Courtesy of Shortridge, Inc.)

4.1.1.4

Pitot Tube

The standard pitot tube, which is used in conjunction with a suitable pressure measuring device, provides a simple method of determining the air velocity in a duct. The pitot tube is of double concentric tube construction, consisting of a 1/8-inch (3.2-mm) outside diameter inner tube (total pressure) which is concentrically located inside of a 5/16-inch (8.0-mm) outside diameter outer tube (static pressure). The outer “static” tube has eight equally spaced, 0.04-inch (1-mm) diameter holes around the circumference of the outer tube, located 2-1/4 inches (57 mm) back from the nose or open end of the pitot tube tip. Figure 4-4 illustrates typical details of a pitot tube. Figures 4-5 and 4-6 illustrate typical configurations of pitot tubes.

4-4

EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation Figure 4-4 Pitot Tube Details Figure 4-5 Typical Negative Static Pressure Pitot Tube and Manometer or Micromanometer Hookup 4-5 .

or tube connection end. and the outer tube has a side outlet tube connector perpendicular to the outer tube and directly parallel with and pointing in the same direction as the head end of the pitot tube. located near the measuring end.EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation Figure 4-6 Typical Positive Static Pressure Pitot Tube and Manometer or Micromanometer Hookup Smaller pitot tubes. with the pitot tube in the fully inserted position. maintain the actual dimensions. They are designed to maintain the ratio of the hole spacing for both the total pressure and static pressure sensors but can not. 4-6 . by design. are available for use in smaller ducting. commonly referred to as micro tubes. the pitot tube is connected to the high-pressure side of the pressure measuring device. If measuring a positive pressure. with airflow (±10º) facing upstream. This bend allows the open end of the inner “impact” tube to be positioned so that it faces directly into the airstream when 1) the main shaft of the pitot tube is perpendicular to the duct and 2) the side outlet static pressure tube outlet connector is pointed in a parallel direction. the inner tube is open ended as at the head. Key Technical Point Measurement of airstream total pressure is achieved by connecting the inner tube outlet connector to one side of a manometer or gauge. Both tubes have a 90º radius bend in them. These tubes are typically used when the cross-sectional area of the pitot tube is greater than 1/30 of the crosssectional area of the ducting. At the base end.

If measuring static pressures within the duct is required. This leak check should be performed as an integrated test to ensure that no one component may be attributing to erroneous readings. and free of leaks. The total pressure line is connected to the high-pressure port of the test instrument. SP = static pressure. however. Key Technical Point Measurement of airstream velocity pressure is achieved by connecting both the inner and the outer tube connectors to opposite sides of a manometer or gauge. and total pressure are to be measured simultaneously. the three values measured will then fulfill the equation: TP = SP + VP. velocity pressure. sharp bends. regardless of whether the ducting is at a positive or negative pressure. and VP = velocity pressure. The various connections between the pitot tube and gauge are frequently made with a good grade of clear surgical tubing. The lines and various connections should be periodically tested for leaks. the pitot tube is connected to the pressure sensing instrument the same way. In conducting tests. Precaution must be taken so that all passages and connections are dry. The branching out of the rubber hose can be accomplished by the use of a T-fitting or a two-stem nipple adapter. the static pressure port from the pitot tube must be connected to the low-pressure side of the instrument. three draft gauges can be connected—depending on the specific application. If measuring a negative pressure duct. If measuring a negative pressure. 4-7 . and other obstructions. The total pressure side is always connected to the high-pressure side of the instrument. Several shapes and sizes of pitot tubes are available for different applications. Accuracy of the measurements depends on the uniformity of flow and completeness of traverse. where TP = total pressure. for maneuvering the instrument. A reasonably large space is required. clean. Care should be taken. Care should be taken to avoid pinching the instrument tubing. it is often sufficient to measure only two of these three pressures because the third can be obtained by simple addition or subtraction. the pitot tube must be connected to the high-pressure side of the instrument. If measuring velocity pressure. that the signs of the pressures monitored are correct. If the static pressure in the duct is at a positive pressure.EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation Key Technical Point Measurement of airstream static pressure is achieved by connecting the outer tube side outlet connector to one side of a manometer or gauge. the pitot-tube-to-instrument connection will be affected. adjacent to the duct penetration. If static pressure. and the static pressure line is connected to the low-pressure side. and the static pressure side is always connected to the low-pressure side of the instrument. the pitot tube is connected to the low-pressure side of the pressure measuring device. In any case.

15 m/s). in which case the anemometer reading (when corrected according to a calibration curve) will give the result in feet per minute or meters per minute. with the least correction in the middle of the 200–2000 feet per minute (ft/min) (1–10 meters per second [m/s]) ranges.1. However. a timing instrument must be used to determine velocity. Figure 4-7 Typical Pressure Gauge (Courtesy of Dwyer. Newer instruments can read velocities as low as 30 ft/min (0. Most older instruments are not sensitive enough for use below 200 ft/min (1 m/s). For moderate velocities.1. it may be satisfactory to use a one-half minute timed interval. Inc. a gear train that overspeeds is commonly used.EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation 4. which makes it extremely sensitive and accurate.6 Rotating Vane Anemometer (Mechanical Type) The basic propeller or rotating vane anemometer consists of a lightweight. Figure 4-7 illustrates a typical Magnehelic ® pressure gauge commonly used in HVAC systems. The gauge should be held in the same position as when it is zeroed and should be checked against a known pressure source with each use (some models are designed for vertical use only). Readings are usually timed for one minute.1. Because other instruments read in feet (meters). the friction drag of the mechanism is considerable. There are approximately 30 available pressure ranges for this instrument.1. To compensate for this. Measurements should be made in midrange of the scale. The gauge should not be mounted on a vibrating surface.5 Pressure Gauge (Magnehelic®) The Magnehelic® pressure gauge is operated by magnetic field linkage only. 4-8 . the correction is often additive at the lower range and subtractive at the upper range. wind-driven wheel connected through a gear train to a set of recording dials that read the linear feet (meters) of air passing through the wheel in a measured length of time. A zero calibration screw is located on the plastic cover. For this reason. repeated as a check.) 4. At low velocities. the construction of the gauge makes it resistant to shock and vibration.

and Balancing of Environmental Systems” [1] provides additional guidance on how these instruments may be used. Key Technical Point In the case of coils or filters.EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation In the case of coils or filters. Figure 4-8 Typical Mechanical Rotating Vane Anemometer 4. an uneven airflow is frequently found because of entrance or exit conditions and/or stratification.7 Electronic Rotating Vane Anemometer The electronic rotating vane anemometer is a battery-operated. NEBB “Procedural Standards for Testing. Adjusting.1. Figure 4-9 illustrates a typical electronic rotating vane anemometer commonly used in HVAC systems. Analog instruments are direct readout with a choice of velocity scales. direct digital or analog readout anemometer. depending on the measured velocity and the type of instrument. These variations are taken into account by moving the instrument in a fixed pattern traverse to cover the entire surface so that the varying velocities may be added and averaged. an uneven airflow is frequently found because of entrance or exit conditions and/or stratification. Some have interchangeable remote rotating vane heads. Figure 4-8 illustrates a typical mechanical rotating vane anemometer commonly used in HVAC systems.1. The digital readout of the velocity is automatically averaged for a fixed period. 4-9 .

EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation Figure 4-9 Typical Electronic Rotating Vane Anemometer 4. The pitot probe is used to measure airstream velocities in ducts. and fume hoods. diffuser. except as noted in the following paragraph. The instrument is provided and always used with a dual-hose connection between the meter and the probes. The lo-flow probe is used in conjunction with the 0–300 ft/min (0–1.1. 4-10 . and pitot probes.8 Deflecting Vane Anemometer The deflecting vane anemometer operates by having pressure exerted on a vane that causes a pointer to indicate that measured value. It does not depend on air density because of the sensing of pressure differential to indicate velocities. This will return a result in cubic feet per minute (ft 3/min). The lo-flow probe is directly mounted to the anemometer without the use of hoses.1.5 m/s) scale for measuring terminal air velocities in rooms or open spaces and for measuring face velocities at ventilating hoods. spray booths. using the proper air terminal “K or A k” factor (effective area) for the airflow calculation. The diffuser probe is used to measure air velocity through both supply and return air terminals. One type of deflecting vane anemometer uses three interchangeable velocity probes: the lo-flow.

room velocity. corrections must be made if actual feet per minute are to be recorded. Because this type of instrument displays data for standard conditions. and the velocity of hood openings.EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation 4.1.1. Figure 4-10 Typical Thermal Anemometer (Courtesy of TSI. as indicated by the manufacturer. and the resistance change is indicated as velocity on the indicating scale of the instrument. Probes are subject to fouling by dust and corrosive air. grille. Inc. or traverse. the temperature of the element is changed from those that exist in still air. 4-11 . This instrument is used to measure very low air velocities (such as a filter velocity).9 Thermal Anemometer The operation of the thermal anemometer depends on the fact that the resistance of a heated wire will change with its temperature. Figure 4-10 illustrates a typical thermal anemometer commonly used in HVAC systems. The probe of this instrument is provided with a special type of wire element that is supplied with current from batteries contained in the instrument case.) The probe that is used with this instrument is directional and must be located at the proper point on the diffuser. As air flows over the element in the probe.

Hoods are generally constructed so that the outlet tapers down to an effective area of 1 ft 2 (0. averaging. A velocity measuring grid and calibrated manometer in the hood will read the airflow in cubic feet per minute.5 m/s) can be measured with a stopwatch and distance determinations. 4-12 . Some digital instruments have memory. nontoxic smoke readily mixes with air. These devices come in various sizes with different durations of burning time. The conical or pyramid shaped hood can be used to collect all of the air supplied to or returned from an air terminal and guide it over flow measuring instrumentation. The large end of the cone should be sized to fit over the complete diffuser and should have a gasket around the perimeter to prevent leakage.09 m2). and printing capabilities. sufficient smoke should be used to fill a volume 15 to 20 times larger than the duct or enclosure volume to be tested.1. The best results are obtained when the flow measuring hood has repeat readings on similar terminals in the same direction.1.10 Flow Measuring Hood The flow measuring hood is a device that covers the terminal air outlet device to facilitate taking air velocity or airflow. Air motion rates below 10 ft/min (0. Figure 4-11 Typical Flow Hood 4.EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation 4.1. simplifying the observation of flow patterns. The balancing cone or hood should be tailored for the particular job.1. When testing for leaks. Smoke devices employ a chemical reaction from which highly visible. Flow measuring hoods should not be used where the discharge velocities of the terminal device are excessive or severely stratified.11 Smoke Devices Smoke devices generally are used to study airflow and detect leaks. Figure 4-11 illustrates a typical flow hood commonly used in HVAC systems.

Figure 4-12 illustrates a typical smoke gun commonly used in HVAC systems. or bronze. a compound gauge should be used where it could be exposed to negative pressure (vacuum). chiller.2 cm) in diameter. Dials are available with pressure.EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation Smoke sticks conveniently come in different sizes and provide an indicating stream of smoke. and pressure drops across orifice plates. and other flow calibrated devices. Figure 4-12 Typical Smoke Gun Aspirated fine powders. Similarly. The gauge should not be exposed to pressures greater than the maximum dial reading.1 Hydronic Instruments Pressure Test Gauge The calibrated pressure test gauge should be of a minimum “Grade A” quality. The fine powders suspend in air for a significant time and float with the air currents. Pressure pulsations can be reduced or eliminated by installing a needle valve between the gauge and the system equipment or piping. such as zinc sterate. determining the velocity of slow moving currents in a room. Monel. Pressure ranges should be selected so that the pressures to be measured fall in the middle twothirds of the scale range.2.2 4. and others smoke continuously for a few minutes to a maximum of 10 minutes. may also be used in locating drafts. or compound ranges. coil. 4. valves. and obtaining a better understanding of air motion.1. with bottom or back connections. Smoke guns are valuable in tracing air currents and determining the direction and velocity of airflow and the general behavior of either warm or cold air in conditioned rooms.1 [4]. Test gauges are usually 3-1/2 to 6 inches (8. a pulsation dampener or snubber may be installed. Under extreme pulsating conditions.1. 4-13 . Dial gauges are used primarily for checking pump pressure. The powder can be used to mark leakage points on doors with gaskets because it tends to stick to the surface at the leak. Zinc sterate and other powders are usually chemically inert and may often be used where chemical smoke is prohibited. Some produce a single puff of smoke. and a nonreflecting white face with black letter graduations conforming to ANSI/ASME Specification B40. alloy steel. have a Bourdon tube assembly made of stainless steel. and condenser pressure drops. vacuum.9 to 15.

the gauge is alternately valved to the high-pressure side and the lowpressure side to determine the pressure differential.2.2 Differential Pressure Gauge A differential pressure gauge is a dual-inlet. inches w. however. Because the timing is automatically synchronized with the operation of the revolution counter. This sets the meter hand to zero. Newer hand tachometers are available.1 Chronometric Tachometer The chronometric tachometer is considered by some to be obsolete.2 Contact Tachometer (Digital) Contact tachometers are available in either liquid crystal display (LCD) or light-emitting diode (LED) displays in multi-ranges.1.3 Rotation Measuring Instruments Key Human Performance Point Care should be taken when using any rotating measuring instrument in order to avoid personal injury caused by inadvertent contact with the rotating equipment. “Grade A” dual Bourdon tube pressure gauge with a single indicating pointer on the dial face. 4. and simultaneously starts both the revolution counter and the stopwatch. winds the stopwatch movement. solid-state instruments with digital readouts are also available. It combines a revolution counter and a stopwatch in one instrument. Care should be taken to avoid personal injury when in proximity to the rotating element. although the instrument will not indicate. or inches mercury.g. indicating the pressure differential between the two measured pressures.. the chronometric tachometer is the preferred type of instrument when the shaft end is accessible and has a countersunk hole. the human error that can occur when a revolution counter and separate stopwatch are used is eliminated. In addition.3. In general. most have a measuring wheel for linear speeds.3. the push button is pressed and then quickly released. The tachometer spindle will then turn with the shaft. The gauge can be calibrated in psi. In using this instrument.1.1. Using a single test gauge. The differential pressure gauge will automatically read the difference between two pressures. Such an arrangement eliminates any problem concerning gauge elevations and virtually eliminates errors as a result of gauge calibration. 4. Figure 4-13 illustrates a typical contact reflective tachometer commonly used in HVAC systems.1. 4. capable of producing instantaneous rpm measurement readings on a dial face (eddy current type). 4-14 .EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation 4. it is still used. To take a reading. Some have a memory feature to recall the last reading as well as maximum and minimum readings. its tip is placed in contact with the rotating shaft.

4 Electronic Tachometer (Stroboscope) The stroboscope is an electronic tachometer that uses an electrically flashing light.1. Figure 4-14 illustrates a typical stroboscope commonly used in HVAC systems. and when it is adjusted to equal the frequency of the rotating machine. by use of a transistorized computer circuit. It is completely portable and is equipped with long-life batteries as its light and power source. 4-15 .200 on the rpm scale (at 60 Hz). It is a good instrument to use on in-line fans and other equipment where shaft ends are not accessible. the tachometer produces a direct rpm reading (either digital or analog) on the instrument dial.3 Optical (Photo) Tachometer The optical or photo tachometer uses a photocell that counts the pulses as the object rotates. The optical tachometer does not have to be in contact with the rotating device. and any error can be reduced by using more than one reflective marker at a different location on the rotating device.EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation Figure 4-13 Typical Contact Reflective Tachometer 4. Several features make it adaptable for use in measuring fan speeds.3. the machine will appear to stand still.1. 4. Then. It also may be used on equipment rotating at high speed. It indicates instantaneous speeds using a contrasting mark on the rotating device or reflective tape. It has good accuracy. The frequency of the flashing light is electronically controlled and adjustable.3. Its calibration can be continually checked on most jobs by directing its beam to a fluorescent light and comparing the indicated reading against 7.

and their frequency is adjustable by turning a knob on the stroboscope. the stroboscope light needs to be pointed toward the machine to illuminate a moving part for the operator. Many allow a choice of up to 19 ranges. or rpm. Care should be taken to avoid reading multiples (or harmonics) of the actual rpm. The light flashes are of extremely short duration. The last reading before the double image appears will be the actual rpm of the rotating equipment. and the moving part will appear to stand still. can be read from an analog or digital scale on the instrument.3. and/or average readings. This process should be repeated until the first double image is obtained. minimum. 4-16 .EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation Figure 4-14 Typical Electronic Tachometer (Stroboscope) The stroboscope does not need to make contact with the machine being checked. To ensure that the reading is not a harmonic of the actual rotational speed. on the other hand. If a double image is observed. What is being observed is that the strobe is operating at twice the speed of the true rpm. The corresponding frequency. the part will be seen distantly only once each cycle. Readings should be started at the lower end of the scale.5 Dual-Function Tachometer The dual-function tachometer provides both optical and contact measurements of rotation and linear motions. When the frequency of the light flashes is the same as the speed of the moving part being viewed. maximum. Rather. 4. The memory feature may often be used to recall the last. The number of flashes per second should be slowly increased until a single image is obtained. depending on the application. the original reading was the true rpm of the equipment. If. A digital display always indicates the unit of measurement to identify the operating range.1. the strobe was set at a subharmonic of the actual rpm. The best results are obtained when the strobe is shined on a rotating object having one unique mark. such as a keyway on the end of a shaft. increase the number of flashes per minute by twice the current value. a single image is obtained after doubling the number of flashes per minute. This tachometer’s compact size and light weight allow easy one-handed operation.

4-17 . a correction must be made for the amount of emergent liquid column. 1-3/4 to 5 inches (4.1 Glass Tube Thermometers Mercury-filled glass tube thermometers have a useful temperature range from -40°F (-40°C) to over 400°F (204°C). Dial thermometers are more rugged and more easily read than are glass tube thermometers. as with pressure gauges. Because dial thermometers have a relatively long time lag. and Bourdon tube and is charged with either a liquid or a gas.4 Temperature Measuring Instruments 4.2 Dial Thermometers Dial thermometers have either a rigid stem or a flexible capillary.1. If complete immersion of the thermometer stem is not possible or practical.4. They are constructed with various size dial heads. with a stainless steel encapsulated temperature sensing element. dust-. enough time must be allowed for the thermometer to reach a steady temperature measurement. Proper shielding or aspiration of the thermometer bulb and stem can minimize these radiation effects. capillary tube.5 to 12.7 cm). The complete stem immersion calibrated thermometer. Mineral spirits thermometers have a typical useful range of -40°F to 200°F (-40°F to 93°C). scale graduations. In using a dial thermometer. They are available in a variety of standard temperature ranges. The temperature sensing system consisting of the bulb. Sensing elements range in length from 2-1/2 to 24 inches (6. must be used with the stem completely immersed in the fluid in which the temperature is to be measured. and leakproof and are actuated by sensitive bimetallic helix coils. The flexible capillary dial thermometer has a large temperature sensing bulb connected to the instrument with a capillary tube. the stem or bulb must be immersed a sufficient distance to allow this part of the thermometer to reach the temperature being measured. causing a pointer to move over a graduated scale. and they are fairly inexpensive. The instrument contains a Bourdon tube.4. Small dial thermometers usually use a bimetallic temperature sensing element in the stem. with and without thermometer wells. Thermometer wells are used to house the test thermometer at the desired location and permit the removal and insertion of a thermometer without requiring the removal or loss of the fluid in the system. dial thermometers are rust-. Hermetically sealed. No emergent stem correction is required for the partial stem immersion type. 4.EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation 4. Some can be field calibrated. Temperature changes at the bulb cause the contained liquid or gas to expand or contract.4 to 61 cm) and are available in many temperature ranges.1. When the temperatures of the surrounding surfaces are substantially different from the measured fluid. Thermometers calibrated for partial stem immersion are more commonly used in conjunction with thermometer test wells designed to receive them. and lengths. as the name implies. there is considerable radiation effect upon the thermometer reading if the thermometer is left unshielded or otherwise unprotected.1.

4.1. The whirling motion is periodically stopped to permit readings of the wet and dry bulb thermometers (in that order) to be taken until consecutive readings become steady. Additionally. Figure 4-15 illustrates a typical sling psychrometer commonly used in HVAC systems. The difference is known as the wet bulb depression. 4. In piping and duct applications. some electronic thermometers have multiple connection points on the instrument case and a selector switch.5 Portable Noncontact Thermometers These devices are rugged and simple to use. normally used in measurements of surface temperatures in heating and air conditioning applications. Electronic thermometers have the advantages of remote reading. and. Types include resistance temperature detectors (RTDs). note that the surface temperature of the conduit is not equal to the gas or fluid temperature and that a relative comparison is more reliable than an absolute reliance on readings at a single circuit or terminal unit. Electronic thermometers may be used to check air or liquid temperatures. thermistors.1.1. Response time and ease of use vary among models and types. thermocouples. either immersed in the fluid stream or from surfaces. 4-18 . good precision. at close ranges.6 Psychrometers The sling psychrometer consists of two liquid-filled thermometers.EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation 4. 4. Resistance thermometers have longer response times than the thermocouple type. These devices work on the principle of infrared energy (which all objects above absolute zero radiate). battery powered digital electronic thermometers that are highly accurate with interchangeable probes and/or sensors. Because of evaporation. and a flexible temperature range. are useful for determining hot spots. lightweight. rapidly respond to temperature changes. The two thermometers are mounted side-by-side on a frame fitted with a handle by which the device can be whirled with a steady motion through the surrounding air. the wet bulb thermometer indicates a lower temperature than the dry bulb thermometer does (unless the airstream is at 100% relative humidity [RH]. and diode sensors with either LCD or LED displays.4.3 Thermocouple Thermometers Thermocouple thermometers and analog or digital pyrometers. enabling the use of a number of temperature sensors placed in different locations and read one at a time by use of the selector switch. 4.1. one of which has a cloth wick or sock around its bulb. then both the wet bulb and dry bulb temperatures are the same). Thermocouple temperature sensing elements are remote from the instrument case and connected to it by wire or cables.4.4.4 Electronic Thermometers There are many types of rugged. Most are equipped with a laser pointer to facilitate determining the location of the temperature measuring point. use a thermocouple as a sensing device and a scale calibrated for direct reading of temperatures. The average effective range depends on the size of the object being measured and the clarity of the air between the object and the detector.

These instruments are accurate and can be placed into confined areas where there is insufficient room to whirl a sling psychrometer.5 m/s) across the wick.1. a correction must be made. Because the instruments do not rely upon evaporation for measurement. Figure 4-16 illustrates a typical electronic hygrometer commonly used in HVAC systems. therefore. the need for airflow across the wetted wick or sock is eliminated. Therefore. 4-19 . the thermohygrometer does not use the cooling effect of the wet bulb to determine the moisture content in the air.4. a constant supply of distilled water should be used. an instrument with an 18-inch (46-cm) radius should be whirled at a rate of two revolutions per second. Temperatures below 32°F (0°C) require special handling conditions. 4. As the moisture content and temperature change. otherwise. Digital battery powered versions of the sling psychrometer are available that blow the ambient air over the wetted wick.7 Electronic Thermohygrometers Unlike the psychrometer. Typical measuring rate is 10–98% RH. The sensing element needs only to be held in the sampled air. The readout is normally in percent RH.EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation Figure 4-15 Typical Sling Psychrometer Accurate wet bulb readings require an air velocity of 1000–1500 ft/min (5–7. the resistance in the sensor changes proportionally. Instead. Significant errors will result if the wick becomes dirty or dry. a thin film capacitance sensor is used as a sensing element in many instruments. 32–140°F (0–60°C).

5 Electrical Measuring Instruments Key Human Performance Point Care should be used when working around energized electrical equipment. Most meters have several scale ranges in amperes and volts. 4. with digital or analog readout.1.1.5. is used for taking field electrical measurements.EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation Figure 4-16 Typical Electronic Hygrometer The thermohygrometer can be used to determine the psychrometric properties of air in much the same way as the sling psychrometer.1 Voltammeter The clamp-on voltammeter. Two voltage test leads are furnished.8 Color Strip Temperature Indicators These simple devices employ a temperature sensitive. There are no moving parts. clamp-on transformer jaws that permit the taking of current readings without interrupting electrical service. 4-20 . The reading can be plotted on a standard psychrometric chart from which all other psychrometric properties of the air can be determined. and employment is usually specified by the manufacturer. which may be quick-connected into the voltammeter. 4.1. the accuracy of the sensor is decreased because of swelling of the sensing element.4. chemically treated spot on a strip that changes color at certain specified temperatures. At RHs above 90%. 4. This voltammeter often has trigger operated.

Although the full venturi tube can be extremely accurate with no appreciable system pressure loss. By accurate measurement of the pressure drop with a manometer at flow rates from zero fluid velocity to a maximum fluid velocity.1.1. produces a lower pressure loss for the same flow rate. To measure voltage with portable test instruments.EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation When using the voltammeter. In either case. a modified version with a shortened entrance and recovery cones may be employed. 4-21 . The pressure differential (the upstream pressure minus the downstream pressure) is related to the velocity of the fluid.6 Hydronic Flow Measuring Devices 4. a calibrated flow range may be established.or low-voltage situations. Unless such accuracy is required. the pressure drop is not equal to the velocity pressure drop.2 Annular Flow Indicator The annular flow indicator is a flow sensing and indicating system that is an adaptation of the principle of the pitot tube. To determine the amperages of single-phase motors. 4. however. A drop in the voltage will cause a rise in the amperage and may cause the overload protectors on the starter to trip.1. The venturi tube. If the average voltage delivered to the motor varies by more than a few volts from the nameplate rating of the motor.6. The pressure differential also is equated to the flow in gallons per minute (gpm) (cubic meters per second). The flow range may then be plotted on a graph that reads pressure drop versus flow rate. the meter should be set to the most suitable range and the test lead probes connected firmly against the terminals or other surfaces of the line under test. fixed area reduction in the path of fluid flow.6. because of the streamlining effect of both the entrance and the recovery cone. and this pressure is transmitted to a pressure gauge. 4. The modified tube generally provides adequate accuracy with acceptable system pressure losses for environmental systems. An equalizing tube arrangement within the upstream tube averages the pressures sensed at the various holes. The difference between the two pressures will indicate flow in gallons per minute. it must then be extremely long. Readings may be taken at the motor leads or from the load terminals of the starter. established by a maximum practical pressure drop. several things can occur. this pressure is also transmitted to a gauge. When in doubt.1 Venturi Tube and Orifice Plate The venturi tube or orifice plate is a specific. A rise in voltage may damage the motor and cause a drop in the amperage reading. When involved with three-phase current. the clamp should be placed around one wire after the motor has been started. The downstream tube is similar to a reversed impact tube and senses a pressure equal to the static pressure with minimum velocity pressure. A differential pressure gauge is used to directly read the pressure differential. The holes are spaced to be representative of equal annular areas of the pipe. The upstream sensing tube has a number of holes that face the flow and so are subjected to the total pressure (velocity pressure plus static pressure). it is advisable to document and report high. in the manner of selecting pitot tube traverse points. or the manometer scale may be graduated directly in the flow rate values. readings should be taken on each of the three wires and averaged. installed to produce a flow restriction and a pressure drop. the user should begin with the highest range for both voltage and amperage scales. the proper range should first be selected.

