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FURTHER IMMEDIATE INFERENCES Conversion Interchange the subject (S) and the predicate (P) terms of the proposition.

on. The premise or the original proposition is called the convertend; the conclusion is called the converse. Applies to E and I propositions only: Converse (No P is S) No valid contracts are service contracts which vest full control over natural resources to foreign companies (Some P is S) Some projects I which require foreign technical and financial assistance are EDU activities La Bugal-Blaan Tribal Association, Inc., et. Al. vs. Victor O. Ramos, Secretary, DENR, et. al., GR 127882, December 1, 2004 Valid with A propositions only by limitation (conversion by limitation) Conversion by limitation a. interchange the subject and predicate terms and change the quantity of the proposition from universal to particular; b. or get the subaltern (it being a valid proposition derived from the A proposition) of the convertend and convert it. Convertend (All S is P) All FTAA contracts are documents approved by the president Converse (Some P is S) Some documents approved by the president are FTAA contracts Proposition E Convertend (No S is P) No service contracts which vest full control over natural resources to foreign companies are valid contracts (Some S is P) Some EDU activities are projects which require foreign technical and financial assistance

Convertend Subaltern Converse (All S is P) (Some S is P) (Some P is S) All FTAA contracts are Some FTAA contracts are Some documents approved documents approved by the documents approved by the by the president are FTAA president president contracts La Bugal-Blaan Tribal Association, Inc., et. Al. vs. Victor O. Ramos, Secretary, DENR, et. al., GR 127882, December 1, 2004 Not valid with O propositions.

KEITH, Charles 1B

Legal Technique and Logic

Obversion Change the quality of the proposition and replace the predicate term by its complement. The premise is called the obvertend, the conclusion, the obverse. Complement: a. The collection of all things that do not belong to the original class b. The complement of the class S is non-S Proposition Obvertend (All S is P) All DECS directives are A orders that should be followed by all schools Obverse (No S is non-P) No DECS directives are non-orders that should be followed by all schools (No S is P) No symbols (All S is non-P) All symbols E representing the state such as the representing the state such as national flag are religious icons the national flag are nonreligious icons (Some S is P) Some activities such (Some S is not non-P) Some I as flag ceremonies are efforts to activities such as flag inculcate patriotism and nationalism ceremonies are not non-efforts to inculcate patriotism and nationalism (Some S is not P) Some school (Some S is non-P) Some O administrators are not tolerant of school administrators are nondefiance of government orders on tolerant of defiance of account of religious beliefs government orders on account of religious beliefs Roel Ebralinag, et.al. vs. Division Superintendent of Schools of Cebu, GR 95770 and 95887, March 1, 1993

Contraposition Replace its subject term by the complement of its predicate term and replace its predicate term by the complement of its subject term (or by obverting, converting, and obverting again the proposition). The conclusion of this form of inference is called a contrapositive Applies to A and O propositions only:

Proposition A

Premise (All S is P) All government agencies who had been ordered by the RTC to rehabilitate Manila bay are institutions which are primarily responsible for the bays degradation

Contrapositive (All non-P is non-S) All nonprimarily responsible for the bays degradation are non-government agencies which had been ordered by the RTC to rehabilitate Manila Bay

KEITH, Charles 1B

Legal Technique and Logic

(Some S is not P) Some duties of (Some non-P is not non-S) Some government agencies are not non-ministerial duties are not nonministerial duties duties of government agencies MMDA, et. al. vs. Concerned Residents of Manila Bay, GR 171947-48, December 18, 2008 O Valid with E propositions only by limitation (contraposition by limitation) Contraposition by limitation obvert, convert by limitation and obvert again Converse by Obverse limitation (Some non-P is not (Some non-P is S) non-S) No government duty All government Some nonSome nonclearly and duties clearly and discretionary legal discretionary legal expressly indicated expressly indicated mandates are mandates are not by law is a by law are nongovernment duties non-government discretionary legal discretionary legal clearly and duties clearly and mandate mandates expressly indicated expressly indicated by law by law MMDA, et. al. vs. Concerned Residents of Manila Bay, GR 171947-48, December 18, 2008 Not valid with I propositions Premise (No S is P) Obverse (All S is non-P)

