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Competency Training and Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

Training Course in
Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101

U. P. NATIONAL ENGINEERING CENTER


NATIONAL ELECTRIFICATION ADMINISTRATION

Power System Analysis 101 2

Power System Analysis

Performance Power System


Standards Analysis
Power Quality Load Flow Analysis
Efficiency System Loss Analysis
Safety Short Circuit Analysis
Reliability Reliability Analysis

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Power System Analysis 101 3

LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

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Power System Analysis 101 4

Load Flow Analysis

1. What is Load Flow?


2. Uses of Load Flow Studies
3. Load Flow Control

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Power System Analysis 101 5

What is Load Flow?

Bus2
I23 , Loss23 = ? Bus3
Bus1 I12 , Loss12 = ?
V3 = ?
Utility P3 , Q3 = ?
I24 , Loss24 = ? V4 = ?
Grid P4 , Q4 = ?
V1 = 67 kV Bus4
P1 , Q1 = ? V2 = ? Lumped Load A
P2 , Q2 = ? 2 MVA 85%PF
Lumped Load B
1 MVA 85%PF

What are the Voltages,


Currents, Power and Losses of
the Distribution System?

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Power System Analysis 101 6

What is Load Flow?


Load Flow of an Existing System
Can we see how electric power flows in the system,
coming from the sources (where power is purchased)
and down to all customers (where power is sold)?
Can we determine:
• If any customer is being provided with voltage that is
too low (or even too high)?
• If too much power flow through any of our equipment,
especially our transformers?
• How much power is lost along the lines and equipment?

YES! LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS


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Power System Analysis 101 7

What is Load Flow?


Load Flow of a Contemplated System
Can we have a picture of the system as we
contemplate possible changes?
Can we determine in advance the effects of:
• Growth or addition of new loads
• Addition of generating plants
• Upgrading of Substation
• Expansion of distribution lines
• Installations of equipment such as capacitors
before the proposed changes are implemented?
YES! LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS
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Power System Analysis 101 8

What is Load Flow?

Load Flow (also called Power Flow) is a


snapshot picture of the power system at a
given point.

Load Flow Analysis simulates (i.e.,


mathematically determine) the performance
of an electric power system under a given
set of conditions.

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Power System Analysis 101 9

What is Load Flow?

How would the engineers do that?


• Identify physical components
• Know the characteristic of components
• Mathematically represent the behavior of
components
• Calculate electrical parameters

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Power System Analysis 101 10

What is Load Flow?

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Power System Analysis 101 11

What is Load Flow?

Utility Grid or
Substation Transmission Generator
Transformer Line

G
Bus

Distribution
Transformer
Distribution
Line
Load Flow mathematically
determines the Voltages,
Currents, Power and Losses
Load

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Power System Analysis 101 12

Uses of Load Flow Studies

Basic Information
From a Load Flow Study
Voltage Profile
Injected Power (Pp and Qp)
Line Currents (Ipq and Ipq)
Power Flows (Ppq and Qpq)
Line Losses (I2R and I2X)

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Power System Analysis 101 13

Uses of Load Flow Studies

Other Information
From a Load Flow Study
Overvoltage and Undervoltage Buses
Critical and Overloaded Transformers
and Lines
Total System Losses

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Power System Analysis 101 14

Uses of Load Flow Studies


Sensitivity Analysis
1) Take any line, transformer or generator out of service.
2) Add, reduce or remove load to any or all buses.
3) Add, remove or shift generation to any bus.
4) Add new transmission or distribution lines.
5) Increase conductor size on T&D lines.
6) Change bus voltages.
7) Change transformer taps.
8) Increase or decrease transformer size.
9) Add or remove rotating or static var supply to buses.
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Power System Analysis 101 15

Uses of Load Flow Studies


1) ANALYSIS OF EXISTING CONDITIONS
• Check for voltage violations
 PGC: 0.95 – 1.05 p.u. (For Transmission)
 PDC: 0.90 – 1.10 p.u (For Distribution)*
*Recommended 0.95 – 1.05 p.u.
• Check for branch power flow violations
 Transformer Overloads
 Line Overloads
• Check for system losses
 Caps on Segregated DSL

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Power System Analysis 101 16

Uses of Load Flow Studies


2) ANALYSIS FOR CORRECTING PQ PROBLEMS
• Voltage adjustment by utility at delivery point
 Request TransCo to improve voltage at
connection point
 TransCo as System Operator will determine
feasibility based on Economic Dispatch and
other adjustments such as transformer tap
changing and reactive power compensation

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Power System Analysis 101 17

Uses of Load Flow Studies


2) ANALYSIS FOR CORRECTING PQ PROBLEMS
• Transformer tap changing
 Available Taps
 At Primary Side
 At Secondary Side
 Both Sides
 Typical Taps
 Tap 1: +5%
 Tap 2: +2.5%
 Tap 3: 0% (Rated Voltage)
 Tap 4: -2.5%
 Tap 5: -5%

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Power System Analysis 101 18

Uses of Load Flow Studies


2) ANALYSIS FOR CORRECTING PQ PROBLEMS
•Capacitor compensation
• Compensate for Peak Loading
• Check overvoltages during Off-Peak
• Optimize Capacitor Plan
• System configuration improvement

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Power System Analysis 101 19

Uses of Load Flow Studies


3) EXPANSION PLANNING
• New substation construction
• Substation capacity expansion
• New feeder segment construction / extension
• Addition of parallel feeder segment
• Reconducting of existing feeder segment/ circuit
• Circuit conversion to higher voltage
• Generator addition

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Power System Analysis 101 20

Uses of Load Flow Studies


4) CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS
Reliability analysis of the Transmission (Grid) and
Subtransmission System

5) SYSTEM LOSS ANALYSIS


Segregation of System Losses

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Power System Analysis 101 21

Load Flow Control


1. For Generating plants, the amount of power that can be delivered
can be controlled by the plant operator (as long as within the
capacity of the plant)
2. Flow of power is affected by the voltages and impedances across
the components
• Specialized Transformers and other equipment may be
utilized to control the flow of power across the network
3. Capacitors are used to improve the voltage profile across the
network
• The current drawn by the load is reduced
• The voltage drop across the line is reduced
• The voltage at the load side is increased

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Power System Analysis 101 22

SYSTEM LOSS ANALYSIS

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Power System Analysis 101 23

System Loss Analysis

1. Components of Distribution System


Losses
2. Segregation of Distribution System
Losses
3. System Loss Reduction and Control

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Power System Analysis 101 24

Components of Distribution
System Losses
The Philippine Distribution Code (PDC)
mandates system losses to be segregated into
the following components:
a. Technical Loss;
b. Non-Technical Loss; and
c. Administrative Loss.

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Power System Analysis 101 25

Total Distribution System Losses


Energy Delivered Energy
to the Distribution - Delivered to
System Users
=
Total Distribution
System Losses

Administrative
+ Technical Loss + Non-Technical Loss
Loss
Bundled Technical & Non-Technical Losses
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Power System Analysis 101 26

Components of Distribution
System Losses
Administrative Losses
The electric energy used by the Distribution
Utility in the proper operation of the Distribution
System.

a. Distribution Substations;
b. Offices, warehouses and workshops of the DU; and
c. Other essential electrical loads of the Distribution
Utility.

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Power System Analysis 101 27

Components of Distribution
System Losses
Technical Losses
Load and no-load losses in:
a. Sub-transmission lines and substation
transformers;
b. Primary distribution lines and distribution
transformers;
c. Secondary distribution lines and service drops;
d. Voltage regulators, Capacitors and reactors; and
e. All other electrical equipment necessary for the
operation of the distribution system.

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Power System Analysis 101 28

Components of Distribution
System Losses
Non-Technical Losses
The component that is not related to the physical
characteristics and functions of the electrical
system, and is caused primarily by human error,
whether intentional or not.

Includes the electric energy lost due to pilferage,


tampering of meters and erroneous meter
reading.
Errors that are attributable to inaccuracies in
metering and billing.

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Power System Analysis 101 29

Total Distribution System Losses


Total DSL = Energy Input - Energy Output

Total DSL
= Σ[Energy delivered by the Transmission System]
+ Σ[Energy delivered by Embedded Generating Plants]
+ Σ[Energy delivered by Other Distribution Systems]
+ Σ[Energy delivered by User Systems with
Generating Units]
- Σ[Energy delivered to the Users of the Distribution
System]

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Power System Analysis 101 30

Unbundling the Technical and


Non-Technical Loss

Technical Non-Technical
+
Losses Losses
-
Shall be quantified
Technical through 3-Phase
Losses (Unbalanced) Load
Flow Simulations
=
Residual after
subtracting Non-Technical
Administrative &
Technical Losses from Losses
the Total Distribution
System Losses

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Power System Analysis 101 31

Unbundling the Technical and


Non-Technical Loss
Technical Loss
= Σ[Hourly Load and No-Load (or Fixed) Losses in all
electrical equipment, devices and conductors]

a)Sub-transmission Lines g) Voltage Regulators


b)Substation Power Transformers h) Capacitors
c)Primary Distribution Lines i) Reactors
d)Distribution Transformers j) Other electrical equipment
e)Secondary Distribution Lines
f) Service Drops Hourly Load Flow Simulations

Plus Calculated Metering Equipment Loss

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Power System Analysis 101 32

Unbundling the Technical and


Non-Technical Loss
Subtransmission Lines Primary Distribution Lines
(Main Feeder)

Substation
Transformer Primary Distribution Lines
(Laterals)
Three-Phase Unbalanced
Load Flow Simulations Misc Loads

a)Sub-transmission Lines
b)Substation Power Transformers Secondary Distribution Lines
c)Primary Distribution Lines Service
d)Distribution TransformersDistribution Drop
Transformer
e)Secondary Distribution Lines
f) Service Drops Residential Commercial Industrial
g)Voltage Regulators
h)Capacitors Load Losses and
i) Reactors No-Load (Fixed) Losses
j) Other electrical equipment
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Power System Analysis 101 33

Unbundling the Technical and


Non-Technical Loss
Calculation of Metering Equipment
Potential Transformer Loss
= Power Loss in PT (kW) x Number of PT x Number of Operating
Hours in the Billing Period
Current Transformer Loss
= Power Loss in CT (kW) x Number of CT x Number of Operating
Hours in the Billing Period
Electric Meter Potential Coil Loss
= Power Loss in Electric Meter Potential Coil (kW) x Number of
Electric Meters x Number of Operating Hours in the Billing Period
Electric Meter Current Coil Loss
= Power Loss in Electric Meter Current Coil (kW) x Number of
Electric Meters x Number of Operating Hours in the Billing Period
Operating Hours = No. of days x 24 hours – SAIDI
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Power System Analysis 101 34

Unbundling the Technical and


Non-Technical Loss
Non-Technical Loss
= Total Distribution System Losses
- Administrative Loss
- Technical Loss
- Recovered Losses

Note: Losses recovered from anti-pilferage


activities are subtracted from the total
distribution system losses.