6. however.1. These positions usually are graduated on the valve body (as a dial). 4-22 . which is normally the case. is the measured value in this type of flow meter. at the natural frequency of the device.1. somewhat similar to the venturi tube or orifice plate. This element of fluid exhibits zero acceleration because the velocity is constant. However. Flow Meter Guideline [5]. A cone is positioned in the center of the pipe to increase the velocity of the flowing fluid and create a differential flow rate. these instruments may be significant when there are no system-installed flow orifices. Two taps are provided to allow sensing the high and low pressures. If the pipe were rotated at the same time that the element of fluid passes through. They are similar to ordinary balancing valves. When faced with a system flow balance or when questions of adequate flow arise. as such. this device generally provides accurate results with shorter lengths of straight pipe upstream and downstream of the measuring element. the flow is toward the axis of rotation. the manufacturer has 1) provided pressure taps into the inlet and outlet and 2) calibrated the device by setting up known flow quantities while measuring the resistance that results from the different valve positions. the pressure drop. each half of the tube has a Coriolis acceleration force that is equal but opposite in direction. 4. These ultrasonic flow measuring devices have been found to be as labor-saving at balancing a hydronic system as an air data multimeter is in balancing a ventilation system.1.6. the user should consider referring to the guidance found in EPRI TR-109634. 4. The Coriolis acceleration component produces a force on the pipe that is proportional to the mass flow rate and. On the inlet side of the tube. At any time.6 Coriolis Flow Meter The principle of measurement for the Coriolis mass flow meter is based on the concept of an element of fluid traveling at constant velocity in a pipe. a Coriolis acceleration component would be produced on the fluid.6.6. The Coriolis force is induced by sinusoidally vibrating the tube in which the fluid is flowing about an axis formed between the inlet and the outlet sides of the tube. 4.5 V-Cone Flow Meters The v-cone flow meter is a differential pressure flow measurement device. and the resulting flow. the fluid flows away from the axis of rotation while on the outlet side. Compared to other techniques. The manufacturer typically provides a chart or graph that illustrates the percentage open to the valve (the dial settings). and the handle has a pointer to indicate the reading.1.EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation 4.4 Ultrasonic Flow Meters Ultrasonic flow meters are nonintrusive devices that measure fluid flow using ultrasonic sound waves transmitted across the direction of flow within the pipe.3 Calibrated Balancing Valves Calibrated balancing valves perform dual duty as flow measuring devices and as balancing valves. because there is an element of uncertainty regarding the application and the resulting accuracy of these devices.

As the flow approaches the bluff body. valves. After formation. Lengths are specified in numbers of pipe diameters. The manufacturers of flow measuring devices usually specify the lengths of straight pipe required upstream and downstream of the measuring element.8 Location of Flow Devices Flow measuring devices.1. Because pipe fittings. This phenomenon can be produced when a bluff body is immersed in a steady stream of fluid. and other sources of flow disturbance to permit both turbulence to subside and flow to regain uniformity. the flow is split into two streams. Under steady flow. venturi. the vortex sheds. the time required for the formation of the first and second vortexes is the same. Key Technical Point Flow measuring elements should be installed far enough from elbows. give accurate and reliable readings only when fluid flow in the line is uniform and free of turbulence.EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation 4. to conditions downstream. Requirements vary with the type of element and the types of fittings at the ends of the straight pipe runs.6.7 Vortex Shedding Flow Meter The principle of measurement for a vortex flow meter is based on a phenomenon first explained by von Kármán in 1912.8 describes different types of permanently installed airflow measuring devices. flow measuring elements must be installed far enough away from elbows. The instability of the shear layer as a result of this splitting of the flow causes the fluid to roll up into a well-defined vortex. 4-23 .2 Applications for TAB Instrumentation 4. such as elbows and valves. valves. and the formation time is proportional to the velocity of the fluid stream. so that the actual required lengths depend on the size of the pipe. ranging from about 5 to 25 pipe diameters upstream and 2 to 5 pipe diameters downstream. 4. and a second vortex begins to form on the opposite side of the bluff body. 4. to a lesser extent. This rule applies particularly to conditions upstream of the measuring element and.1. create turbulence and nonuniformity of flow. and other types described in this section.1 Airflow Measuring Instruments Table 4-1 lists the commonly employed airflow measuring instruments along with their recommended uses and limitations.6. Section B.2. including the orifice. and other sources of flow disturbances.

Flow measuring hoods redirect the normal pattern of air diffusion that creates a slight. air inlets. Direct measurement (in cubic feet per minute [cubic meters per second]) of air distribution devices. and velocity pressures in duct systems. and checked against a known pressure source with each use. Used with static probes for the determination of static pressure or static pressure differential.02 inch w.g. It should not be used for readings under 1 inch (2. The capture hood used should provide a uniform velocity profile at the sensing grid or device. Normally used with a pitot tube or a static probe for the determination of static. The total inlet area of the rotating vane must be in measured airflow.g. Its accuracy depends on the uniformity of flow and completeness of duct traverse. Correction factors may apply. Measurement of low velocities such as room air currents and airflow at hoods. (50 Pa). Micromanometer (electronic) Measurement of very low pressures or velocities. Vertical inclined manometer Because some instruments use a timeweighted average for each reading. and other low-velocity applications. and velocity pressures. zeroed and held in the same position. The pitot tube and tubing must be dry. and filters or coil banks. Should not be used in a flammable or explosive atmosphere. Instruments should not be used in extreme temperatures or contaminated conditions. and free of leaks and sharp bends or obstructions. Field calibration and leveling are required before each use. Used for the calibration of other instrumentation. static. Measurement of velocities at air terminals. Some manufacturers make provisions to correct for this pressure drop. Care should be taken to endure the proper use of the instrument probe. total. Probes are subject to fouling by dust and corrosive air. it is difficult to measure pressure with pulsations. Flow measuring hoods should not be used where the velocities of the terminal devices are excessive. (250 Pa) and measuring low manifold gas pressures. Measurement of pressure of air and gas above 0. Readings should be made in midrange of scale. Limitations The manometer should be clean and used with the correct fluid. artificially imposed pressure drop in the duct branch at the terminal device. For extremely low pressures. troffers. clean. Pressure gauge ® (Magnehelic ) Anemometer rotating vane (mechanical and electronic) Anemometer deflecting vane Anemometer thermal Flow measuring hood 4-24 .5 cm) of differential pressure.0 w. Temperature corrections may apply. Measurement of velocities at air terminals and air inlets. Pitot tube Used with a manometer for the determination of total. a micromanometer or some other sensitive instrument should be used to ensure maximum accuracy.EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation Table 4-1 Airflow Measuring Instruments Instrument U-tube manometer Recommended Uses Measurement of pressure of air and gas above 1.

2. Requires direct contact of the rotating shaft or device to be measured. Pressures should be applied slowly in order to prevent severe strain and possible loss of accuracy of the gauge. Table 4-3 Rotation Measuring Instruments Instrument Revolution counter Chronometric tachometer Contact tachometer Electronic tachometer (stroboscope) Optical tachometer Dual-function tachometer Recommended Uses Contact measurement of rotating equipment speed. Table 4-2 Hydronic Measuring Instruments Instrument Pressure test gauge (calibrated) Recommended Uses Static pressure measurements of system equipment and/or piping. Must be used in conjunction with accurate timing devices. Must be used in accordance with the recommendations of the equipment manufacturer. 4-25 . Must be held close to the object and at the correct angle. Readings must be started at the lower end of the scale in order to avoid reading multiples (or harmonics) of the actual rpm. Same limitations as the pressure test gauge. The gauge should not be exposed to a pressure greater or less than the dial range. Limitations Requires direct contact of the rotating shaft. Noncontact measurement of rotating equipment. 4. Contact or noncontact measurement of rotating equipment and linear speeds. Noncontact measurement of rotating equipment. Requires direct contact of the rotating shaft. Contact measurement of rotating equipment speed.2.EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation 4. Contact measurement of rotating and linear speeds. Pressure gauge (differential) Flow measuring devices Differential pressure measurements of system equipment and/or piping.2 Hydronic Measuring Instruments Table 4-2 lists the commonly employed hydronic measuring instruments along with their recommended uses and limitations.3 Rotation Measuring Instruments Table 4-3 lists the commonly employed rotation measuring instruments along with their recommended uses and limitations. The rotating device must use reflective markings. Same limitations as the optical tachometer. Used to obtain highly accurate measurement of volume flow rates in fluid systems. Limitations Pressure gauges should be selected so that the pressures to be measured fall in the middle two-thirds of the scale.

EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation 4. 4-26 . Glass tube thermometers require immersion in fluid or adequate test wells. general area temperature measurement. Measurement of surface temperatures of pipes and ducts. Dirty or dry wicks will result in significant error. Surface temperatures of pipes and ducts may not equal the fluid temperature within because of the thermal conductivity of the material. Thermocouple thermometers Measurement of surface temperatures of pipes and ducts. Table 4-4 Temperature Measuring Instruments Instrument Glass tube thermometers Recommended Uses Measurement of temperatures of air and fluids. Ambient conditions may impact the measurement of fluid temperature. Accurate wet bulb measurements require an air velocity between 1000 and 1500 ft/min (5 and 7. Electronic thermometers Measurement of temperatures of air and fluids. The size of the measuring spot is a function of the thermometer’s distance from the object.2.4 Temperature Measuring Instruments Table 4-4 lists the commonly employed temperature measuring instruments along with their recommended uses and limitations. Use thermal probes in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer.5 m/s) across the wick. Dial thermometers Measurement of temperatures of air and fluids. Some applications prohibit the use within the work area of instruments containing mercury. Does not work effectively in dusty or smoky atmospheres. The time lag of measurement is relatively long. Limitations Ambient conditions may impact the measurement of fluid temperature. The stem or bulb must be immersed a sufficient distance in the fluid in order to record an accurate measurement. Portable noncontact thermometers Identification of hot spots on equipment. The accuracy of measurement above 90% RH is decreased as a result of swelling of the sensing element. or a correction must be made. Psychrometers Electronic thermohygrometer Measurement of dry and wet bulb air temperatures and direct reading of RH. and checking the temperature of uninsulated ducts. Measurement of dry and wet bulb air temperatures. Use this instrument within the recommended range.

g. (±5 Pa) 12 months 12 months 12 months 12 months Air pressure measuring instrument 0 to 0. which should always be used in lieu of the values listed in Table 4-5.g.5 Pa) ±0.g. Licensees typically have plant. (0 to 250 Pa) 0 to 5 inches w.g.g.5 inch w.or site-specific measuring and test equipment calibration and accuracy requirements. (±50 Pa) ±0.01 inches w.g.50 inches w. (±125 Pa) 4-27 . (±2.g.20 inches w. (0 to 4500 Pa) ±0.3 Recommended Accuracy of TAB Instrumentation Table 4-5 provides recommended ranges.EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation 4.g. (0 to 1250 Pa) 0 to 18 inches w. Table 4-5 Air and Hydronic Measuring Instruments Function Range Minimum Accuracy Typical Calibration Schedule 24 months 12 months Rotation measuring instrument Temperature measuring (immersion) instrument 0 to 5000 rpm -40 to -120°F (-40 to -84°C) 0 to 220°F (-18 to 104°C) ±2% Within 1/2 of scale division Within 1/2 of scale division 12 months Temperature measuring (air) instrument -40 to -120°F (-40 to -84°C) 0 to 220°F (-18 to 104°C) Within 1/2 of scale division 12 months Within 1/2 of scale division 12 months Electrical measuring instrument 0 to 6000 Vac 0 to 100 amperes 0 to 30 Vdc 3% of full scale 3% of full scale 3% of full scale ±0.02 inches w. (0 to 125 Pa) 0 to 1 inch w. accuracy. and calibration schedules for different types of TAB instrumentation and is presented for illustrative purposes only.

Hg to 30 psi (101 to 207 kPa) 30 in.5 to 15 m/s) ±10% when used in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations 2% RH range ±5% when used in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations ±1% of full scale 12 months Humidity measuring instrument Air volume measuring instrument (direct reading flow hood) 0 to 90% RH Minimum range 50 to 2500 CFM (typical) 12 months 12 months Temperature measuring instrument (contact) Minimum range of 0 to 240°F (-18 to 115°C) 0 to 30 psi (0 to 207 kPa) 0 to 60 psi (0 to 414 kPa) 0 to 200 psi (0 to 1. Hg (0 to 121 kPa) ±1% of full scale 12 months 4-28 . Hg to 60 psi (101 to 414 kPa) 12 months Hydronic pressure measuring instrument ±1% of full scale ±1% of full scale ±1% of full scale ±1% of full scale ±1% of full scale 12 months Hydronic differential pressure instrument Minimum range of 0 to 36 in.) Air and Hydronic Measuring Instruments Function Range Minimum Accuracy Typical Calibration Schedule Not applicable Pitot tube 18 inches (45 cm) or longer 36 inches (90 cm) Not applicable Air velocity measuring instrument Minimum range of 100 to 3000 ft/min (0.EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation Table 4-5 (cont.38 MPa) 30 in.

Ducted airflow measurements are typically determined using the pitot traverse measurement technique. The pitot traverse measures flowing air velocity pressures and static pressures across a traverse plane in a duct location where airflow is as close to uniform flow as possible. log linear. refer to American Society of Heating. The location of the traverse in a duct is very important.3.1 Pitot Tube Traverse Methods The volumetric flow rate through a cross-sectional area of ducting can be determined by measuring the local velocities at enough points to establish the average velocity at the traverse location. For the most accurate results.1. 5. For coil face measurement techniques. As a rule. and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) “Flow Measurements at Coil Faces with Vane Anemometers: Statistical Correlation and Recommended Field Measurement Procedure” [7].1 Airside Flow Measurement Airside flow measurement is normally accomplished in an air distribution system by first establishing the fan performance per AMCA-203 [6]. Refrigerating. the only exception is lower velocities nearer to the duct edge.EPRI Licensed Material 5 AIR AND WATER FLOW MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES 5.1. The density is determined in order to convert the airflow to standard volumetric airflow in SCFM or ACFM. The pitot traverse data are used to determine the average velocity of the airflow.1. Ideally. the equal area. The minimum and maximum number of readings is different for the three methods (that is. based on the equal area rectangular duct method. In cases where traverse readings cannot be obtained. The pitot tube must be held within ±10 ° of the airstream direction to ensure the accuracy of this method.1 through 5. the traverse should consist of a minimum of 16 readings—but need not be more than 64 readings. The pitot traverse readings are tabulated. The flow rate is calculated by taking the average of all velocity readings at predetermined traverse points (depending on the method) and multiplying this average by the cross-sectional area of the duct. the traverse location should be at least 5-1 . and air density is determined.1. and log Tchebycheff methods) described in Sections 5. airflow should be fully developed and uniform at the traverse location.1. alternate flow measurement techniques (such as the tracer gas technique described in Appendix F) can also be used. anemometers can be used to measure the air velocity at terminal locations.

The equal area method does not take into account the reduced airflow at the perimeter of the duct as do the other two methods. Each velocity reading is given equal weight in the averaging process.1 Equal Area Method Rectangular Ducts The most common method used in the United States is the equal area method. a positive error (that is. This is the minimum number of points to be used on this axis. round up to the next higher integer with no remainder. For a rectangular duct. Currently.1.1. Sections 5. If this number has a remainder. to determine the number of points that the pitot tube is to be positioned inside the duct or where the test ports are to be located on the duct.1.2 cm). which are also used to determine the location of the test ports to be installed in the ducting.2 cm) from the center of an adjacent area. Key Technical Point Results using the equal area method should be closely evaluated if they are near minimum acceptance values. the instrument type. substantial differences between the log linear and the log Tchebycheff methods can exist when compared to the equal area method results for rectangular ducts.1. and log Tchebycheff (the original spelling is Chebyshev).3 provide illustrations of these methods. Results using the equal area method should be closely evaluated because overestimation is nonconservative when flow is near required minimum values. and divide by six. adjacent flow disturbances. the variation among test personnel. When this is not possible (in many existing duct systems).1. In most cases. However. and nonstandard air conditions are all factors that should be considered. this method divides the traverse plane into equal areas with the centers of each area no greater than 6 inches (15. the distance between points may be greater than 6 inches (15. For rectangular ducts. The evaluation of flow measurement method. 5-2 . Under these circumstances. All three methods will return almost identical results for round ducts. take either the L (x) axis or the M (y) axis.1. three methods can be used to determine the layout of a traverse: equal area.1 through 5. This difference results in part from the equal area method not taking into account the lower velocities near the duct wall. the accuracy of the traverse location should be evaluated when obtaining flow rates.EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques eight duct diameters (the larger of the two values for rectangular ducts when the two sides are not equal) downstream of any disturbances and a minimum of two diameters upstream of any disturbances. overestimated flow rate compared to the other two methods) nearly always results when the equal area method is used. The exception to this is in very large ducts where the total number of velocity readings would exceed 64. log linear. in inches. 5.

125 0.125” from the edge of the duct.688 0.929 0.125 = 2.900 0.875 0.17 (This is rounded up to 4.313 4 0.) This means the minimum number of points at which the pitot tube will be positioned is four.625” from the edge of the duct.375 = 7.125” from the edge of the duct.188 3 0. Using a mathematical method: Pitot Position 1 (PP1): (M/N)/2 = (19/4)/2 = 2.750 0. This distance is how far the pitot tube will be from the edge of the duct for each point.357 0.786 0.643 0.125 = 11.417 0.563 0.625 = 11.083 0.875” from the edge of the duct. Pitot Position 3: 19 x 0.625” from the edge of the duct.300 0.071 0.917 0.375” from the edge of the duct.813 0.875 = 16. Pitot Position 2: M/N + PP1 = 19/4 + 2.500 0. Pitot Position 2: 19 x 0. based on the number of points per test port.063 2 0.375 0.625 0.375 = 7.250 0.938 5 6 7 8 The position points can also be determined using Table 5-1: Pitot Position 1: 19 x 0.375” from the edge of the duct.100 0.EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques Example: Assume a duct that has a dimension of 19 inches in the M ( y) axis and 30 inches in the L ( x) axis.214 0.875” from the edge of the duct. 5-3 . Pitot Position 4: M/N + PP3 = 19/4 + 11.875 = 16. Pitot Position 4: 19 x 0. Pitot Position 3: M/N + PP2 = 19/4 + 7.) 1 4 5 6 7 8 0.438 0. perform the following: N = M( y)/6 N = 19/6 = 3.583 0.700 0. Table 5-1 Equal Area Method for a Rectangular Duct Number of Points Distance from the Edge of the Duct (Multiply the duct dimension that the pitot tube is to traverse across by the numbers below.500 0. To calculate the minimum numbers of points at which the pitot tube is to be positioned inside the duct when traversing the 19-inch (M) axis.

0 = 27. For ducts smaller than 12 (30.90 = 27. to calculate the position of the test ports that will need to be installed on the duct. The minimum number of readings can be 12 for very small ducts or up to 40 for very large ducts.0 = 15.) Using a mathematical method: Test Port Position 1: (L/N)/2 = (30/5)/2 = 3. 5-4 . In all cases. Test Port Position 5: 30 x 0. No velocity readings are taken in the center of the duct. each velocity reading is given equal weight in the averaging process.3 cm) in diameter or smaller should use 12 points (6 in each plane). and ducts larger than 12 inches (30. perform the following: Total number of test ports to be installed: N = 30/6 = 5.0” from the edge of the duct.0” from the edge of the duct.0” from the edge of the duct. a micro pitot tube should be used. Test Port Position 2: (L/N) + TTP1 = (30/5) + 3.0” from the edge of the duct.0” from the edge of the duct. Standard practice suggests ducts that are 8 inches (20. Test Port Position 2: 30 x 0.4 cm) inches.0” from the edge of the duct. The distance between each velocity measurement point increases as the traverse progresses from the edge of the duct (lower velocity) toward the center of the duct (higher velocity).0” from the edge of the duct.EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques If we desire to traverse the 30” (L) side.0 = 9. ducts between 8 and 12 inches (20.50 = 15.70 = 21.10 = 3.0” from the edge of the duct.” Typically.0 = 21. Round Ducts The equal area method can also be applied for round ducts. two traverse planes are established 90° apart.0” from the edge of the duct. the distance between points decreases as the traverse passes the center of the duct and progresses to the opposite edge. Test Port Position 3: 30 x 0.30 = 9. Test Port Position 4: (L/N) + TTP3 = (30/5) + 15.0 (This is the minimum number of test ports that will need to be installed.0” from the edge of the duct. It divides the cross-sectional area of the traverse plane into equal area “doughnuts. Test Port Position 4: 30 x 0. Calculate the position of each test port with regard to the edge of the duct using Table 5-1: Test Port Position 1: 30 x 0.4 cm) should use a total of 20 or 40 points (10 or 20 in each plane). Conversely.3 and 30. Test Port Position 3: (L/N) + TTP2 = (30/5) + 9.4 cm) should use 16 points (8 in each plane). Test Port Position 5: (L/N) + TTP4 = (30/5) + 21.

146 3 and 13 0.957 0.854 0.63” from the edge of the duct.342 = 6.067 0.796 5 0.082 2 and 12 0.612 2 0.082 = 1.026 = 0.774 7 and 17 0.918 9 and 19 0.933 0.750 4 0. Pitot Position 4: 18 x 0. 5-5 .043 0.039 0.165 0.013 0.694 Distance from the Edge of the Duct (Multiply the duct diameter by the number below) 3 0.226 4 and 14 0.204 0.806 0.097 0.93” from the edge of the duct.84” from the edge of the duct.871 0.306 0.658 6 and 16 0.854 8 and 18 0.07” from the edge of the duct.677 0.974 10 and 20 0.835 6 0.032 0. Pitot Position 8: 18 x 0. Pitot Position 9: 18 x 0.146 0. Using Table 5-2. Pitot Position 6: 18 x 0.48” from the edge of the duct.250 0.974 = 17.296 0.47” from the edge of the duct.854 = 15.37” from the edge of the duct.388 0.323 0.961 0.895 0.16” from the edge of the duct. Pitot Position 3: 18 x 0.968 0.105 0.704 0.EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques Table 5-2 Equal Area Method for a Round Duct Points per Diameter (Traverse) 1 1–6 1–8 1–10 1–20 0.774 = 13. calculate the pitot tube position in each plane: Pitot Position 1: 18 x 0. Pitot Position 5: 18 x 0.129 0.53” from the edge of the duct.918 = 16. Pitot Position 7: 18 x 0.194 0.903 0.342 5 and 15 0.987 7 8 9 10 1–10 11–20 Example: Assume a round duct that has a diameter of 18 inches.226 = 4. Pitot Position 10: 18 x 0. Pitot Position 2: 18 x 0.146 = 2.026 1 and 11 0.658 = 11.52” from the edge of the duct.

655 0. This method is further complicated by the weighting values applied to each velocity reading for a rectangular duct. This is not a common method and is more complex than the other two methods.408 ±0.981 7 8 9 10 5-6 .135 0.816 0.345 0. Table 5-4 Log Linear Method for a Round Duct Points per Diameter 1 6 8 10 0.321 0.408 2/96 3 ±0. as opposed to a round duct.679 0.1.077 Distance from the Edge of the Duct (Multiply the duct diameter by the number below) 3 0.408 0 6/96 5 ±0.EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques 5.021 0.153 4 0.250 3/96 7 ±0. with each diameter having six points. Tables 5-3 and 5-4 illustrate the log linear method. all of these weighted values are then added to arrive at the average air velocity.865 0.132 ±0. where all velocity readings are weighted equally. 2/96. 5/96.847 0. Table 5-3 Log Linear Method for a Rectangular Duct Point Number 1 Distance from the Center of the Duct – ( x or L) or (y or M) 2 ±0.1. Each velocity measurement point is based on a logarithmic distribution in one plane.466 2/96 Three diameters are shown.032 0.184 0. each velocity reading is multiplied by a weighting value (for example.117 0.979 0. The pitot tube position for each test port location uses a logarithmic value. For a rectangular duct. as opposed to the two duct penetrations that are 90º apart.132 6/96 x or L y or M F ±0.217 5 0.362 6 0. This method differs from the equal area for a round duct in that it uses three test port penetrations that are 60º apart.783 0.408 ±0.466 3/96 6 ±0.2 Log Linear Method The second method is known as the log linear method and is based on the Nikuradse formula for fully developed flow. or 6/96).132 ±0.968 0. The minimum number of points for a rectangular duct is 26 and can be anywhere from 18 to 30 for a round duct. 3/96.250 5/96 4 ±0.638 0.019 2 0.132 ±0.923 0. Twenty-six total points are shown.883 0.408 ±0.

EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques Example: Assume a rectangular duct that has a dimension of 17” x 17” and that there is a transition to a round duct with a diameter of 18”. it is determined that the pitot tube will traverse along the M (y) axis.5 – 6.24 = 6.56” from the edge of the duct. According to Table 5-3.26” from the edge of the duct.94 = 1.5 + 6.58” from the edge of the duct. 3.466 = 7. Test Port Position 2(5): 8. Test Port Position 4(1): 8. After the test port position has been determined. subtracting 6.94 from 8.5 + 2.132 = 2. Because the center of the duct is 8.92 = 0.24” from the center of the duct. Pitot Position 1: 8. Test Port Position 1(1): 8.92” from the center of the duct.24 = 10. According to Table 5-3.5 – 2. Once the duct center has been reached. for test ports 1 and 4 perform the following: Pitot Position 1: 17 x 0.5 will now be additive and not subtractive. the 8.132 = 2. Test ports need to be installed at the 1 and 5 positions relative to the duct centerline.94” away from the center of the duct. the edge of the duct should be used. Perform the same operation to determine the position of the second test port (number 5 on Table 5-3): Test Port Position 2(5): 17 x 0. Likewise. Test Port Position 1(1): 17 x 0. To calculate pitot positions 1.24” from the center of the duct. Test Port Position 3(5): 8. test ports one and two and test ports three and four have several pitot positions that are the same: position one and five and positions three and six. 5-7 .44” from the edge of the duct. For the rectangular duct.94” from the center of the duct. this would be along the L (x) axis. which are also the same. The next step will be to determine the pitot tube position at each duct test port penetration. Test ports one and four will have the same pitot tube spacing but differ from test ports two and three. the ports would be drilled out and test port covers installed. Because it is not always practical to mark the duct using the center as the reference point.408 = 6.5” from the edge.94 = 15. and 4 below the center of the duct. Test Port Position 4(1): 17 x 0.5 – 7.5 will give the location relative to the edge of the duct.408 = 6. 2.74” from the edge of the duct. Test Port Position 3(5): 17 x 0. the test ports are to be added to the bottom of the duct.

