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Satellite Communication

Direct-to-Home Satellite Television Broadcasting

3/6/2013

Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

Introduction DTH Systems


Overview

Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service


Satellite Radio Broadcast Concept S-DARS Architecture World Space

DTH Systems Architecture Basic Elements of DTH System and Signal Flow Compression System Arrangement DTH Considerations DTH Systems around the world DTH Service Satellites

DTH architecture

3/6/2013

Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

Introduction

DTH systems are designed to transmit entertainment TV programming to home-receiving Earth terminals (or, simply, home receivers). This is a natural extension of TV distribution by satellite, utilizing the area-coverage and single service provider features of the technology. DTH systems, also called Direct Broadcast Satellite, employ either the BSS allocations, which are intended for this use, or the FSS allocations as one of a number of possible applications. This choice has some important implications, yet the end result is the same to the user
Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

3/6/2013

Introduction (contd.)

We focus on the nature of DTH services and the various factors that must be addressed to assure a successful introduction of these services:

The programming mix, for example, the quantity, variety, language options, and degree of interactivity, must compete with other DTH systems and delivery mechanisms (e.g., cable TV, AM and FM radio, audio CDs, Internet delivered MP3 files, cassette and DVD rental); Receiving equipment - its affordability, convenience of installation and use, integration with other video and audio devices, and aesthetics; Acceptability of the service price and an effective means to collect payment; Incompatibilities with the other DTH, radio, and cable TV systems, which are dependent on the nature of the business plan; Conditional access and scrambling in order to deal with copyrights, privacy, collection, regulations, and content rules (which may exist in the country markets of interest); Uplinking system, including redundancy, strength, program facilities. 3/6/2013 development and contribution Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

DTH Systems

Experience with DTH systems has shown that the service must be attractive as compared to other forms of video distribution; and access to the programming by the consumer must be properly controlled. The competition between delivery media is highly variable between countries. e.g. there is more intense competition in US while much lesser in UK and Japan The major elements of a DTH system are shown in Figure 6.1.
Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

3/6/2013

DTH Systems Architecture

3/6/2013

Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

DTH System Architecture

We briefly summarize the overall architecture of a DTH program delivery system such as that used for commercial purposes. It encompasses the uplink systems for digitizing, compressing, and transmitting multiple television programs using the DVB-S standard, for example. Other elements are required for the contribution of the programs, storage and switching of video signals, and the management of DTH as a customer service.
Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

3/6/2013

Basic Elements of DTH System and Signal Flow

The major elements of DTH system are listed as follows as indicated in Figure 6.1:
DTH satellites in GEO (one or more):

TT&C:

Spacecraft construction; Launch services; Launch and on-orbit insurance.

Controls the space segment and monitors spacecraft health; Verifies that transmissions to satellite do not cause interference; Provided by satellite operator (usually a separate company); Limited communication required between DTH network operator and satellite operator.
Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

3/6/2013

Basic Elements of DTH System and Signal Flow


Broadcast center:

Originates, acquires, and transmits program material; Generally centralized, with no or limited backup; Part of conditional access system.
Billing and customer turn-on-off; Customer assistance.

Customer service:

3/6/2013

Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

Basic Elements of DTH System and Signal Flow

These are the major elements, and there are many vital components and functions hidden within each. For example, customer service is involved with connecting and controlling individual subscribers. However, how they obtain their equipment in the first place and have it installed has turned into an industry all its own. Ownership and operation of the satellites can be internal or taken as a service from a professional satellite operator.
Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

3/6/2013

Basic Elements of DTH System and Signal Flow

A more detailed configuration of the operating components is presented in Figure 6.3. At the top of the diagram we find the service management functions of the network. These manage the interaction with the customer over the telephone and Internet, and provide the means to download PPV movie selections on a monthly basis. It also ties into the CA segment, which authorizes individual IRDs over the space segment. The technical functions at the bottom of the diagram show the physical production and transmission facilities, from content input through baseband processing and on up to the satellite.
Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

3/6/2013

Basic Elements of DTH System and Signal Flow

Basic Elements of DTH System and Signal Flow

The basic arrangement of the uplink compression-encoding-modulation chain and downlink demodulationdecoding-decompression chain is presented in Figure 6.4.

3/6/2013

Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

Basic Elements of DTH System and Signal Flow: Compression System Arrangement

Basic Elements of DTH System and Signal Flow: Compression System Arrangement

The uplink compression elements are contained within the broadcast center Earth station such as that shown in Figure 6.5 for DIRECTV. This includes equipment that digitizes and time division multiplexes the video, audio, and data information. In large networks, between 5 and 12 video channels and their associated audio and data are combined using TDM onto a single carrier that would occupy the entire transponder bandwidth.
Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

3/6/2013

Basic Elements of DTH System and Signal Flow

3/6/2013

Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

Basic Elements of DTH System and Signal Flow: Compression System Arrangement

The compression systems themselves fall into two categories:


(1) those that comply with a standard, particularly MPEG 2 or DVB-S (which includes MPEG 2 as a component); or (2) those that use a proprietary algorithm and multiplexing scheme.