KEITH, Charles 1B

Legal Technique and Logic

EXISTENTIAL IMPORT A proposition is said to have existential import if it typically is uttered to assert the existence of objects of some kind. A proposition has existential import if it is axiomatically true. Some inferences derived from the traditional square of opposition become invalid if the existential import of a class were to be taken into account. If the subject class is empty, for instance, in contradictory propositions A and O, both are false. One proposition must be true in contradictories. Ergo, if both are false, it is no longer a contradictory. Its the same story with the rest of the corresponding propositions in the square if the subject class is empty, no valid inference may be drawn. This may be cured by applying existential presupposition which quite simply is stipulating that a certain class does exist, even if it actually doesnt, before drawing inferences. This however poses three problems: we will never be able to formulate the proposition that denies that a class has members, sometimes what we say does not suppose that there are members in the classes we are talking about and we often wish to reason without making any presuppositions about existence. Also propositions based on false assumptions are erroneous and are referred to as existential fallacies. In light of the foregoing, it is inevitable that the square should be scrapped considering its existential pitfalls. We instead adopt George Booles schema of logic which retains some features of the square, but on the whole it is a completely different system. In Boolean logic, I and O propositions have existential import. A and O and E and I propositions are still contradictories. A and E propositions are generally considered to have no existential impor if A and E propositions are empty, their subalterns I and O respectively are false. A and E however may still assume existential import provided they are expressed using a valid particular proposition and an empty universal proposition. A and E are no longer contraries and I and O cease to be subcontraries. Immediate inferences thru conversion, obversion and contraposition may still be made but not those which involve limitation namely conversion and contraposition by limitation.

KEITH, Charles 1B

Legal Technique and Logic

SYMBOLISM AND DIAGRAMS FOR CATEGORICAL PROPOSITIONS S = 0 class S has no members S 0 class S has members SP product or intersection of classes i.e. common part or membership of the classes

Representation for Categorical Propositions in Boolean Logic: SP = 0: E proposition a. No members of class S belong to P b. No common members or the product of the classes is empty SP 0: I proposition a. At least one member of S is also a member of P b. The product of the classes is not empty S P = 0: A proposition a. The product of the classes is empty b. All S is P obverts to No S is non-P or symbolically: S P = 0 c.

S = non-S or complement of S; P = non-P or complement of P

S P 0: O proposition a. Some S is not P obverts to Some S is non-P or symbolically: S P 0

A: S P = 0

E: SP = 0

Contradictories

I: SP 0

O: S P 0

KEITH, Charles 1B

Legal Technique and Logic

VENN DIAGRAM S S: S = 0: S S 0: S X

S SP:

SP

SP

SP

SP

S P : Part of the circle S that does not overlap with circle P

S P: Part of the circle P that does not overlap with circle S


SP: product of the two classes or circles

SP : All things that dont belong to either circle S or circle P

KEITH, Charles 1B

Legal Technique and Logic

Shading a section in the diagram would indicate that that particular section is empty. While placing an x mark at the center of a specific section would show that it has at least one member or is not empty. All owners of hotels in manila are legitimate litigants by virtue of the overbreadth doctrine and third party standing. White Light Corp., et. al. vs. City of Manila, GR 122846, January 20, 2009

SP= 0

No petition for peoples initiative whose signatories have not seen the full text of the amendments is a valid means to amend the constitution. Raul Lambino, et.al. vs. Comelec, GR 174153, October 25, 2006

SP = 0 Some women, after suffering multiple cycles of violence at the hands of their partner, are liable of committing murder. People vs. Genosa, 135981, January 15, 2004

S X

SP 0

KEITH, Charles 1B

Legal Technique and Logic

Some judges who test complaints for probable cause so that they may issue warrants are not so thorough in their examination. Harry S. Stonehill, et. al. vs. Jose W. Diokno, et. al., GR L-19550, June 19, 1967 S X P

SP 0

The following are the converses of the above propositions: S P S P S P

X A: P S = 0 E: PS = 0 I: PS 0

S X

O: P S 0

KEITH, Charles 1B

Legal Technique and Logic