5 + 6.5” from the edge of the duct.25” from the edge of the duct.56” from the edge of the duct.466 = 7. Pitot Position 1: 8. and 7.94” from the center of the duct.0 = 0. Pitot Position 3: 17 x 0.58” from the edge of the duct. Pitot Position 2: 8.5 – 0.25 = 12. Pitot Position 5: 8.92 = 16. To calculate the pitot positions that are above the centerline of the duct.94 = 1.408 = 6. Pitot Position 3: 8.75” from the edge of the duct.0 = 8.25” from the center of the duct. Pitot Position 4: 8.25 = 4.92” from the center of the duct. Pitot Position 4: 8.5” from the edge of the duct.44” from the edge of the duct. at test ports 2 and 3.94” from the center of the duct.466 = 7.0” from the center of the duct.25 = 4.92” from the center of the duct. Pitot Position 3: 17 x 0.5 + 7.5 – 0. Pitot Position 4: 17 x 0. Pitot Position 2: 17 x 0.0 = 8.5 – 7.5 – 4. Pitot Position 4: 17 x 0. To calculate the pitot tube positions below the duct centerline for points 5.94 = 15.408 = 6.EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques Pitot Position 2: 17 x 0.5 – 6. perform the following: Pitot Position 5: 17 x 0.5 + 4.42” from the edge of the duct.250 = 4.0” from the center of the duct. Pitot Position 2: 8.25” from the center of the duct.92 = 0. Pitot Position 3: 8. perform the following: Pitot Position 1: 17 x 0.0 = 0. 5-8 . 6.

92 = 16.24” from the center of the duct.92” from the center of the duct.132 = 2. Pitot Position 7: 8.5 – 2. Pitot Position 7: 8.5 + 2.24” from the center of the duct. Pitot Position 7: 17 x 0. Pitot Position 6: 8.24 = 6. however.25” from the center of the duct.EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques Pitot Position 6: 17 x 0.25 = 4.42” from the edge of the duct. The round duct is calculated in the same was as the equal area method.466 = 7. the values from Table 5-4 are used. Pitot Position 7: 17 x 0.25 = 4.25” from the center of the duct.25 = 12.25 = 4.14159 radius (inches) 5-9 . first calculate the circumference of the duct using the following formula: C=2πr where: C= π= r= circumference (inches) 3. Pitot Position 5: 8.5 + 7.5 – 4. To calculate the test port location.132 = 2.24 = 10.26” from the edge of the duct. Pitot Position 6: 17 x 0.75” from the edge of the duct.5 + 4.74” from the edge of the duct. Pitot Position 6: 8. The calculation for those points above the centerline of the duct is as follows: Pitot Position 5: 17 x 0.25” from the edge of the duct.

with each row having six points.439 ±0.265 ±0. This method uses a logarithmic distribution of velocities near the wall of the duct and polynomial distribution elsewhere. This will give the distance between the test ports.55” 56. It is similar to the log linear method for both the rectangular and round ducts.426 ±0. however.17 = 1.1.212 ±0. Tables 5-5 and 5-6 describe this method. Test Port Position 1: 15 – 13.83” from the edge of the duct.063 0 Distance from Centerline – (x or L) or (y or M) ±0.95” from the center of the duct.1.439 = 13.EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques Divide the circumference by 360 (because there are 360 degrees in a circle). assume a duct that has a dimension of 30” in the L ( x) axis and 19” in the M ( y) axis.3 Tchebycheff Method The third method is known as the log Tchebycheff method. Test Port Position 2: 30 x 0.) 5.134 ±0.17” from the center of the duct.95 = 7. All velocities are weighted equally.1571 x 60 = 9. Test Port Position 2: 15 – 7.42” (This is how far apart the test ports will be from one another.265 = 7. Five rows are shown. To determine the location of the test ports that are to be installed on the bottom of the duct.297 ±0. perform the following: Test Port Position 1: 30 x 0.447 Example: Using Table 5-5. it is less complicated.55/360 = 0. Table 5-5 Tchebycheff Method for a Rectangular Duct Rows or Points per Row 5 6 7 0 ±0. 5-10 . 2 x π x 9 = 56. and multiply this number by 60 (because the test ports are 60 degrees apart).05” from the edge of the duct.

Test Port Position 6: 15 + 13. Test Port Position 5: 15 + 7. use the 5-point section from Table 5-5 as follows: Test Port Position 1: 19 x 0. Test Port Position 4: 30 x 0.212 = 4.063 = 1.EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques Test Port Position 3: 30 x 0. Test Port Position 4: 9.89 = 13.11” from the edge of the duct.47” from the edge of the duct.03 = 5.03 = 13. Test Port Position 4: 19 x 0. Test Port Position 4: 15 + 1. Test Port Position 2: 9.09” from the center of the duct.0” from the center of the duct. Test Port Position 3: 19 x 0.95 = 22.17 = 28.89” from the center of the duct.17” from the center of the duct.063 = 1.03” from the center of the duct.5 – 0. Test Port Position 3: 9.265 = 7. Test Port Position 1: 9.95” from the edge of the duct.09 = 1.50” from the edge of the duct.03” from the center of the duct. To calculate the pitot tube position for each test port.439 = 13.0 = 0.89” from the edge of the duct. Test Port Position 2: 19 x 0. Test Port Position 6: 30 x 0.5 + 4.95” from the center of the duct.5 – 8.89” from the center of the duct. Test Port Position 3: 15 – 1. 5-11 .212 = 4.426 = 8.41” from the edge of the duct.0 = 9.53” from the edge of the duct.89 = 16.17” from the edge of the duct. Test Port Position 5: 30 x 0.5 – 4.

Relocation of the traverse may require that more than one traverse will need to be located at various branch lines servicing the system.862 0.100 0.1.019 2 0. As of this writing.4 Documentation of Traverse Data Figures C-2 and C-3 illustrate the documenting of traverse data for round and rectangular ducts.EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques Test Port Position 5: 19 x 0. first find either the highest velocity in feet per minute or velocity pressure in inches of water.1.194 0. If the traverse does not meet these criteria. however.032 0.795 0. Table 5-6 Tchebycheff Method for a Round Duct Points per Diameter 1 6 8 10 0. Test Port Position 5: 9.205 5 0.976 0. 5. 75% or greater must be equal to or greater than this number. apply the following from Figure 5-1.138 0.426 = 8.155 4 0.024 0. Airflow should be at right angles to the traverse plane.968 0.924 0.09 = 17.59” from the edge of the duct.5 + 8. Two diameters are shown.981 7 8 9 10 The round duct is calculated in the same way as the equal area method. round or rectangular. respectively.312 0. 5-12 .357 6 0. Divide this number by 10.09” from the center of the duct.334 0. the values from Table 5-6 are used. Of all the readings combined.688 0. the traverse must not be used and will need to be relocated.900 0.845 0.1. The new proposal is as follows: • • A total of 80–90% of the velocity measurements is greater than 10% of the maximum velocity for any given traverse.5 Airflow Traverse Qualification To determine if a traverse is located at a qualified position.1. this qualification standard is currently under review.076 Distance from the Edge of the Duct (Multiply the duct diameter by the number below) 3 0.643 0.806 0. with each radius having four points.666 0. 5. For any given traverse.

1.EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques Figure 5-1 Traverse Qualification (Courtesy of AMCA 203) 5. calculate the airflow using the equal area method. Table 5-7 Example of the Equal Area Method for a Rectangular Duct Position 1 2 3 4 Subtotal * 1 inch = 2.6 Examples The following examples are for use in calculating the airflow from a traverse and determining if it is in a qualified location: • • • • The equal area method for a rectangular duct The log Tchebycheff method for a round duct The log linear method for a rectangular duct Traverse qualification method Example: Equal Area Method for a Rectangular Duct Given a 17” x 17” duct with a design flow rate of 4500 SCFM and a velocity profile shown in Table 5-7.1.5 cm ft/min ft/min ft/min ft/min ft/min 2-1/8”* 2078 2184 2259 2326 8847 6-3/8” 2164 2091 2193 2371 8819 10-5/8” 2235 2162 2199 2423 9019 14-7/8” 2107 2125 2341 2432 9005 5-13 .

690/16 = 2231 ft/min 2 2 Duct area.01 ft2 x 2231 ft/min = 4484 ft3/min Percent of design = 4484/4500 x 100 = 99. in square feet = 17” x 17”/144 = 289 in /144 = 2.01 ft Airflow in ft3/min = 2.6% of design 5-14 .690 ft/min Average ft/min = 35.EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques Total ft/min = 8847 + 8819 + 9019 + 9005 = 35.

211/20 = 2461 ft/min 2 2 2 2 Duct area in square feet = π r /144 = 3.522 2.14159 x 9 /144 = 254.47 in /144 = 1.605 2.79” 2.197 Subtotal 23.31” 2.8% of design Example: Log Linear Method for a Rectangular Duct Given a 17” x 17” duct with a design flow rate of 4500 SCFM and a velocity profile shown in Table 5-9.34”* 2.43” 2.738 2.37” 2.113 2.492 6.EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques Example: Log Tchebycheff Method for a Round Duct For round duct of 18” that has a design of 4500 ft 3/min and the velocity profile shown in Table 5-8.211 ft/min Average ft/min = 49.63” 2.547 Total ft/min = 23664 + 25547 = 49.549 1.818 15.192 2.588 3.626 2.77 ft2 x 2461 ft/min = 4356 ft3/min Percent of design = 4356/4500 x 100 = 96.69” 2.77 ft Airflow in ft3/min = 1. calculate the airflow using the log linear method.178 2.123 2.616 17.231 2.525 14.808 16. Table 5-8 Example of the Log Tchebycheff Method for a Round Duct Position Vertical Horizontal * 1 inch = 2. 5-15 .21” 2.664 25. calculate the airflow using the log Tchebycheff method.749 2.192 2.66” 2.5 cm 0.57” 2.349 11.

42 (1 and 5) 1826 1930 2111 2223 1.5 cm 5-16 .56” (1) 6.44” (2) 2/96 16.74” (5) 15.50” (4) 2161 2172 2265 10.56” (2) 2/96 4.26” (5) 10.58”* (1 and 5) 1848 1867 2332 1716 1847 1.50” (4) 6/96 6/96 6/96 10.58”* (1 and 5) 2/96 3/96 3/96 2/96 2/96 1.44” (1) * 1 inch = 2.42” (1 and 5) 2/96 3/96 3/96 2/96 1.5 cm Table 5-10 shows the weighting values to be applied to each velocity.56” (2) 1818 4.25 “ (3 and 6) 2059 2088 2303 2410 2206 2224 2472 6.44 (2) 1907 16.26” (7) 8.EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques Table 5-9 Log Linear Method for a Rectangular Duct Position 0.56” (1) 6.74” (7) 12.44” (1) * 1 inch = 2. Table 5-10 Weighting Values to Be Applied to Each Velocity Position 0.25” (3 and 6) 5/96 3/96 3/96 5/96 6/96 6/96 6/96 6.26” (5) 10.74” (7) 12.26” (7) 8.74” (5) 15.75” (3 and 6) 5/96 3/96 3/96 5/96 2/96 15.75” (3 and 6) 2048 2197 2290 2423 2373 15.

3 66.5 58.44” (1) Subtotal * 1 inch = 2.4 + 373.26” (7) 8.25” (3 and 6) 107.0 276.50” (4) 135.4 + 370.5 370.6 ft/min Duct area in square feet = 17” x 17”/144 = 289 in 2/144 = 2.0 60.2 + 89.9 139.4 + 76.9% of design Example: Traverse Qualification Method Using the previous example.8 141.1 135.9 137.3 210.01 ft2 Airflow in CFM = 2.6 + 277.7 16.2 49. Table 5-11 Velocities after the Weighting Values Are Applied Position 0.4 89.1 + 210.58”* (1 and 5) 38.3 72.6 277.3 72.26” (5) 10.0 46.EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques Table 5-11 shows the velocities after the weighting values are applied.9 4.9 + 289.4 1.5 76.56” (2) 37.2 65.2 373.0 + 276.6 FPM = 4359 ft 3/min Percent of design = 4359/4500 x 100 = 96. 5-17 .0 125.75” (3 and 6) 106.5 cm ft/min = 205.4 6.7 68.5 289.6 = 2168.74” (5) 15.6 1.7 71.6 10.9 35.44” (2) 39.0 154.01 ft 2 x 2168.74” (7) 12.1 15.42” (1 and 5) 38. determine if the traverse location is qualified.7 205.56” (1) 6.4 38.6 126.

75 = 19. there had been more than six velocity readings that were less then 247. EPRI TR-109634 [5] should be consulted for additional information on mathematical equations used to calculate flow using each type of measuring device.2. 5. this is a qualified traverse.8 are excerpts from EPRI TR-109634 [5] that are provided as an overview of the various methods available to measure the flow of incompressible fluids.2.2 Water Side Flow Measurement 5.1 Background The TAB process for water systems is described in Sections 3. In general.2 through 5.44 inches. 5-18 . Section 2 of EPRI TR-109634 [5] provides a detailed description of flow measurement principles along with information on the following: • • • Continuity of flow equation Bernoulli’s equation of energy Reynolds number Section 2.EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques First. identify the velocity that is the highest and the total number of points that compose the traverse. however. 2472/10 = 247.4 and 3.) Because there are no readings less than 247 ft/min. The highest velocity value is then divided by 10.12 of EPRI TR-109634 [5] provides a table comparing the relative costs of employing various types of flow meters for measuring water flow. and the total number of traverse points is 26.5. Therefore: 26 x 0. The highest velocity is 2472 ft/min. Sections 5.5 (At least 20 of the 26 velocity readings must be above the value of 247. 75% of the total number of points must be larger than this calculated number.2.2 ft/min.5 inches and 15. located at the center of the duct at positions 8.2 For any traverse. If. this traverse would need to be relocated or other methods would need to be applied. water side flow measurement normally consists of direct measurement of a pressure drop across an orifice or ultrasonic measurement techniques that directly measure water flow rate.

2. 5.2. nozzle. The square root of the differential pressure is proportional to the velocity of the fluid. increasing the net differential pressure measured by the flow element. with the following exceptions: • • Instead of a static wall tap.4.2.3 Multiport Averaging Pitots 5.1 Principle of Measurement The principle of measurement is based on a determination of the area-averaged velocity of the flow in a pipe through which fluid is running full. this method provides the average flow through the pipe (if the pipe is full).4 Pitot Tube Traverse 5. The multiport averaging pitot operates like a classical pitot tube. As a result. The multiport averaging pitot has multiple ports (some types have multiple ports on both the upstream and downstream sides). • 5.2 Differential Pressure Producers 5. The pitot tube traverse is based on a minimum of two perpendicular traverses of the pipe diameter.EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques 5. Certain types of multiport averaging pitot tubes have a noncircular shape in order to negate boundary layer separation problems associated with cylindrical-shaped averaging pitot tubes. which are located so that if weighted equally. the ports are representative of the average flow in the pipe. This design tends to provide a consistent point of separation over a large range of Reynolds numbers.2. and venturi) into a flow stream for which a fluid is measured. The multiport averaging pitot allows the measurement of differential pressure between the high upstream pressure (also called the impact or stagnation pressure) and the lower downstream pressure (also called the suction pressure because it is lower than the pipe static pressure). The pitot tube traverse method is used extensively in the cooling tower industry to accurately determine the flow of water in the riser pipes of both natural and mechanical draft cooling towers.1 Principle of Measurement The principle of measurement is based on the introduction of a differential pressure device (such as orifice. an averaging pitot senses low pressure on the downstream side of the tube.3.1 Principle of Measurement The principle of measurement for a pitot tube traverse is based on the integration of equal annular area point velocities over the flow area.2. Differential-pressure-producing flow meters determine an area-averaged throat velocity from the measured pressure differential. The introduction of the differential pressure device creates a dynamic pressure difference between the upstream and downstream sides of the device. This methodology is intended to accurately provide an average fluid velocity profile at the measurement plane.2.2. 5-19 .

These types of flow devices are generically categorized as linear flow meters. The following types of ultrasonic flow meters are used for measurement of flow in closed conduits: • • • Transit-time Doppler Cross-correlation Although all methods provide a viable means of measuring fluid flow.2.2. 5.7 Turbine Flow Meters 5. When a conductive fluid passes through an applied magnetic field. The generated output voltage is a summation of individual voltages generated by differential volumes moving at discrete velocities across the plane of the pipe.2. the flow through the measurement plane. which relates output frequency to a volumetric unit (for example. using the flow area dimensions and flow profile coefficient. the induced voltage is directly proportional to the average velocity of the fluid.6 Magnetic Flow Meters 5.1 Principle of Measurement The magnetic flow meter is based on Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction.5 Ultrasonic Flow Meters 5.2. The signal conditioner converts the meter output to an analog signal proportional to the flow.2. The velocity is then converted to a volumetric flow measurement. pulses per gallon).EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques 5. In 1961.6.1 Principle of Measurement Ultrasonic flow meters operate by transmitting an ultrasonic signal into a flow stream to determine the velocity of the fluid. the transit-time and crosscorrelation methods are the most applicable for measuring fluid flow. 5-20 . 5. Shercliff demonstrated that the voltage output signal represents the average velocity for an asymmetric velocity profile.2. which is positioned in the flow stream such that the rotational speed of the rotor is proportional to the fluid stream velocity and.1 Principle of Measurement The principle of measurement for a turbine flow meter is based on a rotating element. which is input into a signal conditioner (the secondary element). If the magnetic field is constant and the distance between the electrodes is fixed. Each meter has a characteristic K-factor. A turbine flow meter (the primary element) typically outputs a low-amplitude frequency signal.7. a voltage is generated at right angles to the axis of fluid flow and the applied magnetic field. therefore.5.

the operating class limits for that fan must not be exceeded. Operating a fan outside its associated limits may lead to catastrophic failure. The associated fan was slowed down to achieve its design airflow. Subsequent review identified the abnormal flow path that had resulted in the operation of the fan at a point on its curve outside of its associated operating class limits. which are based on the manufacturer’s nominal values. Key Technical Point Lesson learned: The manufacturer’s data for nominal pressure drop may be higher than the actual pressure drop and may result in airflow that is greater than design. Key O&M Cost Point Lesson learned: When setting up a fan. 6.1 How Abnormal Flow Alignment Affects Fan Performance Situation: Within 12 hours of placing an air-handling unit (AHU) in an abnormal flow alignment. 6-1 .2 Estimating Filter Pressure Gradients for Clean and Dirty Conditions Situation: The initial balancing of a nuclear air cleanup system was performed using a simulated filter differential pressure for clean and dirty conditions to protect the air cleanup components.EPRI Licensed Material 6 LESSONS LEARNED 6. A subsequent system flow check after installation of the permanent filters identified flows higher than expected. A review of filter pressure drop identified that the actual clean filter condition was less than the design values. the fan experienced catastrophic failure.

6. Key Technical Point Lesson learned: Slipping belts are not always audible. the normal main control room pressure was identified lower than expected. it was identified that the main control room pressures were less than required. the normal main control room pressure was identified lower than expected. which penetrated the pressure boundary. open in a common duct.4 Typical Failure Mechanism for an Inlet Damper Situation: During a system engineer walkdown. 6. The access door had apparently opened from duct vibration and years of system startups and shutdowns.3 Typical Failure Mechanism for Duct Access Doors Situation: During a control room isolation. A strobotach was used and identified an operating AHU fan speed that was less than the latest performance data. resulting in a fan flow rate of approximately 70% of design. and a strobotach should be used to verify fan speed when fan flows are in question. A subsequent walkdown of the equipment identified that the inlet damper to the operating AHU was not fully open. the belts were found to be loose and slipping. The access door and similar critical duct access doors were secured closed using screws. The damper was “helped” open. Key Technical Point Lesson learned: Periodic monitoring of building pressures can identify equipment problems prior to failure and avoid potentially detrimental system effects. 6-2 . Key Technical Point Lesson learned: Duct access doors should have a positive closing mechanism that is not subject to opening as a result of vibration and system starts and stops. Although no sounds were audible. Subsequent system troubleshooting identified an access door.5 Typical Failure Mechanism for an Air-Handling Unit Fan Situation: During a system engineer walkdown. and the operating AHU was left in service until maintenance could be performed.EPRI Licensed Material Lessons Learned 6.

problems were encountered while verifying the train flow prior to performing the in-place filter leak test.EPRI Licensed Material Lessons Learned 6. Based on the data obtained from the suction grille face traverse. and similar results were obtained. These results yielded a flow of slightly more than 9000 ft 3/min. These ducts are located in the base of the plant vent stack and are constructed of 30-inch (76-cm) steel pipe. and the surveillance test was resumed. Key Technical Point Lesson learned: Inclined manometers with integral shut-off valves should be checked for leaks in these valves. These valves contain two O-rings and may close off tightly but leak when opened for use. which allowed the device to be transported without fear of losing the measuring fluid. data taken for the south pipe yielded results that were inconsistent with expected values. The pitot tube was closely inspected and found to be in good condition. Both valves were replaced and the flow test repeated. The 0. one was discovered with an internal crack in the impact velocity sensing line. Train design flow is 9000 ft3/min. The traverse is located in a vertical section of pipe approximately seven diameters downstream of any restriction.to 13-mm) inclined manometer was then inspected. A simple way to check the impact pressure line is to connect the pitot tube to a pressure measuring device and pressurize the impact line. Key Technical Point Lesson learned: Pitot tubes should be closely inspected prior to each use. This manometer is fitted with integral shutoff valves at the highand low-pressure connections. Train flow data are obtained by performing 20-point pitot traverses in the two SBGT system exhaust ducts. The surveillance test was suspended and troubleshooting commenced. The results of the flow data for the north and south pipes were significantly below the SBGT train design flow.5-inch (0. To confirm train flow. The flow test was re-performed with a different pair of technicians collecting the data. the technicians’ attention was focused on the test equipment used on the south pipe pitot traverse.6 Pitot Tube Employment and Failure Mechanisms Situation: During routine performance of standby gas treatment system (SBGT) testing. a vane anemometer was used to measure the average velocity at the SBGT suction grille on the refueling floor. Flow for the north pipe was stable and reasonable.to 0. block the sensing port. and the results 3 indicated flow in the 4000-ft /min range. In addition. Results of the test were acceptable. and observe the pressure measuring device for any pressure decay. however. During subsequent checks of pitot tubes. these valves should never be opened more than three-fourths of a turn: opening them more than this can result in the failure of the sealing O-ring to make contact with the sealing surface in the valve body. 6-3 . A small leak on the high-pressure shutoff valve was discovered.

After re-zeroing the manometer in the new environment. Setup of the manometer consisted of leveling the instrument. After they returned. it was determined that the fluid in the manometer may have shrunk as a result of the cooler environment in which the instrument was being used. airflows were incorrectly recorded because of instrument misuse. The calculated airflow was found to be below the lower limit of the technical specification (TS) limits. When moving a fluid-based instrument from one environment to another. attaching the pressure sensing lines. After this was accomplished.to 10-inch (0. A visual inspection is the best method of verifying the connecting tubing. Because the manometer had not been re-zeroed after it had been introduced into the new temperature environment.EPRI Licensed Material Lessons Learned Key Technical Point Lesson learned: The tubing used to connect the pitot tube to the pressure measuring device should be verified to ensure that it is in good condition and free of any leaks. The manometer uses a liquid as its indicating medium. 6. the static sensing line cannot be tested in this manner. and zeroing the display. Technicians were to perform an airflow measurement on a safety-related AHU. They were using a standard pitot tube that was attached to a 0. and the LCO was exited. However.7 Misuse of Measurement Equipment Situation: During a routine surveillance test to perform airflow measurements. the zero point had shifted to below the actual indicating zero point of the instrument. they began to perform the required surveillance test. After further evaluation. The test instruments were taken to the job location and set up. The ambient temperature of the job location was lower than that in the I&C shop. ample time should be allotted for the liquid to come to equilibrium. airflow measurements were performed again.4-cm) vertical inclined manometer. The test results indicated that the airflow was within the acceptable limits of the TS.to 25. Key O&M Cost Point Lesson learned: The technicians likely did not understand the limitations of their instrumentation. The tightness of the impact line can be verified by pressurizing it and blocking the impact port on the pitot tube. After all of the data points were obtained. the technicians took a break before returning to the job site. which required the licensee to enter into a limited condition of operation (LCO) of 24 hours. The instruments were obtained from the instrumentation and control (I&C) shop. the airflow was calculated. or frequent checks should be made to ensure that the base point has not changed. which has a temperature controlled environment. 6-4 .

