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University of Portharcourt

Nigeria liquefied natural gas company (NLNG)

Student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES)

UNIVERSITY OF PORTHRACOURT FACULTY OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING A STUDENT INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME (SIWES) REPORT AT NIGERIA LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS PLANT (NLNG) BONNY ISLAND, RIVERS STATE SUBMITTED BY AMADI SAMUEL U2007/3025219 TO THE SIWES CO-ORDINATOR, DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF PORTHARCOURT IN PARTIAL FUFILMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREEOF BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING. (B.ENG), IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

JANUARY, 2012

DEDICATION This work is dedicated to the Almighty God, for his grace of favor, mercies and uncommon strength to successfully complete this program. My family, Mr. and Mrs. Nze VC Amadi, for being both my moral, financial and social pillar, for their undying support throughout my life. To all the NLNG staffs, contractors (OTS and others), without whom there would not be a report in the first place, for there expertise, professionalism and technical know how in sustaining a world-class company. Finally, my fellow SIWES students that I worked with and shared varying work experiences with.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express immense gratitude and appreciation to all those that have made my industrial training and on the broader scale my Academic achievements up to this level. To my parents once more Mr. and Mrs. Nze VC Amadi, and my family for understanding the importance of education and striving even with lean resources to ensure my academic continuity, you always hold a special place in my heart. To Nigeria liquefied natural gas company,(NLNG),for providing indeed a worldclass environment of both locals and multinationals that work together with a common goal of succeeding and being among the best. Granting us an unlimited supervised access to its state of the art facilities and equipment, indeed with this company Nigeria has a great future. To Mr. Azunda Woga, of the NLNG OSB Port Harcourt base, for his special support role he played, in helping me settle seamlessly in the program. The NLNG SIWES set of 2011; indeed they made the experience both social and industrial as we had a lot of fun together as trainees and colleagues. To the department of mechanical engineering and the university of Port Harcourt in general, for giving me such valuable knowledge that I have now come to understand and appreciate. To all my lecturers,i pray that the lord blesses such good works you do by teaching us all students. Finally to God almighty, for making this programs a huge success. I cant thank him enough.

ABSTRACT Funded by the industrial training fund(ITF),based on decree 47 of 1972 in which the ITF was established, the student industrial work experience scheme(SIWES) has one of its major objectives as exposing students to the norms, code and general standards of the industry. Training at the NLNG has no doubt increased my technical knowhow, in the area of maintenance of some mechanical equipment used in the natural gas processing and liquefaction sector. Familiarizing me with the basic units needed for the successful purification and liquefaction of natural gas. The mechanical workshop, the expertise with which the machinist handled their jobs could also be observed and lessons learnt from it. The use of simple measuring tools and precision tools for carrying out day to day tasks and activities. Assisting experienced technicians in the repairs of different array of pumps, including the cryogenic pumps, whose submersible design fascinated me. The compressors, gear boxes, valve testing and repairs, crane checks at breath taking heights, just to mention a few were the workshop experiences. Out in the fields, working in the gas trains, were natural gas was processed mainly, carryout mechanical seals change outs, etc, for massive equipment that cant be brought to the workshop. Also with the utilities, the water treatment, cooling towers, condensate loading and storage, assisting the in troubleshooting the LNG loading arms, at breathtaking heights, were the key points of the training which made the whole both interesting and educative, as I came in contact with some really sophisticated equipments and interacted with the live plant, running 24/7. Indeed this was one experience I will not forget in a hurry.

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Some experts are of the opinion that there is a yearning gap between the learning acquired by Nigerian graduates of the Nigerian universities and the skills application required in the workplace. Clearly, academic learning and theoretical knowledge alone would not usually prepare an educated person for the world of work. Consequently, a worker must not only bring knowledge, but must also be versatile in the application of skills required to perform defined jobs and work. This requirement is particularly crucial for graduates of science, engineering, agriculture and technology disciplines. This need for practical knowhow gave birth to the SIWES program. 1.1 STUDENT INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME (SIWES) This is a training program wholly organized, funded and directed by the itf for students undergoing studies in some technical disciplines such as the engineering, sciences, technology, architecture and a number of related courses in the institutions of higher learning across the country. 1.2 PURPOSE OF SIWES As contained in the federal military government decree 47 of 1972 which established the ITF.the purpose of the SIWES program is to expose students to practical and technical know how on the job experiences in industries and firms and related allied concerns, which obviously cannot be acquired within the limited infrastructural capacities of the Nigerian universities and polytechnics. SIWES therefore prepares the Nigerian students to fit in readily to employment opportunities in the mainstream of the countrys socio economic sector. this is so because during g the course of this program, students come face to face with real life processes ,situations, problems and corresponding solutions which reflect in back to the theoretical aspects of lectures in the classroom. 6