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Power System Analysis 101 35

DSL Segregation

Distribution
System Loss
Segregation Segregated
Program Technical
Distribution System Data Loss
(3-phase Load Flow) (Billing Period)

Distribution Reliability
Assessment
Metering
Customer Energy Bill Equipment
Metering Equipment Loss
Inventory

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Power System Analysis 101 36

Segregated Distribution System


Losses
 Monthly DSL Segregation
 Segregated DSL for the Whole Distribution System
 Segregated DSL Per Receiving/Metering Point
 Segregated DSL per Substation
 Segregated DSL per Feeder
 Segregated DSL per Distribution Transformer

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Power System Analysis 101 37

Distribution Network Models

IA Ia
A Impedance/ a
IB Admittance Ib
Distribution B parameters of b
System IC Distribution Ic
C System Element c
Element
VA VB VC Vc Vb Va
Ground (Reference Node)

Distribution Network Model must capture


the unbalance characteristics of the System

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Power System Analysis 101 38

Distribution Load Models


350

300

250
Demand (W)

200

Customer Energy Bill


150
1.2

1
NormalizedDemand(per unit)

100 Area under the curve


0.8
= Customer Energy
0.6 50
Bill
0.4

0
0.2

0
Time (24 hours)
Customer Energy Bill
Converted to Hourly Power
Normalized Customer Load
Demand
Curve
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Power System Analysis 101 39

Data Requirements
ERC-DSL-01 Administrative Load Data
ERC-DSL-02 Customer Data
ERC-DSL-03 Billing Cycle Data
ERC-DSL-04 Customer Energy Consumption Data
ERC-DSL-05 Load Curve Data
ERC-DSL-06 Bus Data
ERC-DSL-07 Subtransmission Line Data - Overhead
ERC-DSL-08 Subtransmission Line Data - Underground/Submarine Cable
ERC-DSL-09 Substation Power Transformer Data - Two Winding
ERC-DSL-10 Substation Power Transformer Data - Three Winding
ERC-DSL-11 Primary Distribution Line Data - Overhead
ERC-DSL-12 Primary Distribution Line Data - Underground Cable
ERC-DSL-13 Primary Customer Service Drop Data - Overhead
ERC-DSL-14 Primary Customer Service Drop Data - Underground Cable
ERC-DSL-15 Distribution Transformer Data
ERC-DSL-16 Secondary Distribution Line Data
ERC-DSL-17 Secondary Customer Service Drop Data
ERC-DSL-18 Voltage Regulator Data
ERC-DSL-19 Shunt Capacitor Data
ERC-DSL-20 Shunt Inductor Data
ERC-DSL-21 Series Inductor Data

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Power System Analysis 101 40

Optimal Level of System Loss

Total Cost
Cost

System Loss
Reduction
Unrecovered Program Cost
Energy Cost

High Optimal Low System Loss

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Power System Analysis 101 41

BENECO DSL Segregation


SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
LOSSES ANALYSIS

NON-TECHNICAL LOSS
REDUCTION PROGRAM
TECHNICAL, ECONOMIC & FINANCIAL
ANALYSIS

TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION


PROGRAM
TECHNICAL, ECONOMIC & FINANCIAL
ANALYSIS

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Power System Analysis 101 42

BENECO DSL Segregation

Technical
Loss, Non-
TEST YEAR SEGREGATED
52.76% Technical
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSSES Loss,
46.74%

Administrative
Loss, 0.50%

Loss Kwhr %
Administrative 167, 791 0.0594%
Technical 18,181,059 6.3153%
Non-Technical 15,487,726 5.5951%
TOTAL 33,836,577 11.9698%

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Power System Analysis 101 43

BENECO DSL SEGREGATED


SYSTEM LOSSES 13.2 KV System

Segregation Administrative
Loss
0.3998%

Technical Loss 9.8906%

Non-Technical Loss 7.4183%

TOTAL LOSSES 17.7088%

13.2KV SYSTEM

23KV SYSTEM

SEGREGATED
SYSTEM 23 KV
LOSSES System
Administrative 0.0393%
Loss

Technical Loss 6.1051%


Non-Technical
Loss 5.4879%

TOTAL LOSSES 11.6324%

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Power System Analysis 101 44

DSL RESULT PER FEEDER PER HOUR PER DAY IN A MONTH

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Power System Analysis 101 45

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Power System Analysis 101 46

BENECO DSL Segregation


SEGREGATED TECHNICAL LOSS % LOSS % SHARE
Power Transformer Load Loss 0.0590% 0.9338%

Power Transformer No-Load Loss 0.2372% 3.7559%

Primary Line 1.3805% 21.8597%

Primary Service Drop 0.0000% 0.0000%

Dist. XF Load Loss 0.3438% 5.4445%

Dist. XF No-Load Loss 1.7397% 27.5469%

Secondary 2.1652% 34.2848%

Secondary Service Drop 0.0691% 1.0937%

Shunt Capacitor Loss 0.0029% 0.0456%

kWhR Meter Loss 0.3180% 5.0350%

Total Technical Loss 6.3153% 100.0000%

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Power System Analysis 101 47

BENECO DSL Segregation


TECHNICAL LOSS
TECHNICAL DISTRIBUTION
LOSS ALLOCATION
kWhR Meter Loss
5% Pow er Xformer Load Loss
1%

Shunt Capacitor Loss Pow er Xformer No-Load


0% Loss
4%

Secondary Service Drop Primary Line


1% 22%
Secondary
34%
Dist. XF Load Loss
5%

Dist. XF No-Load Loss


28%

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Power System Analysis 101 48

BENECO DSL Segregation


TEST YEAR SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSSES
PER SYSTEM VOLTAGE

PERCENT (%) TECHNICAL


KWHR TECHNICAL LOSSES LOSSES
SEGREGATED
SYSTEM 13.2 KV 23 KV
LOSSES 13.2 KV System 23 KV System Total System System Total

Administrative
Loss 62,768.60 105,022.54 167,791.14 0.3998% 0.0393% 0.0594%

Technical Loss 1,552,634.80 16,299,669.83 17,852,304.63 9.8906% 6.1051% 6.3153%

Non-Technical
Loss 1,164,538.99 14,651,941.84 15,816,480.83 7.4183% 5.4879% 5.5951%

17.7088 11.6324 11.9698


TOTAL LOSSES 2,779,942.39 31,056,634.21 33,836,576.60 % % %

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Power System Analysis 101 49

BENECO DSL Segregation


TEST YEAR SEGREGATED TECHNICAL LOSSES
PER SYSTEM VOLTAGE
KWHR TECHNICAL LOSSES PERCENT (%) TECHNICAL LOSSES

13.2 KV
TECHNICAL LOSSES 13.2 KV System 23 KV System Total System 23 KV System Total

Power Xformer Load Loss 5,232 161,467 166,700 0.0333% 0.0605% 0.0590%

Power Xformer No-Load


Loss 105,295 565,221 670,517 0.6708% 0.2117% 0.2372%

Primary Line 451,032 3,451,427 3,902,460 2.8732% 1.2927% 1.3805%

Primary Service Drop - 6 6 0.0000% 0.0000% 0.0000%

Dist. XF Load Loss 32,239 939,729 971,968 0.2054% 0.3520% 0.3438%

Dist. XF No-Load Loss 591,212 4,326,553 4,917,765 3.7661% 1.6205% 1.7397%

Secondary 209,447 5,911,176 6,120,623 1.3342% 2.2141% 2.1652%

Secondary Service Drop 4,275 190,979 195,254 0.0272% 0.0715% 0.0691%

Shunt Capacitor Loss 394 7,753 8,147 0.0025% 0.0029% 0.0029%

kWhR Meter Loss 153,507 745,359 898,866 0.9779% 0.2792% 0.3180%

Total Technical Loss 1,552,635 16,299,670 17,852,305 9.8906% 6.1051% 6.3153%

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Power System Analysis 101 50

BENECO DSL Segregation


FORECASTED SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSSES

Non
Total Administrativ
Energy Input Technical Loss Technical
YEAR System e Loss
(KWH) (%) Loss
Losses (%) (%)
(%)

2006
313,577,324 12.1222% 0.0621% 6.4611% 5.5951%

2007
341,755,055 12.2757% 0.0583% 6.6187% 5.5951%

2008
372,339,284 12.3994% 0.0535% 6.7477% 5.5951%

2009
405,588,445 12.5074% 0.0491% 6.8604% 5.5951%

2010
442,271,657 12.7071% 0.0493% 7.0604% 5.5951%

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Power System Analysis 101 51

PROPOSED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSS CAPS


Declining Non- Administrative
Technical Loss
YEAR Technical Loss Loss Cap (Annual
Cap
Caps KWH)

2006 5.9833% to 6.9388% 5.5951% 194,741


2007 6.1281% to 7.1094% 4.7486% 199,147
2008 6.2431% to 7.2523% 3.8585% 199,147
2009 6.3431% to 7.3778% 3.1278% 199,147
2010 6.5249% to 7.5959% 2.7644% 218,218

FORECASTED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSS


YEAR FORECASTED SYSTEM LOSS RANGE
2006 11.6480% - 12.6047%
2007 10.9425% - 11.9251%
2008 10.1628% - 11.1733%
2009 9.5279% - 10.5639%
2010 9.3467% - 10.4191%

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Power System Analysis 101 52

BENECO SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSS (base year 2004)


Peso Equivalent (Php)
Distribution System Loss Energy (KWHR) Percentage (%) (as of February 2007
costing**)
Total System Loss 33,836,577 11.970% P 239,339,641

Administrative Loss 167,791 0.059% P 1,186,854

Technical Loss 17,852,305 6.315% P 126,276,492

Non-Technical Loss 15,816,481 5.595% P 111,876,296

BENECO SEGREGATED TECHNICAL LOSS (base year 2004)


Peso Equivalent (Php)
Technical Losses Energy (KWHR) Percentage (%) (as of February 2007
costing**)

Power Xformer Load Loss 166,700 0.0590% P 1,179,134


Power Xformer No-Load
Loss 670,517 0.2372% P 4,742,833

Primary Line 3,902,460 1.3805% P 27,603,658

Primary Service Drop 6 0.0000% P 42

Dist. XF Load Loss 971,968 0.3438% P 6,875,117

Dist. XF No-Load Loss 4,917,765 1.7397% P 34,785,321

Secondary 6,120,623 2.1652% P 43,293,617

Secondary Service Drop 195,254 0.0691% P 1,381,108

Shunt Capacitor Loss 8,147 0.0029% P 57,626

kWhR Meter Loss 898,866 0.3180% P 6,358,036


U. P. National Engineering 17,852,305
Center Power System Engineering
Total Technical Loss 6.3153% P 126,276,492
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Power System Analysis 101 53

SEGREGATED SYSTEM LOSS PER METERING CONNECTION POINT

ENERGY LOSSES (KWHR) LOSSES IN PERCENTAGE (%)

Metering Metering
Connection Connection Metering Non-
Pt. Admin Non-Technical Connection Pt. Technical Technical
Loss Loss Technical Loss Loss Loss Admin Loss Loss Loss

Lamut 3,326,440 1,533,634 10.0966% 0.0791% 6.8564% 3.1611%


4,898,458 38,384

Irisan 3,081,395 2,094,032 11.8636% 0.0152% 7.0544% 4.7940%


5,182,063 6,636

NSC Old 20MVA 3,643,277 4,104,556 11.8636% 0.0341% 5.5626% 6.2669%


7,770,156 22,323

NSC New 20MVA 4,973,278 4,843,859 11.8636% 0.0454% 5.9870% 5.8312%


9,854,817 37,680

NPC-Beckel 959,893 1,722,755 11.8636% 0% 4.2450% 7.6186%


2,682,647 -

Atok 890,558 655,073 19.5406% 0.6136% 10.9053% 8.0217%


1,595,739 50,108

Mankayan 547,017 373,918 14.8130% 0.1846% 8.6889% 5.9394%


932,559 11,625

Asin Mini-Hyrdo 38,621 59,151 16.4621% 0% 6.5027% 9.9594%


97,772 -

Bakun Mini-hydro 17,677 7,378 12.1417% 0% 8.5662% 3.5755%


25,055 -
Ampuhaw Mini-
24,629 38,613 15.0311% 0% 5.8537% 9.1774%
hydro 63,242 -

Ambuclao 115,060 135,549 20.3546% 0.0838% 9.3068% 10.9641%


251,644 1,036

NPC-Itogon 190,389 181,600 18.8304% 0% 9.6377% 9.1927%


371,989 -

LUELCO 44,072 66,364 26.5489% 0% 10.5949% 15.9540%


110,435 -

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Power System Analysis 101 54


NON-TECHNICAL LOSS PER METERING CONNECTION POINT
Non-Technical Loss Cost of Unrecovered
Metering Connection NTL % (System) NTL % (Feeder)
(kWhr) NTL (Pesos)