During the final step.8 System and Component Interactions Situation: The original task was to replace the adjustable sheaves on all six exhaust fans and two supply fans with a fixed sheave assembly. 6-5 . This additional load was then given to the electrical engineering department to revise the diesel loading calculation. After the fans were returned to operation. The airflow requirement was further reviewed to determine if the lower airflows were sufficient for this application. The modification documents were prepared by design engineering to accomplish this task. During this time. the fans operated for approximately five days when both the inboard and outboard bearings failed.5-W) fan motors had been rewound to provide 75 Hp (5. The modification was completed and the fans returned to service. the fan breakers tripped. However.EPRI Licensed Material Lessons Learned 6. A review of the cable design determined that it was adequate for 100-amp service. Key O&M Cost Point Lesson learned: Postulate system effects prior to proceeding with what appears to be a minor design modification.6 W). New (75-Hp) fan motors were also ordered for this application. The mechanical engineering department then determined that the inlet guide vanes (IGV) on the fans could be throttled closed ~15% to decrease the load and still be able to maintain the proper cable load and breaker set point. however. it was discovered that the bearings would not fit into the bearing housing. New bearings were ordered by maintenance without coordinating with design engineering. It was determined that the originally 60-Hp (4. A new fan guard was then specified and procured. After receipt. Because the breakers can take ~25% over the rating. The airflow for the fans was measured and found to be too low (~15% below the required amount). and design engineering recalculated the resulting airflow as ~4% increase (which was within the ±10% tolerance of the airflow requirements of the system). A maintenance contractor working with the licensee discussed this modification with maintenance management and suggested that this modification would be a candidate for using a timing belt arrangement with a cogged wheel in lieu of using fixed sheaves. The breaker setting was 105 amps. Maintenance selected an arrangement for using a cogged wheel and a timing belt. A calculation also was required to ensure the suitability of the new bearings for this application. the calculation determined that the diesels could not support the increase in load. This change caused the fan speed to increase. they were reset for 110 amps. the electrical motor cables were never replaced. which then had to be modified. it was discovered that the fan guard would not fit back over the new belts and bearings.

however. the instrument reading corresponds to neither SCFM nor ACFM. an electronic micromanometer was used that had a temperature probe for automatically converting velocity measurements to standard conditions (that is. 6. 6-6 . A licensee event report (LER) was submitted. Station personnel then purchased two electronic micromanometers of different models by the same manufacturer. Key Technical Point Lesson learned: Some electronic micromanometers provide a velocity reading that automatically converts to actual flow results (that is. ACFM) by using the temperature probe. Closer review of the instruction manuals determined that using the temperature probe converts to actual conditions (that is.9 How Flow Disturbances Can Affect Flow Measurement Situation: This plant has four control room emergency ventilation system (CREVS) fans. If the temperature probe is not used. there are many diameters of straight duct before and after the test ports. Test results showed that although the two different instruments provided slightly different results. The throttling valve on the fan suction was adjusted to increase the fan flow rate. Three of the four CREVS fans have two sets of test ports in the fan suction ductwork: one at ground level in a short section of duct between the filter heater and filter housing and one in a straight section of duct in the overhead. Both locations are 12-inch (30. Testing of the other two units with test ports in straight duct resulted in similar out-of-specification low measurements.10 Proper Use of an Electronic Micromanometer Situation: During a training class. using the same instrument at the two locations provided results differing by over 10%. flow result was SCFM). Key Technical Point Lesson learned: Flow measurement in a duct at a location with flow disturbances can be significantly different (in this case over 10% greater) than at a location of long straight duct. The other person used the temperature probe and assumed that the velocity reading was automatically converted to standard conditions for SCFM results. The overhead test port location is not easily accessible. each fan is rated at 1000 ACFM and tested every 18 months to be within 900–1100 ACFM. The next surveillance test was performed with an electronic air data multimeter at the overhead test ports.EPRI Licensed Material Lessons Learned 6. One person did not use the temperature probe and instead used the temperature correction calculation to convert the instrument reading to SCFM. conflicting flow results were obtained.5-cm) round duct. flow results in ACFM) and that these models do not have the option for converting the velocity reading to standard conditions. If the temperature probe is not used. Prior testing had been done using a hot-wire anemometer at the ground level test ports. The individual CREVS unit was declared inoperable as a result of a flow measurement of 794 ACFM (the previous surveillance test had measured 917 ACFM). the instrument reading must be converted by calculation to either ACFM or SCFM results. During system testing by two individuals.

Extensive troubleshooting was performed. however.12 Low Airflow in the Auxiliary Building Ventilation System Situation: Because of low airflow conditions in the auxiliary building ventilation (ABV) system. testing. and still others reviewed drawings of the building and the system to determine other possible corrective actions. The controls for each fan were modified and individually functionally tested.EPRI Licensed Material Lessons Learned 6. and systems was assembled to troubleshoot the cause of the low-flow condition. Several plant modifications were initiated in order to correct the design concerns. and controls were put in place to have the fans start at 18. with dampers in the unfiltered lineup. A justification for continued operation (JCO) was written. both ECCS PREACS fans automatically started as designed in response to a simulated safety injection signal. the trip point was not exceeded. NRC to assure them that the plant could be operated safely even though the airflow through the ABV system was lower than the minimum specified in the TSs. this did not resolve the problem.S. Some were to prepare the necessary documents to submit to the U. The high-suction vacuum trip had not been modified and was still required in the controls. 6. Six months later. That testing had pre-positioned all of the affected dampers. Functional testing did not include simultaneous start of both fans.11 Consideration of System Operating Conditions Situation: The station’s emergency core cooling system (ECCS) pump room exhaust air cleanup 3 system (PREACS) fans consist of two redundant standby fans. Investigation concluded that the testing following the previous recovery effort had not actually performed a complete system functional test. each rated at 36. with round-the-clock engineering and technician coverage for over two weeks as the system was studied and tested.000 ft /min. and then both fans again tripped. a team of engineers from design. and then manually started the fans—both individually and simultaneously. System controls were adjusted and modified. Investigation concluded that the fans had tripped when suction vacuum exceeded a trip point. An attempt was made to provide a timedelay to allow for damper repositioning prior to fan start. Others prepared documents to realign the system for optimum conditions.000 3 ft /min (one-half the flow rate). The team was divided into smaller teams as follows. A few months later. with administrative controls to manually adjust one fan to full flow if only one fan is available. during functional testing on a different emergency bus. 6-7 . When fans were started individually. Key Technical Point Lesson learned: All possible system operating conditions need to be fully considered during the design and functional test phases. both ECCS PREACS fans automatically started as designed in response to a simulated safety injection signal—but then both fans tripped. which changed the flow control method from a “suction vacuum” signal to a fan “discharge flow” signal. A plant modification was performed. during emergency bus functional testing. The fan flow rate (fan inlet damper position) was controlled by suction vacuum. and the previous JCO and administrative controls were revised to allow the system to be declared operable.

6-8 . The reduced airflow through that duct section caused higher airflow through another duct section that contained a high-energy line break (HELB) damper. an alarm would have sounded in the control room. The HELB damper closed. the HELB damper reopened—and the system flow rate returned to normal.EPRI Licensed Material Lessons Learned One engineer was assigned the task of performing a system walkdown for proper damper alignments. This closure caused the reduction in the overall system airflow rate and is the reason that the TS airflow through the filters was inadequate (below 10% of nominal flow). The result of the walkdown was the identification of a fire damper that was only partially closed (it did not drop properly and hung up in mid-position). If the fire damper had been completely closed. as it should have with an increase of more than 25% airflow through it. When the fire damper was repositioned. Key O&M Cost Point Lesson learned: The most important part of the TAB work occurs prior to the start of the work: understanding how the system works and performing the walkdown.

“Gauges. Regulatory Guide 1. Air Movement and Control Association (AMCA) 203-95. Testing. Flow Meter Guideline. Dial Type. National Environmental Balancing Bureau (NEBB). Palo Alto. 8. and Maintenance Criteria for Post Accident Engineered Safety Feature Atmosphere Cleanup System Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Light-Water–Cooled Nuclear Power Plants.EPRI Licensed Material 7 REFERENCES In-Text References 1. H. 9.52 dated March 1. Revision 3. “Design. 4. and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Transaction. “Design. Howell. 1998.” 1991. Refrigerating. “Troubleshooting. “Fans and Systems. 3. 10. 7-1 . 2001).” June 1973. Adjusting.1. and Balancing of Environmental Systems. Air Movement and Control Association (AMCA) 201-90. American National Standards Institute/American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ANSI/ASME) Specification B40. 1978. 96 (1990).” American Society of Heating. Revision 2. Testing and Maintenance Criteria for Normal Ventilation Exhaust System Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Light-Water–Cooled Nuclear Power Plants. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 1979. 7. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. (Revision 1. 2. Elastic Element. Air Movement and Control Association (AMCA) 202-98. EPRI. and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). American Society of Heating. “Nuclear Facilities. H. 5. TR-109634.” 1990. Sixth Edition.1978. J.140.” 1995.” 11. Title 10 Nuclear Regulatory Commission. “Standards for Protection Against Radiation. Sauerer and R. Procedural Standards for Testing. CA: 1999. Code of Federal Regulations. 6. Vol.” (Revision 1. Pressure Indicating. Part 20.” Applications Handbook. “Flow Measurements at Coil Faces with Vane Anemometers: Statistical Correlation and Recommended Field Measurement Procedure. 1999. Refrigerating.” 1998. Revision 2. 2001). 1976. Regulatory Guide 1. “Field Performance Measurement of Fan Systems.

and Noncombustible Particulate Solids.” 1997.” 23. “Service Water System Problems Affecting Safety-Related Equipment. Code of Federal Regulations. “Standard for Exhaust Systems for Air Conveying of Vapors. Inc.” July 18. Gases. Title 10 Nuclear Regulatory Commission. “Nuclear Power Plant Air Cleaning Units and Components.” 1980. 20. 15. and Modification of Licenses and Construction Permits for Cause. “General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants. Part 100.” 1999. Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Standard 181. Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors’ National Association (SMACNA). 17. 16. TR-112170. “Standard for the Installation of Air Conditioning and Ventilating Systems. 28. “HVAC Duct Construction Standards – Metal and Flexible. Part 50. 22. Inc.” 1999.” 1996. 21. “Cold Formed Steel Design Manual. Refrigerating.” 13.” 1989.” 1989. Palo Alto. 24. “Recommended Practice for Installation Design and Installation of Vented Lead-Acid Batteries for Stationary Applications. Applications Manual. “Manual of Steel Construction. American National Standards Institute/American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ANSI/ASME) AG-1. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 90A. Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors’ National Association (SMACNA). Refrigerating.” 1995. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC). American National Standards Institute/American Society of Mechanical Engineers. American Society of Heating.” 1989. HVAC Fans and Dampers Maintenance Guide. Title 10 Nuclear Regulatory Commission. USNRC Generic Letter 89-13. “Revocation. EPRI. 7-2 . 19. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 91. (AISI). 27.EPRI Licensed Material References 12. American National Standards Institute/American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ANSI/ASME) N509. CA: 1999. American International Supply. IEEE 484. 1989. Code of Federal Regulations. (ANSI/ASME) N510. Suspension. “Testing of Nuclear Air Treatment Systems.” 14. and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). “Rectangular Industrial Duct Construction Standards. 25. “Factory-Made Air Ducts and Air Connectors. American Society of Heating. HVAC Systems and Equipment Manual. 18. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Chapter 41. Chapter 18. “Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment. Mists. Appendix A.” 1995.. 26. and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE).

Adjusting.” HVAC Applications.” American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Air Conditioning. Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors’ National Association (SMACNA). Hydramotor Actuator Application and Maintenance Guide . “Testing. Industrial Ventilation. Adjusting and Balancing. July 1993. 1997. Refrigerating. Refrigerating. Ventilation. TR-112181. American Society of Heating.EPRI Licensed Material References 29. Second Edition. 24th Edition.” Inch-Pound Edition. Other References Associated Air Balance Council (AABC). 7-3 . American National Standards Institute/American Society for Heating. and Refrigeration Systems. and Balancing. Adjusting. 2001.” 1999. CA: 2000. Refrigerating. American Society of Heating. Palo Alto. and Balancing of Building Heating. and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). “1997 Fundamentals. EPRI. “Practices for Measurement.” 1988. 30.Testing. and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). and Air Conditioning Engineers (ANSI/ASHRAE) 111-88. “Procedures for Testing. American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) E 2029-99. HVAC Systems . Adjusting and Balancing. “Standard Test Method for Volumetric and Mass Flow Rate Measurement in a Duct Using Tracer Gas Dilution. Testing.

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The building exhaust and supply are sized to maintain the building temperatures in a range that maximizes equipment life by keeping ambient temperatures reasonably low (usually less than 104 °F [40°C] for unoccupied spaces and less than 80°F [27°C] for occupied spaces). the ventilation requirements consider the relative building pressure requirements with respect to adjacent buildings and the outside atmosphere. ASHRAE “1999 Applications Handbook Chapter 25 – Nuclear Facilities” [8] provides additional information on HVAC system design. The ventilation systems normally used in these applications include large supply and exhaust fans. This appendix also provides an example of a typical nuclear HVAC process airflow diagram. As such. A-1 .1. Heating coils are installed on the supply side.EPRI Licensed Material A TYPES OF HVAC SYSTEMS This appendix describes the various types of HVAC systems that are commonly installed in a nuclear power plant. There are two types of commercial nuclear power plants currently in operation in the United States: the pressurized water reactor (PWR) and the boiling water reactor (BWR). users should consult their own plant-specific system design documents to determine system design parameters and configurations. Much of the information contained in this appendix has been presented generically in several industry-wide standards. The systems described in this appendix are typical of these two types of nuclear power plants but are not representative of any particular plant design. Furthermore. a system described here may be applicable to one type of nuclear power plant and not to the other.2 Equipment/Area Cooling These systems are designed to provide cooling to essential components necessary for safe shutdown or mitigation of an accident. the radwaste building and the turbine building).1 General Area Ventilation These applications are common for the main plant areas and individual buildings (for example. A. In addition. A.1.1 • • • Generic HVAC Functions An HVAC system at a nuclear power plant will typically perform one of the following functions: Ventilation Equipment/area cooling Filtration (radioactivity control ventilation) A.

The safety-related units are used for filtering air in the event of a design basis accident and may be governed by RG 1. This ensures that the off-site radioactive release is within the limits required by 10CFR100 [12] for accident mitigation. The non-safety-related units are used for filtering air from exhaust systems prior to release into the atmosphere and may be governed by Regulatory Guide (RG) 1. and ECCS/engineered safety feature (ESF) pump rooms.1 Nuclear Air Cleanup The air cleanup unit usually consists of a demister. A. or cooling coils installed on the normal ventilation supply units for the building. This ensures that the plant maintains off-site radioactive releases within the limits required by 10CFR20 [10] for normal operations.g.52 [11]. A-2 . emergency service water pumps. A room cooler consists of fan coil units supplied by a safety-related cooling water source from either the plant service water or an ESF chilled water system. an electric heater. such as those used for cooling the diesel generator units. This ensures that the operator and TSC staff dose is maintained within the limits required by 10CFR50. consisting of a supply and/or exhaust fan. The supply/recirculation filter unit is typically a component of the associated habitability zone’s ventilation system. typically 0. (32 Pa). A. the system is used for maintaining the associated building pressure at a slight negative pressure. typically -0. For exhaust units. Appendix A [13]. such as waste gas disposal or condenser vacuum exhaust. A. Equipment area/cooling systems are normally maintained in normal alignment and are automatically actuated during an accident event. They may also be found on vent headers.3 Radioactivity Control Ventilation Ventilation systems may control the flow of potentially radioactive effluent by 1) maintaining the building or area at a negative (or positive) pressure relative to adjacent buildings and the outside atmosphere and/or 2) using a nuclear air cleanup unit.1.125 inch w. and a charcoal adsorber followed by a second HEPA filter or a final filter. These safety-related systems are typically designed to ANSI N509 [14] or the AG-1 Code [15] and are tested in accordance with ASME N510 [16]. (-63 Pa). These units may be used for filtering exhaust air or for filtering supply or recirculation air for habitability zones.3.g. Other systems are used only during an accident event.1. These units are typically found on ventilation exhaust systems within buildings housing radioactive or potentially radioactive materials. an area/room cooler. This system maintains the habitability zone at a slight positive pressure. a highefficiency particulate-air (HEPA) filter. to ensure that all leakage is into the building and properly filtered prior to being exhausted.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Systems These systems may be in the form of a simple ventilation system.2 Air Systems Designated by the Buildings Serviced The buildings in which heating and cooling services are installed can also designate HVAC systems at nuclear power plants. a prefilter.25 inch w. to ensure that all leakage is directed outward. such as the main control room and/or technical support center (TSC).140 [9].

the reactor building serves as a secondary containment boundary. potentially contaminated air is filtered.1 Containment/Reactor Building A.2. Under normal conditions. and refueling areas. These recirculation systems use portions of the normal ventilation system ductwork. The SGTS exhausts air from the secondary containment to the environment through a safety-related filtration system. the normal HVAC system is deactivated and the reactor building isolated.1.1. The HVAC system consists of a 100% outside air ventilation system. it is often necessary to determine the maximum temperatures that could be reached during the accident event. Prior to its exhaust to the environment. In most plant designs.2 Standby Gas Treatment System Upon detection of abnormal plant conditions (such as high radiation in the exhaust air path) or upon loss of negative pressure. The capacity of the SGTS is based on the amount of exhaust air needed to reduce the pressure in the secondary containment in about 120 seconds and maintain it at a negative pressure for the duration of the accident event.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Systems A. and/or treat the air during accident conditions. After it is isolated using fast-closing. A. All exhaust air locations are monitored for radioactivity prior to discharging air into the environment. In addition to the SGTS. Outside air is filtered. auxiliary equipment. heated. The exhaust air flows from areas with the least contamination to the areas with higher levels of contamination. or cooled as required prior to being distributed throughout the various building areas. Safe shutdown components are usually located in the secondary containment and.1 General Description The containment/reactor building completely encloses the primary containment. the standby gas treatment system (SGTS) is started to draw down the secondary containment and maintain the building at a negative pressure relative to the environment. some designs include safety-related recirculating air systems within the secondary containment to mix. To ensure that no unmonitored exfiltration occurs during normal operations.2. All safety-related components in the secondary containment must be environmentally qualified to operate at these temperatures. A-3 . cool. if the isolated secondary containment area is not cooled during accident conditions. low-leakage isolation dampers. Supplemental cooling in localized areas is provided by area/room coolers. safety-related unit area/room coolers provide the necessary cooling for the ECCS pumps.2. This boundary is designed to contain any leakage from the primary containment or refueling area following an accident. the ventilation systems maintain the reactor building at a negative pressure relative to the atmosphere. the reactor building HVAC system maintains the design space conditions and minimizes the release of radioactivity to the environment. After the secondary containment is isolated.

Control Rod or Control Element Drive Mechanism (CRDM or CEDM) AHUs .2. may be provided.2. it is desirable to cool the air before it is returned to the containment atmosphere. there are no restrictions on the size of the penetrations through the containment boundary. Essential Reactor Containment Cooling Units . Large openings of 42 to 48 inches (106 to 122 cm).6 Containment Combustible Gas Control In case of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA).5 Containment Refueling Purge Ventilation is required to control the level of airborne radioactivity during refueling operation. Distribution of the air supply depends on the containment layout and the location of the major heat sources. they are operated as needed for preaccess into the containment. A. The ductwork is designed to endure the rapid pressure buildup associated with accident conditions. double containment isolation valves at each supply and exhaust containment penetration. The required ventilation rate is typically based on one air change per hour. high pressure. System design must accommodate both normal and accident conditions.1. As a minimum.The containment air cooling system (or a part of it) is normally designed to provide cooling after a postulated accident. Fan motors are sized to handle the high-density air associated with accident conditions. if some of the fuel rods are not covered with water. The system is capable of performing at high temperature.2. In addition. Cooling coils can be provided with chilled water and/or raw service water. Because the reactor is not under pressure during refueling. and a high level of radioactivity. high humidity. these systems are licensed to operate continuously and at others.4 Containment Power Access Purge or Minipurge This system usually consists of a supply and filtered exhaust system.These units are usually transfer fans without coils that provide cool air to the reactor cavity. and heat loads are generally high.1.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Systems A.1. The system consists of a supply AHU. Reactor Cavity AHUs or Fans .1. and an exhaust fan. when a strong solution of sodium hydroxide or boric acid is sprayed into the containment. A. pressure drops.These units remove most of the heat load.2. At some plants. various metals react and produce hydrogen. HEPA filtration is recommended. A. the fuel rod cladding can react with A-4 .3 Containment Cooling The following systems are typical for containment cooling in a PWR plant. Because the flow rates. each protected by double containment isolation valves. Reactor Containment Coolers .The CRDM and CEDM are usually cooled by an induced-draft system using exhaust fans.

radioactive steam is directly supplied to the main turbine.3 Auxiliary Building The auxiliary building contains a large amount of support equipment. such as smoke from surrounding or outside areas A-5 . Filtration requirements are based on the plant and site configuration. The building is usually air conditioned for equipment protection. and a leak in the general area could cause a release of airborne radioactivity. In a PWR plant. Localized cooling systems (that is.2. A. and thus the buildings are typically maintained at a negative pressure. The HVAC system is a once-through ventilation system.4 Control Room The control room HVAC system serves the control room habitability zone. Therefore. The normal coil is served by the normal chilled water system and the essential coil from the ESF chilled water system or the plant service water system. A. and no radiation detection equipment is required. that is. The control room HVAC system performs the following functions: • • • • • Controls the environmental conditions in the main control room Pressurizes or isolates the control room to prevent infiltration Reduces the radioactivity level in the room Protects the area from hazardous chemical fume intrusion Protects the area from noxious fumes. recombine the hydrogen with the oxygen. In a BWR plant.2. the air is typically exhausted to the outside without filtration.2 Turbine Building The HVAC system in the turbine building typically provides both general ventilation and heat removal. A. The exhaust air from the turbine building is exhausted to the environment using nonsafety-related filtration systems. The recombiners may be backed up by special exhaust filtration trains. Sometimes. area/room coolers) augment the ventilation system as needed. those spaces that must be maintained habitable following a postulated accident to allow the orderly shutdown of the reactor. much of which handles potentially radioactive material. The building is maintained at negative pressure relative to the environment. and the exhaust air is filtered prior to its discharge into the environment to minimize the release of radioactivity. redundant hydrogen recombiners are needed to remove the air from the containment atmosphere. and return the air to the containment. Release of airborne radioactivity is a possibility in turbine buildings. the normal and essential cooling functions may be provided by an area/room cooler that has 1) normal and essential cooling coils and 2) a safety-related fan powered from a Class 1E bus.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Systems steam at elevated temperatures to release hydrogen into the containment.2.

A.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Systems A. They may be cooled by the same AHUs that serve the switchgear rooms or the main control room or independently cooled and/or ventilated with a dedicated system. In safetyrelated systems. In these cases. A. Batteries generate hydrogen during charging and are temperature dependent for prolonging service life or maintaining adequate capacity. Different types of batteries are available. If the ventilation rate is not determined based on the hydrogen generation rate. although it is typically monitored.9 Fuel-Handling Building New and spent fuel is stored in the fuel-handling building.2. the level of airborne radioactivity is so low that the normal exhaust may not be filtered.2. the building is isolated and a safety-related exhaust system activated to maintain the area at a negative pressure. battery rooms are normally maintained in standby status. it can be established at a minimum rate of one air change per hour. The ventilation system consists of a combination of a supply fan and an exhaust fan or one of the two fans with exhaust or inlet louvers.5 Emergency Electrical Switchgear Rooms These rooms house the electrical switchgear that operates essential or safety-related equipment.2. and the lower explosive limit (LEL).8 Battery Rooms Batteries produce the necessary dc control power for use during loss of off-site power. the minimum room design temperature should be factored into the capacity sizing of the batteries. The building is air conditioned for equipment protection and ventilated with a once-through air system to control airborne radioactivity. The switchgear rooms are usually cooled in order to ensure that useful life of the electrical component in the room is maintained and to prevent the loss of power circuits as a result of temperature-related problems. A-6 . and the optimum temperature for all batteries is 77 °F (25°C) for maintaining service life and capacity. Occupational Safety and Health Association (OSHA).2. If significant airborne radioactivity is detected. The exhaust system is designed to limit the hydrogen concentration to about 2% of the room volume or the lowest of the levels specified by IEEE 484 [17].7 Diesel Generator Building The diesel generator building is usually ventilated with 100% outside air. A. Older plants may not meet this temperature requirement because the battery room may be ventilated simply to control the amount of hydrogen.6 Control Cable Spreading Room These rooms are located directly above and/or directly below the main control room. Higher room temperatures should be considered in evaluating the service life of the batteries and determining the hydrogen evolution rate. Normally.2. A.

2.12 Radwaste Building Radioactive waste other than spent fuel is stored. a water chiller is used as the cooling source.13 Technical Support Center The TSC is a facility located close to or within the control room complex and is designed for use by plant management and technical support personnel to provide assistance to control room operators during accident conditions. A-7 . this area usually includes decontamination facilities. An outside air filtration system (composed of HEPA-charcoalHEPA) pressurizes the facility with filtered outside air during emergency conditions. The building is air conditioned for equipment protection and ventilated to control potential airborne radioactivity. A. The chiller may be air-cooled or water-cooled. The system is generally designed to commercial HVAC standards. a hot water or a steam boiler is used as the heat source.2. a steam-to-water heat exchanger is used to generate hot water. A.3 Types of Water Systems Supporting HVAC Systems Two types of water systems are commonly used in HVAC systems for temperature control: the hot water heating system and the chilled water cooling system.2. the TSC HVAC system must provide the same comfort and radiological habitability conditions maintained in the control room. For a hot water system.10 Personnel Facilities For nuclear power plants. or packaged for disposal in this building.2. shredded. In the case of a water-cooled system. If the pumps are essential or safety-related. The air may require filtration through HEPA filters and/or carbon adsorbers prior to release to the atmosphere.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Systems A. a condenser water system is used to reject chiller condenser heat.11 Pump Houses Cooling water pumps are protected by houses that are often ventilated by fans to remove the heat from the pump motors. the ventilation equipment is also classified as safety-related. In case of an accident. baled. If a steam boiler is used as the heat source. The TSC HVAC system is not typically designed to safety-related standards. A. A. For a chilled water system. laboratories. and medical treatment rooms.

The control valves are usually thermostatically controlled. and piping network interconnecting various heating coils.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Systems A.1 Hot Water Heating Systems The hot water system consists of a boiler (electric.2 Chilled Water Systems The chilled water system consists of a chiller (centrifugal. based on the specific heat and density of the water A. The flow rate of the hot water to the heating coil is based on the temperature drop across the inlet and outlet of the heating coil. a recirculating water pump. a 20% glycol/80% water mixture in a heating or cooling system reduces the heat transfer capacity by as much as 10% and the pump efficiency by about 5% and increases the system pressure drop by about 25% at 50 °F (10°C). and the pressure loss in the piping system. the size of the cooling or heating coils.or three-way control valve that modulates or opens and closes to control the flow of hot water to the heating coils. The control valves are usually thermostatically controlled. natural or propane gas.or three-way control valve that modulates or opens and closes to control the flow of chilled water to the cooling coils. screw. The total system flow is based on the average temperature differential across the various cooling coils. based on the specific heat and density of the water A.3. or absorption type). For example. A-8 . The hot water heating coils are used to heat air as needed for temperature control of various areas. System flow (gpm) = Total Heating Load (Btu/hr)/(∆T x 500) where: ∆T is the average temperature differential across the various heating coils 500 is a constant. The total system flow is based on the average temperature differential across the various heating coils. The chilled water-cooling coils are used to cool air as needed for space temperature or humidity control of various areas. and a piping network interconnecting various cooling coils. the performance of the recirculating water pump. The chilled water flow to each cooling coil is usually controlled with a two. System flow (gpm) = Total Sensible Heat Load (Btu/hr)/(∆T x 500) where: ∆T is the average temperature differential across the various cooling coils 500 is a constant. a recirculating water pump.3 Hot and Chilled Water Systems with Ethylene or Propylene Glycol The user should be aware that the addition of glycol in the system affects the selection criteria of the heat transfer source (that is. The flow to each heating coil is controlled by a two. or fuel oil fired).3. Chilled water flow to the cooling coil is based on the temperature rise in the chilled water flow across the inlet and outlet of the cooling coil. reciprocating.3. chiller or boiler).

lb/ft3 Cp = Specific heat of fluid. A. and an open.5 x Airflow (ft 3/min) x ∆h (change in air enthalpy) Sensible heat load. and the chiller manufacturer usually furnishes the condenser water flow rate. A-9 .EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Systems The constant of 500 used in the flow rate calculation needs to be corrected for systems with glycol because the amount of glycol in the system affects the heat transfer rate. The condenser water flow is sized based on the chiller selection. A.6 Coil Performance Equations The following equations are provided to assist the user when determining coil performance.3.or closed-loop heat sink. Correction factor: 500 (ρ/ρw) Cp where: ρ = Fluid density. q (Btu/h) = 4840 x Airflow (ft 3/min) x ∆W (change in air humidity ratio) A. q (Btu/h) = 4. Often a heat sink is used to reject the compression heat of a chiller.4 Example of an HVAC System Diagram Figure A-1 illustrates a typical HVAC system diagram.3. q (Btu/h) = 1. It is provided for illustrative purposes only and should not be used to perform plant-specific evaluations or analyses. a recirculating water pump. Btu/lb °F A.4 Chiller Condenser Water Flow The condenser water system consists of a water-cooled chiller. lb/ft 3 ρw = Density of water at 60 °F.3.5 Raw Water or Service Water Flow Raw water or service water may be used as a source of cooling water in heat exchangers installed in HVAC systems. ensuring that temperature and pressure corrections are made as needed: Total heat load.1 x Airflow (ft 3/min) x ∆T (change in air temperature) Latent heat load.

EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Systems Figure A-1 Turbine Room Ventilation One-Line Diagram A-10 .

TR-112170 [18] provides additional information on fan and motor condition assessment as well as fan and damper maintenance issues and recommendations.2 is extracted from EPRI TR-112170. Additional information available on typical fan curves can include required horsepower and efficiency throughout the operational range of flows and pressures described by the curve. A suitable type of fan can be selected so that the conditions and requirements unique to a given application can usually be accommodated. Some industrial applications require fans to move not only air. For a given fan speed and size. Table 18. These performance parameters are plotted on a graph and result in a curve that describes the amount of flow that fans can deliver at a given pressure (see Figure B-1).2 of ASHRAE “HVAC Systems and Equipment Manual” [19] describes the essential characteristics of various fan types. B-1 . HVAC Fans and Dampers Maintenance Guide [18]. This allows the system designer to select from almost any of the basic fan types.EPRI Licensed Material B TYPES OF HVAC EQUIPMENT The information provided in Sections B.1 Fans The primary mechanical component in a ventilation system is the fan. but also dispersed quantities of solid materials. the airflow quantity delivered is directly related to the pressure loss imparted between the fan inlet and outlet. In nuclear power plant applications. B. performance and selection criteria are described by the airflow quantity and developed pressure. Four types of fans are available for selection by the designer: • • • • Centrifugal Axial Propeller Tubular centrifugal Regardless of the type of fan. fan systems are typically designed for “clean-air” service.1 and B.

In addition. dampers in ducted systems can also be adjusted to effectively increase or decrease flow within the limits of the fan curve. manual balancing dampers are positioned to establish the initial system flow conditions and are adjusted as necessary to selectively deliver flow to the various areas served by the ducted fan system. This adjustment can be accomplished automatically or manually.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment Figure B-1 Typical Fan Performance Curve (Courtesy of AMCA 201-90) In addition to methods directly related to the fan. B-2 . damper adjustments alter the system’s pressure characteristics. Many ducted systems incorporate flow sensing devices that provide a control signal to a damper actuator that adjusts damper position as required to deliver the desired flow. In either case. defining the operational point on the fan curve.

Ducted systems also provide the designer with additional flow control options because the systems accommodate modulating or manual balancing dampers. This system effect results from the flow profile at various distances from the discharge of each type of fan (see Figure B-2). performance is compromised because of the additional pressure losses imparted. If insufficient straight duct is installed on the fan’s discharge. For proper application of SEFs to a specific ducted configuration. the minimum effective duct length is determined by the fan diameter and the resulting air velocity at design flow. For centrifugal fans. System design should include an evaluation of the length of straight duct sections connected directly to the discharge of the fan. the less the resulting pressure loss.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment Ventilation systems most frequently include ductwork to distribute and direct airflow throughout the desired spaces and areas that they serve. For axial fans. see AMCA 201-90 [2]. The longer the straight section attached to the fan discharge. the minimum effective duct length is determined by the ratio of blast area and outlet area in conjunction with the orientation of the first fitting attached to the straight duct. Figure B-2 Fan Outlet Velocity Profiles (Courtesy of AMCA 201-90) B-3 .

therefore. the fan produces new flow and pressure characteristics and operates at flow and pressure conditions different from those described by the original fan curve. potential implications exist for bearing damage if one of the inlet dampers fails to open or close. This will cause excess thrust wear on the impeller bearings. backward curved airfoil-shaped blades are usually preferred. the performance characteristics of the fan. with one inlet damper open and the other closed. By adjusting the position of these vanes (partially open and closed).1. However. The speed of the impeller wheel can also be altered on belt-driven fans by changing the sheave sizes.1 Centrifugal Fans Centrifugal fans are the most widely used because of their efficiency in moving both large and small quantities of air over a wide pressure range (see Figures B-3 and B-4a). Un-ducted ventilation systems (for example. This requirement is frequently difficult to accommodate. dual-inlet centrifugal fan. altering the operating point on the fan head-flow curve. or radial. there is an unbalanced force on the impeller of the fan. Some space saving might be realized with forward curved impeller wheel design. airfoil. centrifugal fans are typically larger than their vaneaxial counterparts. In this case.1 Types of Fans B. the discharge of a centrifugal fan can be slightly obstructed by the lip of the scroll housing. For greatest efficiency. backward curved. Available drive types include direct and belt drive. Airflow quantity delivered by centrifugal fans can be adjusted by means of inlet vanes positioned in line with the air inlet. There is one drawback to a double-width.1.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment Although nuclear power plant facilities have large equipment rooms and service areas. therefore. For a given set of performance requirements (such as airflow quantity and developed pressure). The reduced cross-sectional area of the discharge that results from this obstruction is called the blast area and is considered when determining the configuration of ductwork attached to the discharge of a centrifugal fan. require long straight discharge ducts to minimize system effect pressure loss and maximize performance. The impeller blades can be forward curved. with this type of alteration. Standard configurations also include single. flow decreases as described by the fan curve (see Figure B-1). B. Flexibility in performance characteristics can be achieved in part by selecting from the available impeller styles. As pressure is induced to the airstream by the inlet vanes. This alters the speed of the wheel and. As can be seen in Figure B-3.or double-width impellers and inlets. This thrust wear can limit bearing life and result in unnecessary maintenance or equipment unavailability if the problem goes unresolved. the primary ventilation system fans are typically large and. pressure loss is imparted to the airstream. resulting in flow patterns that tax the prescribed capabilities of the specified fan. The fan operates by using a rotating impeller mounted inside of a scroll-type housing to impart energy to the air.1. wall-mounted propeller fans and roof-mounted propeller or centrifugal fans) are used in applications designed to transfer air between two spaces. The consequences of this maintenance issue are normally taken into consideration during the design of the system. In dual-inlet systems with inlet vane damper control. The maximum impeller speed is limited by design and should not be exceeded. B-4 .

however. However. Silencers can be installed to compensate for this effect.2 Axial Fans In general. fans in the axial flow category tend to be smaller and less expensive than a centrifugal fan with comparable capacity.1. Flow in axial fans can be controlled by B-5 . Guide vanes are used before and/or after the blades to reduce airstream rotation. air flows parallel to the fan shaft. as in all axial flow fans.1. with the blade tips in fairly close tolerance with the inside of the housing surface. The hub ratio in these types of fans is typically high. Additionally.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment Figure B-3 Terminology for Centrifugal Fan Components (Courtesy of AMCA 201-90) B. The blades extend radially from the hub outward toward the housing. with fairly large hub diameters. the fan hub and propeller blades are placed within a cylindrical housing. In this fan. an additional resistance is imparted to the system with this device. a unique characteristic of an axial fan is an increased level of noise.

EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment adjusting the pitch of the blades. sheave sizes can be changed to alter the fan’s performance characteristics. Table B-1 General Fan Attributes Fan Attribute Cost Volumetric flow Static pressure rise Size vs. Stamped marks are provided on the blade shafts. In addition. As with centrifugal fans. templates can be obtained from the fan manufacturer that result in more accurate positioning of the blades. Figure B-4 presents commonly used terminology for axial and tubular centrifugal fans. For belt drives. which can be rotated to produce different performance characteristics. Table B-1 provides a general characterization of fan types. axial fans can be configured with either direct or belt drives. flow capacity Design complexity Axial Less expensive Higher Lower Smaller Simpler Centrifugal More expensive Lower Higher Larger More complex B-6 .

EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment Figure B-4 Terminology for Axial and Tubular Centrifugal Fans (Courtesy of AMCA 201-90) B-7 .

Special attention should be paid in sealing the seams of a drive belt tube in belt drive systems and in checking for and repairing seal. B. For nuclear installations. B. static efficiency is reduced to a maximum of about 72%. allowing the fan and motor combination to be closely tuned to the service application. a new sheave or pulley can be installed that will change the performance characteristics of the fan. B. The selection range is generally about the same as the scroll-type. Prior to implementing this type of change.1 Belt Drive The most widely used drive method is the belt drive. Note that installing a new sheave or pulley effectively produces a different fan performance curve. B-8 . This application is the most economical and provides for good flexibility in range of application. fans with external drives have a potential to allow air infiltration through the drive shaft opening and bearing. Care should be exercised when applying this arrangement to potentially contaminated areas.1. However. They can often be found in roof and wall exhaust applications. the straight-through flow results in significant space saving. Fan speeds are determined by both the motor speed and the ratio of the pulleys on the motor and fan. which is the main advantage of using tubular centrifugal fans. the fan-to-motor connection is established with a drive pulley (sheave) on the motor. and/or bearing leakage in direct drive systems during regular maintenance.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment B. because there is no housing of the turbulent airflow path through the fan.2.3 Tubular Centrifugal Fans Tubular centrifugal fans generally consist of a single-width airfoil wheel arranged in a cylinder to discharge air radially against the inside of the cylinder. a drive belt (“V” or cog).1. if future system changes alter the ventilation demand. but developed pressures are lower than those available with centrifugal or axial fans.4 Propeller Fans Propeller fans are usually backward curved blade-type and can also be categorized as axial flow. these fans are distinguishable by their small hub ratios and lack of any substantial housing and are used in applications that require air to be transferred—un-ducted—between spaces. Vanes are sometimes used to recover static pressure and to straighten the airflow. a new system curve should be established and plotted with the new fan curve to ensure that operation will not occur in an unstable region of the fan curve. However. Frequently. and the noise level is increased. and a fan pulley.2 Types of Fan Drivers and Drives Multiple options are available for the type of drive system used for fan applications. BI or airfoil bladed wheel: approximately 50–85% of wide-open volume. Large-diameter propeller fans can be applied to move significant quantities of air.1. Control is possible with belt drive configurations but is usually not required because pressure variances across the fan do not occur in un-ducted applications. With this system. Furthermore.1. shaft. the two primary methods used are belt drive and direct drive.1. Air is then deflected parallel with the fan shaft to provide straight-through flow.1.

1. B. Sensors are placed at critical points in the ventilation system to monitor flow.2 Direct Drive Direct drive systems typically require less maintenance than belt drive systems because of the lack of replaceable belts and pulleys.3 Variable Speed Motor Drive This system incorporates an electronic control that sends a variable signal to the motor. which can be flat or airfoil-shaped. Parallel blade isolation damper design should be carefully constructed and installed with an appropriate actuator to ensure that the blades are positioned exactly parallel to the airstream when in the open position. which in turn modulates the fan speed to reestablish the design flow. Frequently. The types of dampers that are most commonly used in the nuclear industry are the isolation. In addition.1. low) pressure drop associated with the open damper under full-flow conditions. As conditions change (for example. B-9 . B. This will minimize the obstruction in the airstream and result in an optimized (that is. temperatures.1. Speeds are limited to available motor speeds. backdraft. silicone.2. However.2. two isolation dampers are provided in series to ensure adequate protection for the area served. These applications are sensitive to the associated installation parameters recommended by the manufacturers and should not be used unless the minimum requirements for the location of sensors can be met. B. or other types of seals (such as rubber and plastic). the variable speed drive systems are far more expensive than the conventional drives. This type of application is useful when consistent flows must be maintained in systems that have variable conditions. Dampers can be constructed with parallel or opposed blades. When used with standard model fans.1 Types of Dampers B. Either type of damper will benefit from an airfoil blade design. which modulates the speed in accordance with the requirements of the system.2 Dampers Dampers are used in ventilation systems to control environment pressures.2.1 Isolation Dampers Isolation dampers are used to prevent the flow of air from one area to another and to contain metallic.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment B. and fire damper. Parallel blade dampers are better suited for isolation applications because of the undesirable flow pattern through the blades at partially open positions. filters load and fume hoods are placed in service). fewer losses are expected in the power transmission between the fan and motor. control. and flow rates. In addition. the sensors generate a signal and relay the change to the controller. These dampers can be designed in both parallel and opposed blade configurations.2. the range of resulting performance curves might not allow for optimum application to the subject system characteristics. which will improve performance of the system by reducing pressure loss associated with an open damper blade obstructing the airstream. the disadvantage with this type of system is the limited range of delivery flows and pressures available with the standard model fan and motor combination. The seals are provided to ensure that a leak tight seal exists when the damper is in the closed position.

the flow characteristics of an opposed blade damper are more linear than those of parallel blade dampers. an electric motor. Duct restricting volume dampers. and simpler in design than opposed blade dampers. Opposed blade configurations are normally the preferred option because these dampers are usually positioned at some point between fully open and fully closed. each has a specific function-related definition.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment Parallel blade dampers are generally more rugged. Control dampers include two-position and modulating dampers. outlets. return. In addition. however. These dampers often resemble valves in appearance and bulk. and enhanced structural support is often required. A heavy-duty actuator that will produce sufficient closing torque to the sealing surfaces is also required. This positioning eliminates the directionally deflected downstream flow characteristic of the parallel blade damper. The control flexibility of a manual damper is limited because it is set infrequently. grilles. or a motor-hydraulic unit (that is. These termination devices are commonly called diffusers. • B-10 . The flow characteristics of an opposed blade damper are more linear than those of parallel blade dampers. A further specialized type of isolation damper is the “bubble tight” damper. Most ventilation systems include manual balancing dampers. usually during a system balance. Parallel blade dampers should not be used in modulating applications because of their nonlinear flow characteristics (differences are described in detail in ASHRAE “Applications Manual” [20]). The bubble tight damper provides the optimum effectiveness in airflow isolation between spaces. B. or registers. flow rate or temperature). The following are the four primary types of manual balancing dampers: • Terminal opposed blade dampers (OBDs or TOBs) are part of the supply.2. can be 1) single or multiple blade and 2) parallel or opposed blade. bubble tight dampers can provide zero leakage at reasonable differential pressures. The control damper can be operated automatically (using an actuator) to modulate the damper and to allow an appropriate amount of airflow to achieve the desired operating parameter (that is. with a single blade providing a positive seal. electrohydraulic). The damper can also be operated manually and secured at the desired position based on similar operating conditions. These dampers are usually manipulated only during the initial terminal air balance or subsequent balance verification efforts. or exhaust termination device. less expensive. As in the isolation damper. The cost of these dampers is high. usually referred to simply as volume dampers. Whereas most isolation dampers are rated for various amounts of leakage (based on the area of the damper). the actuator can be driven by pressurized air. These dampers are designed to restrict the flow through the duct by reducing the free area (see Figure B-5). Specialty isolation dampers used in the nuclear industry vary in design while most control dampers are either parallel blade or opposed blade.2 Control Dampers Control dampers are used to balance ventilation system flow rates and pressures.1.

The dampers control the flow through the branch duct by controlling the effective cross-section of the branch and main duct. Scoop dampers are similar to splitter dampers but are used only with supply air outlets that are installed on the main supply or trunk ducts. These dampers can be constructed from a single sheet or multiple curved blades attached to rails. with one or more adjusting rods at the movable end.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment • Splitter dampers are installed at duct branch fittings or “Y” fittings. The damper movable end is extended into the airstream to direct the required airflow out of the outlet. • B-11 . These dampers are usually made from a single sheet of metal hinged at the neck of the fitting.

EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment Figure B-5 Multiblade Volume Dampers (Courtesy of SMACNA) B-12 .

the components of the damper and the actuator should be visually inspected for signs of wear and/or damage. The movement of the blades can be used to induce variable direction swirl or to reduce flow to a fan. Finally. The dampers should be inspected to ensure that no debris is or could be caught in them. IGVs are often used with axial flow fans and compressors.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment B. the seals should be inspected to ensure that no damage has occurred and that the seal is sufficiently leak tight. the damper will close— preventing the flow of air in the reverse direction. it is done to control other system characteristics. The damper blade linkage might have counterweights attached so that only a small differential pressure will force open the damper.4 Backdraft Dampers Backdraft dampers are used to allow the flow of air in one direction only. Inlet vane dampers with fixed vanes are called inlet guide vanes (IGVs). In other cases. Inlet vane dampers and IGVs should be maintained similarly to the other dampers and turning vanes. This unbalanced force will cause excess thrust wear on the impeller bearings. potential implications exist for bearing damage if one of the inlet dampers fails to open or close.1. This operation will allow for the identification of any inappropriate wear or mechanism damage. The dampers should be operated at a reasonable frequency. They provide direction to the flow before it enters the rotating blades.2. The backdraft damper is designed so that the damper blades will open when there is a differential pressure across the damper in the correct airflow direction. with one inlet damper open and the other closed. dampers are added at the inlet of a fan.2. which will affect the operating point on the fan curve. In this case.1. This type of damper is useful in preventing the spread of contamination during times of unwanted reverse airflow (which could occur when a ventilation system is intentionally or unintentionally shut down). because of the relatively small differential pressure that is needed to manipulate the damper. There is an increased head loss associated with forcing the damper open and. For variable vane dampers. There are drawbacks to backdraft dampers. These inlet vane dampers often have radially mounted blades. illustrating the importance of proper inspection of these dampers. The need for IGVs is determined during the design of a particular system. B. They also prevent backflow through nonoperating fans. In dual inlet systems with inlet vane damper control. If the differential pressure across the damper is eliminated or if a reverse differential pressure is created. IGVs are used to enhance the performance characteristics of a fan. Debris in the dampers or ductwork could get caught in the fan. such as system resistance. causing damage. In many cases. both manually and with any associated actuators. there is an unbalanced force on the impeller of the fan.3 Inlet Vane Dampers In some applications. friction losses can alter the damper performance and even prevent its operation. B-13 . this is done to control the fan’s output characteristics or inlet swirl of the flow. however.

B. or they could control the damper to only the open or closed positions. Pneumatic actuators are typically pneumatic piston actuators. and others are actuated by smoke detectors or similar devices.2. The electrohydraulic actuator uses a motor to pressurize a hydraulic system.5 Fire Dampers Fire protection dampers are used to mitigate the spread of fire from one location to another by providing a barrier between areas that would otherwise share a pathway through which a fire could spread. Actuators primarily used in the nuclear power industry are the electric. When a monitored parameter travels outside of a specified range. smoke dampers are rated by leakage at pressure. When an air duct passes through one of these fire barriers. B. and pneumatic. travel is limited to ensure that a downward-sloped surface is presented to the outside of the building.1.7 Louvers Louvers are bladed assemblies designed for installation at interfaces between HVAC systems and the outdoors. The input signals are typically sent from a controller that monitors specific parameters. steam coils or chilled water coils) from freezing temperatures when the ventilation system is not operating. and ceilings capable of confining a fire to a given area for some specified time. which then adjusts the damper to bring the parameter back into the specified range. The input signals are sent to the hydraulic system that controls the position of a piston.2. These dampers might have actuators or be self-actuated and activated in a manner similar to fire dampers. B. louvers might be required to isolate freeze-sensitive components (that is. Although fire dampers are rated by hours of fire resistance. Depending on climate.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment B. B-14 . they do not travel 90 degrees to full-open—rather.1. the controller sends a signal to the actuator. flow rate.2 Damper Actuators Damper actuators are used to control the position of the dampers based on given input signals. however. birds and leaves) from entering the system. and pressure. precipitation) and large airborne objects (for example. Some of these dampers are held open by fusible links.2. The typical monitored parameters are temperature. Louvers prevent weather (that is. Adjustable louvers operate like parallel blade dampers. Compressed air acts on a flexible diaphragm to position a shaft connected to the damper. nuclear plants have partitions. The pneumatic actuator uses pressurized air and a manifold to control the damper position. The electric actuator is a motor connected to the damper and uses gears to adjust the damper.2. These actuators could modulate the damper to any number of positions.1.6 Smoke Dampers Smoke dampers are used to control the spread of smoke through a ventilation system. electrohydraulic. connected to the damper linkage. As with many large commercial structures. a fire damper is generally required. floors.

As a freeze protection measure. are commonly used in air conditioning refrigeration applications as well as many types of commercial refrigeration systems. B. or face-and-bypass. assist in removing condensate from inside the outer tube. large installations use face-and-bypass steam coils with vertical tubes. Face-and-bypass steam coils have short sections of steam coils separated by air bypass openings.2 Hot Water Heating Coils Normal temperature hot water heating coils can be categorized as booster coils or standard heating coils. Airflow through the coil section or the bypass section is controlled by coil-andbypass dampers that are linked together. Booster coils (duct-mounted or reheat) are commonly found in variable air volume systems. which is usually at the opposite end. B-15 .EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment B. In these coils. and heating and ventilation systems. refrigerant evaporates inside the tubes. Standard heating coils are used in run-around systems. air is circulated through the finned surface. as illustrated in Figure B-6. Basic steam coils generally have smooth tubes with fins on the airside. The perforations perform like small steam ejector jets that. To be cooled or dehumidified. and the tubes are pitched toward the condensate return. when angle positioned in the inner tube.3 Cooling Coils Fin and tube coils for cooling and dehumidifying air are made in two general classes: direct expansion and chilled water.3. Copper tubes with copper or aluminum fins are most commonly used for efficient heat transfer.1 Refrigerant/Direct Expansion Coils Direct expansion (DX) coils. makeup air units. steam distributing.1 Steam Coils Steam coils can be categorized as basic steam. The coils described in this section apply primarily to comfort heating and cooling for personnel and equipment. B.3. Most use the standard construction materials of copper tube and aluminum fins.3 Heating and Cooling Coils Air heating and cooling coils are used to heat or cool the air under forced convection. B.3. Steam distributing coils most often incorporate perforated inner tubes that distribute steam evenly along the entire coil. B.3. The steam supply connection is at one end. Multiple rows and various tube patterns are used to achieve the desired heat transfer from the air to the circulating refrigerant.3. while air flows over the fins. The total coil surface may consist of a single coil section or several coil sections assembled into a bank.

3. and air flows over the fins attached to the outside surface of the tubes. this generally takes place in the form of surface reduction and/or one of the following: • • • • Single circuit Face split circuits Row split circuits Intertwined circuits VAV systems use buildup coil banks or large AHUs with one refrigeration system. Such an arrangement is known as counterflow. Many types of system capacity controls are used to match the load requirement with system capacity. is seldom used in commercial applications because of the additional surface required for a given set of conditions. the cold water enters the coil at the end the warm air is entering. B-16 . Row control is used for partial load surface balance. In the counterflow design. Parallel flow. in which the water and air flow through the coil in the same direction. This is best accomplished by row control on standard DX coils or by use of “intertwined” refrigerant circuits. some form of face or row control is required. In most coils that use water as the cooling medium. B. During the time of reduced capacity. To balance system-capacity-to-load requirements. chilled water or brine circulates through the tubes to the coil. the cold water enters the coil where the coldest air is leaving the coil. it is imperative to maintain a fully active dehumidification process at the heat transfer coil. Whichever circuit is deactivated first results in full-face area operation of the remaining circuit. With refrigerant evaporator coils.3. keeping the full volume of air in contact with active coil surfaces. In parallel flow. the flow of water and air through the coil is in the opposite direction of each other.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment Figure B-6 DX Coil (Courtesy of RAE Corporation) Air conditioning systems need to operate efficiently at maximum design loads and partial load conditions.2 Chilled Water Cooling Coils In this type of coil.

heaters. In addition. N509 [14]. The construction and QA testing of HEPA filters for use in nuclear power plants is specified in ASME Standards AG-1 [15].4 Filters HVAC filtration systems can be designed to remove either radioactive particles and/or radioactive gaseous iodine from the airstream. In pre-use and in-place tests. The construction and pre-use quality assurance (QA) testing of HEPA filters is specified in DOE standards.2 HEPA Filters Nuclear HEPA filters are used where there is a risk of particulate airborne radioactivity. RG 1. B. charcoal filters (adsorbers). and the filtration levels required by the applicable regulations (for example. B. Filter trains may consist of one or more of the following components: prefilters. Dust filters are also often used as postfilters downstream of the carbon filter in lieu of downstream HEPAs. such as the aerosol dioctyl phthalate (DOP). These systems filter potentially contaminated exhaust air prior to discharge to the environment and may also filter potentially contaminated makeup air for power plant control rooms and TSCs. They are often used as prefilters for the special filters (listed in Sections B. RG 1. and N510 [16]. the coil will remain completely filled with chilled water even though the control valve is closed. ASME AG-1 [15]. all of the air in the coil will be pushed ahead of the water and accumulate in the top part of the coil.4.4 Electric Heating Coils An electric heating coil consists of a length of resistance wire (commonly nickel/chromium) to which a voltage is applied. must be used.3-µm particle. and demisters.52 [11]. For a 0. B.4. where it can be vented easily. an approved challenge agent. Filter performance requirements are based on penetration at a specified airflow and static pressure.1 Dust Filters/Prefilters/Postfilters Dust filters are selected for the efficiency required by the particular application and according to ASHRAE.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment Inlet water connections to chilled water cooling coils are usually made at the bottom tapping so that the water flow is up through the coil and out the top tapping. B-17 . The composition of the filter train is dictated by the type and concentration of the contaminant. ASME N509 [14]. There are two reasons for connecting water coils in this manner. One or both of the following methods may be used for in-place testing of a stage of filtration: 1) mass flow testing of the stage as a whole or 2) testing of the individual filters and frame that make up the stage. the penetration at rated airflow must not exceed 0. these filters are used in supply side inlet applications to minimize dust entry into the plant. the process air conditions.4. First.2 through B. HEPA filters are in-place tested and inspected when first installed and tested periodically thereafter.3. B.03%. The resistance wire may be bare or sheathed. HEPA filters.4.4) to prevent them from being loaded with atmospheric dust and to minimize replacement costs. 10CFR20 [10]. Second. and 10CFR100 [12] [for the United States]).140 [9]. sand filters.