In recognition of the above foregoing, the Nigerian university commission(NUC)and the board of technical education(NBTE)concurred that the SIWES program is of tremendous importance to the student and the nation as a whole, thus it should be made compulsory and as part of the curriculum of relevant departments of students studying is such fields .consequent to this, it became the duty of the student to ensure that he/she acquired sufficient practical experience through direct participation as this scheme invariably forms part of his/her assessment for the award of degrees in their respective fields. During the period of attachment, attached students are expected to record their day to day activities at work in a log book, which will be submitted for assessment by lecturers at the end of their programs. In addition to this, students are required to put up a comprehensive report of the SIWES program as they individually experienced in their various places of attachments. 1.3 DURATION OF SIWES SIWES, scheduled into academic calendar year, differs from institution to institution. In some universities across the country, this program runs nonstop for six months. Some universities split this 6 months period into two equal parts of 3 months each. The program also runs for a period of one year in some polytechnics and colleges. However, in the faculty of engineering, university of Port Harcourt, SIWES runs for a period of 3 and 9 months, at the 200 and 400 levels respectively. For the purposes of this report, it focuses on the 6 months industrial training period of my 400l. I had this industrial training at the Nigeria liquefied natural gas company, at the plant complex in bonny island, Rivers State. 1.4 HISTORY OF THE FIRM Nigeria LNG Limited - The Company NLNG Limited is jointly owned by Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation - NNPC (49%), Shell (25.6%), Total (15%) and Agip

(10.4%). Incorporated as a limited liability company on May 17, 1989 to harness Nigerias natural gas resources and produce LNG for export. The NLNG plant is located on Bonny Island, Rivers State, Nigeria. NLNG does not explore for gas. Gas is supplied to NLNG via a dedicated pipeline supplied from different supply points. The LNG plant consists of six liquefaction units (trains) producing 22 million metric tonnes per annum (mmtpa). In addition to the process complex, a separate residential area is provided. This area includes houses, recreational facilities, and community facilities such as a hospital, school, shopping mall etc. The LNG is shipped to customers in Europe, America and Asia in LNG ships provided by Bonny Gas Transport, a subsidiary of NLNG. 1.5 ACTIVITIES The activities of the NLNG indeed are vast, and at such, an entire chapter will be dedicated for this purpose, the next chapter will serve to describe the entire processes, activities and units of the NLNG production cycle. 1.6 VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS. The NLNG is made up of various divisions; divisions are made up of departments. The production division (PD) is made up of the following departments brief outline of their function will also be highlighted. Production operations (PO): The Operations department is committed to constantly and consistently upholding the companys policy of producing LNG in a safe and profitable way within the industry best practices. The department is generally responsible for the total assets management of the Production Division of the company. Production engineering (PE)

The Engineering Department is a large department with enthusiastic and professional technical people supporting the NLNG Industrial and Residential Areas. In order to effectively and efficiently deliver the support, they work closely with colleagues in Operations and Technology. Furthermore, via a yearly benchmarking with other LNG sites, they learn what is going on outside the NLNG Company and make sure that they stay competitive. Technical department (PT) Provides expert technical advice and services in order to maximize the overall plants safety,reliability,efficiceny and capacity utilization in a cost effective manner, in so doing protect the health of the people and conserve the environment. Contracts, procurement and materials (CPM): made up of a multiple channel member In the supply chain business, poised to design, implement, and manage seamless value added processes to meet the real needs of our end users. Our goal is to demonstrate sound contracting and procurement competences, using appropriate tools and techniques under specific circumstances, aimed at achieving customer delight to deliver corporate objectives. Human resources and personnel (HRP): are a group of professionals saddled with the responsibility of providing high quality HR and allied services for the Production Division of NLNG in Bonny Island. Finance and planning (FNP): They provide world class financial services to our customers through continuous process improvements in line with NLNG's core objectives Community relations (ERC): works with NLNG host communities to foster good relationship, and also to create and sustain a conducive environment for company operations.