Lamut 1,533,634.21 P 11,289,465 0.5425% 3.1611%

Irisan 2,094,031.95 P 15,414,693 0.7408% 4.7940%

NSC Old 20MVA 4,104,556.00 P 30,214,663 1.4520% 6.2669%

NSC New 20MVA 4,843,859.12 P 35,656,858 1.7135% 5.8312%

NPC-Beckel 1,722,754.60 P 12,681,627 0.6094% 7.6186%

Atok 655,072.51 P 4,822,153 0.2317% 8.0217%

Mankayan 373,917.67 P 2,752,501 0.1323% 5.9394%

Asin Mini-Hyrdo 59,150.85 P 435,424 0.0209% 9.9594%

Bakun Mini-hydro 7,378.26 P 54,313 0.0026% 3.5755%


Ampuhaw Mini-
hydro 38,613.44 P 284,243 0.0137% 9.1774%

Ambuclao 135,548.81 P 997,809 0.0480% 10.9641%

NPC-Itogon 181,599.91 P 1,336,802 0.0642% 9.1927%

LUELCO 66,363.50 P 488,518 0.0235% 15.9540%

TOTAL 15,816,480.83 P 116,429,070 5.5951%

ACTIVITIES CONSIDERED AND COSTED FOR NON-TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION


OPTIMIZATION COMPUTATION
Communal Distribution Transformer Block
► Metering ► Streetlight kwhr Metering

► Inspection, Calibration and Apprehension ► Streetlight Photo Switching


Kwhr Meter Replacement (apprehended and
► defective) ► Right-of-Way Clearing
Phased-Out Kwhr Meter Replacement (Old kwhr
► meters) ► Loose Connection Correction
Software and Hardware Requirements
► Sole-Use Distribution Transformer Monitoring ► Procurement
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Power System Analysis 101 55
PRIORITY RANKING IN TERMS OF SELECTED NTL ACTIVITES FOR IMPLEMENTATION
COMMUNAL TRANSFORMER BLOCK METERING INSPECTION, APPREHENSION, CALIBRATION
Average Rank Metering Connection Metering Connection
KWHR NTL / NO. OF DT's RANK KWHR NTL / NO. OF METERS RANK

1 NSC Old 20MVA 38,722 1 NSC Old 20MVA 430 1

2.5 NPC-Beckel 10,194 3 NPC-Beckel 201 2

2.5 NSC New 20MVA 11,009 2 NSC New 20MVA 157 3

5.5 Lamut 6,786 4 Lamut 88 7

5.5 LUELCO 2,765 7 LUELCO 155 4

5.5 NPC-Itogon 2,977 6 NPC-Itogon 107 5

6.5 Irisan 6,326 5 Irisan 86 8

7 Ampuhaw Mini-hydro 2,413 8 Ampuhaw Mini-hydro 105 6

9 Asin Mini-Hyrdo 2,366 9 Asin Mini-Hyrdo 83 9

10 Atok 2,120 10 Atok 77 10

11.5 Ambuclao 1,442 12 Ambuclao 69 11

11.5 Mankayan 1,723 11 Mankayan 42 12

13 Bakun Mini-hydro 434 13 Bakun Mini-hydro 21 13

FEEDER COVERAGE
Single Feeder Metering Points
Multi-Feeder Metering Connection Points
Lamut
Asin Mini-Hyrdo
NSC New 20MVA
Feeder 1
Atok Bakun Mini-hydro
Feeder 7
Feeder 2
Circuit 1 Ampuhaw Mini-hydro
Feeder 8
Irisan
Circuit 2 Ambuclao
Feeder 9
Feeder 3
Circuit 3 NPC-Itogon
Feeder 10
Feeder 4
Mankayan LUELCO
NPC-Beckel
NSC Old 20MVA
Circuit 4
Totalizer 1 Power System Engineering
FeederU.
5 P. National Engineering
Center
Circuit 5
FeederNational
6 Electrification
TotalizerAdministration
2 for Non-Engineers

Power System Analysis 101 56

SUMMARY OF OPTIMIZED PROJECT COST FOR NON-TECHNICAL LOSS


REDUCTION PROGRAM

% Recovered NTL Optimized Project


Metering % Unrecovered Level of Optimum % Recovered NTL per as per Entire Cost for NTL
Connection NTL per Feeder %NTL per Feeder Feeder System Reduction

Lamut 3.161% 2.024% 1.137% 0.3474% 6,643,459.93

Irisan 4.794% 3.053% 1.741% 0.4718% 9,021,486.28

NSC Old 20MVA 6.267% 2.154% 4.113% 0.4991% 9,544,620.05

NSC New 20MVA 5.831% 3.029% 2.802% 0.8901% 17,019,823.88

NPC-Beckel 7.619% 3.237% 4.382% 0.2589% 4,950,875.25

Atok 8.022% 5.403% 2.618% 0.1561% 2,984,882.11

Mankayan 5.939% 4.532% 1.408% 0.1009% 1,929,917.47

Asin Mini-Hyrdo 9.959% 5.623% 4.337% 0.0118% 225,901.85

Bakun Mini-hydro 3.575% 3.056% 0.520% 0.0022% 42,656.16


Ampuhaw Mini-
hydro 9.177% 4.752% 4.426% 0.0071% 135,238.81

Ambuclao 10.964% 7.769% 3.195% 0.0340% 649,735.01

NPC-Itogon 9.193% 5.534% 3.659% 0.0387% 739,469.91

LUELCO 15.954% 8.611% 7.343% 0.0127% 242,309.48

TOTAL = 5.5951% 2.7644% 2.8308% P 54,130,376.19

NOTE:
Project Cost for implementation per Metering Connection at targeted reduced Non-technical Loss
percentage SHALL NOT EXCEED the computed Optimized Project Cost.

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Power System Analysis 101 57

BENECO NON-TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION ECONOMIC ANALYSIS


Cost of Unrecovered VS NTL Reduction Program

120
M illion s
110 Cost of Unrecovered NTL
100
Cost NTL Reduction Program
90
80 Optimum level of
loss reduction
C ost (Php )

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
5.5951%

5.3853%

5.1755%

4.9657%

4.7559%

4.5461%

4.3362%

4.1264%

3.9166%

3.7068%

3.4970%

3.2871%

3.0773%

2.8675%

2.6577%

2.4479%

2.2381%

2.0282%

1.8184%

1.6086%

1.3988%

1.1890%

0.9791%

0.7693%

0.5595%
Non-Technical Loss (%)

OPTIMUM LEVEL OF NON-TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION = 2.7644%

EQUIVALENT PROJECT COST = P53,447,802.55


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Power System Analysis 101 58

System Loss
Reduction and Control

 Reduction and Control of Technical Losses


 Reduction and Control of Non-Technical
Losses

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Power System Analysis 101 59

Reduction and Control


of Technical Losses
 Use the results of the Distribution
System Loss Segregator for System
Loss Reduction Program.
 Ranks the losses from the highest to lowest ( Per
Substation, Per feeder, per distribution transformer)
 Prepare a Specific Technical Loss Reduction Program
based on your technical analysis!!!
 Simulate your proposed technical loss reduction solutions
to quantify the technical loss reduction
 Optimize your proposed technical loss reduction solutions

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Power System Analysis 101 60

Reduction and Control


of Technical Losses
 Distribution Rehabilitation Plan
 Safety
 Power Quality Problem Correction
 Reduce Technical Losses

 Distribution Expansion Plan


 Capacity that complies with Power Quality Standards and
Controlled Technical Losses

PDC: Distribution Development Plan


• Technical Analysis • Economic Analysis • Financial Analysis
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Power System Analysis 101 61

Reduction and Control


of Non-Technical Losses
NEA SLRP
 Causes of Pilferages
 Long run of secondary networks “conducive” for illegal
tapping
 Services run from one building to the next and attached to
various structures (e.g., trees) making it difficult for meter
readers to follow the wires or spot illegal connections
 Secondary wiring with “rat’s nest” appearance due to poor
workmanship
 Inaccessible meters (located indoor or inside a compound)
 Control of meter seals
 Poor meter records (where and when the meters are
installed, maintained, removed, condemned, etc.)

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Power System Analysis 101 62

Reduction and Control


of Non-Technical Losses
NEA SLRP
 Detection of Pilferages
 Surveillance Teams (working full time)
 Consumer connections inventory to assure that:
• All service connections are metered
• All energized services are in an “active” status in the
billing system
• There are no illegal taps, by-passed meters, or
tampered meters
• Each household is metered separately (no flying
taps)
• Each consumer is properly classified
1. Match all service connections found in the field to a
distribution transformer
2. Match the meter number to the account number
3. Check meter reading against previous readings to assure
that meter readings are being properly reported
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Power System Analysis 101 63

Reduction and Control


of Non-Technical Losses
NEA SLRP
 Tampered Meters
 In-Place Quick-test for Accuracy
 Hard-to-Detect Tampering
• Gear teeth removed
• Small hole bored at the top of the meter housing
• “Floating Neutral”
• Swapping the line-side and load side
 Correcting Problems
• Service conductors are not properly supported
• Service wire insulation has deteriorated

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Power System Analysis 101 64

Reduction and Control


of Non-Technical Losses
NEA SLRP
 Apprehension of Pilferers
 Confronting the consumer
 Documenting the findings
 Calculating the amount of electricity stolen
 Setting the penalty amount to be charged
 Disconnecting service and removing the meter

• May include policemen or barangay officials

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Power System Analysis 101 65

Reduction and Control


of Non-Technical Losses
NEA SLRP
 Punitive Measures Against Pilferers
R.A. 7832 – Theft of electricity is a crime
 Removal of fraudulent hook-ups
 Collection for unregistered consumption
 Penalty charge
 Connection charge
 Disconnection of service
 Filing charges with judicial authorities
 Charging for tampering with seals
 Regularly scheduled inspections

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Power System Analysis 101 66

Reduction and Control


of Non-Technical Losses
NEA SLRP
 Prevention of Pilferage by Service Entrance
Modification
 Installation of meters on the service pole
 Meter clustering in apartment buildings
 Better meter seals
 Security plates or cabinets
 Coaxial service cable

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Power System Analysis 101 67

Reduction and Control


of Non-Technical Losses
NEA SLRP
 Political and legal measures
 Strengthening of laws that would impose severe penalties
on employees who collaborate with consumers for the
purpose of defrauding the DU
 Modification of Procedures for recovery and prosecution
 Elimination of political interference with bill collections
 Consistent enforcement practices
 Publicize successes

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Power System Analysis 101 68

Reduction and Control


of Non-Technical Losses
NEA SLRP
 Complaints for low voltage from the customers
 Look for the overload distribution transformers
and compared the billings of all customers
connected to that DT.
 Distribution transformers that always trips may
be suspected for illegal connections.

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Power System Analysis 101 69

SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

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Power System Analysis 101 70

Short Circuit Analysis

1. What is Short Circuit?


2. Short Circuit Studies
3. Selection of Device Duties

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Power System Analysis 101 71

What is Short Circuit?

+ Very Large V
Current
Very Small
Resistance
I= ⇒∞
- Flow R →0

Short Circuit

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Power System Analysis 101 72

What is Short Circuit?

Analogy of Normal and Short Circuit


Current in a Hydroelectric plant

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Power System Analysis 101 73

What is Short Circuit?


Equipment Explosion because of Short Circuit

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Power System Analysis 101 74

What is Short Circuit?


Type of Faults

Three Phase Fault Line-to-Line Fault

Double Line-to-Ground Fault Single Line-to-Ground Fault


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Power System Analysis 101 75

What is Short Circuit?


Sources of Short Circuit Currents
G
Utility

MV Fault
LV

Fault Current Contributors


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Power System Analysis 101 76

What is Short Circuit?


PROTECTIVE DEVICES: FUSE

 Low Voltage Fuses


 Up to 1000 Volts

 High Voltage Fuses


 Above 1000 Volts

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Power System Analysis 101 77

What is Short Circuit?


PROTECTIVE DEVICES: LOW VOLTAGE
CIRCUIT BREAKERS

Molded-Case Circuit Breakers

Low Voltage
Power Circuit
Breakers
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Power System Analysis 101 78


Substation Vacuum Circuit Breakers
What is Short Circuit?
PROTECTIVE DEVICES: HIGH VOLTAGE
CIRCUIT BREAKERS

Outdoor-Type Circuit Breaker in Switchyard


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Power System Analysis 101 79

What is Short Circuit?


