You are on page 1of 96

# Competency Training and Certification Program in Electric Power Distribution System Engineering

Training Course in
Power System Engineering for Non-Engineers

## U. P. NATIONAL ENGINEERING CENTER

NATIONAL ELECTRIFICATION ADMINISTRATION

## Performance Power System

Standards Analysis
Power Quality Load Flow Analysis
Efficiency System Loss Analysis
Safety Short Circuit Analysis
Reliability Reliability Analysis

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

1
Power System Analysis 101 3

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## 1. What is Load Flow?

2. Uses of Load Flow Studies
3. Load Flow Control

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

2
Power System Analysis 101 5

## What is Load Flow?

Bus2
I23 , Loss23 = ? Bus3
Bus1 I12 , Loss12 = ?
V3 = ?
Utility P3 , Q3 = ?
I24 , Loss24 = ? V4 = ?
Grid P4 , Q4 = ?
V1 = 67 kV Bus4
P1 , Q1 = ? V2 = ? Lumped Load A
P2 , Q2 = ? 2 MVA 85%PF
Lumped Load B
1 MVA 85%PF

## What are the Voltages,

Currents, Power and Losses of
the Distribution System?

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## What is Load Flow?

Load Flow of an Existing System
Can we see how electric power flows in the system,
coming from the sources (where power is purchased)
and down to all customers (where power is sold)?
Can we determine:
• If any customer is being provided with voltage that is
too low (or even too high)?
• If too much power flow through any of our equipment,
especially our transformers?
• How much power is lost along the lines and equipment?

## YES! LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

3
Power System Analysis 101 7

## What is Load Flow?

Load Flow of a Contemplated System
Can we have a picture of the system as we
contemplate possible changes?
Can we determine in advance the effects of:
• Growth or addition of new loads
• Addition of generating plants
• Upgrading of Substation
• Expansion of distribution lines
• Installations of equipment such as capacitors
before the proposed changes are implemented?
YES! LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Load Flow (also called Power Flow) is a

snapshot picture of the power system at a
given point.

## Load Flow Analysis simulates (i.e.,

mathematically determine) the performance
of an electric power system under a given
set of conditions.

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

4
Power System Analysis 101 9

## How would the engineers do that?

• Identify physical components
• Know the characteristic of components
• Mathematically represent the behavior of
components
• Calculate electrical parameters

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

5
Power System Analysis 101 11

## What is Load Flow?

Utility Grid or
Substation Transmission Generator
Transformer Line

G
Bus

Distribution
Transformer
Distribution
Line
Load Flow mathematically
determines the Voltages,
Currents, Power and Losses
Load

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Uses of Load Flow Studies

Basic Information
From a Load Flow Study
Voltage Profile
Injected Power (Pp and Qp)
Line Currents (Ipq and Ipq)
Power Flows (Ppq and Qpq)
Line Losses (I2R and I2X)

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

6
Power System Analysis 101 13

## Uses of Load Flow Studies

Other Information
From a Load Flow Study
Overvoltage and Undervoltage Buses
Critical and Overloaded Transformers
and Lines
Total System Losses

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Uses of Load Flow Studies

Sensitivity Analysis
1) Take any line, transformer or generator out of service.
2) Add, reduce or remove load to any or all buses.
3) Add, remove or shift generation to any bus.
4) Add new transmission or distribution lines.
5) Increase conductor size on T&D lines.
6) Change bus voltages.
7) Change transformer taps.
8) Increase or decrease transformer size.
9) Add or remove rotating or static var supply to buses.
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

7
Power System Analysis 101 15

## Uses of Load Flow Studies

1) ANALYSIS OF EXISTING CONDITIONS
• Check for voltage violations
 PGC: 0.95 – 1.05 p.u. (For Transmission)
 PDC: 0.90 – 1.10 p.u (For Distribution)*
*Recommended 0.95 – 1.05 p.u.
• Check for branch power flow violations
 Transformer Overloads
 Line Overloads
• Check for system losses
 Caps on Segregated DSL

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Uses of Load Flow Studies

2) ANALYSIS FOR CORRECTING PQ PROBLEMS
• Voltage adjustment by utility at delivery point
 Request TransCo to improve voltage at
connection point
 TransCo as System Operator will determine
feasibility based on Economic Dispatch and
other adjustments such as transformer tap
changing and reactive power compensation

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

8
Power System Analysis 101 17

## Uses of Load Flow Studies

2) ANALYSIS FOR CORRECTING PQ PROBLEMS
• Transformer tap changing
 Available Taps
 At Primary Side
 At Secondary Side
 Both Sides
 Typical Taps
 Tap 1: +5%
 Tap 2: +2.5%
 Tap 3: 0% (Rated Voltage)
 Tap 4: -2.5%
 Tap 5: -5%

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Uses of Load Flow Studies

2) ANALYSIS FOR CORRECTING PQ PROBLEMS
•Capacitor compensation
• Compensate for Peak Loading
• Check overvoltages during Off-Peak
• Optimize Capacitor Plan
• System configuration improvement

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

9
Power System Analysis 101 19

## Uses of Load Flow Studies

3) EXPANSION PLANNING
• New substation construction
• Substation capacity expansion
• New feeder segment construction / extension
• Addition of parallel feeder segment
• Reconducting of existing feeder segment/ circuit
• Circuit conversion to higher voltage
• Generator addition

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Uses of Load Flow Studies

4) CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS
Reliability analysis of the Transmission (Grid) and
Subtransmission System

## 5) SYSTEM LOSS ANALYSIS

Segregation of System Losses

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

10
Power System Analysis 101 21

## Load Flow Control

1. For Generating plants, the amount of power that can be delivered
can be controlled by the plant operator (as long as within the
capacity of the plant)
2. Flow of power is affected by the voltages and impedances across
the components
• Specialized Transformers and other equipment may be
utilized to control the flow of power across the network
3. Capacitors are used to improve the voltage profile across the
network
• The current drawn by the load is reduced
• The voltage drop across the line is reduced
• The voltage at the load side is increased

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

11
Power System Analysis 101 23

## 1. Components of Distribution System

Losses
2. Segregation of Distribution System
Losses
3. System Loss Reduction and Control

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 24

Components of Distribution
System Losses
The Philippine Distribution Code (PDC)
mandates system losses to be segregated into
the following components:
a. Technical Loss;
b. Non-Technical Loss; and
c. Administrative Loss.

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

12
Power System Analysis 101 25

## Total Distribution System Losses

Energy Delivered Energy
to the Distribution - Delivered to
System Users
=
Total Distribution
System Losses

Administrative
+ Technical Loss + Non-Technical Loss
Loss
Bundled Technical & Non-Technical Losses
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 26

Components of Distribution
System Losses
Administrative Losses
The electric energy used by the Distribution
Utility in the proper operation of the Distribution
System.

a. Distribution Substations;
b. Offices, warehouses and workshops of the DU; and
c. Other essential electrical loads of the Distribution
Utility.

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

13
Power System Analysis 101 27

Components of Distribution
System Losses
Technical Losses
Load and no-load losses in:
a. Sub-transmission lines and substation
transformers;
b. Primary distribution lines and distribution
transformers;
c. Secondary distribution lines and service drops;
d. Voltage regulators, Capacitors and reactors; and
e. All other electrical equipment necessary for the
operation of the distribution system.

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 28

Components of Distribution
System Losses
Non-Technical Losses
The component that is not related to the physical
characteristics and functions of the electrical
system, and is caused primarily by human error,
whether intentional or not.

## Includes the electric energy lost due to pilferage,

tampering of meters and erroneous meter
reading.
Errors that are attributable to inaccuracies in
metering and billing.

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

14
Power System Analysis 101 29

## Total Distribution System Losses

Total DSL = Energy Input - Energy Output

Total DSL
= Σ[Energy delivered by the Transmission System]
+ Σ[Energy delivered by Embedded Generating Plants]
+ Σ[Energy delivered by Other Distribution Systems]
+ Σ[Energy delivered by User Systems with
Generating Units]
- Σ[Energy delivered to the Users of the Distribution
System]

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Unbundling the Technical and

Non-Technical Loss

Technical Non-Technical
+
Losses Losses
-
Shall be quantified
Technical through 3-Phase
Losses (Unbalanced) Load
Flow Simulations
=
Residual after
subtracting Non-Technical
Administrative &
Technical Losses from Losses
the Total Distribution
System Losses

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

15
Power System Analysis 101 31

## Unbundling the Technical and

Non-Technical Loss
Technical Loss
= Σ[Hourly Load and No-Load (or Fixed) Losses in all
electrical equipment, devices and conductors]

## a)Sub-transmission Lines g) Voltage Regulators

b)Substation Power Transformers h) Capacitors
c)Primary Distribution Lines i) Reactors
d)Distribution Transformers j) Other electrical equipment
e)Secondary Distribution Lines
f) Service Drops Hourly Load Flow Simulations

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Unbundling the Technical and

Non-Technical Loss
Subtransmission Lines Primary Distribution Lines
(Main Feeder)

Substation
Transformer Primary Distribution Lines
(Laterals)
Three-Phase Unbalanced
Load Flow Simulations Misc Loads

a)Sub-transmission Lines
b)Substation Power Transformers Secondary Distribution Lines
c)Primary Distribution Lines Service
d)Distribution TransformersDistribution Drop
Transformer
e)Secondary Distribution Lines
f) Service Drops Residential Commercial Industrial
g)Voltage Regulators
h)Capacitors Load Losses and
i) Reactors No-Load (Fixed) Losses
j) Other electrical equipment
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

16
Power System Analysis 101 33

## Unbundling the Technical and

Non-Technical Loss
Calculation of Metering Equipment
Potential Transformer Loss
= Power Loss in PT (kW) x Number of PT x Number of Operating
Hours in the Billing Period
Current Transformer Loss
= Power Loss in CT (kW) x Number of CT x Number of Operating
Hours in the Billing Period
Electric Meter Potential Coil Loss
= Power Loss in Electric Meter Potential Coil (kW) x Number of
Electric Meters x Number of Operating Hours in the Billing Period
Electric Meter Current Coil Loss
= Power Loss in Electric Meter Current Coil (kW) x Number of
Electric Meters x Number of Operating Hours in the Billing Period
Operating Hours = No. of days x 24 hours – SAIDI
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Unbundling the Technical and

Non-Technical Loss
Non-Technical Loss
= Total Distribution System Losses
- Administrative Loss
- Technical Loss
- Recovered Losses

## Note: Losses recovered from anti-pilferage

activities are subtracted from the total
distribution system losses.