Interlocks should be provided to prevent heater operation when the exhaust fan is de-energized. the two functions are combined. The air rises through several layers of various sizes of sand and gravel. and diffusers [GRDs]). Smaller cross-sectional laterals running perpendicular to the inlet tunnel distribute the air across the base of the sand. Charcoal filters lose efficiency rapidly as RH increases. On some occasions. They are often preceded by a heating element to keep the RH of the entering air below 70%.5 Terminal Devices A terminal is defined as a point where the controlled medium (fluid or energy) enters or leaves the distribution system. Demisters should be fire resistant. both elements are critical components in the acoustical design of a space. boxes) and those that distribute or collect the flow of air (grilles. electric heating coils should be connected to the emergency power supply. grilles. These filters typically have an efficiency of 99.4. registers.4. these may be heat transfer coils. B-18 . B. convectors. registers. or finned-tube radiation or radiant panels. The air enters an inlet tunnel that runs the entire length of the filter.9% for elemental iodine and 95–99% for organic iodine. Electric heating coils and/or demisters may be used to meet the RH conditions required for charcoal filters.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment B. these terminals may be variable air or constant volume boxes. fan coil units. In water systems. and hoods.4 Sand Filters Sand filters consist of multiple beds of sand and gravel through which air is drawn. B. Because these two elements are both the final components in many built-up air delivery systems and the components closest to the building occupants.3 Charcoal Adsorbers Activated charcoal adsorbers are used mainly to remove radioactive iodine in its vapor or gaseous state. A critical interplay also exists between acoustics and the primary function of these devices.000 Hz. providing a proper quantity of well-mixed air to the building occupants. For safety-class systems. diffusers. There are two types: those that control the amount of airflow to a temperature zone (air control units [ACUs] or. Bed depths are typically 2 or 4 inches (25 or 50 mm) but may be deeper. In air systems. They usually determine the residual background noise level from 125 to 2. Air terminals are the most noise-sensitive of all HVAC products because they are almost always mounted in or directly over occupied spaces. typically at a rate of 5 ft/min (25 mm/s). It is then collected in the outlet tunnel for discharge to the atmosphere. more commonly. Demisters (mist eliminators) are required to protect HEPA and charcoal filters if entrained moisture droplets are expected in the airstream. louvers. The term air terminals has historically been used to describe a number of devices that control airflows into occupied spaces at the zone (or individual temperature control area) level.

1 Single-Duct This basic terminal consists of casing. makes this possible.5.000 Hz region. Because there is no provision for mixing the two airstreams.1 through B.5. In some applications. rather than room criteria (RC). (When stratification occurs. Controls can be pneumatic. in which zero-to-low airflow can be tolerated as the temperature requirement shifts from cooling to heating. together with the necessary changeover circuitry. Accessories such as round outlets.2 Dual-Duct. this terminal should not be used for simultaneous heating and cooling.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment Diffusers are commonly specified and reported in noise criteria (NC). Figure B-7 Single-Duct Configuration (Courtesy of Titus. the same terminal is used for both heating and cooling. In most cases.9. this terminal modulates the flow of hot and cold air in two separate streams supplied by a dual-duct central AHU (see Figure B-8). and sound attenuators may be added. and associated controls. the several outlets served by the terminal may deliver air at noticeably different temperatures. a damper. electric. The single-duct terminal is most often used in an interior zone of the building for cooling only. or direct digital electronic.5. which would result in stratification in the discharge duct. Different types of terminal devices and physical configurations are described in Sections B. a damper actuator. B-19 . multiple outlets.) The nonmixing dual-duct terminal is best used in an exterior zone.5. B. a dual-function thermostat. there is no difference between NC and RC for diffusers because they usually peak in the 500–2. analogelectronic. the terminal varies the airflow through a single-duct handling hot or cold air (see Figure B-7). and the resultant numerical specification is the same for both NC and RC. Nonmixing Essentially the same as two single-duct terminals side-by-side. Inc.) B. In response to control signals from a thermostat or other source.

there is a velocity sensor in the hot air inlet but none in the cold air inlet. Inc. Nonmixing Configuration (Courtesy of Titus.3 Dual-Duct.) B. A velocity sensor at the discharge measures the total flow of air and sends the signal to the cold air controller. The hot water coil is usually modulated by a proportioning valve controlled by the same thermostat that controls the terminal. When equipped with direct digital controls (DDCs). Mixing Here the terminal is designed specifically for mixing hot (or tempered ventilation) and cold air in any proportion (see Figure B-9). Mixing Configuration (Courtesy of Titus. B-20 . Inc. A dual minimum cubic feet per minute or “flip-flop” control can be added for increased heating airflow.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment Figure B-8 Dual-Duct.) B. In the mixing cycle. When the terminal is equipped with pneumatic controls. This dual-duct terminal is often used in an exterior zone of a building or to ensure proper ventilation rates.5. The single-duct terminal with heating coil is most often used in an exterior zone with moderate heating requirements because the terminal normally handles its minimum cubic feet per minute in the heating mode. the hot airflow changes first. and a change in cold airflow follows in order to maintain a constant total (mixed) volume. No discharge velocity sensor is used.5. both hot and cold inlets have velocity sensors. Figure B-9 Dual-Duct. with the summation of flows computed by the microprocessor. energized by contactors in response to the room thermostat working through a multiple-step relay. Control for the electric coil is either 100% on/off or in steps of capacity.4 Single-Duct with Heating Coil Figure B-10 shows a single-duct terminal with a heating coil (either the hot water or the electric type) added.

and cool primary air is supplied from the central system. however. the inlet static pressure can be lower than in the parallel flow terminal. The result is variable volume from the central system and constant volume (and sound) to the room. constant volume. variable volume. A backdraft damper prevents reverse flow through the fan. The fan. Parallel Configuration (Courtesy of Titus.) B. parallel terminal.5. Additional heat can be provided by a hot water or electric coil on the terminal.6 Fan-Powered. During the cooling cycle. Because the central system needs only to deliver air as far as the fan.5 Fan-Powered Variable Volume (Parallel) Figure B-11 illustrates a fan-powered. Constant Volume (Series) Figure B-12 illustrates a fan-powered.) B. These terminals are often used in applications where constant background sound and continuous airflow are desired. The more primary air is forced in. B-21 . In this terminal. Inc. is sized to handle the total airflow.5. the fan is off. series terminal. This type of terminal is used in exterior zones. Inc.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment Figure B-10 Single-Duct with Heating Coil Configuration (Courtesy of Titus. The fan runs continuously. the fan can be sized smaller than in the series flow terminal. fed by a mixture of primary and plenum air. The flow of the primary air is regulated by variable air volume controls. Figure B-11 Fan-Powered. Variable Volume. The heating cycle occurs generally when the primary air is off or at minimum flow. the less plenum air is drawn in. Heat is picked up as the recirculated air is drawn from the ceiling space and the fan motor. a fan is added to recirculate plenum air for heating only. Because the fan handles only the heating airflow (which is usually less than that for cooling).

Inc. Inc. is well suited to handle the very cold air delivered by systems designed for air much colder than with conventional 55°F (13°C) supply systems.5. Instead of the usual primary air butterfly damper. special baffling. Other quiet performance features are a more rigid casing.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment Figure B-12 Fan-Powered. The primary air section is enclosed in a soundattenuating chamber. Figure B-13 Fan-Powered. Quiet This constant volume terminal uses special design and construction features that provide unusually quiet operation (see Figure B-13). This air valve reduces noise-producing turbulence.5.7 Low-Temperature Fan Terminals The fan terminal. the primary air must be raised to a conventional supply temperature before it enters the room. with its inherent mixing. In order to use standard diffusers. many applications have been used with parallel units with a constantly running fan. A common solution is to mix the primary air with recirculated air with a fan-powered terminal.) B. there is a specially designed damper assembly mounted in the primary air section enclosure.8 Fan-Powered. and other applications where a minimum-noise. and a fan specially selected for low noise levels. premium-quality terminal is required. Quiet Configuration (Courtesy of Titus. B. Terminals of this type are used in broadcast studios. The low-temperature terminal has a special casing and insulation. Although the most common application uses a series flow unit.) B-22 . libraries. Constant Volume Series Configuration (Courtesy of Titus.

circular. and bronze. low-profile terminal. or off-site buildings are usually designed as commercial systems. and some that are built to nuclear-unique design requirements exceed the ASHRAE standard for industrial designs. In addition. Inc. The terminal can fit into the channel space with no extra depth required. Ceiling space can be as little as 12–14 inches (30.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment B. Ducts are available in numerous configurations but most commonly have rectangular. PVC-coated. The low-profile terminal is also useful in buildings constructed with precast concrete channel floors. B-23 . HVAC systems in administrative. stainless steel.6. Low-Profile Configuration (Courtesy of Titus. This constant or variable volume terminal has a vertical dimension of only 10. duct construction is generally classified by application and pressure. In localities where building heights are limited.6 Ductwork B. copper.5.) B.1 General Ducts are the means by which air is transported from the fan to the terminal devices. aluminized steel. In ASHRAE standards.5 inches (27 cm) for all sizes in order to minimize the depth of ceiling space required. Often the recirculating fan is laid flat on its side with its shaft vertical. fiberglass. the low-profile terminal saves enough space to allow extra floors to be included in a high-rise structure.5 cm) deep. or oval cross-sectional configurations. are constructed of single or double walls. some buildings that contain HVAC systems are built to industrial designs. and can vary in the degree of allowable leakage (airtightness). training. Typical materials used to fabricate ducts are galvanized. galvaneal.4–35. Low-Profile Figure B-14 illustrates a fan-powered.9 Fan-Powered. brass. Figure B-14 Fan-Powered.

paragraphs a and b. lateral. and test requirements. Appendix B. 10CFR100 [12] establishes the limits for airborne radioactive material. Under accident conditions. with or without reducers Elbows – stamped. 90° tee with or without reducer Wye branches B. conical with or without reducers. B-24 .EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment The following duct fittings are most commonly employed in a commercial or industrial application: • • • • • • • • • Crosses – conical. This guidance can be used to determine duct construction. The section references a nonmandatory Appendix SA-B. installation. 10CFR20 [10] sets limits on the airborne radioactive material concentrations in areas of nuclear facilities in which plant personnel may be present. which describes procedures to determine allowable leakage for ductwork. The referenced Appendix SA-B provides additional guidance on determining the allowable leakage for air cleaning. These limits are given by 10CFR20. Optional guidance is also provided for determining alternate leakage criteria based on air cleaning and air cooling system effectiveness and expected system installation qualities.6. 90° saddle. or welded gore Laterals – with or without reducers Offsets Reducers – concentric or eccentric Saddles – 90° conical saddle.2.2 Duct Leakage Classifications Section SA-4500 of ASME AG-1 [15] provides pressure boundary leakage guidance. and the iodine protection factor) and provides typical sample problems. B. standing seam.6. Section B-1200 of Appendix SA-B provides procedures for determining the maximum duct out-leakage based on the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) as determined by 10CFR20. the maximum permissible concentration. air conditioning.103. Table 1. The appendix presents a method for determining allowable leakage based on health physics requirements (such as the radioactivity concentration.1 Allowable Leakage by Radiological Control Criteria For normal plant operating conditions. and ventilation systems. or 45° saddle Takeoffs – 90° shoe takeoff or register box takeoff Tees – bull-nose.

Leakage Class I indicates that a more stringent leakage rate is required.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment B.3 Duct Construction B. B-25 . which have been previously established in industry standards. The two components are the fan and the air cleaning unit.2. The three spaces represent the possible locations for different parts of the air cleaning system. The three spaces may be either exterior or interior and are 1) the contaminated space.3 An air cleaning system can be defined schematically in terms of three spaces and two components.3. respectively. The interspace may be contaminated or clean in relation to the air cleaning system located within the interspace.6. B.1 Materials For commercial materials.2 Additional Leakage Criteria Additional leakage criteria may be developed to meet plant-specific ALARA criteria. which classifies ducts as follows: • • Class 0 – Air ducts and air connectors having surface burning charateristics of zero Class 1 – Air ducts and air connectors having a flame-spread index of less than 25 (without evidence of continued progressive combustion) and a smoke-developed index of less than 50. are identified in Section B 1300 of Appendix SA-B: • • • Air cleaning system effectiveness Air cooling effectiveness System quality Air Cleaning System Configuration and Leakage Classes B.6. Section B 1400 of Appendix SA-B defines leakage classes. The contaminated and protected spaces also include the points of system origin and termination. a higher leakage rate may be allowable. It is recommend that the basis for any additional criteria be documented to allow the future evaluation of test data. Additional criteria may take the form of specifying air cleaning system effectiveness or system quality parameters. The following examples of criteria. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 90A [21] is used as a guide standard by many building code agencies.6.6.2. NFPA Standard 90A [21] invokes Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Standard 181 [22]. 2) the protected space. Leakage Class II indicates that. The interspace refers to all other spaces— contaminated or clean—where the air cleaning system or its parts may be located. and 3) the interspace. because of system configuration and location.

B-26 . Any shape of transverse joint or intermediate reinforcement member that meets the minimum requirement of both section modulus and the moment of inertia may be selected. Particulate-conveying duct systems are generally classified as follows: • • • • • Class 1 covers nonparticulate applications.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment For industrial materials.3.6. reinforcement. vapors. dryers and kilns. The data contained in this manual give the duct construction for any pressure class and panel width. and gaseous emission control Class 2 is imposed on moderately abrasive particulate in light concentration. such as that produced from abrasive cleaning. or aluminum are most frequently used for industrial air handling. SMACNA “Rectangular Industrial Duct Construction Standards” [25] is available for selecting material thickness and reinforcement members for industrial ducts. and maximum distance between reinforcements. such as that produced by buffing and polishing Class 3 consists of highly abrasive material in low concentration. and reinforcement member spacing to limit the deflection of the duct panel to a design maximum. or mists must be selected carefully. general ventilation. Each side of a rectangular duct is considered a panel. The dominant factor in round duct construction is the ability of the material to withstand the physical damage caused by installation and negative pressure requirements. Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors’ National Association (SMACNA) “HVAC Duct Construction Standards – Metal and Flexible” [24] lists construction requirements for rectangular steel ducts and includes combinations of duct thicknesses. such as acid fumes Galvanized steel. Ducts are sometimes built with the bottom plate thicker than the other three sides. The designer often selects a combination of panel thickness.2 Rectangular and Round Ducts For commercial design. the four sides of a rectangular duct are built of material with the same thickness. Usually. reinforcement. Round ducts are inherently strong and rigid and are generally the most efficient and economical ducts for air systems. uncoated carbon steel. including makeup air. SMACNA “HVAC Duct Construction Standards – Metal and Flexible” [24] gives information for the selection of material thickness and reinforcement members for spiral and nonspiral industrial round ducts. Aluminum ductwork is not used for systems conveying abrasive materials and. and boiler breeching Class 4 is composed of highly abrasive particulates in high concentration Class 5 applies to corrosive applications. when temperatures exceed 400°F (204°C). B. Ductwork material for systems handling corrosive gases. For industrial design. NFPA Standard 91 [23] is widely used for duct systems conveying particulates and removing flammable vapors (including paint-spraying residue) and corrosive fumes. galvanized steel is not recommended.

duct liners must also be resistant to erosion and fire and have properties compatible with the ductwork fabrication and erection processes. Although many materials are acoustically absorbent. flexible ducts should be kept as short and straight as possible.6. B. Duct systems of round and rectangular fibrous glass are generally limited to 2400 ft/min (12 m/s) and ±2 inches (±500 Pa) of water. fully extended. This material is available in molded round sections or in board form for fabrication into rectangular or polygonal shapes. SMACNA “HVAC Duct Construction Standards – Metal and Flexible” [24] describes commercial HVAC system hangers for rectangular.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment B. Flat oval ducts are typically used for positive pressure applications unless special designs are used. and compression of these ducts significantly increase airflow resistance. When special analysis is required for larger ducts or loads or for other hanger configurations. which serves as a finish and vapor barrier. Sheet metal thicknesses and reinforcement for plenum and casing pressure outside the range of -3 to +1 inches (-750 to +250 Pa) of water can be based on SMACNA “Rectangular Industrial Duct Construction Standards” [25].3. round. Molded round ducts are available in higher pressure ratings than are board form ducts.6. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) “Manual of Steel Construction” [26] and AISI “Cold Formed Steel Design Manual” [27] should be used. and other terminals to the air distribution system. B.6.3.4 Fibrous Glass Ducts Fibrous glass ducts are a composite of rigid fiberglass and a factory-applied facing (typically aluminum or reinforced aluminum).3.3. For higher velocity ducts. Because unnecessary length.3. seams and transverse joints are generally the same as those permitted for round ducts. B.5 Flexible Ducts Flexible ducts typically connect mixing boxes.7 Acoustical Treatment Metal ducts are frequently lined with acoustically absorbent materials to reduce aerodynamic noise.6.8 Hangers For commercial applications.6 Plenums and Apparatus Casings SMACNA “HVAC Duct Construction Standards – Metal and Flexible” [24] shows details on field-fabricated plenum and apparatus casings.6. B-27 . and supported to minimize sagging. double-wall construction using a perforated metal liner is frequently specified. B. B.3. and flat oval ducts. offsetting.6.3 Flat Oval Ducts For commercial applications. diffusers. Hanger designs and installation details for rectangular ducts generally apply to flat oval ducts. light troffers.

5 cm) of duct insulation. which will accommodate 1 inch (2. however. 25] as well as manufacturers’ schedules include duct design information for supporting ducts at intervals of up to 35 feet (8. and 2-3/8 inches (6 cm).7 Instrument Test Ports Instrument test ports make it easy and economical to provide openings for pitot tubes and other test instruments in order to measure static pressures and air velocities. in some cases. Instrument test ports are typically available in a variety of sizes. a flat gasket is supplied to prevent air leakage around the base. Inc. with total heights varying to accommodate different thicknesses of insulation. The hole is sealed off with a heavy screw cap and gasket. The SMACNA standards for round and rectangular industrial ducts [24.9 m).) Key Technical Point Instrument test ports attached with rivets and sealed with gaskets may not be suitable for nuclear plant applications requiring zero-leakage. The most common heights are 1-3/8 inches (3. the AISC “Manual of Steel Construction” [26] and the AISC “Cold Formed Steel Design Manual” [27] give design information for industrial duct hangers and supports. as shown in Figure B-15. B-28 .5 cm). Unless otherwise specified.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment For industrial applications. B. Figure B-15 Instrument Test Port (Courtesy of Ventfabrics. the test port can be configured with a curved base and a special gasket to accommodate a curved duct. which will accommodate 2 inches (5 cm) of duct insulation.

EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

B.8

Airflow Measuring Stations

Airflow measuring stations are permanent devices installed in an appropriate length of duct in order to measure attributes about the airflow at that given location. Several types of stations are described in Sections B.8.1 through B.8.5.

B.8.1 Multiport with Integral Air Straightener
Figure B-16 shows a multiport, self-averaging pitot traverse station with an integral air straightener-equalizer honeycomb cell. Many of these types of stations are capable of continuously measuring fan discharges or ducted airflow with an accuracy of 2% or better. A multiport pitot tube traverse station offers its high degree of measuring accuracy by virtue of precisely located sensors, honeycomb airflow processing, and instantaneous pneumatic averaging of multiple pressure values. Some airflow measuring stations use a process known as symmetrical averaging, which requires that all stages in the averaging process occur at a point where there is a balanced array of sensors present, ensuring that each sensed pressure is given the same “equal weight” in the averaging process.

Figure B-16 Multiport Air Measuring Station with an Integral Air Straightener (Courtesy of Air Monitoring Corp.)

B.8.2 Traverse Probe
Figure B-17 shows an airflow traverse station that uses one or more traverse probes (factory mounted in a rigid welded galvanized casing) to sense and average separate total and static pressure traverses of an airstream. Multiple sets of total and static pressure sensing points, positioned along the length of each probe, traverse the airstream in single lines across the duct B-29

EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

and average the sensed pressures in separate internal manifolds. Factory-installed static and total pressure signal tubing connects the individual probes, terminating at the galvanized casing for field connection. These types of air measuring stations are suited for installations in ductwork, fan inlets, and other configurations operating at temperatures ranging from -20ºF to 400ºF (-29ºC to 204ºC).

Figure B-17 Traverse Probe Air Measuring Station (Courtesy of Air Monitoring Corp.)

B.8.3 Pitot Traverse Station
The pitot traverse station is a flow traverse station that combines a honeycomb air straightenerequalizer with proven multipoint, self-averaging pitot technology. As shown in Figure B-18, these types of air measuring stations provide the means to measure low air volumes of 20 to 1700 ft3/min in small-diameter round ducts within 2% of actual airflow.

B-30

EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

Figure B-18 Pitot Traverse Station (Courtesy of Air Monitoring Corp.)

B.8.4 Hot Wire Sensor
One or more mass flow measuring devices (for example, a hot wire sensor) measure the instantaneous average mass velocity. Figure B-19 provides typical illustrations of one of these devices.

Figure B-19 Multipoint Insertion Mass Flow Element (Courtesy of Kurz Instruments, Inc.)

B-31

EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

In some models, each sensor uses a unique sensor circuit that eliminates output changes caused by temperature variations. The circuit also allows the sensor cable to be shortened or lengthened without affecting the calibration. This is especially useful for sensors having remote sensor electronics.

B.8.5 Orifice Plates
The measurement of fluid (water) flow is necessary to permit the intelligent, safe, and efficient operation of equipment used in nuclear power facilities. This includes measurement of air, gas, water, and steam flows. An orifice plate is commonly used for these measurements because it provides a measurable pressure drop based on a given flow and velocity. An orifice plate can be considered a type of flow meter that typically exhibits the characteristics shown in Table B-2.
Table B-2 Orifice Plate Characteristics Characteristic Accuracy Range of control Pressure loss Straight piping requirements (upstream) Straight piping requirements (downstream) ±1% to 5% full scale 3:1 to 5:1 High (typically >5 psi [34.5 kPa] for water applications) 10–40 pipe diameters Value

2–6 pipe diameters

An orifice provides flow metering in the following manner. As a compressible fluid passes through a nozzle, a drop in pressure and a simultaneous increase in velocity result. By assuming the type of flow (for example, adiabatic), it is possible to calculate, from the properties of the fluid, the required area for the cross-section of the nozzle so that the flowing fluid may just fill the provided space. This calculation indicates that for all compressible fluids, the nozzle form must first be converging—but eventually, if the pressure drops sufficiently, the nozzle form must become diverging to accommodate the increased volume caused by the expansion. The smallest cross-section of the nozzle is called the throat, and the pressure at the throat is the critical flow pressure.

B.9

Humidifiers

Humidifiers should be installed where the air can absorb the vapor. The temperature of the air being humidified must exceed the dew point of the space being humidified. When fresh or mixed air is humidified, the air may need to be preheated to allow absorption to take place.

B-32

Optional filters may be required to remove the mineral dust from the humidified air. or they may be installed remotely and feed vapor through a hose.2 Direct Steam Injection Humidifiers These units cover a wide range of designs and capacities. the process of humidification can be simplified by adding steam directly into the air.5 to 103. the steam source is usually a central steam boiler at low pressure.1 Heated Pan Humidifiers These units offer a broad range of capacities and may be heated by a heat exchanger supplied with either steam or hot water. If the humidifier is a freestanding unit.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment B.9.9. The steam is generated at atmospheric pressure and discharged into the duct system through dispersion manifolds. When steam is supplied from a source at a constant supply pressure.9. In either case. humidification responds quickly to system demand. atomizing humidifiers may require a reverse osmosis (RO) or a deionized (DI) water treatment system to remove the minerals. They may be installed directly under the duct.4 Atomizing Humidifiers Water treatment should be considered if mineral fallout from hard water is a problem. periodic cleaning is required to remove the buildup of minerals.3 Electrically Heated. Because steam is water vapor under pressure and at high temperature. When raw water is used. generally at a water temperature higher than 240 °F (116°C). Hot water heat exchangers are also used in pan humidifiers. Steam heat exchangers are commonly used in heated pan humidifiers. Some units allow the use of softened or demineralized water. A control valve may be modulating or two-position in response to a humidity sensor/controller. a distribution manifold should be used. For this type of humidification system. with steam pressures ranging from 5 to 15 psig (34. B. All pan humidifiers should have water regulation and some form of drain or flush system. This is an isothermal process because the temperature of the air remains almost constant as the moisture is added. the steam is discharged directly into the air through a fan. Wetted parts should be able to resist the corrosive effects of DI and RO water.4 kPa). Depending on the application and the water condition. Self-Contained Steam Humidifiers These units convert ordinary tap water to steam by electrical energy using either electrodes or resistance heater elements. B. Care should be taken to ensure that all water is drained off when the system is not in use to avoid the possibility of bacterial growth in the stagnant water. B-33 . which greatly extends the time between cleanings.9. Steam can be introduced into the airstream through one of the following devices: • • Single or multiple steam-jacketed manifold Non-jacketed manifold or panel distribution system B.

some dehumidification systems can provide cool. These humidifiers are adiabatic.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment The following are the three main categories of atomizing humidifiers: • • • Ultrasonic humidifiers – use a piezoelectric transducer submerged in demineralized water Centrifugal humidifiers – use a high-speed disk that slings water to its rim Compressed-air nozzle humidifiers B. Water is circulated over the media while air is blown through the openings. Some computer-designed dehumidification systems take moisture-laden air from the conditioned space and pass it over the deep row dehumidification coil. Rigid media cores are often used for the dual purposes of winter humidification and summer cooling. The air leaving the dehumidifier is 10 to 15 degrees warmer than the air entering. B-34 . cooling the air as it is humidified. A humidistat starts the dehumidifier upon a buildup of humidity in the room and stops when the set point is reached. This warmer air adds room heating and is beneficial during cold months. With the addition of a remote condenser.10 Dehumidifiers Dehumidification systems are typically employed where control of humidity and moisture is critical. raising the temperature equal to a combination of sensible and latent heat from the refrigeration cycle. Technologically advanced dehumidification coils can extract maximum amounts of moisture under difficult conditions. and velocity. and the rate of evaporation varies with air temperature. A continuous bleed or regular pan flushing is recommended to minimize the accumulation of contaminants in the pan and on the media.9. Wetted media humidifiers have inherent filtration and scrubbing properties as a result of the water-washing effect in the filter-like channels. This air is immediately passed through a re-heat coil. The temperature of this air is lowered to its dew point temperature. An automatic changeover thermostat allows the system to maintain the desired room temperature in both summer and winter. contaminants collected from the air and water must be flushed from the system. and water is condensed from the air. They depend on the airflow for evaporation. An optional water-heating coil may be added to a dehumidifier to provide hot water for industrial processes.5 Wetted Media Humidifiers Rigid media humidifiers use a porous core. The operation of most dehumidifiers is completely automatic. dry air to the conditioned space. humidity. Because only pure water is evaporated. B.