PROTECTIVE DEVICES: HIGH VOLTAGE
CIRCUIT BREAKERS

Indoor Type Circuit Breaker in a Switchgear


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Power System Analysis 101 80

Short Circuit Studies

Short Circuit Current and Time Characteristics of Protective Devices


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Power System Analysis 101 81

Short Circuit Studies


 Comparison of Momentary and Interrupting
Duties of Interrupting Devices
 Comparison of Short-time or withstand
rating of system components
 Selection of rating or setting of short circuit
protective devices
 Evaluation of current flow and voltage levels
in the system during fault

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Power System Analysis 101 82

Short Circuit Studies


 First Cycle Fault Current
 Short circuit ratings of low voltage equipment
 Ratings of Medium Voltage (MV) to High Voltage
(HV) switch and fuse
 Close & Latch (Making) capacity or ratings of HV
Circuit Breakers
 Maximum Fault for coordination of instantaneous
trip of relays

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Power System Analysis 101 83

Short Circuit Studies


 1.5 to 4 Cycles Fault Current
 Interrupting (breaking) duties of HV circuit
breakers
 Interrupting magnitude and time of breakers for
coordination

 30 Cycles Fault Current


 For time delay coordination

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Power System Analysis 101 84

Selection of Device Duties

 ANSI/IEEE: American National


Standards Institute/ Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers
 IEC: International Electrotechnical
Commission

Prescribes Test Procedures and


Calculation Methods
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Power System Analysis 101 85

Selection of Device Duties


8-Cycle Total-Rated Circuit 5-Cycle Symmetrical-Rated
Breakers (KA) Circuit Breakers (KA)
Short-Circuit
Example Interrupting Closing and
Momentary Capability
Circuit Breaker Maximum Rating (Total Latching
Rating (Total (Symmetrical
Nominal Size System RMS Current at Capability (Total
1st-Cycle RMS RMS Current at
Identification Operating 4-cycle Contact- First Cycle RM
Current 3-Cycle Parting
Voltage Parting Time Current)
Time

4.16 – 75 4.16 KV 20 10.5 19 10.1

4.16 – 250 4.16 KV 60 35 58 33.2

4.16 – 350 4.16 KV 80 48.6 78 46.9

13.8 – 500 13.8 KV 40 21 37 19.6

13.8 – 750 13.8 KV 60 13.5 58 30.4

13.8 – 1000 13.8 KV 80 42 77 40.2

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Power System Analysis 101 86

COMPARISON OF DUTIES
TFF LLF DLGF SLGF MAX SC
BUS ID PHASE Margin Remarks
(KA) (KA) (KA) (KA) I Duty
BACKBONE LINES
S/S 3 2.30005 1.99190 2.86464 2.76467 2.86464 15 524 % Adequate
PG-17 3 2.09517 1.81447 2.32896 2.21705 2.32896 4 172 % Adequate
PG-26 3 1.98127 1.71583 2.10904 1.96635 2.10904 4 190 % Adequate
PG-40 3 1.82417 1.57978 1.85435 1.66821 1.85435 4 216 % Adequate
PG-52 3 1.70334 1.47514 1.68370 1.46936 1.70334 4 235 % Adequate
PG-53 3 1.69336 1.46650 1.67035 1.45395 1.69336 4 236 % Adequate
PG-63 3 1.59908 1.38485 1.54879 1.31529 1.59908 4 250 % Adequate
LATERAL LINES
PG-17-1 3 2.08156 1.80268 2.30059 2.18533 2.30059 4 174 % Adequate
PG-17-2 1 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 2.14564 2.14564 4 186 % Adequate
PG-17-1-3 1 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 2.01008 2.01008 4 199 % Adequate
PG-17-2-3 1 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 2.06014 2.06014 4 194 % Adequate
PG-17-3-7 1 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 1.87921 1.87921 4 213 % Adequate
LATERAL LINES
PG-26-5 3 1.86883 1.61845 2.15303 1.79814 2.15303 4 186 % Adequate
PG-26-5-3 1 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 1.54157 1.54157 4 259 % Adequate
LATERAL LINES
PG-40-2 3 1.78352 1.54457 1.83166 1.61561 1.83166 4 218 % Adequate
PG-40-2-5 1 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 1.50666 1.50666 4 265 % Adequate
PG-40-2-6 1 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 1.58620 1.58620 4 252 % Adequate
LATERAL LINES
PG-52-7 1 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 1.38134 1.38134 4 290 % Adequate
LATERAL LINES
PG-53-1 1 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 1.44395 1.44395 4 277 % Adequate

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Power System Analysis 101 87

POWER SYSTEM RELIABILITY


ANALYSIS

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Power System Analysis 101 88

Reliability Analysis
1. What is Reliability?
2. Measuring Reliability
3. Component Reliability
4. System Reliability
5. Distribution System Reliability
6. Economics of Power System Reliability

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Power System Analysis 101 89

What is Reliability?
 Outage (Component State)
Component is not available to perform its intended
function due to the event directly associated with that
component (IEEE-STD-346).
 Interruption (Customer State)
Loss of service to one or more consumers as a result of
one or more component outages (IEEE-STD-346).
 Types of Interruptions
Momentary Interruption. Service restored by
switching operations (automatic or manual) within a
specified time (5 minutes per IEEE-STD-346).
Sustained Interruption. An interruption not classified
as momentary
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Power System Analysis 101 90

What is Reliability?
A reliable piece of equipment or a System is
understood to be basically sound and give trouble-
free performance in a given environment.

But, How do you measure reliability? How do we


compare reliability of the same equipment from two
different manufacturers?

Definition of Reliability
Reliability is the probability that an equipment or
system will perform satisfactorily for at least a
given period of time when used under stated
conditions.
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Power System Analysis 101 91

Measuring Reliability
1 3
System
Failure Mathematical 5
Reliability
2
Failure Model
Application
Events
(Reliability Index)
4
Reliability Data

Power System Reliability Evaluation

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Power System Analysis 101 92

Measuring Reliability

HISTORICAL SYSTEM
ORGANIZATION, INCIDENTS
PERFORMANCE
CUSTOMER, kVA MANAGEMENT
HISTORICAL
OPERATIONS
ASSESSMENT ENGINEERING
COMPONENT CUSTOMER INQUIRIES
POPULATION
COMPONENT
PERFORMANCE
PREDICTED SYSTEM
SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
DEFINITION PREDICTIVE
COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS
ASSESSMENT
AID TO DECISION-MAKING
PLANNING STUDIES

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Power System Analysis 101 93

Component Reliability
Component Failure Data
Item No. Time-to-Failure (hrs.)
1 8
How Reliable
2 20 is the
3 34 component?
4 46
5 63
6 86
7 111
8 141
9 186
10 266

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Power System Analysis 101 94

Component Reliability
Failure Time ∆ ti f(t)
Density 0–8 8 1 10
8
= 0.0125

Function 8 – 20 12 1 10
12
= 0.0084

f(t) 20 – 34 14 1 10
14
= 0.0074
1 10
34 – 46 12 = 0.0084
12
1 10
measure of the 46 – 63 17 17
= 0.0059

overall speed 63 – 86 23 1 10 =
0.0043
23
at which 1 10 =
86 – 111 25 0.0040
failures are 25
1 10
occurring. 111 – 141 30 = 0.0033
30
141 – 186 45 1 10
= 0.0022
45
1 10
186 – 266 80 = 0.0013
80

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Power System Analysis 101 95

Component Reliability

f(t) fractional failures/hr.x10-2


1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 100 200 300
Operating time, hr.

Failure Density Function from Component Failure Data

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Power System Analysis 101 96

Component Reliability
Failure Time ∆ ti h(t)
Hazard 0–8 8 1 10
= 0.0125
8
Function 8 – 20 12
19
= 0.093
12
h(t) 20 – 34 14
18
= 0.0096
14
17
34 – 46 12 = 0.0119
12
16=
measure of the 46 – 63 17
17
0.0098

instantaneous 63 – 86 23 15=
0.0087
23
speed of 14=
86 – 111 25 0.0100
failure 25
13
111 – 141 30 30
= 0.0111
[Propones to 141 – 186 45
12
= 0.0111
45
Failure] 11
186 – 266 80 80
= 0.0125

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Power System Analysis 101 97

Component Reliability

1.4
h(t) failures/hr.x10-2 1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 100 200 300
Operating time, hr.
Hazard Function from Component Failure Data

0.011 failure/hr x 8760 hrs/yr = 97 failures/yr

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Power System Analysis 101 98

Component Reliability
Reliability Function
t

R (t ) = e ∫0
h (τ )d τ

For the component with a hazard rate of 0.011 f/hr,

R(1 hour) = 0.989 R(24 hours) = 0.768

For a component with a constant Hazard


h = 0.01 f/yr R(1) = 0.99 [Probability that the
component will not
fail in 1 year]
h = 0.02 f/yr R(1) = 0.98
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Power System Analysis 101 99

Component Reliability
h(t ) h(t )

λ Kt

t t
a. Constant Hazard b. Increasing Hazard
h(t )

K0
t

R (t ) = e ∫0
h (τ )d τ

t
K0 K1 t0
Reliability Function
a. Decreasing Hazard

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Power System Analysis 101 100

Component Reliability
The Bathtub Curve

a. Hazard Function

b. Failure Density Function

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Power System Analysis 101 101

Component Reliability
Hazard Model for Different System

a. Mechanical b. Electrical c. Software

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Power System Analysis 101 102

Component Reliability

Weibull Model (A General Reliability Model)

R (t )
h (t ) K
5 m=3 5
m=2
4 4
3 m=1 3
2 2
m = 0 .5 m=1 m = − 0 .5
1 m=0 1 m=2 m=0
m = −0 .5 m=3 m = 0 .5
t→ 1 2 τ → 1 2

Hazard function Reliability function

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Power System Analysis 101 103

Component Reliability
RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT
of MERALCO Distribution Transformers*
Distribution Transformer Failures
• 1997: 996 DT Failures
• Average of three (3) DT Failures/day
• Lost Revenue during Downtime
• Additional Equipment Replacement Cost
• Lost of Customer Confidence
 Identify the Failure Mode of DTs
 Develop strategies to reduce DT failures
* R. R. del Mundo, et. al. (2000)
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Power System Analysis 101 104

Component Reliability

METHODOLOGY: Reliability Engineering


(Weibull Analysis of Failure Data)
• Gather Equipment History (Failure Data)
• Classify DTs (Brand, Condition, KVA, Voltage)
• Develop Reliability Model
• Determine Failure Mode
• Recommend Solutions to Improve Reliability

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Power System Analysis 101 105

Component Reliability

Parametric Model
• Shape Factor Failure Mode
• Characteristic Life
Shape Factor Hazard Function Failure Mode
<1 Decreasing Early
=1 Constant Random
>1 Increasing Wear-out

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Component Reliability
MERALCO DTs (1989–1997)
Brand New Recond Rewind Convert Total
A 29,960 835 1,333 2,048 34,712
B 5,986 118 135 269 6,586
C 6,358 49 31 21 6,561
D 2,037 116 90 - 2,344
E - - - - 192
F - - - - 168
G - - - - 79
H - - - - 69
TOTAL 44,341 1,118 1,588 2,338 51,129
Note: Total Include Acquired DTs

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Component Reliability
Reliability Analysis: All DTs
Interval Failures Survivors Hazard
200 1444 57095 0.0269
400 797 48852 0.0178
600 638 39997 0.0174
800 508 32802 0.0167
1000 475 27515 0.0189
1200 363 22129 0.0178
1400 295 18200 0.0178
1600 224 14690 0.0167
1800 159 11865 0.0151
2000 89 9010 0.0114
2200 98 6473 0.0177
2400 51 4479 0.015
2600 19 2254 0.0122
2800 2 821 0.0042
3000 0 127 0