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

17
Power System Analysis 101 35

DSL Segregation

Distribution
System Loss
Segregation Segregated
Program Technical
Distribution System Data Loss
(3-phase Load Flow) (Billing Period)

Distribution Reliability
Assessment
Metering
Customer Energy Bill Equipment
Metering Equipment Loss
Inventory

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Segregated Distribution System

Losses
 Monthly DSL Segregation
 Segregated DSL for the Whole Distribution System
 Segregated DSL Per Receiving/Metering Point
 Segregated DSL per Substation
 Segregated DSL per Feeder
 Segregated DSL per Distribution Transformer

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

18
Power System Analysis 101 37

## Distribution Network Models

IA Ia
A Impedance/ a
IB Admittance Ib
Distribution B parameters of b
System IC Distribution Ic
C System Element c
Element
VA VB VC Vc Vb Va
Ground (Reference Node)

## Distribution Network Model must capture

the unbalance characteristics of the System

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

350

300

250
Demand (W)

200

## Customer Energy Bill

150
1.2

1
NormalizedDemand(per unit)

## 100 Area under the curve

0.8
= Customer Energy
0.6 50
Bill
0.4

0
0.2

0
Time (24 hours)
Customer Energy Bill
Converted to Hourly Power
Normalized Customer Load
Demand
Curve
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

19
Power System Analysis 101 39

Data Requirements
ERC-DSL-01 Administrative Load Data
ERC-DSL-02 Customer Data
ERC-DSL-03 Billing Cycle Data
ERC-DSL-04 Customer Energy Consumption Data
ERC-DSL-05 Load Curve Data
ERC-DSL-06 Bus Data
ERC-DSL-07 Subtransmission Line Data - Overhead
ERC-DSL-08 Subtransmission Line Data - Underground/Submarine Cable
ERC-DSL-09 Substation Power Transformer Data - Two Winding
ERC-DSL-10 Substation Power Transformer Data - Three Winding
ERC-DSL-11 Primary Distribution Line Data - Overhead
ERC-DSL-12 Primary Distribution Line Data - Underground Cable
ERC-DSL-13 Primary Customer Service Drop Data - Overhead
ERC-DSL-14 Primary Customer Service Drop Data - Underground Cable
ERC-DSL-15 Distribution Transformer Data
ERC-DSL-16 Secondary Distribution Line Data
ERC-DSL-17 Secondary Customer Service Drop Data
ERC-DSL-18 Voltage Regulator Data
ERC-DSL-19 Shunt Capacitor Data
ERC-DSL-20 Shunt Inductor Data
ERC-DSL-21 Series Inductor Data

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Optimal Level of System Loss

Total Cost
Cost

System Loss
Reduction
Unrecovered Program Cost
Energy Cost

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

20
Power System Analysis 101 41

## BENECO DSL Segregation

SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
LOSSES ANALYSIS

NON-TECHNICAL LOSS
REDUCTION PROGRAM
TECHNICAL, ECONOMIC & FINANCIAL
ANALYSIS

## TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION

PROGRAM
TECHNICAL, ECONOMIC & FINANCIAL
ANALYSIS

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## BENECO DSL Segregation

Technical
Loss, Non-
TEST YEAR SEGREGATED
52.76% Technical
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSSES Loss,
46.74%

Administrative
Loss, 0.50%

Loss Kwhr %
Administrative 167, 791 0.0594%
Technical 18,181,059 6.3153%
Non-Technical 15,487,726 5.5951%
TOTAL 33,836,577 11.9698%

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

21
Power System Analysis 101 43

## BENECO DSL SEGREGATED

SYSTEM LOSSES 13.2 KV System

Segregation Administrative
Loss
0.3998%

## TOTAL LOSSES 17.7088%

13.2KV SYSTEM

23KV SYSTEM

SEGREGATED
SYSTEM 23 KV
LOSSES System
Administrative 0.0393%
Loss

Non-Technical
Loss 5.4879%

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

22
Power System Analysis 101 45

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## BENECO DSL Segregation

SEGREGATED TECHNICAL LOSS % LOSS % SHARE
Power Transformer Load Loss 0.0590% 0.9338%

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

23
Power System Analysis 101 47

## BENECO DSL Segregation

TECHNICAL LOSS
TECHNICAL DISTRIBUTION
LOSS ALLOCATION
kWhR Meter Loss
5% Pow er Xformer Load Loss
1%

0% Loss
4%

## Secondary Service Drop Primary Line

1% 22%
Secondary
34%
Dist. XF Load Loss
5%

28%

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## BENECO DSL Segregation

TEST YEAR SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSSES
PER SYSTEM VOLTAGE

## PERCENT (%) TECHNICAL

KWHR TECHNICAL LOSSES LOSSES
SEGREGATED
SYSTEM 13.2 KV 23 KV
LOSSES 13.2 KV System 23 KV System Total System System Total

Administrative
Loss 62,768.60 105,022.54 167,791.14 0.3998% 0.0393% 0.0594%

## Technical Loss 1,552,634.80 16,299,669.83 17,852,304.63 9.8906% 6.1051% 6.3153%

Non-Technical
Loss 1,164,538.99 14,651,941.84 15,816,480.83 7.4183% 5.4879% 5.5951%

## 17.7088 11.6324 11.9698

TOTAL LOSSES 2,779,942.39 31,056,634.21 33,836,576.60 % % %

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

24
Power System Analysis 101 49

## BENECO DSL Segregation

TEST YEAR SEGREGATED TECHNICAL LOSSES
PER SYSTEM VOLTAGE
KWHR TECHNICAL LOSSES PERCENT (%) TECHNICAL LOSSES

13.2 KV
TECHNICAL LOSSES 13.2 KV System 23 KV System Total System 23 KV System Total

Power Xformer Load Loss 5,232 161,467 166,700 0.0333% 0.0605% 0.0590%

## Power Xformer No-Load

Loss 105,295 565,221 670,517 0.6708% 0.2117% 0.2372%

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## BENECO DSL Segregation

FORECASTED SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSSES

Non
Total Administrativ
Energy Input Technical Loss Technical
YEAR System e Loss
(KWH) (%) Loss
Losses (%) (%)
(%)

2006
313,577,324 12.1222% 0.0621% 6.4611% 5.5951%

2007
341,755,055 12.2757% 0.0583% 6.6187% 5.5951%

2008
372,339,284 12.3994% 0.0535% 6.7477% 5.5951%

2009
405,588,445 12.5074% 0.0491% 6.8604% 5.5951%

2010
442,271,657 12.7071% 0.0493% 7.0604% 5.5951%

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

25
Power System Analysis 101 51

## PROPOSED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSS CAPS

Declining Non- Administrative
Technical Loss
YEAR Technical Loss Loss Cap (Annual
Cap
Caps KWH)

## 2006 5.9833% to 6.9388% 5.5951% 194,741

2007 6.1281% to 7.1094% 4.7486% 199,147
2008 6.2431% to 7.2523% 3.8585% 199,147
2009 6.3431% to 7.3778% 3.1278% 199,147
2010 6.5249% to 7.5959% 2.7644% 218,218

## FORECASTED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSS

YEAR FORECASTED SYSTEM LOSS RANGE
2006 11.6480% - 12.6047%
2007 10.9425% - 11.9251%
2008 10.1628% - 11.1733%
2009 9.5279% - 10.5639%
2010 9.3467% - 10.4191%

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## BENECO SEGREGATED DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSS (base year 2004)

Peso Equivalent (Php)
Distribution System Loss Energy (KWHR) Percentage (%) (as of February 2007
costing**)
Total System Loss 33,836,577 11.970% P 239,339,641

## BENECO SEGREGATED TECHNICAL LOSS (base year 2004)

Peso Equivalent (Php)
Technical Losses Energy (KWHR) Percentage (%) (as of February 2007
costing**)

## Power Xformer Load Loss 166,700 0.0590% P 1,179,134

Power Xformer No-Load
Loss 670,517 0.2372% P 4,742,833

## kWhR Meter Loss 898,866 0.3180% P 6,358,036

U. P. National Engineering 17,852,305
Center Power System Engineering
Total Technical Loss 6.3153% P 126,276,492
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

26
Power System Analysis 101 53

## ENERGY LOSSES (KWHR) LOSSES IN PERCENTAGE (%)

Metering Metering
Connection Connection Metering Non-
Pt. Admin Non-Technical Connection Pt. Technical Technical
Loss Loss Technical Loss Loss Loss Admin Loss Loss Loss

4,898,458 38,384

5,182,063 6,636

7,770,156 22,323

9,854,817 37,680

2,682,647 -

1,595,739 50,108

932,559 11,625

97,772 -

## Bakun Mini-hydro 17,677 7,378 12.1417% 0% 8.5662% 3.5755%

25,055 -
Ampuhaw Mini-
24,629 38,613 15.0311% 0% 5.8537% 9.1774%
hydro 63,242 -

251,644 1,036

371,989 -

110,435 -

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 54

NON-TECHNICAL LOSS PER METERING CONNECTION POINT
Non-Technical Loss Cost of Unrecovered
Metering Connection NTL % (System) NTL % (Feeder)
(kWhr) NTL (Pesos)

## Bakun Mini-hydro 7,378.26 P 54,313 0.0026% 3.5755%

Ampuhaw Mini-
hydro 38,613.44 P 284,243 0.0137% 9.1774%

## ACTIVITIES CONSIDERED AND COSTED FOR NON-TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION

OPTIMIZATION COMPUTATION
Communal Distribution Transformer Block
► Metering ► Streetlight kwhr Metering

## ► Inspection, Calibration and Apprehension ► Streetlight Photo Switching

Kwhr Meter Replacement (apprehended and
► defective) ► Right-of-Way Clearing
Phased-Out Kwhr Meter Replacement (Old kwhr
► meters) ► Loose Connection Correction
Software and Hardware Requirements
► Sole-Use Distribution Transformer Monitoring ► Procurement
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

27
Power System Analysis 101 55
PRIORITY RANKING IN TERMS OF SELECTED NTL ACTIVITES FOR IMPLEMENTATION
COMMUNAL TRANSFORMER BLOCK METERING INSPECTION, APPREHENSION, CALIBRATION
Average Rank Metering Connection Metering Connection
KWHR NTL / NO. OF DT's RANK KWHR NTL / NO. OF METERS RANK

## 13 Bakun Mini-hydro 434 13 Bakun Mini-hydro 21 13

FEEDER COVERAGE
Single Feeder Metering Points
Multi-Feeder Metering Connection Points
Lamut
Asin Mini-Hyrdo
NSC New 20MVA
Feeder 1
Atok Bakun Mini-hydro
Feeder 7
Feeder 2
Circuit 1 Ampuhaw Mini-hydro
Feeder 8
Irisan
Circuit 2 Ambuclao
Feeder 9
Feeder 3
Circuit 3 NPC-Itogon
Feeder 10
Feeder 4
Mankayan LUELCO
NPC-Beckel
NSC Old 20MVA
Circuit 4
Totalizer 1 Power System Engineering
FeederU.
5 P. National Engineering
Center
Circuit 5
FeederNational
6 Electrification
TotalizerAdministration
2 for Non-Engineers

## SUMMARY OF OPTIMIZED PROJECT COST FOR NON-TECHNICAL LOSS

REDUCTION PROGRAM

## % Recovered NTL Optimized Project

Metering % Unrecovered Level of Optimum % Recovered NTL per as per Entire Cost for NTL
Connection NTL per Feeder %NTL per Feeder Feeder System Reduction

## Bakun Mini-hydro 3.575% 3.056% 0.520% 0.0022% 42,656.16

Ampuhaw Mini-
hydro 9.177% 4.752% 4.426% 0.0071% 135,238.81

## TOTAL = 5.5951% 2.7644% 2.8308% P 54,130,376.19

NOTE:
Project Cost for implementation per Metering Connection at targeted reduced Non-technical Loss
percentage SHALL NOT EXCEED the computed Optimized Project Cost.