Corporate medical services (CMO): provides excellent primary and secondary health care services to all clients in a caring and professional environment. Health safety environment quality (HSEQ) : health safety and environment quality are in charge of ensuring that the company produces LNG with minimum damage to the environment and the best safety practices.

Integrated scheduling and planning (ISP): to optimize the planning and scheduling of NLNG activities and assets in the feed/production chain, i.e.: BUY GAS-> TRANSPORT GAS-> PRODUCE LNG/NGLs -> STORE AND LOAD SHIP-> SHIP TO CUSTOMER. This is done with multi-disciplinary teams located in one centre and in close coordination with other NLNG stakeholders. They also measure and report on the collective performance as a supporting activity. Corporate security services (CSS) Since the establishment of CSS department, our core mission, to ensure the security of and manage threats to company assets - people, property, information and image, has essentially remained unchanged. Shipping department terminal(SDT): Department is primarily focused on providing safe, accessible and operationally available marine terminal in Bonny for loading LNG, LPG and Condensate tankers in a sustainable and efficient manner as well as managing NLNG marine assets and activities in Bonny and Port Harcourt.

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1.7 ORGANOGRAM

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Fig. 1.1 organogram of the production division

S e e A tta c h e d C h a rt P E O M a jo r C a p it a l P r o je c ts C o o rd in a to r NPX J . S c h o u te n

S e e A tta c h e d C h a rt N P X H e a d A s s e t In fo M g t. PEA J . D e G ra a f

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CHAPTER 2 2.1 LIQUEFACTION OF NATURAL GAS

Liquefied natural gas is composed primarily of methane. As such LNG is made up of 95% methane. This composition of natural gas and LNG is illustrated using in a pie chart below.

Fig. 2.1: Composition of Natural gas compare to Liquefied Natural gas

Fig. 2.2: Natural Gas Value Chain Natural gas processing begins at the well head. The composition of the raw natural gas extracted from producing wells depends on the type, depth, and location of the underground deposit and the geology of the area. Oil and natural gas are often found together in the same reservoir. The natural gas produced from oil wells is generally classified as associated-dissolved, meaning that the natural gas is associated with or dissolved in crude oil. Natural gas production, absent any association with crude oil is classified as non-associated gas (NAG). Fluids are separated in the field and the oil sent by pipeline to the main centre for export or processing. Separated water will be drained away to disposal pits. The gas from each field (AG and NAG) is then dehydrated 12

and, depending on the H2S content, is put through a sweetening process before compressed into a main pipeline to the processing (LNG) plant. While some of the needed processing can be accomplished at or near the wellhead (field processing), the complete processing of natural gas takes place at a processing plant.

Fig. 2.3: Constituents of LPG, NGLs and LNG

LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas NGL - Natural Gas Liquids LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas Fig. 2.4: Different sectors in Natural gas production

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Gas processing is necessary for reasons of Sales gas specifications, pipeline transport, NGL recovery, LNG and GTL (Gas to Liquid) feedstock specifications. The actual practice of processing natural gas to pipeline dry gas quality levels is quite complex, but usually involves four main processes to remove the various impurities: Oil and Condensate Removal Water Removal Separation of Natural Gas Liquids Sulfur and Carbon Dioxide Removal Throughout processing, the gas pressure is controlled at the desired level.On arrival, due to friction and retrograde condensation of heavy components, the pressure decreases during the journey and gas condensate and water are formed. In order to sweep these liquids along to the processing plant, the pipeline will be 'Sphered' or 'Pigged'. 2.2 NLNG PRODUCTION PROCESSES

The Nigeria LNG Plant at Bonny Island, River State, Nigeria processes natural gas from both onshore and offshore gas fields after initial dehydration treatment of the feed gas for pipeline delivery into her six production trains, with a total capacity of 2.9 mtpa where it undergoes treatment to remove impurities. These impurities are CO 2, water, Mercury and heavy hydrocarbons which would freeze out or attack the aluminum used in the Cryogenic sections of the plant if they were not removed. Liquefaction of the natural gas (which is mostly methane), is then achieved in two stages by (1) initial cooling against propane (at four pressure levels) and (2) by further cooling against a mixed refrigerant stream to minus 161oC. The volume of natural gas is reduced in the liquefaction process by a factor of 600 which makes transportation of the gas to the users an economic proposition when compared to

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transportation through pipelines. The LNG is transported to customers in insulated tankers which minimize the vaporization which results from heat ingress.