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Component Reliability
Reliability Analysis: All DTs
0.03

0.025

Weibull Shape = 0.84


0.02
Hazard

0.015

0.01
Failure Mode: EARLY FAILURE
0.005

Is it Manufacturing Defect?
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000

Time Interval
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Component Reliability
Reliability Analysis: By Manufacturer
BRAND Size Shape Failure Mode
A 34712 0.84 Early Failure
B 6586 0.81 Early Failure
C 6561 0.86 Early Failure
D 2344 0.76 Early Failure
E 192 0.85 Early Failure
F 168 0.86 Early Failure
G 79 0.76 Early Failure
H 69 0.98 Early Failure

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Component Reliability
Reliability Analysis:
By Manufacturer & Condition
BRAND New Reconditioned Rewinded Converted
A 1.11 1.23 1.12 1.4
B 0.81 1.29 1.27 1.23
C 0.81 1.13 0.77 0.94
D 0.67 1.11 1.49 -

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Component Reliability
Reliability Analysis: By Voltage Rating
PRI SEC All DTs New DTs
20 7.62 0.75 -
20 120/240 0.79 0.94
20 139/277 1.14 1.1
20 DUAL 0.72 1.03
13.2 120/240 0.88 1.54
13.2 240/480 0.91 -
7.62 120/240 0.99 1.46
7.62 DUAL 0.77 -
4.8 120/240 0.87 1.61
3.6 120/240 0.78 1.17
2.4 120/240 1.15 -
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Component Reliability
Reliability Analysis: By KVA Rating (New DTs)
KVA Shape Failure Mode
10 1.3 Wear-out
15 1.25 Wear-out
25 0.92 Early
37.5 0.83 Early
50 0.73 Early
75 1.05 Random
100 1.04 Random
167 1.16 Random
250 1.11 Random
333 1.46 Wear-out
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Component Reliability
MERALCO Distribution Transformer
Reliability Analysis: Recommendations
• Review Replacement Policies
- New or Repair
- In-house or Remanufacture
• Improve Transformer Load Management Program
- Predict Demand Accurately (TLMS)
• Consider Higher KVA Ratings
• Consider Surge Protection for 20 kV DTs
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Component Reliability
Preventive Maintenance and Hazard Rates
Hazard
rate

m 2m 3m
Effect of PM on Increasing Hazard Rate

Hazard Hazard
rate rate

m 2m 3m m 2m 3m

Effect of PM on Constant Hazard Rate Effect of PM on Decreasing Hazard Rate


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Component Reliability
RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT
of MERALCO Power Circuit Breakers*

Number of Feeder Power Circuit Breakers

VOLTAGE OCB VCB GCB MOCB ACB


34.5 KV 149 160 41
13.8 KV 7 28 2 36 12
6.24 KV 26 3 122
4.8 KV 2 11
TOTAL 156 216 43 39 145

* R. R. del Mundo & Melendrez (2001)


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Component Reliability
RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT
of MERALCO Power Circuit Breakers*
Annual Failures of 34.5 kV OCBs
1997 1998 1999 2000 Average
Causes of Failures
Installed Failed Installed Failed Installed Failed Installed Failed
Failure (Units/yr)
Contact Wear 158 2 155 2 149 1 145 2 1.15
Bushing 158 1 155 3 149 3 145 1 1.317
Failure
Mechanism - - 155 1 - - - - 0.645
Failure
Totals 158 3 155 6 149 4 145 3 2.636

3 Circuit Breakers failing per year!

Preventive Maintenance Policy: Time-based (Periodic)

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Reliability Assessment of
MERALCO Power Circuit Breakers
HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 34.5 KV OCBs HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 34.5 KV GCBs HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 13.8 KV MOCBs

0.4 0.2 0.4

H a z a r d R a te
H a za rd R a te

H a z a rd R a t e
0.3 0.15 0.3
0.2 0.1 0.2
0.1 0.05 0.1
0 0
0
3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57 60 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57 60
Time Interval (months) Time Interval (months) Time Interval (months)

34.5 kV OCBS OCBs 34.5 kV GCBs 13.8 kV MOCBs


HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 6.24 KV MOCBs HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 6.24 KV ACBs HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR ALL PCBs CONSIDERED

0.4 0.2 0.4

H az ard R ate
H a z a rd R a t e

H a z a r d R a te

0.3 0.15 0.3


0.2 0.1 0.2
.
0.1 0.05 0.1
0 0 0
3 6 9 12 15 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57 60
6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60
Time Interval (months) Time Interval (months)
Time Interval (months)

6.24 kV MOCBs 6.24 kV ACBs All PCBs

TIME-BASED HAZARD FUNCTION


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Reliability Assessment of
MERALCO Power Circuit Breakers
HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 34.5 KV OCBs HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 34.5 KV GCBs HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 34.5 KV GCBs

0.05 y= 0.00006x2 – 0.0007x 0.05


0.25
+ 0.032
H a z a r d R a te
H a z a r d R a te

0.2 0.04 0.04


H a z a rd R a t e

0.15 0.03 0.03


0.1 0.02 0.02
0.05 0.01 0.01
0 0 0
25 50 75 100 125 150 25 50 75 100 125 150
5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Tripping Interval Tripping Interval Tripping Interval

34.5 kV OCBS OCBs 34.5 kV GCBs 13.8 kV MOCBs

HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 6.24 KV HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 6.24 KV HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 34.5 KV OCBs
MOCBs MOCBs
0.25
0.3 0.3 0.2
H a z a rd R a te
H a z a rd R a te
H a z a rd R a te

0.2 0.2 0.15


0.1
0.1 0.1 0.05
0 0 0
5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Tripping Interval Tripping Interval Tripping Interval

6.24 kV MOCBs 6.24 kV ACBs All PCBs

TRIPPING OPERATIONS-BASED HAZARD FUNCTION


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Component Reliability
RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT
of MERALCO Power Circuit Breakers*

Schedule of Servicing for 41XV4

0.08
Hazard Rate

0.06
0.04
0.02
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Number of Tripping Operations

Reliability-Based
Preventive Maintenance Schedule

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System Reliability
Series Reliability Model

R(x1) R(x2) R(x3) R(x4)

Series System
This arrangements represents a system whose
subsystems of components form a series network. If
any of the subsystem of component fails, the series
system experiences an overall system failure.
n
Rs = ∏ R( xi )
i =1

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System Reliability

Parallel Reliability Model

This structure represents


R(x1) a system that will fail if
and only if all the units in
R(x2) the system fail.

R(x3)
n
Rs = 1 − ∏ [1 − R( xi )]
R(x4) i =1

Parallel Network
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System Reliability
Standby Redundancy Model

R(x1)

R(x2)

R(x3)

R(x4)
This type of redundancy represents a distribution with one
operating and n units as standbys. Unlike a parallel network
where all units in the configuration are active, the standby units
are not active.

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System Reliability
K-Out-of-N Reliability Model

R(x1) The system reliability for


k-out-of-n number of
R(x2) independent and identical
units is given by
R(x3) n
 n
Rs = ∑   R i ( 1 − R )n −i
i=k  i 

This is another form of redundancy. It is used where


a specified number of units must be good for the
system success.

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System Reliability 3
1

5
2

4
6

Networks
7

8
Primary side 9
10
11

12
13
14
15
16
17
18

Reliability Network Models for 19

21
20
22

Typical Substation Configurations 23

25
24

26

of MERALCO* 27

29
28

30

31

32

33

34

35

Secondary side 37
36
38

Scheme 1: Single breaker-single bus


39

40
41

(primary and secondary side) 43


44
45
42

46

47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55

* Source: A. Gonzales (Meralco) & 56


57

R. del Mundo (UP), 2005 58

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System Reliability Networks


Reliability Network Diagram of Single breaker-single bus scheme
(Scheme 1)

λc
15λ λct
29λ λbus
2λ λd1
4λ λb1
2λ λp λb2
2λ λd2

Summary of Substation Reliability Indices for Scheme 1

Event 1 Probability λs (failure/yr) Us (hr/yr)


Opened 115kV bus tie 1.0 0.247152 0.828784
breaker & opened
34.5kV bus tie breaker
(normal condition)
Total 1.0 0.247152 0.828784

where: λs - substation failure rate or interruption frequency


Us – substation annual outage time or unavailability

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L1 L2

System Reliability 3
1

5
2

4
6 75
71

73
70

72

74

Networks
7 76

8 77

9 78

18 16
17
127
128 19 15
129 20
14
130 21 13
131 22 12
132

Reliability Network Models for


23
133 10 11 92 79
134 35
91 80
135
136 24 34 90
137 81

Typical Substation Configurations


33 89
138 25 82
32
139 26 88 83
140 31 87 84
27
141 28 30 86 85

of MERALCO 36
93
29

Primary side
37 94

38 95

39 96

40 97

41 98

Scheme 2: Single breaker-double bus Bank 1 42 99


Bank 2

(primary side) and two single 43

44
100

101

breaker-single bus with bus tie 45

46
102

103
104

breaker (secondary side)


47
48 105
49 106
50
108
107
Secondary side
51
52 109
53 110
54 111
55 126 112
56
57
125 124 119 115 113
58 121 117
59 116 114
60 122
61 123 120 118
62
63
64
65
66

67

68

69

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Substation Reliability Models


Reliability Network Diagram of Single breaker-double bus with
normally opened 115kV bus tie breaker (Scheme 2)

λc
16λ λct
29λ λbus
2λ λd1
3λ λb1
2λ λp λb2
2λ λd2

Event 1: Opened 115kV and 34.5kV bus tie breakers; P1 = 0.997985

λc
20λ λct
37λ λbus
3λ λd1
5λ λb1
2λ λp λb2
2λ λd2

Event 2: Closed 115kV bus tie breaker & opened 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P2 = 0.000188

λc
20λ λct
37λ λbus
2λ λd1
3λ λb1
2λ λp λb2
3λ λd2

Event 3: Closed 115kV bus tie breaker & closed 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P3 = 0.000000344

λc
20λ λct
37λ λbus
2λ λd1
3λ λb1
2λ λp λb2
3λ λd2

Event 4: Opened 115kV bus tie breaker & closed 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P4 = 0.00182614

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Substation Reliability Models

Summary of Substation Reliability Indices for Scheme 2

Event Probability λs (failure/yr) Us (hr/yr)


1 0.997985 0.251752 0.848919
2 0.000188 0.302966 1.008374
3 0.000000344 0.308936 1.023840
4 0.001826 0.308936 1.023840
Total 1.0 0.251866 0.849275

Event 1: With two primary lines energized & opened 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P1 = 0.997985
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Substation Reliability Models


Reliability Network Diagram of Single breaker-double bus with
normally closed 115kV bus tie breaker (Modified Scheme 2)

λΒ1 λΒ1
Β3
λΒ2
Β3 λΒ1
Β3 λΒ1 λΒ2 λΒ2
Β3 Β3

λ17 λ54 λΒ3 λΒ4 λΒ5

λΒ6 λΒ7 λΒ7


Β4 λλΒ4
29 λΒ9 λΒ6 λΒ4
29

Event 1: With two primary lines energized & opened 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P1 = 0.997985

λ17 λB1 λB2 λB3 λB4 λB5

Event 2: With one line, L2 interrupted & opened 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P2 = 0.000188

λ17 λ29 λB1 λB2 λB5 λB8 λB9 λB10 λB11

Event 3: With one line, L2 interrupted and closed 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P3 = 0.000000344

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Substation Reliability Models


Reliability Network Diagram of Single breaker-double bus with
normally closed 115kV bus tie breaker (Modified Scheme 2)
λΒ1 λΒ1 λΒ3
Β2 λΒ3
Β6 λΒ3
Β2 λΒ6 λΒ3
Β7 λλΒ3
Β7 λΒ7
Β3

λ29 λ111 λΒ5 λΒ8 λΒ10 λΒ11

λΒ6 λΒ7 λΒ7 λλΒ4


17 λΒ4
Β6 λΒ9 λΒ9 λλΒ4
Β8 λλΒ4
17

Event 4: With two lines energized and closed 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P4 = 0.001826140

Summary of Substation Reliability Indices for Modified Scheme 2


Event Probability λs (failure/yr) Us,(hr/yr)
1 0.997985 0.176076 0.583548
2 0.000188 0.251122 0.847621
3 0.000000344 0.377120 1.261549
4 0.001826 0.233261 0.758472
Total 1.0 0.176194 0.583923
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Substation Reliability Models

Comparison of Substation Reliability Indices for Scheme 2

Scheme 2 λs (failure/yr) Us (hr/yr)


Original (opened 115kV bus tie
0.251866 0.849275
breaker)
Modified (closed 115kV bus tie
breaker) 0.176194 0.583923

Note: A remarkable 30% improvement in the performance


of Scheme 2 by making the 115kV bus tie breaker
normally closed.

