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Seed Development and Dormancy

Hiro Nonogaki, Associate Professor Integrative Seed Biology Oregon State University

Flower

stigma style

anther filament petal sepal

ovule

Esau, 1977; Anatomy of Seed Plants

Flower

stigma style

anther filament petal sepal

Esau, 1977; Anatomy of Seed Plants

Wild Carrot Flower

Developmental Stages
1 DAP 3 DAP 6 DAP 8 DAP 9 DAP 10 DAP 16 DAP 11 DAP 12 DAP 13 DAP 14 DAP 15 DAP 4 DAP 7 DAP

17 DAP

19 DAP

18 DAP 20 DAP 21 DAP

Composite Flowers

21-12 22-12

Raven et al., 1999; Biology of Plants

Composite-Type Seeds

pericarp testa endosperm embryo

Achene

Tomato Anther

Tomato Pollen Germination

C E

Fertilization

stigma Pollen tube

Fertilization

ovule

Double Fertilization

Antipodal cells

Central nuclei Sperm nuclei Endosperm Egg cell Embryo Synergid cell

Embryo and Endosperm

Endosperm Embryo

Carrot seed

Fennel Seed
endosperm

Intact seed

Pericarp removed

embryo

Embryogenesis

Early - Histodifferentiation Mid - Enlargement of the cells Late - Maturation and drying These are overlapping phases !

Seed formation

Developmental Stages

Early

Mid

Late

19.36

pre- globular globular

transition

heart

torpedo

mature

Buchanan et al, 2000, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants

Arabidopsis Embryogenesis

Coppersmith JL, Hewitt JR, Nonogaki H, unpublished results

Globular Stage
The fate of cells are already determined !

Protoderm

epidermal layer vascular tissue

Procambium

Ground meristem Hypophysis root

parenchyma

Buchanan et al, 2000, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants

Morphological Maturation
S1
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

Kristof JR, Nonogaki H, unpublished results

Physiological Maturation
T W B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7

Germination Potential (%)

W B1 B3 B5 B7

T 100

B2 B4 B6

50

B1

B2

B3

B4

B5

B6

B7

axis

cot

B1

B2

B3

B4

B5

B6

B7

Kristof JR, Nonogaki H, unpublished results

Seed Abortion
Drought and High Temperature Bee activity Concentrated nectar unattractive to bees Unsuccessful fertilization Flower death Seed abortion Physiological and genetic problem Overhead misting could help lowering temperature
http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~seedsci/vsp02.html

Carrot Pollen Germination

Two to three bulges in ungerminated pollen

Pollen tube

One of the bulges germinates

Seed Abortion

Chaudhury et al., 1997; Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences USA 94: 4223-4228

Onion Seeds

Raven et al., 1999; Biology of Plants, Esau 1977; Anatomy of Seed Plants

Seed Abortion

50% Abortion

100% Normal

Ohad et al., 1996; Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, USA 93: 5319-5324

Normal Testa Development


Testa development could be separated from embryogenesis

Chaudhury et al., 1997; Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences USA 94: 4223-4228

Lepiniec et al., 2006; Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 57: 405-430

Viviparous Seeds

Vivipary

9.4

Developing wheat seeds


Bewley and Black, 1994; Seeds

Abscisic acid (ABA)

Germination inhibitor

Water

3 M ABA

Testa

Arabidopsis seed

Western et al., 2000, Plant Physiol 122: 345-355

Testa Pigmentation Mutants

Lepiniec et al., 2006; Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 57: 405-430

Proanthocyanidin Synthesis

Wild type

Mutant
Reduction in proanthocyanidin deposition in vacuole testa endosperm embryo

Endothelium layer
(Phenolic compounds)

Debeaujon et al., 2001; Plant Cell 13: 853-872

Reduced Dormancy

tt12 x WT tt12

WT x tt12 WT

Maternally inherited

Debeaujon et al., 2001; Plant Cell 13: 853-872

Coat-imposed Dormancy

Outer cover

Undeveloped embryo

Embryo physiology

Combined

Immature Embryo

Outer cover

Undeveloped embryo

Embryo physiology

Combined

Embryo Dormancy

Outer cover

Undeveloped embryo

Embryo physiology

Combined

Induction of Dormancy

5.13

Medicago lupulina
Bewley and Black, 1994; Seeds

Photoreversibility
Photoreversibility
Irradiation Dark R FR R, FR R, FR, R R, FR, R, FR R, FR, R, FR, R Germination (%) 4 98 3 2 97 0 95

Bewley and Black, 1994; Seeds