Fig 2.5: LNG production Process flow chart The following description provides a brief overview of the process units, which are included in the Liquefaction Complex. Utilities, Storage / Loading, and some general facilities are included. 2.2.1 Trunk line Terminal

This unit receives the natural gas feedstock to the complex from the gas collection areas.

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Fig. 2.6: NLNG Trunk line Terminal Unit (A) control station 2.2.2 Plant Pressure Control Station (PPCS)

b)

plant

pressure

This unit reduces and controls the gas pressure to 55.3 Bara (Train1-3) and 65 bar (train 4-6) so that the LNG trains are fed at a constant pressure independently of any trunk line pressure fluctuation. 2.2.3 Acid Gas Removal Unit

This unit removes CO2 from the natural gas fed to the liquefaction unit to prevent it from freezing out at low temperature.

2.2.4

Dehydration Unit

The Dehydration Unit removes water from the feed gas leaving the Acid Removal Unit. Drying is required to prevent ice formation in the Liquefaction Unit, which would cause blockage of lines and equipment. 2.2.5 Mercury Removal Unit

The dehydrated natural gas from the dehydration unit passes through the mercury removal unit which removes trace quantities of mercury present in the feed to the Liquefaction Unit. 2.2.6 Liquefaction Unit

The Liquefaction Unit produces liquefied natural gas (LNG) at a temperature adequate for storage under atmospheric pressure. The temperature is -161 degrees Celsius and atmospheric pressure. 2.2.8 UTILITY OPERATIONS: For successful operation of the Liquefied Natural Gas Plants a certain number of ancillary services OR UTILITIES are required. Although these are not directly involved

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in the conversion and treatment of natural gas to LNG, they are important to operation of the complex. They are listed below according to the Unit. (Refer to the block diagram above where they fit into the process): Well Water System Electricity Generation and Distribution Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) System Cooling Water (CW) System Water Treatment (WTP) System Fuel Gas (FG) System Drinking Water (DW) and Service Water (SW) Systems Demineralised Water System Instrument and Tool Air System Inert Gas System An overview of some of the utilities directly involved in the conversion and treatment of Natural Gas to LNG are discussed below. I. INSTRUMENT AND TOOL AIR SYSTEM

The Instrument and Tool Air System provides dried compressed air for use as instrument air, flare pilot ignition air, and feed to the Nitrogen production plant. II. as follows: To dry out the systems prior to initial start up To purge plants on start up and shutdown As make up to the LNG trains MCR circuit To maintain inert atmospheres in appropriate sections of the LNG trains and process services To purge miscellaneous analytical equipment To purge tanker loading arms before and after use and To purge the flare header and stacks INERT GAS SYSTEM (NITROGEN SYSTEM)

The Inert Gas System supplies nitrogen gas to the Liquefaction Complex following users

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III. units:

FUEL GAS SYSTEM UNIT

Each of the LNG trains is provided with the following process services as dedicated Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) System Cooling Water (CW) or Air fin Cooling System Fuel Gas (FG) system consisting within each LNG train of a HP header to supply the process gas turbines and a LP header to feed the HTF furnace and the regeneration gas heater, while the rest of the Unit is located in the Common Facilities Area. The High Pressure (HP) Fuel Gas System supplies the gas turbine drivers of the refrigerant compressors and the electrical generators. IV. HEAT TRANSFER FLUID (HTF) SYSTEM UNIT

HTF is used as the heat transfer medium for the LNG trains and process heaters. The HTF system is based on the use of Shell Thermia Oil B. V. LNG Storage and Loading

LNG storage tanks receive product run down from the production trains. Each tank has a gross volume of 84,200 m3 and is maintained under a very slight positive pressure, at -161oC to minimize vaporization of the LNG. There are two distinct modes in the normal operation of the LNG Storage and Loading Facilities: Holding mode and Loading mode. In the Holding mode (period between cargo transfers), LNG rundown is circulated through the loading lines to keep them at cryogenic temperature. In the Loading mode (when a ship is moored at the jetty), LNG rundown from the liquefaction plants is routed directly to the LNG storage tanks. Submerged LNG Loading Pumps located inside the LNG storage tanks, are used to transfer LNG to moored LNG ships via the loading lines and (normally two liquid loading arms with one vapor return arm).