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

28
Power System Analysis 101 57

## BENECO NON-TECHNICAL LOSS REDUCTION ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

Cost of Unrecovered VS NTL Reduction Program

120
M illion s
110 Cost of Unrecovered NTL
100
Cost NTL Reduction Program
90
80 Optimum level of
loss reduction
C ost (Php )

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
5.5951%

5.3853%

5.1755%

4.9657%

4.7559%

4.5461%

4.3362%

4.1264%

3.9166%

3.7068%

3.4970%

3.2871%

3.0773%

2.8675%

2.6577%

2.4479%

2.2381%

2.0282%

1.8184%

1.6086%

1.3988%

1.1890%

0.9791%

0.7693%

0.5595%
Non-Technical Loss (%)

## EQUIVALENT PROJECT COST = P53,447,802.55

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 58

System Loss
Reduction and Control

##  Reduction and Control of Technical Losses

 Reduction and Control of Non-Technical
Losses

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

29
Power System Analysis 101 59

## Reduction and Control

of Technical Losses
 Use the results of the Distribution
System Loss Segregator for System
Loss Reduction Program.
 Ranks the losses from the highest to lowest ( Per
Substation, Per feeder, per distribution transformer)
 Prepare a Specific Technical Loss Reduction Program
based on your technical analysis!!!
 Simulate your proposed technical loss reduction solutions
to quantify the technical loss reduction
 Optimize your proposed technical loss reduction solutions

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Reduction and Control

of Technical Losses
 Distribution Rehabilitation Plan
 Safety
 Power Quality Problem Correction
 Reduce Technical Losses

##  Distribution Expansion Plan

 Capacity that complies with Power Quality Standards and
Controlled Technical Losses

## PDC: Distribution Development Plan

• Technical Analysis • Economic Analysis • Financial Analysis
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

30
Power System Analysis 101 61

## Reduction and Control

of Non-Technical Losses
NEA SLRP
 Causes of Pilferages
 Long run of secondary networks “conducive” for illegal
tapping
 Services run from one building to the next and attached to
various structures (e.g., trees) making it difficult for meter
readers to follow the wires or spot illegal connections
 Secondary wiring with “rat’s nest” appearance due to poor
workmanship
 Inaccessible meters (located indoor or inside a compound)
 Control of meter seals
 Poor meter records (where and when the meters are
installed, maintained, removed, condemned, etc.)

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Reduction and Control

of Non-Technical Losses
NEA SLRP
 Detection of Pilferages
 Surveillance Teams (working full time)
 Consumer connections inventory to assure that:
• All service connections are metered
• All energized services are in an “active” status in the
billing system
• There are no illegal taps, by-passed meters, or
tampered meters
• Each household is metered separately (no flying
taps)
• Each consumer is properly classified
1. Match all service connections found in the field to a
distribution transformer
2. Match the meter number to the account number
3. Check meter reading against previous readings to assure
that meter readings are being properly reported
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

31
Power System Analysis 101 63

## Reduction and Control

of Non-Technical Losses
NEA SLRP
 Tampered Meters
 In-Place Quick-test for Accuracy
 Hard-to-Detect Tampering
• Gear teeth removed
• Small hole bored at the top of the meter housing
• “Floating Neutral”
• Swapping the line-side and load side
 Correcting Problems
• Service conductors are not properly supported
• Service wire insulation has deteriorated

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Reduction and Control

of Non-Technical Losses
NEA SLRP
 Apprehension of Pilferers
 Confronting the consumer
 Documenting the findings
 Calculating the amount of electricity stolen
 Setting the penalty amount to be charged
 Disconnecting service and removing the meter

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

32
Power System Analysis 101 65

## Reduction and Control

of Non-Technical Losses
NEA SLRP
 Punitive Measures Against Pilferers
R.A. 7832 – Theft of electricity is a crime
 Removal of fraudulent hook-ups
 Collection for unregistered consumption
 Penalty charge
 Connection charge
 Disconnection of service
 Filing charges with judicial authorities
 Charging for tampering with seals
 Regularly scheduled inspections

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Reduction and Control

of Non-Technical Losses
NEA SLRP
 Prevention of Pilferage by Service Entrance
Modification
 Installation of meters on the service pole
 Meter clustering in apartment buildings
 Better meter seals
 Security plates or cabinets
 Coaxial service cable

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

33
Power System Analysis 101 67

## Reduction and Control

of Non-Technical Losses
NEA SLRP
 Political and legal measures
 Strengthening of laws that would impose severe penalties
on employees who collaborate with consumers for the
purpose of defrauding the DU
 Modification of Procedures for recovery and prosecution
 Elimination of political interference with bill collections
 Consistent enforcement practices
 Publicize successes

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Reduction and Control

of Non-Technical Losses
NEA SLRP
 Complaints for low voltage from the customers
 Look for the overload distribution transformers
and compared the billings of all customers
connected to that DT.
 Distribution transformers that always trips may
be suspected for illegal connections.

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

34
Power System Analysis 101 69

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## 1. What is Short Circuit?

2. Short Circuit Studies
3. Selection of Device Duties

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

35
Power System Analysis 101 71

+ Very Large V
Current
Very Small
Resistance
I= ⇒∞
- Flow R →0

Short Circuit

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Analogy of Normal and Short Circuit

Current in a Hydroelectric plant

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

36
Power System Analysis 101 73

## What is Short Circuit?

Equipment Explosion because of Short Circuit

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

Type of Faults

## Double Line-to-Ground Fault Single Line-to-Ground Fault

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

37
Power System Analysis 101 75

## What is Short Circuit?

Sources of Short Circuit Currents
G
Utility

MV Fault
LV

## Fault Current Contributors

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## What is Short Circuit?

PROTECTIVE DEVICES: FUSE

##  Low Voltage Fuses

 Up to 1000 Volts

##  High Voltage Fuses

 Above 1000 Volts

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

38
Power System Analysis 101 77

## What is Short Circuit?

PROTECTIVE DEVICES: LOW VOLTAGE
CIRCUIT BREAKERS

## Molded-Case Circuit Breakers

Low Voltage
Power Circuit
Breakers
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 78

Substation Vacuum Circuit Breakers
What is Short Circuit?
PROTECTIVE DEVICES: HIGH VOLTAGE
CIRCUIT BREAKERS

## Outdoor-Type Circuit Breaker in Switchyard

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

39
Power System Analysis 101 79

## What is Short Circuit?

PROTECTIVE DEVICES: HIGH VOLTAGE
CIRCUIT BREAKERS

## Indoor Type Circuit Breaker in a Switchgear

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Short Circuit Current and Time Characteristics of Protective Devices

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

40
Power System Analysis 101 81

## Short Circuit Studies

 Comparison of Momentary and Interrupting
Duties of Interrupting Devices
 Comparison of Short-time or withstand
rating of system components
 Selection of rating or setting of short circuit
protective devices
 Evaluation of current flow and voltage levels
in the system during fault

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Short Circuit Studies

 First Cycle Fault Current
 Short circuit ratings of low voltage equipment
 Ratings of Medium Voltage (MV) to High Voltage
(HV) switch and fuse
 Close & Latch (Making) capacity or ratings of HV
Circuit Breakers
 Maximum Fault for coordination of instantaneous
trip of relays

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

41
Power System Analysis 101 83

## Short Circuit Studies

 1.5 to 4 Cycles Fault Current
 Interrupting (breaking) duties of HV circuit
breakers
 Interrupting magnitude and time of breakers for
coordination

##  30 Cycles Fault Current

 For time delay coordination

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

##  ANSI/IEEE: American National

Standards Institute/ Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers
 IEC: International Electrotechnical
Commission

## Prescribes Test Procedures and

Calculation Methods
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

42
Power System Analysis 101 85

## Selection of Device Duties

8-Cycle Total-Rated Circuit 5-Cycle Symmetrical-Rated
Breakers (KA) Circuit Breakers (KA)
Short-Circuit
Example Interrupting Closing and
Momentary Capability
Circuit Breaker Maximum Rating (Total Latching
Rating (Total (Symmetrical
Nominal Size System RMS Current at Capability (Total
1st-Cycle RMS RMS Current at
Identification Operating 4-cycle Contact- First Cycle RM
Current 3-Cycle Parting
Voltage Parting Time Current)
Time

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 86

COMPARISON OF DUTIES
TFF LLF DLGF SLGF MAX SC
BUS ID PHASE Margin Remarks
(KA) (KA) (KA) (KA) I Duty
BACKBONE LINES
S/S 3 2.30005 1.99190 2.86464 2.76467 2.86464 15 524 % Adequate
PG-17 3 2.09517 1.81447 2.32896 2.21705 2.32896 4 172 % Adequate
PG-26 3 1.98127 1.71583 2.10904 1.96635 2.10904 4 190 % Adequate
PG-40 3 1.82417 1.57978 1.85435 1.66821 1.85435 4 216 % Adequate
PG-52 3 1.70334 1.47514 1.68370 1.46936 1.70334 4 235 % Adequate
PG-53 3 1.69336 1.46650 1.67035 1.45395 1.69336 4 236 % Adequate
PG-63 3 1.59908 1.38485 1.54879 1.31529 1.59908 4 250 % Adequate
LATERAL LINES
PG-17-1 3 2.08156 1.80268 2.30059 2.18533 2.30059 4 174 % Adequate
PG-17-2 1 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 2.14564 2.14564 4 186 % Adequate
PG-17-1-3 1 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 2.01008 2.01008 4 199 % Adequate
PG-17-2-3 1 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 2.06014 2.06014 4 194 % Adequate
PG-17-3-7 1 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 1.87921 1.87921 4 213 % Adequate
LATERAL LINES
PG-26-5 3 1.86883 1.61845 2.15303 1.79814 2.15303 4 186 % Adequate
PG-26-5-3 1 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 1.54157 1.54157 4 259 % Adequate
LATERAL LINES
PG-40-2 3 1.78352 1.54457 1.83166 1.61561 1.83166 4 218 % Adequate
PG-40-2-5 1 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 1.50666 1.50666 4 265 % Adequate
PG-40-2-6 1 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 1.58620 1.58620 4 252 % Adequate
LATERAL LINES
PG-52-7 1 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 1.38134 1.38134 4 290 % Adequate
LATERAL LINES
PG-53-1 1 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 1.44395 1.44395 4 277 % Adequate

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

43
Power System Analysis 101 87

ANALYSIS

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 88

Reliability Analysis
1. What is Reliability?
2. Measuring Reliability
3. Component Reliability
4. System Reliability
5. Distribution System Reliability
6. Economics of Power System Reliability

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

44
Power System Analysis 101 89

What is Reliability?
 Outage (Component State)
Component is not available to perform its intended
function due to the event directly associated with that
component (IEEE-STD-346).
 Interruption (Customer State)
Loss of service to one or more consumers as a result of
one or more component outages (IEEE-STD-346).
 Types of Interruptions
Momentary Interruption. Service restored by
switching operations (automatic or manual) within a
specified time (5 minutes per IEEE-STD-346).
Sustained Interruption. An interruption not classified
as momentary
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 90

What is Reliability?
A reliable piece of equipment or a System is
understood to be basically sound and give trouble-
free performance in a given environment.