B-35 . In a double-suction pump.11 Centrifugal Pumps Centrifugal or kinetic pumps are typically used to provide fluid flow to HVAC systems for heating or cooling. The two major types of suction configurations are single-suction and double-suction. as the liquid is discharged from the impeller into the volute casing. The vanes efficiently reduce the velocity in order to increase pump head and. centrifugal pumps are classified by one of two casing configurations: volute or diffuser. The doubling of the inlet area subsequently lowers the inlet velocity and thus the NPSH required. A volute is a spiral-like form. in the case of a multistage pump. The disadvantage of the single-suction configuration is that it typically requires higher net positive suction head (NPSH) than a double-suction configuration.EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment B. 1) the volute areas increase at a rate proportional to the discharge of liquid from the impeller and 2) a constant velocity exists around the periphery of the impeller. direct this lower velocity fluid into vaned return channels that guide the liquid to the inlet or eye of the next stage impeller. In the case of single-stage pumps. the discharge from the diffuser is collected in a surrounding casing. A single-suction configuration is often employed with a radially split casing to achieve higher design pressures and temperatures. which guides the liquid out of the pump through the discharge nozzle. A design feature of single-stage pumps is the configuration of the inlet of the impeller. This velocity is then diffused in the casing nozzle. The other common casing classification is diffuser construction. Figures B-20 and B-21 illustrate the differences between the single-suction and double-suction horizontal pumps. A diffuser is actually a series of vanes surrounding the impeller that accept the discharge of liquid from the impeller. The single-stage centrifugal pump is often installed in HVAC systems. Typically. the flow comes from a single source and splits—doubling the inlet area.

EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment Figure B-20 Single-Stage Horizontal Pump (Single-Suction) Figure B-21 Single-Stage Horizontal Pump (Double-Suction) B-36 .

The examples and methods of documenting/calculating HVAC system parameters are provided for illustrative purposes only. the form records the data measured and is structured to allow the engineer/technician to perform the necessary calculations on the same document. the data entry may be performed electronically. Documentation requirements and calculation procedures vary from plant to plant.1 Typical Documentation Requirements As noted in Section 1. these forms are then used as input for performing calculations. In some cases. and the information provided in this report should not be used in lieu of plantspecific procedures. either using the equations noted in Appendix D or using computer programs (that is. In most cases. the documentation is a hard-copy form that the engineer/technician uses to manually record data. a spreadsheet or commercially available software). C-1 . In other cases. C. Some documentation is designed to allow for data entry and calculation. the documentation used to record HVAC system parameters is often customized by each plant.2 Testing. and Balancing Forms Figures C-1 through C-4 illustrate means by which HVAC TAB information may be documented. In these cases. The forms are examples provided for illustrative purposes only. Adjusting.EPRI Licensed Material C TYPICAL HVAC TAB DOCUMENTATION C.

in. in. H2O Fan Total Press... in. cfm Inlet Air Temperature Air Flow (Fan Curves) MOTOR MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION Description As Found Measured Data As Left Measured Data Avg. of Belt Design As Found Measured Data As Left Measured Data Initial/Date Inlet Total Press.. Dia. Discharge Total Press. rpm Figure C-1 Fan Data AB BC AC Avg. Full Load Current.) Initial/Date Horsepower Serial No. C-2 . volts Motor Speed. H2O Measured Flow.EPRI Licensed Material Typical HVAC TAB Documentation MOTOR: Full Load Current. in. volts Speed. H2O. in. Dia.) As Left Measured Data (Avg. amps Full Load Voltage. Service Factor Frame Drive sheave size. Description Nameplate Fan Data As Found Measured Data (Avg. amps A B C Avg. A B C Full Load Voltage. rpm MISCELLANEOUS: Locked Rotor Current. Manufacturer Motor Frame Adjustment FAN: Rotation From Outlet Belt Tension Drive Sheave size. AB BC AC Avg. Power Factor Efficiency Fan to Motor Shaft Centerline Belt Size No. amps Model No.

Velocity Actual Velocity: fpm (Vt ) X ft2 (Dt ) = acfm System Mode of Operation: Pre Temperature = Post Temperature = Avg Temperature = Pre Static Pressure = Post Static Pressure = Avg Static Pressure = Altitude Correction Factor = Temperature Correction Factor = Total Correction Factor X Air Flow Reading = Corrected Air Flow Barometric Pressure = Traverse Readings Points VP FPM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total FPM = Required Flow = SCFM = Traverse Readings Points VP FPM 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Total FPM = Actual Flow = Traverse Readings Points VP FPM 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Total FPM = % Difference Flow = Figure C-2 Round Duct Traverse Data Sheet C-3 . Duct Area: Number of readings in Traverse (n): Area Served: Sum of Readings: fpm/n = fpm (Vt ) Avg.EPRI Licensed Material Typical HVAC TAB Documentation ROUND DUCT TRAVERSE DATA SHEET Date: System: Pitot #: Time: Test Location: (Elev) Duct Dia.: in.

P. FPM V. FPM V.P. FPM V.P.P. FPM V. FPM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total Trav Reading 7 Reading 8 Reading 9 Reading 10 Reading 11 Reading 12 Points V. FPM V.P. FPM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total Figure C-3 Rectangular Duct Traverse Data Sheet C-4 .P. FPM V.P.P.P. FPM V.P. FPM V. X = in Duct Area: in2. Velocity Actual Velocity: fpm (Vt ) X ft2 (Duct Area ) = acfm System Mode of Operation: Pre Temperature = Post Temperature = Avg Temperature = Pre Static Pressure = Post Static Pressure = Avg Static Pressure = Altitude Correction Factor = Temperature Correction Factor = Total Correction Factor X Air Flow Reading = Corrected Air Flow Required Flow = Actual Flow = % Difference Flow = Barometric Pressure = SCFM = Trav Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5 Reading 6 Points V. FPM V. / 144 in2 = ft2 Duct Cross Section Area Number of readings in (Trav) Traverse (n): Sum of Readings: fpm/n = fpm (Vt ) Avg.EPRI Licensed Material Typical HVAC TAB Documentation RECTANGULAR DUCT TRAVERSE DATA SHEET Date: System: Pitot #: Time: Test Location: (Elev) Duct Dim. FPM V.P.P.

Total = % Diff. Total = C-5 .EPRI Licensed Material Typical HVAC TAB Documentation System: Location: Date Grille/Register Outlet Room Area Served ID # Operating Mode: Size AK Design VEL CFM As Found VEL CFM As Left VEL CFM Initial Total = Air Balance Engineer: Figure C-4 Grille/Register Data Sheet Date: % Diff.

.

D-2 m = mass of the gas (lbm) Continuity equation & = ρ ⋅ A ⋅V m Eq. a dimensional analysis is highly recommended.EPRI Licensed Material D EQUATIONS AND CALCULATIONS Note: In some cases. Because this is not always the case. dimensional constants have been added to ensure proper units. D-1 Eq.1 Fundamental Equations Ideal gas law P = ρRT (PV = mRT) P1V1 P2V2 = T1 T2 where: P = absolute pressure of the gas (lbf/ft2) ρ = gas density (lbm/ft 3) R = gas constant (ft-lbf/lbm – Rankine [ °R]) T = absolute temperature of the gas (°R) 3 V = gas volume (ft ) Eq. D. D-3 where: & = mass flow rate across (lbm/min) m ρ = fluid density (lbm/ft3) A = area (ft 2) V = fluid velocity (ft/min) D-1 .

D-6 Re = 8.EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations Q = AV where: Air Q = volumetric flow rate A = cross-sectional area of the duct V = fluid velocity (ft3/min) (ft2) (ft/min) Water (gpm) (ft2) (ft/s) Eq. D-7 D-2 .56 D hV for standard air Eq. D-5 where: ν = kinematic viscosity (ft 2/s) µ = absolute viscosity (lbm/ft ⋅ s) ρ = fluid density (lbm/ft ) 3 Reynolds number Re = VDh 720 ⋅ν Eq. D-4 Kinematic viscosity ν = µ ρ Eq.

D-8 where: Re = Reynolds number V = fluid velocity (ft/min) Dh = hydraulic diameter (inches) ν = fluid kinematic viscosity (ft /s) 2 A = cross-sectional area (ft 2) P = wetted perimeter (ft) Bernoulli’s equation p1 V p V + 1 + z1 = 2 + 2 + z 2 + H loss ρ ⋅ g 2g ρ ⋅ g 2g where: p = static pressure (lbf/ft 2) V= velocity (ft/s) z = elevation (ft) Hloss = head loss (ft) g = local acceleration due to gravity (ft/s 2) ρ = fluid density (lbm/ft ) 3 2 2 Eq.EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations Dh = 4⋅ A for noncircular pipes P Eq. D-9 D-3 .

D-13 where: ω = humidity ratio (lbm of moisture/lbm of dry air) pw = partial pressure of water vapor (psia) p = total mixture pressure (psia) D-4 .) Eq.g. D-12 where: SHR = sensible heat ratio qsensible = sensible heat (Btu/h) qlatent = latent heat (Btu/h) ∆ TdB = dry bulb temperature difference of the air ( °F) ∆ qtotal = change in total heat content of the supply air (Btu/lbm) Humidity ratio Ω = 0.g.g. w. w. w.62198 pw p − pw Eq.) Ps = static pressure (in.) Pv = velocity pressure (in. D-11 SHR = Eq.EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations Total pressure Pt = P v + P s where: Pt = total pressure (in.24 ∆TdB ∆q total Eq. D-10 Sensible heat ratio SHR = q sensible (q sensible + q latent ) 0.

3164 Re<105 Re 0.237 Re Eq. Pipe.2 Fanning friction factor: f 4 64 Re 2 For fully developed laminar flow: f = For smooth conduit walls with turbulent flow: f = 0. and Duct Friction Loss Equations Darcy-Weisbach equation 2  L  v  hl = f       D  2 g  Eq.EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations D. D-15 where: Re = Reynolds number f = 0.2 Conduit. D-14 where: f = friction factor (as defined below) L = pipe length (ft) D = pipe diameter (ft) v = fluid velocity (ft/s ) g = 32.0032 + 0.221 105< Re < 3 ⋅ 106 0.25 Eq.14 + 2 log  f ε  Eq. D-16 Fully rough flow: 1 D = 1. D-17 D-5 .

74 − 2 log +  D Re f f      Eq. and turbulent flows): 3  12  8 12 − f = 8  + (A + B ) 2   Re     1 Eq.EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations Colebrook equation for turbulent flow regime: 1  2ε 18.167 Eq. and 110 for riveted pipe} D = pipe internal diameter (ft) 1. D-18 where: ε = material absolute roughness factor (ft) Churchill’s friction factor correlation (valid for the entire range of laminar.022 ⋅ L  C where: hl = head loss (ft ) L = pipe length (ft) v = average velocity (ft/s) C = roughness factor {140 for new steel pipe. D-20 D-6 . 130 for new cast iron pipe. critical. 7 D         37530  B=   Re  16 16 Hazen-Williams equation v hl = 3.7 = 1.852 1    D 1.9  k  A = − 2. D-19 where:  7  0.457 ln   +   Re 3 .

6 sin K = (1-β2)2 θ (1-β2)2 2 for θ ≤ 45° for 45°< θ ≤ 180° Eq. D-23 where: hl = head loss (ft ) K= geometry and size dependent loss coefficient f = friction factor  L    D  = equivalent length in pipe diameters & Q = volumetric flow rate (gpm) Cv = valve coefficient. To obtain the K values in terms of the larger pipe. D-25 The value of resistance coefficients K is based on the velocity in the small pipe. divide the equations by β4. D-24 Eq. D-21 Eq. D-22 Eq.) d2 = diameter of the large pipe (in. where: β = d1/d2 d1 = diameter of the small pipe (in. gpm at ∆p = 1 psi ∆p = pressure drop (psi) Resistance coefficient for sudden and gradual enlargements in pipe K = 2.EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations Valve and fitting losses in pipes V 2  hl = K   2g     L K = f   D & =C Q v ∆p Eq.) D-7 .

8 sin θ (1-β2) 2 θ (1-β2) 2 for θ ≤ 45° Eq. D-26 K = 0. and venturis & = (60 ⋅ 7. orifices.EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations Resistance coefficient for sudden and gradual contractions in pipe K = 0.9 ⋅ d 4 K Eq.5 sin for 45°< θ ≤ 180° Eq. where: β = d1/d2 d1 = diameter of the small pipe (in. D-29 Cd = C 1− β 4 Eq. D-28 where: Cv = flow coefficient d = nominal pipe diameter (in.) d2 = diameter of the large pipe (in.) Equivalent of resistance coefficient and flow coefficient: Cv = 29. To obtain the K values in terms of the larger pipe.) K = resistance coefficient Flow-through nozzles.48052)YC A Q d 1 2(144) g∆p ρg / g c Eq. D-27 The value of resistance coefficients K is based on the velocity in the small pipe. D-30 D-8 . divide the equations by β4.

g. w. w. D-31 where: Tp = total pressure drop (in.) D-9 .g.) C = fitting loss coefficient Vp = velocity pressure (in.) Duct fitting losses Tp = C ⋅ Vp Eq.EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations where: & = volumetric flow rate (gpm) Q Y = expansion factor of fluid (value = 1 for incompressible fluids) Cd = discharge coefficient C = flow coefficient A1 = cross-sectional area of the device (ft2) g = local acceleration due to gravity (ft/s 2) 2 ∆p = pressure drop across the device (lbf/in ) ρ = fluid density at upstream conditions (lbm/ft 3) gc = gravitational constant (32.) d2 = diameter of the pipe (in.174 lbm ft/lbf s2) β = d1/d2 d1 = diameter of the device (in.

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations D. w. D-33 where: & = volumetric flow rate (ft3/min) Q K = coefficient of airflow do = diameter of the orifice (in. D-34 D-10 .696 psia. w. Flow-through orifice Airflow for a sharp-edged orifice with pipe taps located 1 inch on either side of the orifice (for duct diameters 2–14 inches): & = 6⋅ K ⋅d Q o 2 h ρ Eq.3 Airflow Equations Note: In these equations.) Eq. D-32 & = 21.g.g.8 ⋅ K ⋅ d ⋅ h for standard air Q o Eq.) Converting velocity pressure to velocity (for standard air): V = 4005 Pv where: V = fluid velocity (ft/min) Pv = velocity pressure (in.) ρ = air density (lbm/ft ) 3 h = pressure drop across the orifice (in. standard air is defined as dry air (0% RH) at 59°F and 14.

075 CF =   ρ  where: CF = correction factor 0.g. Hg) Ps = static pressure (in.075 = density of standard air (lbm/ft 3) ρ = new calculated density(lbm/ft 3)     ½ Eq.EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations Fluid flow equation V = 2 gh where: V = velocity (ft/s) 2 g = acceleration due to gravity (32.) T = absolute temperature (°R) Calculating the correction factor for velocity with a change in density  0.6    ρ= T Eq. D-37 D-11 .325 Pb + s   13. D-35 h = head (ft w. D-36 where: ρ = air density (lbm/ft3) Pb = barometric pressure (in.g. w.2 ft/s ) Eq.) Calculating air density P    1.

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations Calculating the average velocity corrected for density Vc = Vm ⋅ CF where: Vc = corrected velocity (ft/min) Vm = measured velocity (ft/min) CF = correction factor for new density Eq. D-40 D-12 . D-38 Calculating air volume with a correction for density Q = A ⋅ Vc where: Q = quantity of airflow (ft3/min) A = area in (ft 2) Vc = corrected velocity (ft/min) Eq. D-39 Calculating actual (local or true) velocity when flows are taken with a heated wire anemometer  29. Hg) T = dry bulb temperature (°R) Eq.92   T  Vactual = Vmeasured    P    b   530  where: V = fluid velocity (ft/min) Pb = barometric pressure (in.

dry bulb (°F) PB = pressure.69    ⋅     ⋅ ACFM = SCFM 29 . D-42 where: ACH= air changes per hour & = quantity of airflow (ft3/min) Q Room Volume = room volume (ft3) D. Hg) PS = pressure. 69 DB         where: TDB = temperature. D-43 Fan total pressure = P t1-Pt2 Pt1= 0 if the fan draws directly from the atmosphere Pt2 = pv1 if the fan discharges directly to the atmosphere D-13 . barometric (in. w. static (in. D-41 Eq.4 Fan Equations Eq.) ACFM = actual cubic feet per minute SCFM = standard cubic feet per minute Air changes per hour and cubic feet per minute from air changes per hour ACH = &) (60 Q Room Volume Eq.EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations Calculating corrected velocity to standard conditions when using a manometer   PS    PB +  13.6    529.g. 921 T + 459 .

D-48 Ps = static pressure (in.g. w.) ρ = density (lbm/ft3 ) V = duct air velocity (ft/min) Subscripts 1. D-47 where: PFi = Fan input power (HP) Fan static efficiency ηs = where: η t Ps Pt Eq. w. D-45  V  Pv =   for standard air  4005  where: Ps = static pressure (in. 2 = upstream and downstream of the fan.EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations Fan static pressure = Pt-Pv = Ps2-Pt1 Fan velocity pressure  V  Pv = ρ    1097  2 2 Eq. respectively Eq. w.g. w.g. D-46 Fan total efficiency ηt = &P Q t PFi Eq.) Pt = total pressure (in.) D-14 .) Pv = velocity pressure (in. D-44 Eq.g.

g. D-51 where: PMo = Motor output power (HP) PFi = Fan input power (HP) ηD = Motor drive efficiency D-15 . D-49 and for centrifugal fans.g. (Pa) Co = fan-system-effect loss coefficient. or outlet velocity based on the outlet area (ft/min) and for axial fans.) &P Q t for a compressibility factor of 1 6356 Eq.EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations Fan system effect pressure loss  V  SEF = C o ρ  o   1097  where: SEF = fan-system-effect pressure loss. w. D-50 Fan motor power or fan brake horsepower PMo = PFi ηD Eq. where: Vo = inlet velocity based on area at the inlet collar. in. where: Vo = inlet or outlet velocity based on the area calculated from the fan diameter (ft/min) Fan output power or air horsepower PFo = where: PFo = Fan output power (HP) Pt = total pressure rise (in. w. dimensionless 3 ρ = density (lbm/ft ) 2 Eq.

D-52 where: ηM = Fan motor efficiency PMo = Motor output power (HP) PMi = Motor input power (HP) Fan energy consumption PMi = & ⋅P Q 8520 ⋅ η F ⋅ η M Eq.g.) ηF = fan efficiency (%) ηM = motor efficiency (%) Temperature rise through the fan (motor out of the airstream) ∆T = 0. D-54 where: ∆T = temperature rise through the fan ( °F) ∆Ps = static pressure rise through the fan (in. w. w.EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations Fan motor efficiency ηM = PMo 1. D-53 where: PMi = Fan motor power (kW) & = airflow volume (ft 3) Q P = fan pressure (in.g.371 ⋅ ∆Ps ηF Eq.) ηF= fan efficiency (%) D-16 .341 PMi Eq.

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations Fan Law No. 1 & Q N Pd 2 2 = 2 = & N 1 Pd1 Q 1 Eq. D-59 N2 = new fan speed (rpm) N1 = original fan speed (rpm) Pd2 = new pitch diameter of the motor sheave Pd1 = original pitch diameter of the motor sheave PS2 = new static pressure (in.g. D-55 Fan Law No. 3: Amperage varies as the cube of the air volume (for motors of 10 horsepower and larger) &   Pd 2  I2  N2   Q 2     = = =      & I1  N1   Q1    Pd1  3 3 3 Eq. 3: Brake horsepower varies as the square root of the static pressures cubed  BHP2   BHP  1 where: & = new volume of airflow (cubic feet per minute) Q 2 & = original volume of airflow (cubic feet per minute) Q 1  Ps2       =P  s   1 2 3 Eq. w. w. D-58 Fan Law No. D-56 Fan Law No.) BHP2 = new brake horsepower (hp) BHP1 = original brake horsepower (hp) I2 = new amperage (amps) I1 = original amperage (amps) D-17 . D-57 Fan Law No. 3: Power varies with the cube of the fan speed (for motors of 10 horsepower and larger) &   Pd 2  BHP2  N 2   Q 2     = = =  N  Q  Pd   &  BHP  1  1  1 1 3 3 3 Eq. 2 Ps2  N2 = Ps1   N1 &  Q   Pd 2  2   =  =   Pd   Q  &  1   1 2 2 2 Eq.g) PS1 = original static pressure (in.

D-61 D.EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations Fan Laws and Density Air volume remains constant with changes in air density. w.i n   i =1  where: Pv = velocity pressure (in. D-64 D-18 .5 Pump Equations Pump efficiency and power equations WHP = BHP = & ⋅ H ⋅γ Q 3960 & ⋅ H ⋅γ Q 3960 ⋅ η p 2 Eq.92 in Hg) and any change in air density will require a correction factor for the instrument. It must be remembered. A fan is a constant volume machine and will handle the same airflow. that many instruments are calibrated for standard air density (70 °F at 29. Static pressure and brake horsepower vary in direct proportion to density Ps2  BHP2 = Ps1   BHP1   ρ2  =    ρ1     Eq.g. regardless of air density.) i = nth reading n = total number of readings 2 Eq. D-63 &  ∆P2  Q 2  = &  ∆P1  Q  1 Eq. D-60 where: ρ1 = original density (lbm/ft ) 3 ρ2 = new density (lbm/ft 3) Air velocity pressure for pitot traverse  n  Pv =  ∑ Pv . however. D-62 Eq.

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations where: WHP = water horsepower H = head (ft) γ = specific weight (ft 3/lbm) BHP = brake horsepower ηp = pump efficiency (%) ∆P = pressure difference (psi) & = volumetric flow rate (gpm) Q 1 Cavitation Index σ= 2( p o − p v ) ρ ⋅ Vo 2 Eq.31) SG  V2   + ± S − B − L +  2g    Eq.g.) P = pressure above liquid (psig) Pa = atmospheric pressure (psia) D-19 . D-66 where: NPSHA = net positive suction head available (ft w. D-65 where: po = pressure at reference point o pv = vapor pressure Vo = velocity at reference point o Pump NPSH NPSHA = (P + Pa − Pv )(2.

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

Pv = vapor pressure of liquid at pumping temperature (psia) SG = specific gravity at pumping temperature (ft 3/lbm) S = static height of liquid above (+) or below (-) grade (varies per pump type) (ft) B = distance above grade from pump centerline (ft) L = suction system friction losses (ft) V = velocity of fluid at pump inlet nozzle (ft/s) g = local acceleration due to gravity (ft/s 2)

D.6

Electrical Equations

Brake horsepower, single-phase circuit BHP = V ⋅ A ⋅ η ⋅ PF 746
Eq. D-67

Brake horsepower, three-phase circuit BHP = 1.732 ⋅ V ⋅ A ⋅ η ⋅ PF 746
Eq. D-68

where: BHP = brake horsepower V = volts (for three-phase circuits, this is average volts) A = amps (for three-phase circuits, this is average amps) η = motor efficiency PF = power factor 1.732 = constant ( 3 ) for three-phase circuits

D-20

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

Calculating brake horsepower using no-load amps (for motors of 10 horsepower and larger) BHP = HPn (RLA − 0.5 ⋅ NLA) (FLA c − 0.5 ⋅ NLA)
Eq. D-69

Calculating field corrected full load amps FLAc = Vn ⋅ FLAn / Vm where: HPn = nameplate horsepower RLA = running load amps, field measured NLA = no-load amps (motor sheave in place and belts removed) FLAc = full load amps, field corrected Vn = nameplate volts FLAn = nameplate full load amps Vm = volts, field measured
Eq. D-70

Single-phase power factor PF = W V ⋅A
Eq. D-71

D-21

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

Three-phase power factor PF = W 1.732 ⋅ V ⋅ A
Eq. D-72

where: PF = power factor W = power (watts) V = voltage (volts) A = amperage (amps) 1.732 = constant ( 3 ) for three-phase circuits

Voltage unbalance equation %V = ∆D max /Vavg ⋅ 100 where: %V = % voltage unbalance (should not exceed 2%) ∆D max = maximum deviation from average voltage Vavg = average voltage (volts)
Eq. D-73

Current unbalance equation %C = ∆D max / Cavg ⋅ 100 where: %C = % current unbalance (should not exceed 10%) ∆D max = maximum deviation from average amps Cavg = average amperage (amps)
Eq. D-74

D-22

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

Percent of slip of induction motors and synchronous speed % = (NS – Nr) / NS ⋅ 100 Ns = 120 ⋅ f/p where: % = percent of slip NS = synchronous speed (rpm) Nr = rotor speed (rpm) f = frequency (Hz) p = number of poles (not pairs of poles)
Eq. D-75

D.7

Noise and Vibration Equations

Fan sound power level  W  Lw = 10 ⋅ log − 2   10  where: Lw = fan sound power level (dB) Log = logarithm to base 10 W = power (kW)
Eq. D-76

Blade passage frequency BPF = nN 60
Eq. D-77

where: BPF = blade passage frequency (Hz) N = fan speed (rpm) n = number of blades D-23

D-79 Blade tip speed N Tip = where: NTip = blade tip speed (in/min) π = 3. and Pulleys Drive equation Nm ⋅ Dm = Nf ⋅ Df where: Nm = speed of the motor shaft (rpm) Dm = pitch diameter of the motor sheave (ft) Nf = speed of the fan sheave (rpm) Df = pitch diameter of the fan sheave (ft) Eq.) N = rotational speed (rpm) D-24 π ⋅D⋅ N 12 Eq. D-78 D.14 D = blade diameter (in.EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations Strouhal number N Strouhal = where: N Strouhal = Strouhal number f = vortex shedding frequency (Hz) V = velocity (ft/s) D = characteristic dimension (ft) 5f ⋅D V Eq. D-80 . Belts.8 Drives.

477724 ln PM for motors from 10 to 100 horsepower LD = 4.86747 ln PM for motors from 1 to 10 horsepower LD = 6. D-86 D-25 . D-83 Eq.2 – 0. D-81 where: L = belt pitch length C = center-to-center distance of the shafts π = 3. D-85 Eq.4 – 1. D-82 Eq.65127 ln PM for fractional power motors LD = 9.0 – LD/100 where: LD = drive belt losses PM = motor power (kW) ηD = drive efficiency (%) Eq.4 – 4.EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations Belt length L = 2⋅C + π (D . D-84 Eq.0 for motors over 100 horsepower ηD = 1.d) 2 ⋅ (D + d) + 2 4C Eq.14 D = pitch diameter of the large sheave d = pitch diameter of the small sheave Drive-belt losses for V-belt drives LD = 9.

degrees in a circle D-26 .9 Areas and Circular Equivalents of Ducts Rectangular duct A = ab/144 where: A = area of the duct (ft 2) a = length of one side of rectangular duct (in. D-89 R = radius of circle (ft) N = number of degrees in the arc 360 = constant.EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations D. D-87 Eq. D-88 where: 2 A = area of the duct (ft ) π = 3.) Flat oval duct Area of the rectangle plus the area of the circle Segment of a circle A = π R2N/360 where: A = area (ft 2) π R = area of the circle (ft ) 2 2 Eq.) b = length of adjacent side of rectangular duct (in.14 R = radius (in.) Round duct A = π R /144 2 Eq.