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2.3 The production engineering maintenance (PEM) section This department was where I was attached specifically. Here we undertook general plant maintenance both preventive, corrective and breakdown maintenance on units and machines in the plant process area. Also what was done during the industrial training period, were jobs which were mainly on mechanical maintenance in the gas process areas, utilities, offsite, etc. industrial safety, permit to work system, work procedure which is key in this type of sensitive industry, was also part of the experience gained. Though this might not be associated with much importance, being able to work with/and in a multinational ethnic diversified environment, working with foreign nationals and locals, being able to relate well with them was also part of the experience gained. Industrial safety; An industrial safety system is a countermeasure crucial in any hazardous plants such as oil and gas plants and nuclear plants. They are used to protect human, plant, and environment in case the process goes beyond the control margins. As the name suggests, these systems are not intended for controlling the process itself but rather protection. Process control is performed by means of process control systems (PCS) and is interlocked by the safety systems so that immediate actions are taken should the process control systems fail.safety at work in nlng was largely emphasized on and strictly complied with. Maintenance; Maintenance can be seen as the continual monitoring, failure prediction modes and ways to minimize/eliminate them if possible, with the sole aim of improving the service life of a piece of equipment, at the optimal service conditions and minimum cost. The main category of maintenance carried out by our team in the NLNG, are listed below, they range from about a 30minutes session to days of maintenance work.

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Breakdown maintenance It means that people waits until equipment fails and repair it Preventive maintenance It is a daily maintenance (cleaning, inspection, oiling and re-tightening), design to retain the healthy condition of equipment and prevent failure through the prevention of deterioration, periodic inspection or equipment condition diagnosis, to measure deterioration. It is further divided into periodic maintenance and predictive maintenance. Just like human life is extended by preventive medicine, the equipment service life can be prolonged by doing preventive maintenance. Predictive maintenance This is a method in which the service life of important part is predicted based on inspection or diagnosis, in order to use the parts to the limit of their service life. Corrective maintenance it improves equipment and its components so that preventive maintenance can be carried out reliably. Equipment with design weakness must be redesigned to improve reliability or improving maintainability. Mechanical workshop A period of two months was spent in the mechanical workshop. A lot of repair activities and maintenance was carried out in the workshop. Major overhaul of equipments such as those that cant be repaired in the field was done in the workshop. The mechanical workshop activities can be divided into four major sections viz; Valve testing and certification: here, valves were tested in a test laboratory that has a test rig. Initially, valves in the plant operate at set pressures corresponding to the capacity of the vessel they are relieving pressures from. From time to time, valves in the field are tested routinely to ascertain its level of reliability to avoid failures during service. A safety valve is said to have failed if it doesnt relieve pressure at the set value. If a safety

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valve fails, it is overhauled, critical parts like the nozzle and seat, cleaned to remove debris and dirt. The valve is retested and certified. Machining sections: the fabrication of small parts that can be used in equipments to enhance or correct some faults are mainly done here. As part of the companys safety policy, trainees are not expected to engage directly in machining, but can watch and observe as experts handle jobs on machining. The lathe machine, boring, grinding machines, etc were mainly found in this section. Dynamic balancing: here, equipments involved in high speed rotation, like the rotor of the electric motor, impellers, etc are balanced in order to avoid excessive vibrations that can cause damage to the equipment and its parts. This is done using a computerized test rig machine, the schenk series, and must be done with the best possible minimal error. Equipment overhaul and repairs: here, faulty equipment is repaired to design specifications, mainly by cleaning, use of available spare parts, and machining of some simple corrective parts. Equipments here can range from pumps of different types, shapes and sizes, compressors, gear boxes, actuators, loading arms etc. in fact, just about any mechanical equipment found in the field can be repaired in this section. Repair manuals are followed stepwise to achieve the clearances and tolerances permissible. In collaboration with some other departments within the PE, repairs and overhauls are carried out successfully. Some equipment like tank cranes, ship mooring systems, etc that cannot be repaired in house, due to their large sizes will mean sending out a team of workshop personnel to go out there and get them done. Some other sections like the tool shop, the mechanical lay down yard for storage of mechanical parts sensitive to corrosion, are stored in cocoons under nitrogen until when needed.