## But, How do you measure reliability? How do we

compare reliability of the same equipment from two
different manufacturers?

Definition of Reliability
Reliability is the probability that an equipment or
system will perform satisfactorily for at least a
given period of time when used under stated
conditions.
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

45
Power System Analysis 101 91

Measuring Reliability
1 3
System
Failure Mathematical 5
Reliability
2
Failure Model
Application
Events
(Reliability Index)
4
Reliability Data

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 92

Measuring Reliability

HISTORICAL SYSTEM
ORGANIZATION, INCIDENTS
PERFORMANCE
CUSTOMER, kVA MANAGEMENT
HISTORICAL
OPERATIONS
ASSESSMENT ENGINEERING
COMPONENT CUSTOMER INQUIRIES
POPULATION
COMPONENT
PERFORMANCE
PREDICTED SYSTEM
SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
DEFINITION PREDICTIVE
COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS
ASSESSMENT
AID TO DECISION-MAKING
PLANNING STUDIES

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

46
Power System Analysis 101 93

Component Reliability
Component Failure Data
Item No. Time-to-Failure (hrs.)
1 8
How Reliable
2 20 is the
3 34 component?
4 46
5 63
6 86
7 111
8 141
9 186
10 266

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 94

Component Reliability
Failure Time ∆ ti f(t)
Density 0–8 8 1 10
8
= 0.0125

Function 8 – 20 12 1 10
12
= 0.0084

f(t) 20 – 34 14 1 10
14
= 0.0074
1 10
34 – 46 12 = 0.0084
12
1 10
measure of the 46 – 63 17 17
= 0.0059

overall speed 63 – 86 23 1 10 =
0.0043
23
at which 1 10 =
86 – 111 25 0.0040
failures are 25
1 10
occurring. 111 – 141 30 = 0.0033
30
141 – 186 45 1 10
= 0.0022
45
1 10
186 – 266 80 = 0.0013
80

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

47
Power System Analysis 101 95

Component Reliability

## f(t) fractional failures/hr.x10-2

1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 100 200 300
Operating time, hr.

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 96

Component Reliability
Failure Time ∆ ti h(t)
Hazard 0–8 8 1 10
= 0.0125
8
Function 8 – 20 12
19
= 0.093
12
h(t) 20 – 34 14
18
= 0.0096
14
17
34 – 46 12 = 0.0119
12
16=
measure of the 46 – 63 17
17
0.0098

instantaneous 63 – 86 23 15=
0.0087
23
speed of 14=
86 – 111 25 0.0100
failure 25
13
111 – 141 30 30
= 0.0111
[Propones to 141 – 186 45
12
= 0.0111
45
Failure] 11
186 – 266 80 80
= 0.0125

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

48
Power System Analysis 101 97

Component Reliability

1.4
h(t) failures/hr.x10-2 1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 100 200 300
Operating time, hr.
Hazard Function from Component Failure Data

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 98

Component Reliability
Reliability Function
t

R (t ) = e ∫0
h (τ )d τ

## For a component with a constant Hazard

h = 0.01 f/yr R(1) = 0.99 [Probability that the
component will not
fail in 1 year]
h = 0.02 f/yr R(1) = 0.98
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

49
Power System Analysis 101 99

Component Reliability
h(t ) h(t )

λ Kt

t t
a. Constant Hazard b. Increasing Hazard
h(t )

K0
t

R (t ) = e ∫0
h (τ )d τ

t
K0 K1 t0
Reliability Function
a. Decreasing Hazard

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 100

Component Reliability
The Bathtub Curve

a. Hazard Function

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

50
Power System Analysis 101 101

Component Reliability
Hazard Model for Different System

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 102

Component Reliability

## Weibull Model (A General Reliability Model)

R (t )
h (t ) K
5 m=3 5
m=2
4 4
3 m=1 3
2 2
m = 0 .5 m=1 m = − 0 .5
1 m=0 1 m=2 m=0
m = −0 .5 m=3 m = 0 .5
t→ 1 2 τ → 1 2

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

51
Power System Analysis 101 103

Component Reliability
RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT
of MERALCO Distribution Transformers*
Distribution Transformer Failures
• 1997: 996 DT Failures
• Average of three (3) DT Failures/day
• Lost Revenue during Downtime
• Additional Equipment Replacement Cost
• Lost of Customer Confidence
 Identify the Failure Mode of DTs
 Develop strategies to reduce DT failures
* R. R. del Mundo, et. al. (2000)
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 104

Component Reliability

## METHODOLOGY: Reliability Engineering

(Weibull Analysis of Failure Data)
• Gather Equipment History (Failure Data)
• Classify DTs (Brand, Condition, KVA, Voltage)
• Develop Reliability Model
• Determine Failure Mode
• Recommend Solutions to Improve Reliability

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

52
Power System Analysis 101 105

Component Reliability

Parametric Model
• Shape Factor Failure Mode
• Characteristic Life
Shape Factor Hazard Function Failure Mode
<1 Decreasing Early
=1 Constant Random
>1 Increasing Wear-out

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 106

Component Reliability
MERALCO DTs (1989–1997)
Brand New Recond Rewind Convert Total
A 29,960 835 1,333 2,048 34,712
B 5,986 118 135 269 6,586
C 6,358 49 31 21 6,561
D 2,037 116 90 - 2,344
E - - - - 192
F - - - - 168
G - - - - 79
H - - - - 69
TOTAL 44,341 1,118 1,588 2,338 51,129
Note: Total Include Acquired DTs

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

53
Power System Analysis 101 107

Component Reliability
Reliability Analysis: All DTs
Interval Failures Survivors Hazard
200 1444 57095 0.0269
400 797 48852 0.0178
600 638 39997 0.0174
800 508 32802 0.0167
1000 475 27515 0.0189
1200 363 22129 0.0178
1400 295 18200 0.0178
1600 224 14690 0.0167
1800 159 11865 0.0151
2000 89 9010 0.0114
2200 98 6473 0.0177
2400 51 4479 0.015
2600 19 2254 0.0122
2800 2 821 0.0042
3000 0 127 0

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 108

Component Reliability
Reliability Analysis: All DTs
0.03

0.025

## Weibull Shape = 0.84

0.02
Hazard

0.015

0.01
Failure Mode: EARLY FAILURE
0.005

Is it Manufacturing Defect?
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000

Time Interval
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

54
Power System Analysis 101 109

Component Reliability
Reliability Analysis: By Manufacturer
BRAND Size Shape Failure Mode
A 34712 0.84 Early Failure
B 6586 0.81 Early Failure
C 6561 0.86 Early Failure
D 2344 0.76 Early Failure
E 192 0.85 Early Failure
F 168 0.86 Early Failure
G 79 0.76 Early Failure
H 69 0.98 Early Failure

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 110

Component Reliability
Reliability Analysis:
By Manufacturer & Condition
BRAND New Reconditioned Rewinded Converted
A 1.11 1.23 1.12 1.4
B 0.81 1.29 1.27 1.23
C 0.81 1.13 0.77 0.94
D 0.67 1.11 1.49 -

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

55
Power System Analysis 101 111

Component Reliability
Reliability Analysis: By Voltage Rating
PRI SEC All DTs New DTs
20 7.62 0.75 -
20 120/240 0.79 0.94
20 139/277 1.14 1.1
20 DUAL 0.72 1.03
13.2 120/240 0.88 1.54
13.2 240/480 0.91 -
7.62 120/240 0.99 1.46
7.62 DUAL 0.77 -
4.8 120/240 0.87 1.61
3.6 120/240 0.78 1.17
2.4 120/240 1.15 -
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 112

Component Reliability
Reliability Analysis: By KVA Rating (New DTs)
KVA Shape Failure Mode
10 1.3 Wear-out
15 1.25 Wear-out
25 0.92 Early
37.5 0.83 Early
50 0.73 Early
75 1.05 Random
100 1.04 Random
167 1.16 Random
250 1.11 Random
333 1.46 Wear-out
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

56
Power System Analysis 101 113

Component Reliability
MERALCO Distribution Transformer
Reliability Analysis: Recommendations
• Review Replacement Policies
- New or Repair
- In-house or Remanufacture
• Improve Transformer Load Management Program
- Predict Demand Accurately (TLMS)
• Consider Higher KVA Ratings
• Consider Surge Protection for 20 kV DTs
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 114

Component Reliability
Preventive Maintenance and Hazard Rates
Hazard
rate

m 2m 3m
Effect of PM on Increasing Hazard Rate

Hazard Hazard
rate rate

m 2m 3m m 2m 3m

## Effect of PM on Constant Hazard Rate Effect of PM on Decreasing Hazard Rate

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

57
Power System Analysis 101 115

Component Reliability
RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT
of MERALCO Power Circuit Breakers*

## VOLTAGE OCB VCB GCB MOCB ACB

34.5 KV 149 160 41
13.8 KV 7 28 2 36 12
6.24 KV 26 3 122
4.8 KV 2 11
TOTAL 156 216 43 39 145

## * R. R. del Mundo & Melendrez (2001)

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 116

Component Reliability
RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT
of MERALCO Power Circuit Breakers*
Annual Failures of 34.5 kV OCBs
1997 1998 1999 2000 Average
Causes of Failures
Installed Failed Installed Failed Installed Failed Installed Failed
Failure (Units/yr)
Contact Wear 158 2 155 2 149 1 145 2 1.15
Bushing 158 1 155 3 149 3 145 1 1.317
Failure
Mechanism - - 155 1 - - - - 0.645
Failure
Totals 158 3 155 6 149 4 145 3 2.636

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

58
Power System Analysis 101 117

Reliability Assessment of
MERALCO Power Circuit Breakers
HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 34.5 KV OCBs HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 34.5 KV GCBs HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 13.8 KV MOCBs

## 0.4 0.2 0.4

H a z a r d R a te
H a za rd R a te

H a z a rd R a t e
0.3 0.15 0.3
0.2 0.1 0.2
0.1 0.05 0.1
0 0
0
3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57 60 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57 60
Time Interval (months) Time Interval (months) Time Interval (months)