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System Reliability B1
1 67
B4

Networks
17

16 32 82
15 81
80
14
13 79
12 78
11 77
10 76

B2 9
8
75 B5
73 74
7 72
6
5 71
70
4

Reliability Network Models for


69
3 68
2
Primary side
3 69
83

Typical Substation Configurations


18

19 84
20 85
21 86
22 87

of MERALCO B3 88
24
25
23
89
90
B6
26 91
27 92

28 93
29 94
30 95

31 96
33

97

B7 34 98
B8

Scheme 3: Ring bus (primary side) and two Bank 1 35 99


Bank 2

single breaker-single bus with 37


36

38
101
100
102

103
39

bus tie breaker (secondary side) 42


40
41

43
104 105
106
107
44 108
45 109
46 110
47 111
48
49
112 Secondary side
113
51 50 114 115

52 130 116
53
54
128 123 119
55 125 121 117
56
B10 58
57 129
127
126
124
120
122
118

59
60
62
61
63
B9
64

65
66

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Substation Reliability Models


Reliability Block Diagram of Ring Bus Scheme (Scheme 3)
λB1 λB4

λB1 λB2

λB5 λB2 λ17 λ51 λB7 λB10

λB4 λB5

λB6 λB3

Event 1: With two primary lines energized & opened 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P1 = 0.997985

λB1 λB4

λB1 λB3

λB5 λB2 λ31 λB8 λB9 λ51 λB10

λB4 λB6

λB6 λB3

Event 2: With two primary lines energized & closed 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P2 = 0.00182614
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Substation Reliability Models


Reliability Block Diagram of Ring Bus Scheme (Scheme 3)

CONT.

λB2 λB2 λB2 λB2

λB1 λ17 λB7 λ51 λB10

λB3 λ31 λB6 λB5

Event 3: With one primary line (L2) interrupted and opened 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P3 = 0.000188056

λB2 λB3 λB3 λB3

λB1 λ31 λB8 λB9 λ51 λB10

λB3 λ17 λB5 λB6

Event 4: With one primary line (L2) interrupted and closed 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P4 = 0.000000344

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Substation Reliability Models


Summary of Substation Reliability Indices of Ring Bus
(Scheme 3)

Event Probability λs (failure/yr) Us (hr/yr)


1 0.997985 0.137928 0.436499
2 0.001826 0.195112 0.618379
3 0.000188 0.147283 0.468233
4 0.000000344 0.204467 0.650114
Total 1.0 0.138034 0.436836

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L L

System Reliability
1 2
1 7
1 8
7
1 9
1 61 9
9 3
1
5

3 1 1
4
B1 1
8
9
0
2

Networks
21 8
1 89
8
0
B2 9

7
8 B5
7
8
5 8 8
8
6 B6
6 4
5 3 8
4 8 2
3 1 8
2 7 0
9
3 8
1 9 0
8 1 4
9

Reliability Network Models for


9 5
2 9
2 9
B3 2 0
2
1
2 B7 96
8
7
9
2
4 2 2
3
10 10
9 Primary
Typical Substation Configurations 5 0 10 1
62 2 10
2 7
8
2
10
4 10
3 side
9 4 12 5

of MERALCO 3
0
2
9
3
3 0
10
6
10
5
10
3 1 10 7
3 10
3 2
3 118 9

B4 4
3
6 3
3
5
0
11 11
11
1 B8
3 7 2 11 3
83 4 11
4 9 5
11
0 4 6 11
11
4 1 11 7
9
2 8

4 12
4 1
B9 B10
4 12
5 2

Scheme 4: Breaker-and-a-half bus (primary Bank


1
4
6
12
3
Bank
2
4

side) and two single breaker-single 12 12


4 7 4
8 4 5 12
9 6
5 12
5 0 12 7

bus with bus tie breaker 5 12


5 1
2 13 8 9
3 5 0 13
5 4 1
13
5 5 5 2 13
13

(secondary side)
6 3
75 4 13
5
8
13
6 13
5
Secondary
9 6

6
6
2
6 0
1
15 14
13 7
8 side 13
9
3 6 4 0
6 4 15 14 14
5 14
6 2 158 6 14 14
1
4 2
6 66 15
0
14
6 7 8 3 15 14 14 14
5
9 7 1 9 7 3
7 0
1 7 7
37 2
4
B1
7
5
7 6
7 1
7

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Substation Reliability Models


Reliability Block Diagram of Breaker-and-a-half Scheme (Scheme 4)
λΒ1
Β3 λΒ2
Β3
λλΒ1
6 λλΒ1
6

λΒ1 λΒ3 λΒ3 λΒ3 λΒ3

λΒ9 λ62 λΒ12 λΒ6


Β2 λΒ3
33
λλΒ7
7 λΒ8 A

λΒ5 λΒ4 λΒ7 λλ119 λΒ8


Β4 Β4

λΒ7
33 λΒ5
34
λ17 λΒ2
17

λΒ1
Β3 λΒ1
Β3 λΒ1
Β3 λΒ1
Β3
λλΒ1
6 λλΒ1
6 λΒ3 λΒ3 λλΒ3
6 λλΒ3
6

A λλΒ2
17 λλΒ4
33 λΒ2 λλΒ2
33
λλΒ2
7 λΒ2 λΒ5
Β2 λΒ5
33
λλΒ5
7 λΒ5

λλ119
33 λ17
34 λΒ7
33 λλΒ8
34
λ119 λΒ4
Β2 λ17
33 λΒ6
34
λΒ8 λλ119
Β2

Event 1: With two primary lines energized and opened 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P1 = 0.997985

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Substation Reliability Models


Reliability Block Diagram of Breaker-and-a-half Scheme (Scheme 4)

λΒ1
Β3 λΒ2
Β3
λλΒ1
6 λλΒ5
6

λΒ1 λΒ7 λΒ3 λΒ7


Β3 λΒ4
Β3

λΒ10 λ139 λΒ11 λ62 λΒ12 λΒ6


Β2 λΒ3
33
λλΒ2
7 λΒ8 A

λΒ5 λΒ8 λΒ7 λλ119


Β4 λΒ7
Β4

λλΒ7
33 λΒ5
34
λΒ7 λλΒ2
17

λΒ5
Β3 λΒ3 λΒ3 λΒ2
Β3
λλΒ2
6 λλΒ2
6 λΒ5
Β3 λΒ4
Β3
λλΒ4
6 λλ119
6 λλ119
6

A λΒ2
17 λΒ5
33 λΒ5
Β2 λΒ5
33
λλΒ5
7 λΒ4 λΒ6
Β2 λΒ5
33
λλΒ5
7 λΒ5 λΒ5

λλ119
33 λ17
34 λΒ6
33 λΒ8
34
λ119 λΒ5
Β2 λΒ8
33 λΒ6
34
λ17 λΒ7
Β2 λΒ6
Β2

Event 2: With two primary lines energized and closed 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P2 = 0.001826

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Substation Reliability Models


Reliability Block Diagram of Breaker-and-a-half Scheme (Scheme 4)
λΒ3 λΒ6
Β3 λΒ6 λΒ6 λΒ6 λΒ7
Β3 Β3 Β3 Β3

λΒ9 λ62 λΒ12 λΒ5 A

λΒ4 λΒ7 λΒ8 λλ119 λΒ4 λΒ4


Β4 Β4 17

λΒ7 λΒ7
Β3 λΒ8 λΒ8 λΒ8 λΒ3 λΒ3 λΒ2
Β3 Β3 17 17 Β3 λλ119
Β3 λλ119
Β3

λΒ2 λΒ3 λΒ4 λΒ2 λΒ3 λ119 λΒ4 λΒ4


17 Β4 λΒ2
Β4 λΒ3
Β4

Event 3: With one primary line (L1) interrupted and opened 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P3 = 0.000188

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Substation Reliability Models


 Reliability Block Diagram of Breaker-and-a-half Scheme (Scheme 4)
λΒ7 λΒ6
Β3 λΒ7
Β3 λΒ7
Β3 λΒ7 λΒ4 λλ119
Β3 Β3

λΒ10 λ139 λΒ11 λ62 λΒ12 λΒ5

λΒ8 λΒ7 λλΒ4


17 λΒ2
Β4 λΒ3 λΒ7 λΒ7
Β4

Event 4: With one primary line (L1) interrupted and closed 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P4 = 0.000000344

Summary of Substation Reliability Indices of Breaker-&-a-half


(Scheme 4)
Event Probability λs (failure/yr) Us (hr/yr)
1 0.997985 0.137306 0.435214
2 0.001826 0.195120 0.611433
3 0.000188 0.146674 0.466972
4 0.000000344 0.204473 0.643165
Total 1.0 0.137413 0.435545
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System Reliability Networks


Substation Reliability Models
Comparison of Substation Reliability Indices (Scheme 1 to 4)

Configuration λs (failures/yr) Us (hrs/yr)


Scheme 1 (Single breaker-single bus) 0.247152 0.828784
Scheme 2 (Single breaker-double bus)
- with normally opened 115kV tie bkr. 0.251866 0.849275
- with normally closed 115kV tie bkr. 0.176194 0.583923
Scheme 3 (Ring bus) 0.138034 0.436836
Scheme 4 (Breaker-and-a-half bus) 0.137413 0.435545
Note: Scheme 3 & 4 - better than Scheme 1 & 2 by 44% & 45% respectively for substation
failure rates.
Scheme 3 & 4 - better than Scheme 1 & 2 by 47% & 49% respectively for substation
interruption duration or unavailabilty.
Scheme 3 & 4 - better than Modified Scheme 2 by 22% & 25% for substation failure
rates & unavailability, respectively

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Distribution System Reliability


CUSTOMER-ORIENTED RELIABILITY INDICES
System Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI)*
The average number of interruptions per customer served
during a period

Total number of customer interruptions


SAIFI =
Total number of customers served
System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI)
The average interruption duration per customer served during a
period
Sum of customer interruption duration
SAIDI =
Total number of customers served
Note: SAIFI for Sustained interruptions. MAIFI for Momentary Interruptions
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Distribution System Reliability


CUSTOMER-ORIENTED RELIABILITY INDICES
Customer Average Interruption Frequency Index
(CAIFI)
The average number of interruptions per customer interrupted
during the period
Total number of customer interruptions
CAIFI =
Total number of customers interrupted
Customer Average Interruption Duration Index (CAIDI)
The average interruption duration of customers interrupted
during the period
Sum of customer interruption duration
CAIDI =
Total number of customers interrupted
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Distribution System Reliability


CUSTOMER-ORIENTED RELIABILITY INDICES
Average Service Availability Index (ASAI)
The ratio of the total number of customer hours that service
was available during a year to the total customer hours
demanded Customer hours of available service
ASAI =
Customer hours demanded
Average Service Unavailability Index (ASUI)
The ratio of the total number of customer hours that service
was not available during a year to the total customer hours
demanded
C ustomer hours of unavailabl e service
ASUI =
Customer hours demanded

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Distribution System Reliability


LOAD- AND ENERGY-ORIENTED RELIABILITY
INDICES
Average Load Interruption Index (ALII)
The average KW (KVA) of connected load interrupted per year
per unit of connected load served.
Total load interruption
ALII =
Total connected load
Average System Curtailment Index (ASCI)
Also known as the average energy not supplied (AENS). It is
the KWh of connected load interruption per customer served.
Total energy curtailment
ASCI =
Total number of customers served
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Distribution System Reliability


LOAD- AND ENERGY-ORIENTED RELIABILITY
INDICES
Average Customer Curtailment Index (ACCI)
The KWh of connected load interruption per affected customer
per year.