25 Eq. D-91 Circular equivalent for a rectangular duct for equal friction and capacity De = 1.) b = major dimension of flat oval duct (in.30 ab 0.) b = length of adjacent side of rectangular duct (in. D-93 where: area A = (πb2/4) + b (a – b) perimeter P = πb + 2 (a – b) a = major dimension of flat oval duct (in.) Circular equivalent for a flat oval duct for equal friction and capacity A 0. D-92 where: De = equivalent duct diameter (in.625 (a + b) 0.625 De = 1. D-90 Circular equivalent for a rectangular duct De = 4ab / π Eq.25 P Eq.EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations Triangle A = bh/2 where: A = area (ft 2) b = base of the triangle (ft) h = height of the triangle (ft) Eq.) D-27 .55 0.) a = length of one side of rectangular duct (in.

G. McGraw Hill. McQuiston and J. (ASHRAE). Culham. Ontario Power Generation. Inc. E.” 1985. Heating. and Air Conditioning Engineers. Ventilating. and Pipe. American Society of Heating. Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors’ National Association. 1997.. Fittings. A. F.EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations References American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Fans Reference Guide . (SMACNA). D. D-28 . John Wiley & Sons. HVAC Systems – Testing. Baumeister III. Industrial Ventilation – A Manual of Recommended Practice. and Air Conditionin g. Technical Paper No. R. 1986. Inc. Parker. ASHRAE Handbook – Fundamentals. Marks’ Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers. Adjusting and Balancing. 2001. “Flow of Fluids through Valves. Crane Co. Avallone and T. Inc. 2001. 410. 1997. Refrigerating. 1994. C.

orifice plates. the nuclear HVAC engineer may consider alternative analytical methods as a “first cut” approach in accomplishing a full system balance.EPRI Licensed Material E ANALYTICAL METHODS E. Key O&M Cost Point Because of required system operability (safety and licensing concerns).2 System Airflow and Pressure Loss Analysis Historically. and radiological exposure. including the equal friction method and the static regain method. and radiological exposure. the nuclear HVAC engineer may consider alternative analytical methods as a “first cut” approach in accomplishing a full system balance. This type of approach will also help to reduce the amount of time required for temporary field construction and measurement activities along with system inoperability during the TAB process. the design of duct distribution systems has followed several basic methods. and valves) and the effect that identified system changes will have on overall airflow quantities and distribution. additional methods of duct distribution optimization (for example. E-1 . Preliminary analytical analyses will help in determining initial positions and sizes for various flow balancing components (such as dampers. including required system operability (safety and licensing concerns). This appendix addresses several analytical methods that may be used as tools in troubleshooting and determining system modification effects and “best guess” positions of components (such as dampers and valves) as an efficient initial method in the nuclear HVAC TAB process. More recently. interference/distraction to normal plant operation. The static regain method is based on the objective of sizing each branch-to-main-duct section to obtain a constant static driving pressure for the supply of air to the corresponding branch outlets. For these reasons. restrictors. The equal friction method determines duct size based on the assumption of a constant pressure loss per unit length of the system.1 Introduction In situ TAB of nuclear HVAC systems can be difficult and expensive for several reasons. interference/distraction to normal plant operation. the T method) have been developed and are more focused on initial system costs and the present worth of energy. E.

EPRI Licensed Material Analytical Methods

E.2.1 System Diagram Development
To understand the dynamics of the HVAC system being analyzed, the engineer should first develop a system one-line or nodal diagram that represents the ductwork and associated components to the degree of detail required. The diagram should be set up by duct/fitting sections and sufficiently detailed in order to evaluate the conditions at branches, major equipment (including fan system effects), and balancing locations (such as fans, dampers, and flow measurement locations). After the system diagram is developed, any available test and balance information that exists for the current as-built system configuration may be used to assist the engineer in a baseline evaluation of the major plenum and branch flows. Hand calculations may then be performed to verify expected pressure and airflow measurement values based on observed conditions or changes. System effects based on fan placement in relation to system ductwork size, transitions, and fittings should also be evaluated to determine the possible magnitude of the resultant pressure losses. Analytical methods supported by computer analyses may also be applied and are further described in Sections E.2.2 through E.2.2.2. If significant disparity exists between analytical calculations and existing test data, the identified locations in question should be further tested. Using this initial analytical approach should save significant time and the associated expense after a full system test and balance effort. This effort will also help to enhance the engineer’s knowledge of the operation and dynamics of the subject HVAC system.

E.2.2 Analysis Using Generic and Custom Computer Modeling Software
Regardless of the design method chosen, using a hand calculation approach in solving for pressure loss in each section of a distribution system can become laborious because of the iterative nature of the solution process. A variety of companies, including the major HVAC equipment vendors (for example, Carrier and Trane), offer generic computer design software for initial design and sizing of HVAC distribution systems. These programs are primarily structured to permit the HVAC design engineer to input a proposed system configuration while allowing the user to size the ductwork plenums and branch distribution. Most nuclear HVAC engineers, however, are not required to design completely new ventilation systems based on the pre-existing facilities and systems they support. Therefore, analysis is more focused on operation and flow evaluation/balancing of existing HVAC systems. Methods for calculating airflow and associated pressure loss of these systems are suitable for computer programs that can provide iterative analysis capability and data tracking. Several of these methods and programs are discussed in Sections E.2.2.1 and E.2.2.2.

E-2

EPRI Licensed Material Analytical Methods

E.2.2.1

Generic Spreadsheet Software

HVAC engineers have taken advantage of generic software (for example, Microsoft, Lotus and Corel) to formulate simple to complex spreadsheet programs that will calculate and update the flow and pressure in a defined duct network system. The calculation algorithms are programmed into the spreadsheet, allowing the program to calculate current airflow and pressure values for each duct section on an iterative, cascading basis. This type of programming method, however, is somewhat limited in its rigor of analysis, based on the complexity of the assumed convergence criteria and the inflexibility of defining dynamic system variables (including fan performance, system effects, and damper and component variable position). E.2.2.2 Computer Modeling Software

Various architect/engineering (A/E) and engineering analysis organizations have developed specific computer modeling programs to analyze nuclear HVAC systems. These models have been used to determine the margins and existing conditions of the plant’s current design and licensing basis. Also, a benchmarked system model can be used to support JCO in lieu of full system airflow test and measurement. Some of these thermal-hydraulic software-modeling programs, available for use by the HVAC nuclear engineer in a generic format (for example, PROTO-HVACTM), meet nuclear-grade quality assurance program requirements. There are many advantages to using these types of analysis programs for more accurately determining key operating and balancing conditions. Depending on the complexity of the modeling input developed and the software used, the following output capabilities can be provided: • • • • • • • • • • • Calculation of steady pressures, temperatures, and airflows throughout complex HVAC duct distribution systems Change in alignment of flow paths or selection of predefined specific system operating modes Selection of fan operating status and fan performance curves (that is, design, actual, degraded, or new) Evaluation of system effects based on the subject HVAC system configuration Determination of balancing/volume damper throttle position (manually or automatically) as a function of flow or pressure set point Specification of leak tightness of dampers or components as a function of pressure conditions Various component pressure losses as a function of a fixed or variable flow parameter Duct friction factor adjustment Specification of local airflow conditions (for example, temperature, pressure, elevations, and psychrometric conditions) Flags to alert the user of abnormal conditions (for example, reverse flow, excessive leakage, less than minimum specified flow, and fan runout) Flexibility in output report information and formatting E-3

EPRI Licensed Material Analytical Methods

A significant reduction in the time required to final balance the subject HVAC system is one of the benefits of developing a detailed computer simulation model. In addition, once this model is developed and benchmarked, it can be used to support JCOs or proposed system modifications in lieu of in situ testing.

E.3 Thermal and Pressure Loss Analysis and Balancing of HVAC Water/Liquid Systems
Analytical methods for assisting the engineer in the TAB of the water/liquid side of the HVAC system are similar to those discussed in Section E.2 for the air/gas side. Because of the larger tolerance in analytical inaccuracy of these hydraulic systems, liquid systems are by nature normally less difficult to analyze. In most nuclear plants, HVAC system engineers do not have direct responsibility for the liquid side of their subject systems. For that reason, this guideline does not further describe specific analysis methods used to evaluate the complexity of these supporting systems (which include service water, emergency service water, chilled water, and closed cooling water).

E.3.1 HVAC Heat Exchanger Analysis
The major component that provides the thermal interface between the air/gas and liquid side of the HVAC system is the fan or duct coil. Many devices are used in the various HVAC plant systems, including containment fan coil units (CFCUs), room unit coolers, in-duct DX coils, induct chilled water and service water coils, in-duct steam and hot water heating coils, and preheat glycol coils. Many of these heat exchange devices must be balanced periodically on both the air/gas and water/liquid sides to satisfy licensing basis performance requirements (that is, those found in USNRC Generic Letter 89-13 [28]). Numerous analytical methods, including hand calculations, generic software spreadsheets, and computer modeling software, are used in conjunction with in situ testing to verify thermal performance. In addition, various A/Es and engineering analysis organizations have developed specific heat exchanger, fan coil, service water and chilled water, and refrigerant chiller computer modeling programs to analyze these systems and components. Some of these thermalhydraulic software-modeling programs, available for use by the nuclear engineer or technician in a generic format (for example, PROTO-HX TM and PROTO-FLOTM), meet nuclear-grade quality assurance program requirements.

E-4

EPRI Licensed Material

F
ALTERNATE FLOW MEASUREMENT USING TRACER GAS
Sulfur hexafluoride has been used as a tracer gas to test control room envelope in-leakage and to measure the airflow rate in ducting. ASTM E 2029-99 [29] is used as a standard for this method. Using the standard alone is insufficient without the experience and technique of trained individuals. Not all duct configurations are capable of delivering an accurate pitot tube traverse. Systems in which turbulence and twisted configurations detract from good pitot tube results tend to be suited for the tracer gas technique. Applications range from the unit vent on a PWR to turbine building exhaust in a BWR. Figure F-1 illustrates a typical schematic for using tracer gas testing methods.

Figure F-1 Typical Schematic for Using Tracer Gas Testing Methods

Tracer gas is injected at a known concentration at a known flow rate. After being fully mixed, it is sampled to measure the change in concentration that is commensurate with the flow rate in the system. Regardless of the application, the injection gas and mass flow meter should be calibrated for the expected flow rate application. Typical equipment used in the process consists of the following: • • • • Mass flow meter Mass flow control valve Calibration gas Injection gas F-1

This application is shown in Figure F-2. In any case.EPRI Licensed Material Alternate Flow Measurement Using Tracer Gas • • • • Injection manifold Sample pump Sample manifold Sample analyzer Typical applications include not only airflow measurement in a ducting system but also damper leakage or fan flow rate measurement. The fan flow rate may be ducted or may be an application where the un-ducted fan exhausts into a room with a single exhaust point. re-entrainment of exhausted tracer gas should be accounted for. Figure F-2 Tracer Gases Exhausted into a Room with a Single Exhaust Point F-2 .

Therefore. SCFM is the actual flow rate converted back to standard reference conditions. which the same air mass would occupy over the temperature range (10–110ºF) indicated G-1 . the “ideal gas” relationship PV=mRT or P= ρRT (see Appendix D for definitions of terms) can be applied to various analyses when determining the effect that variations in temperature.7 psia and temperature of 70ºF. true air density). ACFM is the actual operating volumetric flow rate condition for a specific HVAC system at the specific location of observation. as the temperature of a fixed mass of dry air increases. the term CFM becomes unclear. an 11% difference would be realized between this ACFM value and the standard condition at 70ºF. pressure. as documented by ASHRAE in ANSI/ASHRAE 111-1988 [30]. pressure. The figure shows that if airflow were measured at the temperature extreme of 10ºF. and moisture content have on air volume and density.1 Effect of Temperature on CFM Throughout the ranges of pressure and temperature applicable to most HVAC systems. The curve in Figure G-1 is based on the mass of dry air that would occupy 100 cubic feet of volume at standard conditions.EPRI Licensed Material G DEFINING ACFM AND SCFM WHEN PERFORMING TAB ACTIVITIES When referring to airflow in HVAC systems. As illustrated in Figure G-1. ACFM is defined as the flow rate measured under stated operating conditions corrected for local effects (for example. G. when considering the change in air density for varying conditions of temperature. The Nuclear HVAC Utility Group (NHUG) also endorses these standard reference conditions. The only time that ACFM and SCFM have the same value is at the established standard reference conditions. and RH (moisture content). This also reflects a total volumetric difference of 18%. the convention is cubic feet per minute (CFM) or 3 ft /min. One of the most commonly used standard reference conditions is dry air (0% RH) at a pressure of 14. More appropriate units are actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) and standard cubic feet per minute (SCFM) when performing specific airflow measurements and associated calculations for HVAC systems. the volume it occupies also increases. This conversion can be attained analytically by using the relationship presented in the ideal gas law (described further in this appendix). air can be treated as an ideal gas. However.

For most HVAC systems.2 Effect of Pressure on CFM Applying the ideal gas law relationship for variations in absolute pressure at a constant temperature for dry air provides for the associated change in volume. G-2 . a significant under-prediction of airflow at low temperatures or over-prediction at higher temperatures could occur if measurements are not corrected back to standard conditions. altitude (for example.EPRI Licensed Material Defining ACFM and SCFM When Performing Tab Activities in Figure G-1. based on the small changes in differential operating pressure (0–15 in. Based on this effect. for many calculations requiring the rigor and accuracy warranted in the operation of nuclear power plants.75 psia and 15. this level of change would not be acceptable if left uncorrected. Colorado vs. this change is not very significant.) realized through the system (supply-to-return ducting). The curve in Figure G-2 is based on the mass of dry air that would occupy 100 cubic feet of volume at standard conditions of 14. However.696 psia. Denver. In addition. Figure G-2 reflects the change in volume that would be realized from conditions associated with a change in absolute (total) pressure between 11. Figure G-1 Change in Air Volume as a Function of Temperature G. these changes—in conjunction with local atmospheric pressure conditions during the time of measurement—could be more significant and should be evaluated. w. and system operating pressure variations applicable to the specific TAB performed. based on various combinations of weather (high or low barometric pressure).g. Miami. Florida).25 psia. This range of conditions could be realized.

696 psia). G-1 .3 Effect of Moisture Variation on CFM The difference as a result of moisture between ACFM and SCFM becomes more significant as the air becomes more saturated. G. Florida (with an atmospheric pressure of 14. a TAB engineer/technician measuring ACFM on an HVAC system located in Denver.EPRI Licensed Material Defining ACFM and SCFM When Performing Tab Activities Figure G-2 Change in Air Volume as a Function of the Change in Absolute Pressure for a Constant Mass Therefore. Colorado (with an atmospheric pressure of 11. The behavior of the dry air and water vapor mixture is based on the principle defined by Dalton’s law of partial pressures. (Pa + Pw)V = (na + nw)RT where: Pa = partial pressure of the air Pw = partial pressure of the water vapor V = total volume of the mixture na = number of moles of the air nw = number of moles of the water vapor R = universal gas constant T = temperature G-3 Eq.75 psia) could realize as much as a 25% difference in airflow versus the same system located and tested in Miami. as shown in Equation G-1.

Figure G-3 Change in Air Volume as a Function of Temperature for Various Percentages of Moisture Content G-4 . For dry air. as temperature increases. the value of nw (number of moles) increases. the air mass occupies the entire volume. occupying a greater amount of the total mixture’s volume and displacing that portion of dry air mass associated with the original volume. However.EPRI Licensed Material Defining ACFM and SCFM When Performing Tab Activities Each constituent (water vapor and air) exerts part of the total pressure of the gas mixture and shares a proportional part of the total volume. It can be seen by Equation G-1 that as moisture percentage increases. The curve for dry air (shown in Figure G-1) is compared to the curve for saturated air (having a moisture content of 100% RH). Figure G-3 shows that at low temperatures. In addition. Figure G-3 illustrates the effect that moisture content has on the change in air volume for the temperature range above and below standard conditions. the volumetric differences are not significant because the partial pressure value of the water vapor (Pa) is small. the value of Pw is based on the temperature of the mixture. therefore. a larger volume of air and its equivalent mass are displaced by the water vapor. the partial pressure ( Pw) and the number of moles (nw) of water vapor are equal to zero. As the dry air begins to combine with and retain water vapor. the partial pressure value of the water vapor becomes significant.

G-3 where: ACFM = actual CFM ρ = density of air (lbs/ ft ) 3 MCFM = measured CFM G-5 . may be corrected for density effects (based on air velocity) by using Equation G-3. local effects of temperature.4 Correction Formulas for ACFM and SCFM As described in Section G.075 ⋅ MCFM ρ Eq.) at the measurement location TWB = temperature. 6    ρ = 70 . Equation G-2 provides a means to calculate the local air density ( ρ) based on the defined variables of temperature.35 ⋅ ( T DB + 459 . and RH (for wet and dry bulb temperatures):   P     PB + S  − 0 . dry bulb (°F) at the measurement location Airflow values measured by the TAB engineer/technician depending on the measurement device.g. G-2 where: PB = pressure. pressure. and moisture content can significantly affect air density (the amount of air mass for a given volume) and the resultant HVAC system’s airflow measured by the TAB engineer/technician. barometric (in. wet bulb (°F) at the measurement location TDB = temperature. 159 −1 ⋅ TWB + 0 . 73 ⋅       ( 0.w. Hg) at the measurement location PS = pressure.69 ) }     2 ) Eq.41 −  PB + S  ⋅  DB 13 .EPRI Licensed Material Defining ACFM and SCFM When Performing Tab Activities G.296 −3 ⋅ TWB  P   T − TWB        − 0 . 378 ⋅   13 . ACFM = 0.3.6   2700       {53 . pressure. static (in.

921   TDB + 459.EPRI Licensed Material Defining ACFM and SCFM When Performing Tab Activities ACFM can be converted to standard reference conditions of SCFM by using Equation G-4:    PS      PB +   13. dry bulb (°F) at the measurement location ACFM = actual CFM G-6 .g.) at the measurement location TDB = temperature.6    529.w. static (in.69     SCFM =  ⋅  ⋅ ACFM   29. barometric (in.69        Eq. Hg) at the measurement location PS = pressure. G-4 where: SCFM = standard CFM PB = pressure.

7 3-12 3. Lesson learned: The technicians likely did not understand the limitations of their instrumentation.10. Operating a fan outside its associated limits may lead to catastrophic failure.1 6-1 6. the operating class limits for that fan must not be exceeded. ample time should be allotted for the liquid to come to equilibrium.1. Development of a detailed troubleshooting plan can save money and time by reducing repetitive efforts and providing a structured approach to determining the problem.1. When moving a fluid-based instrument from one environment to another. or frequent checks should be made to ensure that the base point has not changed. modifications to fans generally involve modifications that can become costly.1.2. Lesson learned: When setting up a fan. Adjustments to dampers are generally less expensive to perform. Lack of attention to the system balancing can be indicated by insufficient cooling and/or heating in the building or by problems with areas that require positive or negative pressure. improperly maintained system balancing may increase energy costs of operation. Lesson learned: Postulate system effects prior to proceeding with what appears to be a minor design modification 3.EPRI Licensed Material H LISTING OF KEY POINTS The following list provides the location of “Key Point” information in this report. System lineup should be recorded when acquiring air balance data on systems or subsystems that can be affected by other ventilation systems. or maintenance costs.7 6-4 6. however. Key O&M Cost Point Emphasizes information that will reduce purchase. operating.1 3-17 6.2 3-5 3.1.2 Page Number Key Point 3-4 The HVAC system may operate without an alarm.1.8 6-5 H-1 . Referenced Section 3.

Because of required system operability (safety and licensing concerns). or maintenance costs.EPRI Licensed Material Listing of Key Points Key O&M Cost Point Emphasizes information that will reduce purchase. 6. operating.12 6-8 Lesson learned: The most important part of the TAB work occurs prior to the start of the work: understanding how the system works and performing the walkdown. and radiological exposure. the nuclear HVAC engineer may consider alternative analytical methods as a “first cut” approach in accomplishing a full system balance. E. interference/distraction to normal plant operation.1 E-1 H-2 .

7 3-13 3. The most common causes of HVAC system performance problems include the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • • 3. Referenced Section 3. damaged. inadvertent closing) of fire dampers Airflow monitoring station plugging Dirty/damaged/missing/obstructed air distribution grilles Excessively dirty filters Damaged flex connections Inadvertent changes to system configuration Adverse ambient and environmental conditions 3. taking into consideration all of the data collected thus far in the evaluation.1.9.2. a detailed troubleshooting plan should be developed.1 3-19 The first step in the balancing procedure is to become familiar with the complete system operation.2 3-16 Inadequate fan performance Worn or damaged turning vanes Worn. H-3 . or missing flow straighteners Improper damper performance or adjustment Loss of pressure boundary (duct leakage) Plugged coils (airside or water side) Improper performance (that is.EPRI Licensed Material Listing of Key Points Key Technical Point Targets information that will lead to improved equipment reliability.1. A field walkdown of the HVAC system/component(s) is recommended at this point.6 Page Number Key Point 3-11 The engineer should perform an eyewitness. Prior to making any physical adjustments to the system. hands-on inspection of the equipment to validate the issue and subsequently define the actual problem.1.

1 4-1 4. Measurement of airstream static pressure is achieved by connecting the outer tube side outlet connector to one side of a manometer or gauge. Manometer tubes should be chemically clean to be accurate and filled with the correct fluid. If measuring a positive pressure.3 4-3 4.1.EPRI Licensed Material Listing of Key Points Key Technical Point Targets information that will lead to improved equipment reliability. a walkdown of the system is recommended.4 4-7 4. a walkdown of the system shall be made to determine testability.6 4-9 H-4 .1. such as fans and filter housings. The total pressure line is connected to the highpressure port of the test instrument. Prior to starting the water balancing work. the pitot tube is connected to the low-pressure side of the pressure measuring device.4 4-6 4. If the temperature sensor is not used. 4.1.1.1. The technical manual for the electronic manometer should be referenced to determine if it provides results in ACFM. an uneven airflow is frequently found because of entrance or exit conditions and/or stratification. 3. the pitot tube is connected to the highpressure side of the pressure measuring device. A general walkdown of major system components.1.1. or both. Mercury is not an acceptable fluid for HVAC TAB work because of its potential hazardous effects on personnel and on plant equipment. SCFM. the instrument reading on at least one electronic manometer should be adjusted by calculation to either actual or standard conditions (ACFM or SCFM).4 4-7 4. 3.2 3-19 Prior to starting each system’s TAB work.1. Measurement of airstream velocity pressure is achieved by connecting both the inner and the outer tube connectors to opposite sides of a manometer or gauge. Measurement of airstream total pressure is achieved by connecting the inner tube outlet connector to one side of a manometer or gauge. a micromanometer (hook gauge) or some other more sensitive instrument should be used to ensure accuracy.2 4-2 When air pressures are extremely low. should be performed to ensure that maintenance activities are not underway or needed.1.2.1.1. and the static pressure line is connected to the low-pressure side.1.2 3-26 4.1. If measuring a negative pressure.4. In the case of coils or filters.1.

Results using the equal area method should be closely evaluated if they are near minimum acceptance values. Lesson learned: Periodic monitoring of building pressures can identify equipment problems prior to failure and avoid potentially detrimental system effects. and other sources of flow disturbances. Lesson learned: The manufacturer’s data for nominal pressure drop may be higher than the actual pressure drop and may result in airflow that is greater than design. the static sensing line cannot be tested in this manner. and a strobotach should be used to verify fan speed when fan flows are in question. 5.1. Lesson learned: Duct access doors should have a positive closing mechanism that is not subject to opening as a result of vibration and system starts and stops.3 6-2 6.8 4-23 Flow measuring elements should be installed far enough from elbows. Lesson learned: Pitot tubes should be closely inspected prior to each use. A simple way to check the impact pressure line is to connect the pitot tube to a pressure measuring device and pressurize the impact line.6. and observe the pressure measuring device for any pressure decay. Lesson learned: Inclined manometers with integral shut-off valves should be checked for leaks in these valves. one was discovered with an internal crack in the impact velocity sensing line.6 6-3 6. In addition. these valves should never be opened more than threefourths of a turn: opening them more than this can result in the failure of the sealing O-ring to make contact with the sealing surface in the valve body. During subsequent checks of pitot tubes. Lesson learned: Slipping belts are not always audible. block the sensing port.4 6-2 6. However.9 6-6 H-5 . valves.6 6-4 6.2 6-1 6.1.6 6-3 6. 4. Lesson learned: Flow measurement in a duct at a location with flow disturbances can be significantly different (in this case over 10% greater) than at a location of long straight duct. These valves contain two O-rings and may close off tightly but leak when opened for use.1 5-2 6.EPRI Licensed Material Listing of Key Points Key Technical Point Targets information that will lead to improved equipment reliability. A visual inspection is the best method of verifying the connecting tubing.5 6-2 6. Lesson learned: The tubing used to connect the pitot tube to the pressure measuring device should be verified to ensure that it is in good condition and free of any leaks. The tightness of the impact line can be verified by pressurizing it and blocking the impact port on the pitot tube.

ACFM) by using the temperature probe. 6.EPRI Licensed Material Listing of Key Points Key Technical Point Targets information that will lead to improved equipment reliability. If the temperature probe is not used.11 6-7 B.7 B-28 H-6 .10 6-6 Lesson learned: Some electronic micromanometers provide a velocity reading that automatically converts to actual flow results (that is. Instrument test ports attached with rivets and sealed with gaskets may not be suitable for nuclear plant applications requiring zero-leakage. 6. Lesson learned: All possible system operating conditions need to be fully considered during the design and functional test phases. the instrument reading corresponds to neither SCFM nor ACFM.

1. 3. Care should be used when working around energized electrical equipment. and corrective action processes. Referenced Section 3. Personnel should be familiar with the design of the subject HVAC system and the operation of the test equipment.1.1 Page Number Key Point 3-3 Key to addressing any issue is understanding that the plant-specific design/licensing bases need to be maintained throughout the troubleshooting.2. Care should be taken when using any rotating measuring instrument in order to avoid personal injury caused by inadvertent contact with the rotating equipment. TAB.1 3-4 3.1.7.1.2 3-14 4.5 4-20 H-7 .EPRI Licensed Material Listing of Key Points Key Human Performance Point Denotes information that requires personnel action or consideration in order to prevent injury or damage or ease completion of the task.3 4-14 4.1.1. The HVAC engineer should understand how the problem could apply to other systems/HVAC components of similar design and applications.

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