## 34.5 kV OCBS OCBs 34.5 kV GCBs 13.8 kV MOCBs

HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 6.24 KV MOCBs HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 6.24 KV ACBs HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR ALL PCBs CONSIDERED

## 0.4 0.2 0.4

H az ard R ate
H a z a rd R a t e

H a z a r d R a te

## 0.3 0.15 0.3

0.2 0.1 0.2
.
0.1 0.05 0.1
0 0 0
3 6 9 12 15 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57 60
6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60
Time Interval (months) Time Interval (months)
Time Interval (months)

## TIME-BASED HAZARD FUNCTION

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 118

Reliability Assessment of
MERALCO Power Circuit Breakers
HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 34.5 KV OCBs HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 34.5 KV GCBs HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 34.5 KV GCBs

## 0.05 y= 0.00006x2 – 0.0007x 0.05

0.25
+ 0.032
H a z a r d R a te
H a z a r d R a te

## 0.2 0.04 0.04

H a z a rd R a t e

## 0.15 0.03 0.03

0.1 0.02 0.02
0.05 0.01 0.01
0 0 0
25 50 75 100 125 150 25 50 75 100 125 150
5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Tripping Interval Tripping Interval Tripping Interval

## 34.5 kV OCBS OCBs 34.5 kV GCBs 13.8 kV MOCBs

HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 6.24 KV HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 6.24 KV HAZARD FUNCTION CURVE FOR 34.5 KV OCBs
MOCBs MOCBs
0.25
0.3 0.3 0.2
H a z a rd R a te
H a z a rd R a te
H a z a rd R a te

## 0.2 0.2 0.15

0.1
0.1 0.1 0.05
0 0 0
5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Tripping Interval Tripping Interval Tripping Interval

## TRIPPING OPERATIONS-BASED HAZARD FUNCTION

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

59
Power System Analysis 101 119

Component Reliability
RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT
of MERALCO Power Circuit Breakers*

## Schedule of Servicing for 41XV4

0.08
Hazard Rate

0.06
0.04
0.02
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

## Number of Tripping Operations

Reliability-Based
Preventive Maintenance Schedule

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 120

System Reliability
Series Reliability Model

## R(x1) R(x2) R(x3) R(x4)

Series System
This arrangements represents a system whose
subsystems of components form a series network. If
any of the subsystem of component fails, the series
system experiences an overall system failure.
n
Rs = ∏ R( xi )
i =1

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

60
Power System Analysis 101 121

System Reliability

## This structure represents

R(x1) a system that will fail if
and only if all the units in
R(x2) the system fail.

R(x3)
n
Rs = 1 − ∏ [1 − R( xi )]
R(x4) i =1

Parallel Network
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 122

System Reliability
Standby Redundancy Model

R(x1)

R(x2)

R(x3)

R(x4)
This type of redundancy represents a distribution with one
operating and n units as standbys. Unlike a parallel network
where all units in the configuration are active, the standby units
are not active.

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

61
Power System Analysis 101 123

System Reliability
K-Out-of-N Reliability Model

## R(x1) The system reliability for

k-out-of-n number of
R(x2) independent and identical
units is given by
R(x3) n
 n
Rs = ∑   R i ( 1 − R )n −i
i=k  i 

## This is another form of redundancy. It is used where

a specified number of units must be good for the
system success.

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 124

System Reliability 3
1

5
2

4
6

Networks
7

8
Primary side 9
10
11

12
13
14
15
16
17
18

21
20
22

## Typical Substation Configurations 23

25
24

26

of MERALCO* 27

29
28

30

31

32

33

34

35

Secondary side 37
36
38

39

40
41

44
45
42

46

47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55

57

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

62
Power System Analysis 101 125

## System Reliability Networks

Reliability Network Diagram of Single breaker-single bus scheme
(Scheme 1)

λc
15λ λct
29λ λbus
2λ λd1
4λ λb1
2λ λp λb2
2λ λd2

## Event 1 Probability λs (failure/yr) Us (hr/yr)

Opened 115kV bus tie 1.0 0.247152 0.828784
breaker & opened
34.5kV bus tie breaker
(normal condition)
Total 1.0 0.247152 0.828784

## where: λs - substation failure rate or interruption frequency

Us – substation annual outage time or unavailability

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 126

L1 L2

System Reliability 3
1

5
2

4
6 75
71

73
70

72

74

Networks
7 76

8 77

9 78

18 16
17
127
128 19 15
129 20
14
130 21 13
131 22 12
132

23
133 10 11 92 79
134 35
91 80
135
136 24 34 90
137 81

33 89
138 25 82
32
139 26 88 83
140 31 87 84
27
141 28 30 86 85

of MERALCO 36
93
29

Primary side
37 94

38 95

39 96

40 97

41 98

Bank 2

44
100

101

46
102

103
104

## breaker (secondary side)

47
48 105
49 106
50
108
107
Secondary side
51
52 109
53 110
54 111
55 126 112
56
57
125 124 119 115 113
58 121 117
59 116 114
60 122
61 123 120 118
62
63
64
65
66

67

68

69

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

63
Power System Analysis 101 127

## Substation Reliability Models

Reliability Network Diagram of Single breaker-double bus with
normally opened 115kV bus tie breaker (Scheme 2)

λc
16λ λct
29λ λbus
2λ λd1
3λ λb1
2λ λp λb2
2λ λd2

## Event 1: Opened 115kV and 34.5kV bus tie breakers; P1 = 0.997985

λc
20λ λct
37λ λbus
3λ λd1
5λ λb1
2λ λp λb2
2λ λd2

Event 2: Closed 115kV bus tie breaker & opened 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P2 = 0.000188

λc
20λ λct
37λ λbus
2λ λd1
3λ λb1
2λ λp λb2
3λ λd2

Event 3: Closed 115kV bus tie breaker & closed 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P3 = 0.000000344

λc
20λ λct
37λ λbus
2λ λd1
3λ λb1
2λ λp λb2
3λ λd2

Event 4: Opened 115kV bus tie breaker & closed 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P4 = 0.00182614

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Event Probability λs (failure/yr) Us (hr/yr)

1 0.997985 0.251752 0.848919
2 0.000188 0.302966 1.008374
3 0.000000344 0.308936 1.023840
4 0.001826 0.308936 1.023840
Total 1.0 0.251866 0.849275

Event 1: With two primary lines energized & opened 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P1 = 0.997985
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

64
Power System Analysis 101 129

## Substation Reliability Models

Reliability Network Diagram of Single breaker-double bus with
normally closed 115kV bus tie breaker (Modified Scheme 2)

λΒ1 λΒ1
Β3
λΒ2
Β3 λΒ1
Β3 λΒ1 λΒ2 λΒ2
Β3 Β3

## λΒ6 λΒ7 λΒ7

Β4 λλΒ4
29 λΒ9 λΒ6 λΒ4
29

Event 1: With two primary lines energized & opened 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P1 = 0.997985

## λ17 λB1 λB2 λB3 λB4 λB5

Event 2: With one line, L2 interrupted & opened 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P2 = 0.000188

## λ17 λ29 λB1 λB2 λB5 λB8 λB9 λB10 λB11

Event 3: With one line, L2 interrupted and closed 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P3 = 0.000000344

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Substation Reliability Models

Reliability Network Diagram of Single breaker-double bus with
normally closed 115kV bus tie breaker (Modified Scheme 2)
λΒ1 λΒ1 λΒ3
Β2 λΒ3
Β6 λΒ3
Β2 λΒ6 λΒ3
Β7 λλΒ3
Β7 λΒ7
Β3

## λΒ6 λΒ7 λΒ7 λλΒ4

17 λΒ4
Β6 λΒ9 λΒ9 λλΒ4
Β8 λλΒ4
17

Event 4: With two lines energized and closed 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P4 = 0.001826140

## Summary of Substation Reliability Indices for Modified Scheme 2

Event Probability λs (failure/yr) Us,(hr/yr)
1 0.997985 0.176076 0.583548
2 0.000188 0.251122 0.847621
3 0.000000344 0.377120 1.261549
4 0.001826 0.233261 0.758472
Total 1.0 0.176194 0.583923
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

65
Power System Analysis 101 131

## Scheme 2 λs (failure/yr) Us (hr/yr)

Original (opened 115kV bus tie
0.251866 0.849275
breaker)
Modified (closed 115kV bus tie
breaker) 0.176194 0.583923

## Note: A remarkable 30% improvement in the performance

of Scheme 2 by making the 115kV bus tie breaker
normally closed.

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 132

System Reliability B1
1 67
B4

Networks
17

16 32 82
15 81
80
14
13 79
12 78
11 77
10 76

B2 9
8
75 B5
73 74
7 72
6
5 71
70
4

69
3 68
2
Primary side
3 69
83

18

19 84
20 85
21 86
22 87

of MERALCO B3 88
24
25
23
89
90
B6
26 91
27 92

28 93
29 94
30 95

31 96
33

97

B7 34 98
B8

Bank 2

36

38
101
100
102

103
39

## bus tie breaker (secondary side) 42

40
41

43
104 105
106
107
44 108
45 109
46 110
47 111
48
49
112 Secondary side
113
51 50 114 115

52 130 116
53
54
128 123 119
55 125 121 117
56
B10 58
57 129
127
126
124
120
122
118

59
60
62
61
63
B9
64

65
66

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

66
Power System Analysis 101 133

## Substation Reliability Models

Reliability Block Diagram of Ring Bus Scheme (Scheme 3)
λB1 λB4

λB1 λB2

## λB5 λB2 λ17 λ51 λB7 λB10

λB4 λB5

λB6 λB3

Event 1: With two primary lines energized & opened 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P1 = 0.997985

λB1 λB4

λB1 λB3

## λB5 λB2 λ31 λB8 λB9 λ51 λB10

λB4 λB6

λB6 λB3

Event 2: With two primary lines energized & closed 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P2 = 0.00182614
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Substation Reliability Models

Reliability Block Diagram of Ring Bus Scheme (Scheme 3)

CONT.