Total energy curtailment


ACCI =
Total number of customers affected

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Distribution System Reliability


Historical Reliability Performance Assessment
Required Data:
1. Exposure Data
N - total number of customers served
P - period of observation
2. Interruption Data
Nc - number of customers interrupted on interruption i
d - duration of ith interruption, hours
d1
d3
Number of
customers N1 d2 N3
interrupted N2
Time
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Distribution System Reliability


S 1 2 3
A B C
Source

L1 L2 L3
SYSTEM LOAD DATA
Number of Average Load
Load Point
Customers Demand (KW)
L1 200 1000
L2 150 700
L3 100 400
INTERRUTION DATA
Number of
Interruption Load Point Average Load Duration of
Disconnected
Event i Affected Curtailed (KW) Interruption
Customers
1 L3 100 400 6 hours
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Distribution System Reliability

SAIFI =
∑N C
=
100
∑N 200 + 150 + 100
= 0.222222 interruption customer - yr

SAIDI =
∑ N d = (100 )(6 )
C

∑ N 200 + 150 + 100


= 1.333333 hours customer - yr

CAIDI =
∑ N d = (100 )(6 )
C

∑N C100
= 6 hours custumer - interruption
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Distribution System Reliability

ASUI =
∑N C d ∑ N = SAIDI = 1.333333
8760 8760 8760
= 0.000152

ASAI = 1 − ASUI = 1 − 0.000152


= 0.999848

ASCI =
ENS
=
∑ L d = (400 )(6 )
a

∑N ∑ N 200 + 150 + 100


= 5.333333 KWh customer − yr
Note: ENS - Energy Not Supplied
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Distribution System Reliability


Outage & Interruption Reporting

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Date Affected hours


Historical 1 01/08/04 3 1.5 Line Fault at C
Reliability 2* 02/06/04 All 4 Transmission
3 02/14/04 5, 6 0.5 Line Fault at D
Performance 4* 03/15/04 4, 5, 6 3 Pre-arranged
Assessment 5 04/01/04 6 1.5 Overload
6* 05/20/04 3, 4 3.5 Pre-arranged
7 05/30/04 1, 2, 3 0.5 Line Tripped
8 06/12/04 1 2 Line fault
Outage & 9 07/04/04 5 1 Line Overload
Interruption 10* 07/25/04 All 5 Transmission
Reporting 11 07/30/04 5 1 Line Fault
12* 08/15/04 4 2 Pre-arranged
13 09/08/04 2 1 Line Fault
*Not included in 14* 09/30/04 1, 2, 3 2.5 Pre-arranged
Distribution 15 10/25/04 3 1.5 Line Tripped
Reliability 16 11/10/04 2, 3 1.5 Line Fault at A
Performance 17* 11/27/04 3 2 Pre-arranged
Assessment 18* 12/14/04 3, 4, 5 3.5 Pre-arranged
19* 12/27/04 2, 3 3 Pre-arranged
20 12/28/04 1, 2, 3 0.075 Line Fault

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Distribution System Reliability


Outage & Interruption Reporting
Customer Count
Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total
January 900 800 600 850 500 300 3,950
February 905 796 600 855 497 303 3,956
March 904 801 604 854 496 308 3,967
April 908 806 606 859 501 310 3,990
May 912 804 608 862 509 315 4,010
June 914 810 611 864 507 318 4,024
July 917 815 614 866 512 324 4,048
August 915 815 620 872 519 325 4,066
September 924 821 622 876 521 328 4,092
October 928 824 626 881 526 331 4,116
November 930 826 630 886 530 334 4,136
December 934 829 635 894 538 332 4,162
Annual Average 916 812 615 868 513 319 4,043

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Distribution System Reliability


Outage & Interruption Reporting
Interruption Load Number of Duration Customer Date
Number Points Customers (Hrs.) Hours
Affected Affected Curtailed
1 3 600 1.5 900 01/08/04
3 5 497 0.5 248.5 02/14/04
6 303 0.5 151.5
5 6 310 1.5 465 04/01/04
7 1 912 0.5 456 05/30/04
2 804 0.5 402
3 608 0.5 304
8 1 914 2 1,828 06/12/04
9 5 512 1 512 07/04/04
11 5 512 1 512 07/30/04
13 2 821 1 821 09/08/04
15 3 626 1.5 939 10/25/04
16 2 826 1.5 1,239 11/10/04
3 630 1.5 945

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Distribution System Reliability


Outage & Interruption Reporting

Calculate the Annual Reliability Performance of the


Distribution System (according to Phil. Distribution Code)

SAIFI =
∑N C

∑N
SAIDI =
∑N d C

∑N
MAIFI =
∑N C

∑N
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Distribution System Reliability


Predictive Reliability Performance Assessment
A λA, rA, UA A
Distribution
Source B Loads Source λB, rB, UB B Loads
System
C λC, rC, UC C

Required Data:
1. Component Reliability Data
λi - failure rate of component i
ri - mean repair time of component i
2. System Load Data
Ni - number of customers at point i
Li - the demand at point i
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Distribution System Reliability


Load Point Reliability Equivalents
For series combinations: For parallel combinations:
1
1 2 S P

2
n
λs = Σ λi λp = λ1λ2 (r1 + r2)
i=1

n r1 r2
Σ λiri rp = __________
i=1
rs = _________ r1 + r2
λs

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Distribution System Reliability


S 1 2 3
A B C
Source

L1 L2 L3
COMPONENT DATA
λ r
Feeder
(f/year) (hours)
A 0.2 6
B 0.1 5
C 0.15 8
SYSTEM LOAD DATA
Number of Average Load
Load Point
Customers Demand (KW)
L1 200 1000
L2 150 700
L3 100 400
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Load Point Reliability Equivalents


 For L1 U 1 = λ1r1
λ1 = λ A r1 = rA
= (0.2 )(6 )
= 0.2 f yr = 6 hrs
= 1.2 hrs yr
 For L2 λ A rA + λB rB
λ2 = λ A + λB r2 = U 2 = λ2 r2
λ A + λB
= 0.2 + 0.1 = (0.3)(5.666667 )
=
(0.2 )(6 ) + (0.1)(5 )
= 0.3 f yr = 1.7 hrs yr
0.2 + 0.1
= 5.666667 hrs
 For L3 λ A rA + λB rB + λC rC
λ3 = λ A + λB + λC r3 = U 3 = λ3 r3
λ A + λB + λB = (0.45 )(6.444444 )
= 0.2 + 0.1 + 0.15
=
(0.2)(6) + (0.1)(5) + (0.15)(8) = 2.9 hrs yr
= 0.45 f yr
0.2 + 0.1 + 0.15
= 6.444444 hrs
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Reliability Indices

SAIFI =
∑ λ N = (0.2 )(200 ) + (0.3)(150 ) + (0.45 )(100 )
i i

∑N i 200 + 150 + 100


= 0.288889 interruption customer − yr

SAIDI =
∑U N = (1.2 )(200 ) + (1.7 )(150 ) + (2.9 )(100 )
i i

∑N i 200 + 150 + 100


= 1.744444 hours customer - yr

CAIDI =
∑U N i i
=
SAIDI 1.744444
=
∑λ N i i SAIFI 0.288889
= 6.038462 hours customer - interruption

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ASUI =
∑U N ∑ N
i i i
=
SAIDI 1.744444
=
8760 8760 8760
= 0.000199

ASAI = 1 − ASUI = 1 − 0.000199


= 0.999801

ASCI =
ENS
=
∑ L ( )U
a i i
=
(1000 )(1.2 ) + (700 )(1.7 ) + (400 )(2.9 )
∑ Ni ∑N i 200 + 150 + 100
= 7.888889 KWh customer - yr

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Distribution System Reliability

1 2 3 4
Source
a b c d
A D

C
B
Typical radial distribution system

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SYSTEM RELIABILITY DATA


Component Length (km) λ (f/yr) r (hrs)
1 2 0.2 4

Main
2 1 0.1 4
3 3 0.3 4
4 2 0.2 4
a 1 0.2 2

Lateral
b 3 0.6 2
c 2 0.4 2
d 1 0.2 2

SYSTEM LOAD DATA


Component No. of Customers Ave. Load Connected (KW)
A 1000 5000
B 800 4000
C 700 3000
D 500 2000

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RELIABILITY INDICES FOR THE SYSTEM


Load pt. A Load pt. B Load pt. C Load pt. D
U U U U
Component λ r λ r λ r λ r
(hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/
failure (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs)
yr) yr) yr) yr)
1 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8
Main

2 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 4 0.4


3 0.3 4 1.2 0.3 4 1.2 0.3 4 1.2 0.3 4 1.2
4 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8

a 0.2 2 0.4 0.2 2 0.4 0.2 2 0.4 0.2 2 0.4


Lateral

b 0.6 2 1.2 0.6 2 1.2 0.6 2 1.2 0.6 2 1.2


c 0.4 2 0.8 0.4 2 0.8 0.4 2 0.8 0.4 2 0.8
d 0.2 2 0.4 0.2 2 0.4 0.2 2 0.4 0.2 2 0.4
Total 2.2 2.73 6.0 2.2 2.73 6.0 2.2 2.73 6.0 2.2 2.73 6.0

where : λtotal = ∑ λ ; U total = ∑ U ; rtotal = ∑ U ∑λ


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SAIFI =
∑ λ N = (2.2)(1000) + (2.2)(800) + (2.2)(700) + (2.2)(500 )
i i

∑N i 1000 + 800 + 700 + 500


= 2.2 int customer − yr

SAIDI =
∑U N = (6.0 )(1000) + (6.0 )(800) + (6.0 )(700) + (6.0 )(500)
i i

∑N i 1000 + 800 + 700 + 500


= 6.0 hours customer - yr

CAIDI =
∑U N i i
=
SAIDI 6.0
=
∑λ N i i SAIFI 2.2
= 2.727273 hours customer - interruption

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ASUI =
∑U N ∑ N i i i
=
SAIDI
=
6 .0
8760 8760 8760
= 0.000685

ASAI = 1 − ASUI = 1 − 0.000685


= 0.999315

ASCI =
∑L U ai i

∑N i

=
(5000 )(6.0 ) + (4000 )(6.0 ) + (3000 )(6.0 ) + (2000 )(6.0 )
1000 + 800 + 700 + 500
= 28.0 KWh customer - yr

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Distribution System Reliability


 Effect of lateral protection
1 2 3 4
Source

a b c d
A D

C
B

Typical radial distribution system with lateral protections

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RELIABILITY INDICES WITH LATERAL PROTECTION


Load pt. A
Load pt. B Load pt. C Load pt. D
U U U U
Component λ r λ r λ r λ r
(hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/
failure (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs)
yr) yr) yr) yr)
1 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8
2 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 4 0.4
Main

3 0.3 4 1.2 0.3 4 1.2 0.3 4 1.2 0.3 4 1.2


4 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8

a 0.2 2 0.4
Lateral

b 0.6 2 1.2
c 0.4 2 0.8
d 0.2 2 0.4
Total 1.0 3.6 3.6 1.4 3.14 4.4 1.2 3.33 4.0 1.0 3.6 3.6

where : λtotal = ∑ λ ; U total = ∑ U ; rtotal = ∑ U ∑λ

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Power System Analysis 101 169

SAIFI = ∑
λi Ni
=
(1.0)(1000) + (1.4)(800) + (1.2)(700) + (1.0)(500)
∑N i
1000+ 800 + 700 + 500
= 1.153333 int customer− yr