Systems that started out in category (2) are quickly moving to MPEG 2 because of the rapidly decreasing cost of the receiving equipment.
Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

3/6/2013

DTH Considerations

DTH is a delivery vehicle for programming, where the receiver is located with and probably owned by the end user. In the ideal case, specifics like the type of receiver, size of antenna, signal format, and satellite design are secondary.
Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

3/6/2013

DTH Considerations

The emphasis should be on making it easy and relatively inexpensive for the subscriber, since their interest is in the programming and the cost of getting access to it. The quality of satellite-delivered digital video is as good as or superior to cable or over-the-air broadcasting; hence, the picture quality will probably not be a differentiating factor.
Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

3/6/2013

DTH Considerations

The area where quality is seen as a negative is at C-band where users have to contend with terrestrial interference. Ku-band systems, while generally free from terrestrial interference, are subject to rain fade, which produces occasional outages. Once this problem is solved through adequate link design and margin, subscribers will next be drawn by a desirable array of programming.
Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

3/6/2013

DTH Considerations

The Asian environment has many opportunities because of the primitive nature of the DTH industry in the region. Cable TV is a viable business in developed countries and city-states; China, India, and Indonesia have large populations that are hungry for more and better entertainment. China now has a DTH platform operating on Sinosat. Importantly, money flows easily into major projects and business ventures. This has fueled the creation of several new satellite operators and the development of the largest satellite market in the world.
Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

3/6/2013

DTH Systems around the world

3/6/2013

Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

DTH Service Satellites

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Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service

S-DARS systems deliver a multiplexed combination of several audio program channels transmitted directly to automobile receivers, portable radios, and homes using special frequency allocations in the region of L- and S-bands. S-DARS overcomes the range limitation of terrestrial FM radio broadcasting and provides quality of sound comparable to other digital formats such as MP3 and possibly CD.
Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

3/6/2013

Satellite Digital Audio Radio Service

Satellites have been used to deliver audio programming for decades, but these systems were directed toward fixed installations at radio stations and commercial buildings. Additionally, DTH systems typically include a package of music channels that can be played through the TV set. What sets the new S-DARS apart is that it provides coverage to automobiles and portable radios, and offers some unique program formats not popular enough to sustain themselves as commercial operations. Thus, we have a new generation of direct broadcasting services to provide universal coverage of radio-like services to the general public. Begun in Africa as a free, advertiser-supported service by WorldSpace, S-DARS has been propelled into a potentially major satellite business for subscribers who are willing to pay a monthly fee (e.g., pay radio) akin to what is already standard for cable and DTH TV (e.g., pay TV).
Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

3/6/2013

Satellite Radio Broadcast Concept

Satellite radio broadcasting is not so different from TV program distribution and in fact shares many of the same principles and components. First use of dedicated satellite audio was by Muzak, a company that delivered elevator music in the 1970s and moved from tape to satellite. Subsequently, all DTH TV operators included digital versions of such service as part of their programming content through the facilities of Music Choice. Another form was the private radio broadcast to chains of retail stores, pioneered by Supermarket Radio Network. But it was not until Noah Samara created WorldSpace that SDARS really got its start. The concept is indicated in Figure 7.1, where a broadcast center obtains audio content from a variety of sources: tape, local studio, audio CD, and existing radio stations and networks.
Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

3/6/2013

S-DARS Architecture

3/6/2013

Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

S-DARS Architecture

The actual broadcast transmission is fairly standard, as in TV, using analog-to-digital conversion, compression appropriate to the content, forward error correction, modulation, and RF amplification. The satellite to be used may be a bent-pipe design with sufficient EIRP to allow the use of portable or vehicular receivers.
Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

3/6/2013

First Introduction of S-DARS WorldSpace


WorldSpace was founded in 1990 and represents an interesting startup venture in the commercial satellite industry. Initial financial support made it possible for WorldSpace to build and launch satellites under contracts placed with Alcatel and other major companies. The WorldSpace system was the first S-DARS system and therefore was the innovator in applying L-band spectrum to audio broadcasting. Of critical importance are the size of the coverage areas in relation to the cost of the satellites, advanced low bit rate audio coding, and simple satellite uplinking arrangements. However, WorldSpace is less suitable for mobile reception than XM or Sirius because of low elevation angles in some areas served. Without any form of diversity, signal fades and dropouts make reception extremely problematic in moving vehicles.
Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

3/6/2013

SESAT satellite from Eutelsat connecting East and West

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Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

DTH receiver from Eutelsat

3/6/2013

Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

Functional block diagram of a DVB-S channel

3/6/2013

Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

Functional block diagram of a typical Ku-band satellite transmit terminal

3/6/2013

Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

Antenna for the transmit terminal

3/6/2013

Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

DTH receiver architecture

3/6/2013

Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

3/6/2013

Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

Functional block diagram of DVB-S IRD receiver

3/6/2013

Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah

Thank You

3/6/2013

Prepared By: Er. Suresh Pd. Sah