## λB3 λ31 λB6 λB5

Event 3: With one primary line (L2) interrupted and opened 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P3 = 0.000188056

## λB3 λ17 λB5 λB6

Event 4: With one primary line (L2) interrupted and closed 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P4 = 0.000000344

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

67
Power System Analysis 101 135

## Substation Reliability Models

Summary of Substation Reliability Indices of Ring Bus
(Scheme 3)

## Event Probability λs (failure/yr) Us (hr/yr)

1 0.997985 0.137928 0.436499
2 0.001826 0.195112 0.618379
3 0.000188 0.147283 0.468233
4 0.000000344 0.204467 0.650114
Total 1.0 0.138034 0.436836

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 136

L L

System Reliability
1 2
1 7
1 8
7
1 9
1 61 9
9 3
1
5

3 1 1
4
B1 1
8
9
0
2

Networks
21 8
1 89
8
0
B2 9

7
8 B5
7
8
5 8 8
8
6 B6
6 4
5 3 8
4 8 2
3 1 8
2 7 0
9
3 8
1 9 0
8 1 4
9

## Reliability Network Models for

9 5
2 9
2 9
B3 2 0
2
1
2 B7 96
8
7
9
2
4 2 2
3
10 10
9 Primary
Typical Substation Configurations 5 0 10 1
62 2 10
2 7
8
2
10
4 10
3 side
9 4 12 5

of MERALCO 3
0
2
9
3
3 0
10
6
10
5
10
3 1 10 7
3 10
3 2
3 118 9

B4 4
3
6 3
3
5
0
11 11
11
1 B8
3 7 2 11 3
83 4 11
4 9 5
11
0 4 6 11
11
4 1 11 7
9
2 8

4 12
4 1
B9 B10
4 12
5 2

1
4
6
12
3
Bank
2
4

4 7 4
8 4 5 12
9 6
5 12
5 0 12 7

## bus with bus tie breaker 5 12

5 1
2 13 8 9
3 5 0 13
5 4 1
13
5 5 5 2 13
13

(secondary side)
6 3
75 4 13
5
8
13
6 13
5
Secondary
9 6

6
6
2
6 0
1
15 14
13 7
8 side 13
9
3 6 4 0
6 4 15 14 14
5 14
6 2 158 6 14 14
1
4 2
6 66 15
0
14
6 7 8 3 15 14 14 14
5
9 7 1 9 7 3
7 0
1 7 7
37 2
4
B1
7
5
7 6
7 1
7

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

68
Power System Analysis 101 137

## Substation Reliability Models

Reliability Block Diagram of Breaker-and-a-half Scheme (Scheme 4)
λΒ1
Β3 λΒ2
Β3
λλΒ1
6 λλΒ1
6

Β2 λΒ3
33
λλΒ7
7 λΒ8 A

## λΒ5 λΒ4 λΒ7 λλ119 λΒ8

Β4 Β4

λΒ7
33 λΒ5
34
λ17 λΒ2
17

λΒ1
Β3 λΒ1
Β3 λΒ1
Β3 λΒ1
Β3
λλΒ1
6 λλΒ1
6 λΒ3 λΒ3 λλΒ3
6 λλΒ3
6

A λλΒ2
17 λλΒ4
33 λΒ2 λλΒ2
33
λλΒ2
7 λΒ2 λΒ5
Β2 λΒ5
33
λλΒ5
7 λΒ5

λλ119
33 λ17
34 λΒ7
33 λλΒ8
34
λ119 λΒ4
Β2 λ17
33 λΒ6
34
λΒ8 λλ119
Β2

Event 1: With two primary lines energized and opened 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P1 = 0.997985

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Substation Reliability Models

Reliability Block Diagram of Breaker-and-a-half Scheme (Scheme 4)

λΒ1
Β3 λΒ2
Β3
λλΒ1
6 λλΒ5
6

Β3 λΒ4
Β3

Β2 λΒ3
33
λλΒ2
7 λΒ8 A

## λΒ5 λΒ8 λΒ7 λλ119

Β4 λΒ7
Β4

λλΒ7
33 λΒ5
34
λΒ7 λλΒ2
17

λΒ5
Β3 λΒ3 λΒ3 λΒ2
Β3
λλΒ2
6 λλΒ2
6 λΒ5
Β3 λΒ4
Β3
λλΒ4
6 λλ119
6 λλ119
6

A λΒ2
17 λΒ5
33 λΒ5
Β2 λΒ5
33
λλΒ5
7 λΒ4 λΒ6
Β2 λΒ5
33
λλΒ5
7 λΒ5 λΒ5

λλ119
33 λ17
34 λΒ6
33 λΒ8
34
λ119 λΒ5
Β2 λΒ8
33 λΒ6
34
λ17 λΒ7
Β2 λΒ6
Β2

Event 2: With two primary lines energized and closed 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P2 = 0.001826

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

69
Power System Analysis 101 139

## Substation Reliability Models

Reliability Block Diagram of Breaker-and-a-half Scheme (Scheme 4)
λΒ3 λΒ6
Β3 λΒ6 λΒ6 λΒ6 λΒ7
Β3 Β3 Β3 Β3

## λΒ4 λΒ7 λΒ8 λλ119 λΒ4 λΒ4

Β4 Β4 17

λΒ7 λΒ7
Β3 λΒ8 λΒ8 λΒ8 λΒ3 λΒ3 λΒ2
Β3 Β3 17 17 Β3 λλ119
Β3 λλ119
Β3

## λΒ2 λΒ3 λΒ4 λΒ2 λΒ3 λ119 λΒ4 λΒ4

17 Β4 λΒ2
Β4 λΒ3
Β4

Event 3: With one primary line (L1) interrupted and opened 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P3 = 0.000188

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Substation Reliability Models

 Reliability Block Diagram of Breaker-and-a-half Scheme (Scheme 4)
λΒ7 λΒ6
Β3 λΒ7
Β3 λΒ7
Β3 λΒ7 λΒ4 λλ119
Β3 Β3

## λΒ8 λΒ7 λλΒ4

17 λΒ2
Β4 λΒ3 λΒ7 λΒ7
Β4

Event 4: With one primary line (L1) interrupted and closed 34.5kV bus tie breaker; P4 = 0.000000344

## Summary of Substation Reliability Indices of Breaker-&-a-half

(Scheme 4)
Event Probability λs (failure/yr) Us (hr/yr)
1 0.997985 0.137306 0.435214
2 0.001826 0.195120 0.611433
3 0.000188 0.146674 0.466972
4 0.000000344 0.204473 0.643165
Total 1.0 0.137413 0.435545
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

70
Power System Analysis 101 141

## System Reliability Networks

Substation Reliability Models
Comparison of Substation Reliability Indices (Scheme 1 to 4)

## Configuration λs (failures/yr) Us (hrs/yr)

Scheme 1 (Single breaker-single bus) 0.247152 0.828784
Scheme 2 (Single breaker-double bus)
- with normally opened 115kV tie bkr. 0.251866 0.849275
- with normally closed 115kV tie bkr. 0.176194 0.583923
Scheme 3 (Ring bus) 0.138034 0.436836
Scheme 4 (Breaker-and-a-half bus) 0.137413 0.435545
Note: Scheme 3 & 4 - better than Scheme 1 & 2 by 44% & 45% respectively for substation
failure rates.
Scheme 3 & 4 - better than Scheme 1 & 2 by 47% & 49% respectively for substation
interruption duration or unavailabilty.
Scheme 3 & 4 - better than Modified Scheme 2 by 22% & 25% for substation failure
rates & unavailability, respectively

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Distribution System Reliability

CUSTOMER-ORIENTED RELIABILITY INDICES
System Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI)*
The average number of interruptions per customer served
during a period

## Total number of customer interruptions

SAIFI =
Total number of customers served
System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI)
The average interruption duration per customer served during a
period
Sum of customer interruption duration
SAIDI =
Total number of customers served
Note: SAIFI for Sustained interruptions. MAIFI for Momentary Interruptions
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

71
Power System Analysis 101 143

## Distribution System Reliability

CUSTOMER-ORIENTED RELIABILITY INDICES
Customer Average Interruption Frequency Index
(CAIFI)
The average number of interruptions per customer interrupted
during the period
Total number of customer interruptions
CAIFI =
Total number of customers interrupted
Customer Average Interruption Duration Index (CAIDI)
The average interruption duration of customers interrupted
during the period
Sum of customer interruption duration
CAIDI =
Total number of customers interrupted
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Distribution System Reliability

CUSTOMER-ORIENTED RELIABILITY INDICES
Average Service Availability Index (ASAI)
The ratio of the total number of customer hours that service
was available during a year to the total customer hours
demanded Customer hours of available service
ASAI =
Customer hours demanded
Average Service Unavailability Index (ASUI)
The ratio of the total number of customer hours that service
was not available during a year to the total customer hours
demanded
C ustomer hours of unavailabl e service
ASUI =
Customer hours demanded

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

72
Power System Analysis 101 145

## Distribution System Reliability

LOAD- AND ENERGY-ORIENTED RELIABILITY
INDICES
Average Load Interruption Index (ALII)
The average KW (KVA) of connected load interrupted per year
per unit of connected load served.
Total load interruption
ALII =
Total connected load
Average System Curtailment Index (ASCI)
Also known as the average energy not supplied (AENS). It is
the KWh of connected load interruption per customer served.
Total energy curtailment
ASCI =
Total number of customers served
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Distribution System Reliability

LOAD- AND ENERGY-ORIENTED RELIABILITY
INDICES
Average Customer Curtailment Index (ACCI)
The KWh of connected load interruption per affected customer
per year.

## Total energy curtailment

ACCI =
Total number of customers affected

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

73
Power System Analysis 101 147

## Distribution System Reliability

Historical Reliability Performance Assessment
Required Data:
1. Exposure Data
N - total number of customers served
P - period of observation
2. Interruption Data
Nc - number of customers interrupted on interruption i
d - duration of ith interruption, hours
d1
d3
Number of
customers N1 d2 N3
interrupted N2
Time
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Distribution System Reliability

S 1 2 3
A B C
Source

L1 L2 L3
SYSTEM LOAD DATA
Number of Average Load
Load Point
Customers Demand (KW)
L1 200 1000
L2 150 700
L3 100 400
INTERRUTION DATA
Number of
Interruption Load Point Average Load Duration of
Disconnected
Event i Affected Curtailed (KW) Interruption
Customers
1 L3 100 400 6 hours
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

74
Power System Analysis 101 149

## Distribution System Reliability

SAIFI =
∑N C
=
100
∑N 200 + 150 + 100
= 0.222222 interruption customer - yr

SAIDI =
∑ N d = (100 )(6 )
C

## ∑ N 200 + 150 + 100

= 1.333333 hours customer - yr

CAIDI =
∑ N d = (100 )(6 )
C

∑N C100
= 6 hours custumer - interruption
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Distribution System Reliability

ASUI =
∑N C d ∑ N = SAIDI = 1.333333
8760 8760 8760
= 0.000152

## ASAI = 1 − ASUI = 1 − 0.000152

= 0.999848

ASCI =
ENS
=
∑ L d = (400 )(6 )
a

## ∑N ∑ N 200 + 150 + 100

= 5.333333 KWh customer − yr
Note: ENS - Energy Not Supplied
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