SAIDI =
∑U N = (3.6 )(1000) + (4.4 )(800) + (4.0 )(700) + (3.6 )(500)
i i

∑N i 1000 + 800 + 700 + 500


= 3.906667 hours customer - yr

CAIDI =
∑U N i i
=
SAIDI 3.906667
=
∑λ N i i SAIFI 1.153333
= 3.387283 hours customer - interruption

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ASUI =
∑U N ∑ N i i i
=
SAIDI 3.906667
=
8760 8760 8760
= 0.000446

ASAI = 1 − ASUI = 1 − 0.000446


= 0.999554

ASCI =
∑L U ai i

∑N i

=
(5000 )(3.6 ) + (4000 )(4.4 ) + (3000 )(4.0 ) + (2000 )(3.6 )
1000 + 800 + 700 + 500
= 18.266667 KWh customer - yr

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Power System Analysis 101 171

Distribution System Reliability


 Effect of disconnects
1 2 3 4
Source

a b c d
A D

C
B
Typical radial distribution system reinforce with
lateral protections and disconnects
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RELIABILITY INDICES WITH LATERAL PROTECTION AND DISCONNECTS


Load pt. A
Load pt. B Load pt. C Load pt. D
U U U U
Component λ r λ r λ r λ r
(hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/
failure (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs)
yr) yr) yr) yr)
1 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8
2 0.1 0.5 0.05 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 4 0.4
Main

3 0.3 0.5 0.15 0.3 0.5 0.15 0.3 4 1.2 0.3 4 1.2
4 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 4 0.8

a 0.2 2 0.4
Lateral

b 0.6 2 1.2
c 0.4 2 0.8
d 0.2 2 0.4
Total 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.89 2.65 1.2 2.75 3.3 1.0 3.6 3.6

where : λtotal = ∑ λ ; U total = ∑ U ; rtotal = ∑ U ∑λ


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Power System Analysis 101 173

SAIFI =
∑ λ N = (1.0 )(1000) + (1.4 )(800) + (1.2)(700) + (1.0 )(500)
i i

∑N i 1000 + 800 + 700 + 500


= 1.153333 int customer − yr

SAIDI =
∑U N = (1.5)(1000) + (2.65)(800) + (3.3)(700) + (3.6 )(500)
i i

∑N i 1000 + 800 + 700 + 500


= 2.576667 hours customer - yr

CAIDI =
∑U N i i
=
SAIDI 2.576667
=
∑λ N i i SAIFI 1.153333
= 2.234105 hours customer - interruption

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ASUI =
∑U N ∑ N i i i
=
SAIDI 2.576667
=
8760 8760 8760
= 0.000294

ASAI = 1 − ASUI = 1 − 0.000294


= 0.999706

ASCI =
∑L U ai i

∑N i

=
(5000 )(1.5 ) + (4000 )(2.65 ) + (3000 )(3.3) + (2000 )(3.6 )
1000 + 800 + 700 + 500
= 11.733333 KWh customer - yr

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 Effect of protection failures


RELIABILITY INDICES IF THE FUSES OPERATE WITH PROBABILITY OF 0.9
Load pt. A
Load pt. B Load pt. C Load pt. D
U U U U
Component λ r λ r λ r λ r
(hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/
failure (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs)
yr) yr) yr) yr)
1 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8
2 0.1 0.5 0.05 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 4 0.4
Main

3 0.3 0.5 0.15 0.3 0.5 0.15 0.3 4 1.2 0.3 4 1.2
4 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 4 0.8

a 0.2 2 0.4 0.02 0.5 0.01 0.02 0.5 0.01 0.02 0.5 0.01
Lateral

b 0.06 0.5 0.03 0.6 2 1.2 0.06 0.5 0.03 0.06 0.5 0.03
c 0.04 0.5 0.02 0.04 0.5 0.02 0.4 2 0.8 0.04 0.5 0.02
d 0.02 0.5 0.01 0.02 0.5 0.01 0.02 0.5 0.01 0.2 2 0.4
Total 1.12 1.39 1.56 1.48 1.82 2.69 1.3 2.58 3.35 1.12 3.27 3.66

where : λtotal = ∑ λ ; U total = ∑ U ; rtotal = ∑ U ∑λ


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 Effect of load transfer to alternative


supply
RELIABILITY INDICES WITH UNRESTRICTED LOAD TRANSFERS
Load pt. A
Load pt. B Load pt. C Load pt. D
U U U U
Component λ r λ r λ r λ r
(hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/
failure (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs)
yr) yr) yr) yr)
1 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1
2 0.1 0.5 0.05 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 0.5 0.05 0.1 0.5 0.05
Main

3 0.3 0.5 0.15 0.3 0.5 0.15 0.3 4 1.2 0.3 0.5 0.15
4 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 4 0.8

a 0.2 2 0.4
Lateral

b 0.6 2 1.2
c 0.4 2 0.8
d 0.2 2 0.4
Total 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.39 1.95 1.2 1.88 2.25 1.0 1.5 1.5
where : λtotal = ∑ λ ; U total = ∑ U ; rtotal = ∑ U ∑λ
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Power System Analysis 101 177

 Effect of load transfer to alternative


supply
RELIABILITY INDICES WITH RESTRICTED LOAD TRANSFERS
Load pt. A
Load pt. B Load pt. C Load pt. D
U U U U
Component λ r λ r λ r λ r
(hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/
failure (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs)
yr) yr) yr) yr)
1 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 1.9 0.38 0.2 1.9 0.38 0.2 1.9 0.38
Section

2 0.1 0.5 0.05 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 1.9 0.19 0.1 1.9 0.19
3 0.3 0.5 0.15 0.3 0.5 0.15 0.3 4 1.2 0.3 1.9 0.57
4 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 4 0.8

a 0.2 2 0.4
Distributor

b 0.6 2 1.2
c 0.4 2 0.8
d 0.2 2 0.4
Total 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.59 2.23 1.2 2.23 2.67 1.0 2.3 2.3
where : λtotal = ∑ λ ; U total = ∑ U ; rtotal = ∑ U ∑λ
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Power System Analysis 101 178

Distribution System Reliability


SUMMARY OF INDICES
Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 Case 6
Load Point A
λ (f/yr) 2.2 1.0 1.0 1.12 1.0 1.0
r (hrs) 2.73 3.6 1.5 1.39 1.5 1.5
U (hrs/yr) 6.0 3.6 1.5 1.56 1.5 1.5
Load Point B
λ (f/yr) 2.2 1.4 1.4 1.48 1.4 1.4
r (hrs) 2.73 3.14 1.89 1.82 1.39 1.59
U (hrs/yr) 6.0 4.4 2.65 2.69 1.95 2.23
Load Point C
λ (f/yr) 2.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.2
r (hrs) 2.73 3.33 2.75 2.58 1.88 2.23
U (hrs/yr) 6.0 4 3.3 3.35 2.25 2.67
Load Point D
λ (f/yr) 2.2 1.0 1.0 1.12 1.0 1.0
r (hrs) 2.73 3.6 3.6 3.27 1.5 2.34
U (hrs/yr) 6.0 3.6 3.6 3.66 1.5 2.34
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Power System Analysis 101 179

Distribution System Reliability


SUMMARY OF INDICES (cont.)
Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 Case 6
Sytem Indices
SAIFI 2.2 1.15 1.15 1.26 1.15 1.15
SAIDI 6.0 3.91 2.58 2.63 1.80 2.11
CAIDI 2.73 3.39 2.23 2.09 1.56 1.83
ASAI 0.999315 0.999554 0.999706 0.999700 0.999795 0.999759
ASUI 0.000685 0.000446 0.000294 0.003000 0.000205 0.000241
ENS 84.0 54.8 35.2 35.9 25.1 29.1
ASCI 28.0 18.3 11.7 12.0 8.4 9.7
Case 1. Base case.
Case 2. As in Case 1, but with perfect fusing in the lateral distributors.
Case 3. As in Case 2, but with disconnects on the main feeders.
Case 4. As in Case 3, probability of successful lateral distributor fault clearing of 0.9.
Case 5. As in Case 3, but with an alternative supply.
Case 6. As in Case 5, probability of conditional load transfer of 0.6.

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Economics of Power System


Reliability
Supply Cost

• Investment Cost
• Operation and Maintenance Cost
• Fuel Cost

IC + O&M + FC
Annual Supply Cost (ASC) =
Annual kWh Generation

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Power System Analysis 101 181

Supply Cost
Luzon Grid Supply Cost*
LOLP Frequency Duration Supply Cost
(days/yr) (per year) (Hours) (Php/kWh)
12.26 70 2.11 0.90
6.25 38 2.00 0.94
1.88 13 1.73 1.01
0.94 7 1.61 1.03
0.45 4 1.50 1.06
0.21 2 1.38 1.09
0.08 0.73 1.31 1.11
0.04 0.31 1.30 1.14
Source: del Mundo (1991)
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Power System Analysis 101 182

Supply Cost

Luzon Grid
Supply Cost

Source: del Mundo (1991)


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Power System Analysis 101 183

Outage Cost
Impact of Power Interruptions
 To Electric Utility
• Loss of revenues
• Additional work
• Loss of confidence
 To Customers
• Dissatisfaction
• Interruption of productivity
• Additional investment for alternative power
supply
 To National Economy
• Loss value added/income
• Loss of investors
• Unemployment

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Power System Analysis 101 184

Outage Cost
Impact to National Economy:
NEDA Study (1974)
 P 342,380 per day – losses due to brownout in Cebu-Mandaue
area
Business Survey (1980)
 P1.4 Billion – losses due to brownouts in 1980
 CRC Memo No. 27 (1988)
 P 3.4 Billion – loss of the manufacturing sector in 1987 due to
power outages
Viray & del Mundo Study (1988)
 P 25 – losses in Value Added per kWh curtailment
Sinay Report (1989)
 45% – loss in Value Added in the manufacturing sector in
Cebu due to power outages

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Power System Analysis 101 185

Outage Cost
Impact to Customers:
A. Short-Run Direct Cost
• Opportunity losses during outages
• Opportunity losses during restart period
• Raw materials spoilage
• Finish products spoilage
• Idle workers
• Overtime
• Equipment damage
• Special operation and maintenance during restart period
B. Long-Run Adaptive Response Cost
• Standby generators
• Power plant
• Alternative fuels
• Transfer location
• Inventory
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Power System Analysis 101 186

Outage Cost
Outage Cost to Industrial Sector in Luzon

(0.0086 + 0.0023D)F + 0.1730 Pesos/kWh


Where, F – Frequency of Interruptions
D – Average Duration of Interruptions

Losses of MERALCO Industrial Customers in 1989


Energy Sales: 3.781 billion kWh
Outage Cost: Php 0.3544/kWh
Total Losses: Php 1.34 billion
Source: del Mundo (1991)

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Power System Analysis 101 187

Outage Cost
Luzon Grid Outage Cost*
LOLP Frequency Duration Outage Cost
(days/yr) (per year) (Hours) (Php/kWh)
12.26 70 2.11 1.12
6.25 38 2.00 0.68
1.88 13 1.73 0.34
0.94 7 1.61 0.26
0.45 4 1.50 0.22
0.21 2 1.38 0.20
0.08 0.73 1.31 0.18
0.04 0.31 1.30 0.18
Source: del Mundo (1991)
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Power System Analysis 101 188

Outage Cost

Luzon Grid
Outage Cost

Source: del Mundo (1991)


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Power System Analysis 101 189

Total Cost
Luzon Grid Total Cost ATC = ASC + AOC
LOLP Supply Cost Outage Cost Total Cost
(days/yr) (Php/kWh) (Php/kWh) (Php/kWh)
12.26 0.90 2.11 2.02
6.25 0.94 2.00 1.62
1.88 1.01 1.73 1.35
0.94 1.03 1.61 1.29
0.45 1.06 1.50 1.28
0.21 1.09 1.38 1.29
0.08 1.11 1.31 1.29
0.04 1.14 1.30 1.32
Source: del Mundo (1991)
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Power System Analysis 101 190

Optimal Reliability Level

Luzon Grid
Total Cost

Source: del Mundo (1991)


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Power System Analysis 101 191

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