2.4 Some photos of the repairs and general photos Photo gallery

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Fin fan shafts Gear box repair

Safety valves Pump repairs

Gate valve Cryogenic pumps

The plant complex

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air compressor

section of the train

Central control room

amine pump repair

Residential area

mechanical workshop

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Chapter 3 3.1 Problems encountered during the SIWES program The SIWES program with the Nigeria NLNG, I would honestly say, presented very minimal challenges for me as the program was quite seamless, but I will use this chapter to however highlight some of the general problems encountered by the majority of the SIWES students. Limited space for attachment: This has been a major challenge faced by most SIWES student trainees. The requirement that most students of courses with technical and engineering background undergo the SIWES program is not only attainable for universities. Polytechnics and colleges also enroll their students for the program. This implies a large number of students looking for placements in the very few available positions of attachments. Students find it hard to secure spaces in most industries as most industries cannot cope with the extra burden (mainly financial) of having an extra workforce. Welfare and allowances: This wasnt applicable to my place of training as we were taken care of, welfare wise. However, a lot of willing students and industries find it hard to come to terms with the acceptable allowance due their trainees. cases of no pay is a frequent problem, as students have to carter for the expenses they accrue as a result of them undergoing such training.transportation, feeding becomes a major problem for them. Also as a result of the space found being entirely in a new geographical location, some students are even forced to rent new apartments, for a period of just 6 months (as the case for university trainees) and this is usually no mean feat. Relevance problem: I choose to call this a relevance problem because a trainee will only encounter this when he has settled properly in his place of attachments. as a mechanical engineering student,

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attached to the maintenance section, which mainly dealt on jobs of mechanical origin, I will say I didnt really experience this.however, most of the other trainees in some other industries can be attached to departments that is of little or no relevance to there course of study and this posses a big problem, because at this point the student is left with no other option than to continue the program or quit. Relocation: This was a problem, going to an entirely new environment with little knowledge of the place. Some students have even fallen ill because of this single factor.

3.2

Relevance of the industrial training

The relevance of the SIWES program is something that a student will largely not understand until he/she has undergone such a program. it is a pivotal stage in the students learning process. At the NLNG, the manner in which work was done, the exposure to some state of the art facilities, safety and the environment, working with both local and international colleagues imbibed in me, some memories that are indelible from my subconscious. It was engineering at work, as all the normal routine class work activities and cores learning activities were better appreciated. The following sections will seek to summarize a tip of the iceberg of the relevance of the program Appreciation of theoretical concepts: during the program, when I saw a pump, impeller or rotor of turbines, I quickly recalled my fluid mechanics in class, when I see any vessel for storage of any fluid, I quickly recalled the strength of materials(pressure vessels),the refrigeration cycle used for the liquefaction of natural gas was all based on thermosdynamics,engineering drawings,etc.i was proud of my lecturers as every question directed to me found its roots in one or more of the subjects studied in class, the only difference was seeing them a little bigger. In essence, the program helped me better appreciate engineering, the course I was made to take in class, and better correlate them to field facilities. in one sentence, I came to