75
Power System Analysis 101 151

## Distribution System Reliability

Outage & Interruption Reporting

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Date Affected hours

Historical 1 01/08/04 3 1.5 Line Fault at C
Reliability 2* 02/06/04 All 4 Transmission
3 02/14/04 5, 6 0.5 Line Fault at D
Performance 4* 03/15/04 4, 5, 6 3 Pre-arranged
Assessment 5 04/01/04 6 1.5 Overload
6* 05/20/04 3, 4 3.5 Pre-arranged
7 05/30/04 1, 2, 3 0.5 Line Tripped
8 06/12/04 1 2 Line fault
Outage & 9 07/04/04 5 1 Line Overload
Interruption 10* 07/25/04 All 5 Transmission
Reporting 11 07/30/04 5 1 Line Fault
12* 08/15/04 4 2 Pre-arranged
13 09/08/04 2 1 Line Fault
*Not included in 14* 09/30/04 1, 2, 3 2.5 Pre-arranged
Distribution 15 10/25/04 3 1.5 Line Tripped
Reliability 16 11/10/04 2, 3 1.5 Line Fault at A
Performance 17* 11/27/04 3 2 Pre-arranged
Assessment 18* 12/14/04 3, 4, 5 3.5 Pre-arranged
19* 12/27/04 2, 3 3 Pre-arranged
20 12/28/04 1, 2, 3 0.075 Line Fault

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

76
Power System Analysis 101 153

## Distribution System Reliability

Outage & Interruption Reporting
Customer Count
Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total
January 900 800 600 850 500 300 3,950
February 905 796 600 855 497 303 3,956
March 904 801 604 854 496 308 3,967
April 908 806 606 859 501 310 3,990
May 912 804 608 862 509 315 4,010
June 914 810 611 864 507 318 4,024
July 917 815 614 866 512 324 4,048
August 915 815 620 872 519 325 4,066
September 924 821 622 876 521 328 4,092
October 928 824 626 881 526 331 4,116
November 930 826 630 886 530 334 4,136
December 934 829 635 894 538 332 4,162
Annual Average 916 812 615 868 513 319 4,043

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Distribution System Reliability

Outage & Interruption Reporting
Interruption Load Number of Duration Customer Date
Number Points Customers (Hrs.) Hours
Affected Affected Curtailed
1 3 600 1.5 900 01/08/04
3 5 497 0.5 248.5 02/14/04
6 303 0.5 151.5
5 6 310 1.5 465 04/01/04
7 1 912 0.5 456 05/30/04
2 804 0.5 402
3 608 0.5 304
8 1 914 2 1,828 06/12/04
9 5 512 1 512 07/04/04
11 5 512 1 512 07/30/04
13 2 821 1 821 09/08/04
15 3 626 1.5 939 10/25/04
16 2 826 1.5 1,239 11/10/04
3 630 1.5 945

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

77
Power System Analysis 101 155

## Distribution System Reliability

Outage & Interruption Reporting

## Calculate the Annual Reliability Performance of the

Distribution System (according to Phil. Distribution Code)

SAIFI =
∑N C

∑N
SAIDI =
∑N d C

∑N
MAIFI =
∑N C

∑N
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Distribution System Reliability

Predictive Reliability Performance Assessment
A λA, rA, UA A
Distribution
Source B Loads Source λB, rB, UB B Loads
System
C λC, rC, UC C

Required Data:
1. Component Reliability Data
λi - failure rate of component i
ri - mean repair time of component i
2. System Load Data
Ni - number of customers at point i
Li - the demand at point i
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

78
Power System Analysis 101 157

## Distribution System Reliability

Load Point Reliability Equivalents
For series combinations: For parallel combinations:
1
1 2 S P

2
n
λs = Σ λi λp = λ1λ2 (r1 + r2)
i=1

n r1 r2
Σ λiri rp = __________
i=1
rs = _________ r1 + r2
λs

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Distribution System Reliability

S 1 2 3
A B C
Source

L1 L2 L3
COMPONENT DATA
λ r
Feeder
(f/year) (hours)
A 0.2 6
B 0.1 5
C 0.15 8
SYSTEM LOAD DATA
Number of Average Load
Load Point
Customers Demand (KW)
L1 200 1000
L2 150 700
L3 100 400
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

79
Power System Analysis 101 159

## Load Point Reliability Equivalents

 For L1 U 1 = λ1r1
λ1 = λ A r1 = rA
= (0.2 )(6 )
= 0.2 f yr = 6 hrs
= 1.2 hrs yr
 For L2 λ A rA + λB rB
λ2 = λ A + λB r2 = U 2 = λ2 r2
λ A + λB
= 0.2 + 0.1 = (0.3)(5.666667 )
=
(0.2 )(6 ) + (0.1)(5 )
= 0.3 f yr = 1.7 hrs yr
0.2 + 0.1
= 5.666667 hrs
 For L3 λ A rA + λB rB + λC rC
λ3 = λ A + λB + λC r3 = U 3 = λ3 r3
λ A + λB + λB = (0.45 )(6.444444 )
= 0.2 + 0.1 + 0.15
=
(0.2)(6) + (0.1)(5) + (0.15)(8) = 2.9 hrs yr
= 0.45 f yr
0.2 + 0.1 + 0.15
= 6.444444 hrs
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 160

Reliability Indices

SAIFI =
∑ λ N = (0.2 )(200 ) + (0.3)(150 ) + (0.45 )(100 )
i i

## ∑N i 200 + 150 + 100

= 0.288889 interruption customer − yr

SAIDI =
∑U N = (1.2 )(200 ) + (1.7 )(150 ) + (2.9 )(100 )
i i

## ∑N i 200 + 150 + 100

= 1.744444 hours customer - yr

CAIDI =
∑U N i i
=
SAIDI 1.744444
=
∑λ N i i SAIFI 0.288889
= 6.038462 hours customer - interruption

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

80
Power System Analysis 101 161

ASUI =
∑U N ∑ N
i i i
=
SAIDI 1.744444
=
8760 8760 8760
= 0.000199

## ASAI = 1 − ASUI = 1 − 0.000199

= 0.999801

ASCI =
ENS
=
∑ L ( )U
a i i
=
(1000 )(1.2 ) + (700 )(1.7 ) + (400 )(2.9 )
∑ Ni ∑N i 200 + 150 + 100
= 7.888889 KWh customer - yr

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Distribution System Reliability

1 2 3 4
Source
a b c d
A D

C
B
Typical radial distribution system

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

81
Power System Analysis 101 163

## SYSTEM RELIABILITY DATA

Component Length (km) λ (f/yr) r (hrs)
1 2 0.2 4

Main
2 1 0.1 4
3 3 0.3 4
4 2 0.2 4
a 1 0.2 2

Lateral
b 3 0.6 2
c 2 0.4 2
d 1 0.2 2

## SYSTEM LOAD DATA

Component No. of Customers Ave. Load Connected (KW)
A 1000 5000
B 800 4000
C 700 3000
D 500 2000

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## RELIABILITY INDICES FOR THE SYSTEM

Load pt. A Load pt. B Load pt. C Load pt. D
U U U U
Component λ r λ r λ r λ r
(hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/
failure (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs)
yr) yr) yr) yr)
1 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8
Main

## 2 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 4 0.4

3 0.3 4 1.2 0.3 4 1.2 0.3 4 1.2 0.3 4 1.2
4 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8

Lateral

## b 0.6 2 1.2 0.6 2 1.2 0.6 2 1.2 0.6 2 1.2

c 0.4 2 0.8 0.4 2 0.8 0.4 2 0.8 0.4 2 0.8
d 0.2 2 0.4 0.2 2 0.4 0.2 2 0.4 0.2 2 0.4
Total 2.2 2.73 6.0 2.2 2.73 6.0 2.2 2.73 6.0 2.2 2.73 6.0

## where : λtotal = ∑ λ ; U total = ∑ U ; rtotal = ∑ U ∑λ

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

82
Power System Analysis 101 165

SAIFI =
∑ λ N = (2.2)(1000) + (2.2)(800) + (2.2)(700) + (2.2)(500 )
i i

## ∑N i 1000 + 800 + 700 + 500

= 2.2 int customer − yr

SAIDI =
∑U N = (6.0 )(1000) + (6.0 )(800) + (6.0 )(700) + (6.0 )(500)
i i

## ∑N i 1000 + 800 + 700 + 500

= 6.0 hours customer - yr

CAIDI =
∑U N i i
=
SAIDI 6.0
=
∑λ N i i SAIFI 2.2
= 2.727273 hours customer - interruption

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

ASUI =
∑U N ∑ N i i i
=
SAIDI
=
6 .0
8760 8760 8760
= 0.000685

## ASAI = 1 − ASUI = 1 − 0.000685

= 0.999315

ASCI =
∑L U ai i

∑N i

=
(5000 )(6.0 ) + (4000 )(6.0 ) + (3000 )(6.0 ) + (2000 )(6.0 )
1000 + 800 + 700 + 500
= 28.0 KWh customer - yr

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

83
Power System Analysis 101 167

## Distribution System Reliability

 Effect of lateral protection
1 2 3 4
Source

a b c d
A D

C
B

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## RELIABILITY INDICES WITH LATERAL PROTECTION

Load pt. A
Load pt. B Load pt. C Load pt. D
U U U U
Component λ r λ r λ r λ r
(hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/
failure (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs)
yr) yr) yr) yr)
1 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8
2 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 4 0.4
Main

## 3 0.3 4 1.2 0.3 4 1.2 0.3 4 1.2 0.3 4 1.2

4 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8

a 0.2 2 0.4
Lateral

b 0.6 2 1.2
c 0.4 2 0.8
d 0.2 2 0.4
Total 1.0 3.6 3.6 1.4 3.14 4.4 1.2 3.33 4.0 1.0 3.6 3.6

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

84
Power System Analysis 101 169

SAIFI = ∑
λi Ni
=
(1.0)(1000) + (1.4)(800) + (1.2)(700) + (1.0)(500)
∑N i
1000+ 800 + 700 + 500
= 1.153333 int customer− yr

SAIDI =
∑U N = (3.6 )(1000) + (4.4 )(800) + (4.0 )(700) + (3.6 )(500)
i i

## ∑N i 1000 + 800 + 700 + 500

= 3.906667 hours customer - yr

CAIDI =
∑U N i i
=
SAIDI 3.906667
=
∑λ N i i SAIFI 1.153333
= 3.387283 hours customer - interruption

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

ASUI =
∑U N ∑ N i i i
=
SAIDI 3.906667
=
8760 8760 8760
= 0.000446

## ASAI = 1 − ASUI = 1 − 0.000446

= 0.999554

ASCI =
∑L U ai i

∑N i

=
(5000 )(3.6 ) + (4000 )(4.4 ) + (3000 )(4.0 ) + (2000 )(3.6 )
1000 + 800 + 700 + 500
= 18.266667 KWh customer - yr

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

85
Power System Analysis 101 171

## Distribution System Reliability

 Effect of disconnects
1 2 3 4
Source

a b c d
A D

C
B
Typical radial distribution system reinforce with
lateral protections and disconnects
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## RELIABILITY INDICES WITH LATERAL PROTECTION AND DISCONNECTS

Load pt. A
Load pt. B Load pt. C Load pt. D
U U U U
Component λ r λ r λ r λ r
(hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/
failure (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs)
yr) yr) yr) yr)
1 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8
2 0.1 0.5 0.05 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 4 0.4
Main

