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Chapter 14 Europe and the World: New Encounters, 1500-1800 I. On the Brink of a New World a. The Motives i.

economic motive ii. religious zeal b. The Means i. portolani detailed charts made by medieval navigators and mathematicians in the 13th and 14th 1. drawn on flat scale ii. seafarers venturing beyond the coast of Euro accumulate info about the actual shape of the earth iii. Ptolemys Geography 1. known to Arab geographers as early as the 8th century 2. 15th century: Latin translation made 3. world as spherical with 3 major landmasses (Euro, Asia, Africa), 2 oceans iv. Navigational and ship innovations 1. axial rudder: combine the use of lateen sails w/ square rig sail against the wind 2. used knowledge of position of Pole Star to ascertain their latitude proved to be useless below equator 3. growing knowledge of Atlantic wind patterns learned to catch the westerly winds New Horizons: The Portuguese and Spanish Empires a. The Development of a Portuguese Maritime Empire i. 1419: Prince Henry founded school for navigators Portuguese fleets going to Africa western coast searching gold ii. 1441: Port. reach Senegal R. bring back black Africans Lisbon becomes slave market center iii. In Africa, Port. leased land from local rulers to build stone forts along coast iv. 1498: Vasco de Gama rounds the Cape of Good Hope and arrived in Calicut v. Port. fleets sought to destroy Arabic shipping, est. monopoly in spice trade vi. 1509: Port. defeat Turkish and Indian ships blockade on the entrance to Red Sea (cut off the flow of spices to Muslim rulers in Egypt and Ottoman Empire) vii. 1510: Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque sets up port facilities at Goa headquarters for Port. operations viii. 1511: Albuquerque sails into Malacca seized the city from Arabs ix. guns and seamanship Port. success b. Voyages to the New World i. 1492: Christopher Columbus reaches Bahamas 3 subsequent voyages, reaching all the major islands of Caribbean and Central America mainland

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ii. John Cabot: explored New England coastline for King Henry VII (England) iii. Pedro Cabral (Port.): discovered S. America in 1500 1. Amerigo Vespucci: wrote series of letters describing geography of New World iv. 1513: Vasco Nunez de Balboa (Sp.) expedition across Panama Isthmus reaches Pacific Ocean v. 1519: Ferdinand Magellan passes through straits at S. America tip reaches Philippines and dies remaining crew returns to spain 1. first known circumnavigation of the earth vi. 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas: div. up newly discovered world into Prot. and Sp. spheres of influence 1. Sp. takes up most of S. America 2. route east around the Cape of Good Hope = Port.; route across the Atlantic = Sp. c. The Spanish Empire in the New World i. Early Civilizations in Mesoamerica 1. A.D. 300-800s: Maya civilization on Yucatan Peninsula 2. 12th century: Aztecs migrated to Tenochtitlan, Mexico est. empire stretching as far south as the Guatemalan border kingdom not centralized state loose pol. organization downfall of Aztec Empire ii. Spanish Conquest of the Aztec Empire 1. 1519: Hernan Cortes landed at Veracruz makes alliances with city-states tired of Aztec rule welcomed by Aztec monarch 2. Spaniards take Moctezuma hostage 1520 revolt against the Spanish 3. Aztecs not immune to Euro diseases many died 4. 1531-1550: Sp. gains control of N. Mexico iii. The Inca and the Spanish 1. Inca community in area of Cuzco 2. ruler Pachakuti expansion highly centralized state 3. 1530 Francisco Pizzaro lands on Pacific coast w/ steel weapons, gunpowder, and horses 4. Inca Empire devastated by Euro smallpox emperor dies civil war between sons Pizarro takes advantage of the situation by seizing one of the brothers Pizarro captures Cuzco 1535 Pizarro had est. capital at Lima for new colony of the Sp. Empire iv. Administration of the Spanish Empire 1. Queen Isabella declared natives to be subjects of Castile 2. encomienda: collect tribute from natives, use them as laborers; holders of encomienda were to protect the natives, pay them wages, and supervise spiritual needs 3. Spanish settlers ignore gov. natives put to work on plantations and gold/silver mines forced labor, starvation, disease death 4. use of viceroys; 2 administrative units

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a. New Spain: Mexico, Central America, Caribbean islands i. based in Mexico City b. Peru: western S. America i. based in Lima 5. Papal agreement Sp. monarchs given extensive rights over ecclesiastical affairs in the New World a. appoint bishops/clergy, build churches, collect fees, supervise the various religious orders b. Catholic missionaries all over the Sp. Empire: Dominicans, Franciscans, Jesuits 6. Spanish Inquisition: est. in Peru 1570, Mexico 1571 New Rivals on the World Stage a. Africa: The Slave Trade i. Dutch seize Port. forts along W. Africa coast ii. Dutch East India Company settles in S. Africa, Cape of Good Hope (originally as a stop for Dutch ships en route to Spice Islands) permanent colony Boers (Dutch farmers) settle areas outside the city of Cape Town iii. Cane sugar intro to Euro by Mid. E. End of 15th century, Port. set up sugar plantations with African laborers on island off central coast of Africa plantations set up in Brazil and Caribbean needed more workers than the decreasing pop. of Native Americans ship Africans over to New World iv. Growth in the Slave Trade 1. High death rate of slaves astonishing numbers of slaves shipped to the New World 2. Immunity to fatal diseases Death rates lower for slaves born and raised in the New World 3. Slave owners, esp. in W. Indies, believed that buying a new slave was less expensive than raising a child from birth to working age at adolescence. 4. Local rulers in Africa viewed slave trade as a source of income protests from Africans ignored by Europeans and local rulers v. Effects of the Slave Trade 1. cheap manufactured goods made by slaves undermined local cottage industries in Euro 2. slave trade increased warfare and violence in African states 3. Quakers bean to criticize slaver in the 1770s European sentiment against slavery begins to build 4. French Rev. abolished slavery in Fr. 5. British abolish slavery 1807 b. The West in Southeast Asia i. Port. too small to maintain large empire ii. Sp. control Philippines base in trade across Pacific iii. Dutch seize Port. fort in the Moluccas gradually push Port. out of spice trade Dutch occupy trade routes throughout the Indian Ocean

iv. Dutch drive out English traders from spice market restrict English to single port on southern coast of Sumatra v. Dutch est. fort at Batavia 1619 found it necessary to bring inland regions under control vi. On Java, Dutch East India Company est. pepper plantations massive profits for Dutch merchants in Amsterdam vii. Port. est. limited trade relations w/ mainland states of SE Asia Euro nations compete actively for trade and missionary privileges viii. Vietnam civil war temporarily div. country into N. and S. Dutch and Port. side with rival factions left by the end of the 17th century (limited economic opportunities) ix. Mainland SE Asia states more cohesive than Malay better in resisting European challenge c. The French and British in India i. The Impact of the Western Powers 1. First half of 17th century, British presence in India steadily increased success attracted rivals (Dutch and French) Dutch abandon their interests to concentrate on spice trade; French cont. to est. forts on Indias east coast 2. British saved by military genius of Sir Robert Clive, chief rep. of east India Company