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realize that the design of most complex systems are born out of very simple theories like pressure laws(in the case of the loading arms),heat transfer laws(for exchangers) etc. Work procedure: planning is key, this an experience gained. Jobs to be executed must be planned and they must be time framed, reason being that every facility is critical and must be available for production to go on. The manner in which the operations department emphasized on standard jobs, with minimal error and good housekeeping was important and I consider this an experience gained. Time management: Time is money as the popular saying goes. Time management is a valuable skill the average trainee gains during the SIWES duration. A better understanding of why reports have to be submitted on time, why some other necessary documents have to be processed quickly, etc.this helped me understand and improve on my time management skills. Safety and environment: Safety first. Working in a gas plant and knowing the disastrous effect a possible gas explosion can be as a result of something wrongly done, help buttress the fact that safety is important. In every job done, safety was made to be part of us, as trainees and staffs. A better sense of responsibility to the environment was also developed. The high point of this was in the way NLNG plant carefully collects waste oil in drains, from all points of the plant to the waste oil treatment facility, as opposed to just letting them runoff to the nearby sea, the cooling water was never discharged into the sea to prevent it from affecting fishes. All these factors helped me further appreciate safety and the environment. Human relations: As a trainee, obviously I expected a little hassle from the staffs and senior colleagues, but I was impressed by the mutual respect that was shown to me by all staffs, no matter their position, nationality or age. I was sometimes flattered to be a better engineer than they are. All these made me understand that as humans we should have mutual respect for one

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another despite our status. The exposure to such a culture of team spirit and care has no doubt made me a better individual today. We were made to work in pairs as these helped foster good team spirit and cooperation with each other. This will not serve in entirety to share all I consider as relevance to the program, as the list is almost inexhaustible, but just to highlight a few highpoints of the SIWES program. No doubt the program is relevant to the entire student life as he/she is been transformed to a better person after the program, better than the way he/she started.

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Chapter 4 4.1 General appraisal of the industrial training program. This section will be entirely from my point of view as most SIWES students might disagree due to their condition of service during their training. NLNG as a professional and world-class company, with seasoned professionals afforded me what is arguably the best industrial training I have attained so far in my academic pursuit. However, the entire training would have made no sense if I hadnt been taught the basic core engineering courses. The classroom work indeed is a stepping stone in achieving greater heights in academics. At every point in time even most staffs reminisced their own individual experiences as trainees in times past, this made me understand, that indeed I am on the right path. The program provided me such rare opportunity to experience engineering at work. The program, to me achieved its objectives as I can say I have gained useful industrial experience. As a graduate, just theoretical knowledge would mean your employer will have to entirely retrain you on some engineering fundamentals, but with the SIWES program, some basics in the engineering practice has been entirely clarified. I hope to someday graduate a better person with all these experience gained, e.g. design, failure modes, decision making, time management, etc in a typical industrial setting, some of which cannot be gotten from normal classroom studies. Also the program affords students the opportunity to gain first hand employee employer relationship, such things no matter how deeply taught in classroom cant be understood except experienced. a sense of responsibility to execute assigned task, added self confidence, psychological boosted which students might have felt as a result of feeling inferior, but when they perform alongside other trainees, from both local and international colleagues,etc makes the student better mentally. In conclusion, the SIWES training process to me should be highly recommended in the university system, although most times the program might not be perfect and smooth

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for the trainee, but the intents and objectives of the program are entirely brilliant, most students now have an edge over others that may not have undergone such training. Also employment opportunities, from place of attachment in the future are also plausible. Therefore the program was indeed enlightening, interesting educative and informative, and should be encouraged in the system. 4.2 ways of improving the program

Nothing is perfect, and every system that is functional can be improved for better performance. At such the SIWES program can be improved to such high levels of efficiency to make it better. The federal government, the school systems, coporate bodies and the students all have roles to play to improve the SIWES program. The government: Should make laws that will encourage firms to accept more trainees, either by supporting them, financially or by reducing the tax payable by such firms that accept trainees. Also the welfare of student trainee should be looked into on a more national platform. Generalized laws can be passed to enable the industries operating in the nation acknowledge the SIWES program, this no doubt will mean more students training ,which translates to better graduates for nation building. The university: Should assist students in securing spaces for attachment, as this has been a major problem for the students. They can hold meetings through the state ministry of education with industries in the state to accept a minimum number of trainees at all times in their workforce. This is indeed a good practice as students will find it a little less stressful securing spaces of attachment. The students: a lot of firms have shut the door to further SIWES students intake due to ill conduct of the previous sets that have undergone such programs with them, this is indeed sad. Some

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firms however have high regards for SIWES students and at such are open to further intakes due to the previous sets good conduct as was the case in NLNG where one of my SIWES colleague solved a burning issue of amine loss, which has been a 13year old problem for the trains. It becomes obvious that students themselves can help improve the program by being of good conduct as this would mean better years ahead for the subsequent sets of trainees. The employers: The success of the average SIWES program depends largely on the employers of labor, the industries and corporate bodies, as they have to show willingness on their parts to work with the students. Also by giving orientation to their workforce to assist the student in explanations as required by the student becomes an important factor in improving the program in general. Also supervised access to the company facilities and accessing the trainee should be encouraged. Improved welfare for attached trainees is also good for the program as this will encourage students to commit to the program.