3 0.3 0.5 0.15 0.3 0.5 0.15 0.3 4 1.2 0.3 4 1.2
4 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 4 0.8

a 0.2 2 0.4
Lateral

b 0.6 2 1.2
c 0.4 2 0.8
d 0.2 2 0.4
Total 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.89 2.65 1.2 2.75 3.3 1.0 3.6 3.6

## where : λtotal = ∑ λ ; U total = ∑ U ; rtotal = ∑ U ∑λ

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

86
Power System Analysis 101 173

SAIFI =
∑ λ N = (1.0 )(1000) + (1.4 )(800) + (1.2)(700) + (1.0 )(500)
i i

## ∑N i 1000 + 800 + 700 + 500

= 1.153333 int customer − yr

SAIDI =
∑U N = (1.5)(1000) + (2.65)(800) + (3.3)(700) + (3.6 )(500)
i i

## ∑N i 1000 + 800 + 700 + 500

= 2.576667 hours customer - yr

CAIDI =
∑U N i i
=
SAIDI 2.576667
=
∑λ N i i SAIFI 1.153333
= 2.234105 hours customer - interruption

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

ASUI =
∑U N ∑ N i i i
=
SAIDI 2.576667
=
8760 8760 8760
= 0.000294

## ASAI = 1 − ASUI = 1 − 0.000294

= 0.999706

ASCI =
∑L U ai i

∑N i

=
(5000 )(1.5 ) + (4000 )(2.65 ) + (3000 )(3.3) + (2000 )(3.6 )
1000 + 800 + 700 + 500
= 11.733333 KWh customer - yr

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

87
Power System Analysis 101 175

##  Effect of protection failures

RELIABILITY INDICES IF THE FUSES OPERATE WITH PROBABILITY OF 0.9
Load pt. A
Load pt. B Load pt. C Load pt. D
U U U U
Component λ r λ r λ r λ r
(hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/
failure (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs)
yr) yr) yr) yr)
1 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 4 0.8
2 0.1 0.5 0.05 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 4 0.4
Main

3 0.3 0.5 0.15 0.3 0.5 0.15 0.3 4 1.2 0.3 4 1.2
4 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 4 0.8

a 0.2 2 0.4 0.02 0.5 0.01 0.02 0.5 0.01 0.02 0.5 0.01
Lateral

b 0.06 0.5 0.03 0.6 2 1.2 0.06 0.5 0.03 0.06 0.5 0.03
c 0.04 0.5 0.02 0.04 0.5 0.02 0.4 2 0.8 0.04 0.5 0.02
d 0.02 0.5 0.01 0.02 0.5 0.01 0.02 0.5 0.01 0.2 2 0.4
Total 1.12 1.39 1.56 1.48 1.82 2.69 1.3 2.58 3.35 1.12 3.27 3.66

## where : λtotal = ∑ λ ; U total = ∑ U ; rtotal = ∑ U ∑λ

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

##  Effect of load transfer to alternative

supply
RELIABILITY INDICES WITH UNRESTRICTED LOAD TRANSFERS
Load pt. A
Load pt. B Load pt. C Load pt. D
U U U U
Component λ r λ r λ r λ r
(hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/
failure (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs)
yr) yr) yr) yr)
1 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1
2 0.1 0.5 0.05 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 0.5 0.05 0.1 0.5 0.05
Main

3 0.3 0.5 0.15 0.3 0.5 0.15 0.3 4 1.2 0.3 0.5 0.15
4 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 4 0.8

a 0.2 2 0.4
Lateral

b 0.6 2 1.2
c 0.4 2 0.8
d 0.2 2 0.4
Total 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.39 1.95 1.2 1.88 2.25 1.0 1.5 1.5
where : λtotal = ∑ λ ; U total = ∑ U ; rtotal = ∑ U ∑λ
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

88
Power System Analysis 101 177

##  Effect of load transfer to alternative

supply
RELIABILITY INDICES WITH RESTRICTED LOAD TRANSFERS
Load pt. A
Load pt. B Load pt. C Load pt. D
U U U U
Component λ r λ r λ r λ r
(hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/ (hrs/
failure (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs) (f/yr) (hrs)
yr) yr) yr) yr)
1 0.2 4 0.8 0.2 1.9 0.38 0.2 1.9 0.38 0.2 1.9 0.38
Section

2 0.1 0.5 0.05 0.1 4 0.4 0.1 1.9 0.19 0.1 1.9 0.19
3 0.3 0.5 0.15 0.3 0.5 0.15 0.3 4 1.2 0.3 1.9 0.57
4 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.1 0.2 4 0.8

a 0.2 2 0.4
Distributor

b 0.6 2 1.2
c 0.4 2 0.8
d 0.2 2 0.4
Total 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.59 2.23 1.2 2.23 2.67 1.0 2.3 2.3
where : λtotal = ∑ λ ; U total = ∑ U ; rtotal = ∑ U ∑λ
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Distribution System Reliability

SUMMARY OF INDICES
Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 Case 6
Load Point A
λ (f/yr) 2.2 1.0 1.0 1.12 1.0 1.0
r (hrs) 2.73 3.6 1.5 1.39 1.5 1.5
U (hrs/yr) 6.0 3.6 1.5 1.56 1.5 1.5
Load Point B
λ (f/yr) 2.2 1.4 1.4 1.48 1.4 1.4
r (hrs) 2.73 3.14 1.89 1.82 1.39 1.59
U (hrs/yr) 6.0 4.4 2.65 2.69 1.95 2.23
Load Point C
λ (f/yr) 2.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.2
r (hrs) 2.73 3.33 2.75 2.58 1.88 2.23
U (hrs/yr) 6.0 4 3.3 3.35 2.25 2.67
Load Point D
λ (f/yr) 2.2 1.0 1.0 1.12 1.0 1.0
r (hrs) 2.73 3.6 3.6 3.27 1.5 2.34
U (hrs/yr) 6.0 3.6 3.6 3.66 1.5 2.34
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

89
Power System Analysis 101 179

## Distribution System Reliability

SUMMARY OF INDICES (cont.)
Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Case 5 Case 6
Sytem Indices
SAIFI 2.2 1.15 1.15 1.26 1.15 1.15
SAIDI 6.0 3.91 2.58 2.63 1.80 2.11
CAIDI 2.73 3.39 2.23 2.09 1.56 1.83
ASAI 0.999315 0.999554 0.999706 0.999700 0.999795 0.999759
ASUI 0.000685 0.000446 0.000294 0.003000 0.000205 0.000241
ENS 84.0 54.8 35.2 35.9 25.1 29.1
ASCI 28.0 18.3 11.7 12.0 8.4 9.7
Case 1. Base case.
Case 2. As in Case 1, but with perfect fusing in the lateral distributors.
Case 3. As in Case 2, but with disconnects on the main feeders.
Case 4. As in Case 3, probability of successful lateral distributor fault clearing of 0.9.
Case 5. As in Case 3, but with an alternative supply.
Case 6. As in Case 5, probability of conditional load transfer of 0.6.

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Economics of Power System

Reliability
Supply Cost

• Investment Cost
• Operation and Maintenance Cost
• Fuel Cost

IC + O&M + FC
Annual Supply Cost (ASC) =
Annual kWh Generation

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

90
Power System Analysis 101 181

Supply Cost
Luzon Grid Supply Cost*
LOLP Frequency Duration Supply Cost
(days/yr) (per year) (Hours) (Php/kWh)
12.26 70 2.11 0.90
6.25 38 2.00 0.94
1.88 13 1.73 1.01
0.94 7 1.61 1.03
0.45 4 1.50 1.06
0.21 2 1.38 1.09
0.08 0.73 1.31 1.11
0.04 0.31 1.30 1.14
Source: del Mundo (1991)
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

Supply Cost

Luzon Grid
Supply Cost

## Source: del Mundo (1991)

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

91
Power System Analysis 101 183

Outage Cost
Impact of Power Interruptions
 To Electric Utility
• Loss of revenues
• Additional work
• Loss of confidence
 To Customers
• Dissatisfaction
• Interruption of productivity
• Additional investment for alternative power
supply
 To National Economy
• Loss value added/income
• Loss of investors
• Unemployment

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 184

Outage Cost
Impact to National Economy:
NEDA Study (1974)
 P 342,380 per day – losses due to brownout in Cebu-Mandaue
area
Business Survey (1980)
 P1.4 Billion – losses due to brownouts in 1980
 CRC Memo No. 27 (1988)
 P 3.4 Billion – loss of the manufacturing sector in 1987 due to
power outages
Viray & del Mundo Study (1988)
 P 25 – losses in Value Added per kWh curtailment
Sinay Report (1989)
 45% – loss in Value Added in the manufacturing sector in
Cebu due to power outages

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

92
Power System Analysis 101 185

Outage Cost
Impact to Customers:
A. Short-Run Direct Cost
• Opportunity losses during outages
• Opportunity losses during restart period
• Raw materials spoilage
• Finish products spoilage
• Idle workers
• Overtime
• Equipment damage
• Special operation and maintenance during restart period
B. Long-Run Adaptive Response Cost
• Standby generators
• Power plant
• Alternative fuels
• Transfer location
• Inventory
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

## Power System Analysis 101 186

Outage Cost
Outage Cost to Industrial Sector in Luzon

## (0.0086 + 0.0023D)F + 0.1730 Pesos/kWh

Where, F – Frequency of Interruptions
D – Average Duration of Interruptions

## Losses of MERALCO Industrial Customers in 1989

Energy Sales: 3.781 billion kWh
Outage Cost: Php 0.3544/kWh
Total Losses: Php 1.34 billion
Source: del Mundo (1991)

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

93
Power System Analysis 101 187

Outage Cost
Luzon Grid Outage Cost*
LOLP Frequency Duration Outage Cost
(days/yr) (per year) (Hours) (Php/kWh)
12.26 70 2.11 1.12
6.25 38 2.00 0.68
1.88 13 1.73 0.34
0.94 7 1.61 0.26
0.45 4 1.50 0.22
0.21 2 1.38 0.20
0.08 0.73 1.31 0.18
0.04 0.31 1.30 0.18
Source: del Mundo (1991)
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

Outage Cost

Luzon Grid
Outage Cost

## Source: del Mundo (1991)

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

94
Power System Analysis 101 189

Total Cost
Luzon Grid Total Cost ATC = ASC + AOC
LOLP Supply Cost Outage Cost Total Cost
(days/yr) (Php/kWh) (Php/kWh) (Php/kWh)
12.26 0.90 2.11 2.02
6.25 0.94 2.00 1.62
1.88 1.01 1.73 1.35
0.94 1.03 1.61 1.29
0.45 1.06 1.50 1.28
0.21 1.09 1.38 1.29
0.08 1.11 1.31 1.29
0.04 1.14 1.30 1.32
Source: del Mundo (1991)
U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

Luzon Grid
Total Cost

## Source: del Mundo (1991)

U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering
National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

95
Power System Analysis 101 191

## U. P. National Engineering Center Power System Engineering

National Electrification Administration for Non-Engineers

96