The industrial training fund (itf): In collaboration with the appropriate ministries and government parastatals, they can better improve the manner in which the program is being run. Better allowances for the students, working closely with the industries, organizing seminars etc, can go along way to improve the program. Also orientation on expected conduct by trainees can also help the program in general. 4.3 Advice to future participants The intents and objectives of the SIWES program has been largely misunderstood by some students, I once saw it as just another course and avenue to make good grades, but with time I got to understand that it was beyond that. The program is entirely for the good of the student, depending on how determined and eager the student wishes to be towards learning. Thus the SIWES program should not be seen as an avenue or laxity, but a

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means of acquiring what to most students will be their first major industrial experience before seeking their first job after graduation. It is imperative that subsequent trainees be essentially of good conduct, have respect for both personnel and company policies. Students should not engage on activities that will speak poorly of their background both moral and academicals. students should even go as far as reviewing all they have learnt in the number of years spent in the university system, as this will help them better appreciate some engineering principles and other science theories as it applies to their place of attachment. The student is also advised to strictly pay attention to company policies especially those that border on safety and the environment. The use of appropriate personal protective equipments can go a long way to prevent unnecessary accidents and injury. Where in doubt, we should ask questions. students should bear in mind that they are there to learn, as most tasks executed by professionals might seem easy and simple and might be tempting to the student to go ahead and operate such machineries or carryout such task without being certified or properly trained. This is of great concern, because it can lead to damage of company property and injury or even death to personnel. Always think safety and whenever in doubt ask questions. Theft is something that should be completely avoided as this can bring to distrust of both the student and even their institution. Never take anything that doesnt belong to you and if anything is found, should be returned to appropriate authorities, no matter how valuable it might seem. This helps build goodwill. Always have respect for co workers no matter how uneducated they might seem, it is an act most students carryout without knowing. be someone people can work with, be willing to carryout tasks that are within your ability, otherwise, proper explanation should be given to your supervisor as to why you cant carryout the task. Even when criticism is necessary, you must avoid it were possible and make your points and opinion known in a civilized manner. Finally, during your stay, you must place priorities right, understand that you are there to learn and not teach them; never fight anyone as this speaks badly of you. When it is time to round up the program, leave peacefully; dont be forced out as this can be embarrassing.

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Finally as upcoming graduates, utilize this opportunity as SIWES trainees, be diligent, committed hardworking smart devoted and focused during the training period. 4.4advice to SIWES managers SIWES managers should endeavor to create an enabling environment for the program to thrive. Better relationships should be fostered between the SIWES authorities and appropriate government and industry parastatals. Seminars should be held from time to time to create awareness on the importance of the program, so as to encourage active participation of stakeholders. The issue of entitlements to beneficiaries should be duly paid to avoid ill feelings amongst concerned parties. A comprehensive plan for the program can be structured such that students undergoing the program will be given better orientation on the possible challenges of the program. 4.5conclusion In conclusion, it is clear to see that the program, its intent and objectives are born out of brilliant ideas and at such should be highly recommended. Students should avail their selves of this great opportunity as they can use the experience gained to secure their first jobs. Everything that has been learnt ranging from industry experience and social relationship in the workplace should become part and parcels of us, and should not be forgotten in a hurry.

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References The NLNG intranet system Wikipedia Google

List of figures Fig. 1.1 Organogram of the production engineering division Fig.1.2 Organogram of the production engineering. Fig 2.1 composition of natural gas components Fig 2.2 natural gas value chain Fig 2.trunkline terminal Fig 3.1 roller bearing Fig 3.2 cryogenic bearing Fig 3.3 screw pump Fig 3.4 piston/plunger pump Fig 3.5 centrifugal pumps Fig 3.6 root type pump

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