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\

Bulletin

15.

A generalized method with special reference to sensitivity analysis and geo-hydrological investigations

W. F. J. van BEERS

Research Soil Scientist International Institute,for Land Reclamation and Improvement

INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR L A N D RECLAMATION A N D IMPROVEMENT/ILRI P.O. BOX 45 WAGENINGEN T H E NETHERLANDS 1976

In memory of

Dr S. B. Hooghoudt

(7 1953)

@ International Institute for Land Reclamation aiid Improvement/ILRI, Wageningen, The Netherlands 1976 This book or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of ILRI

Acknowledgements

This Bulletin may be regarded as one of the results of close co-operation between three institutions in The Netherlands which are engaged in drainage research. Many specialists have thus contributed in one way or another to this Bulletin, although the author bears the final responsibility for its contents.

Dr.L.F.Ernst, Senior Research Scientist, Dept.special Research (Physics) Dr.J.Wesseling, Head Dept.Hydrology

Dr.W.H.van der Molen, Professor of Agro-Hydrology Dr.J.W.van Hoorn, Senior Staff Scientist

Ir.P.J.Dieleman, Land Drainage Engineer, FAO, Rome (1971) Ir.J.Kessler, Drainage Specialist ('i 1972) Dr.N.A.de Ridder, Geohydrologist 1r.C.L.van Someren, Drainage Specialist

Contents

SECTION 1 SECTION 2 INTRODUCTION P R I N C I P L E S O F THE HOOGHOUDT EQUATION

7 IO

2.1 2.2

IO

12

i4

SECTION 3

SECTION 4

14

15 17 18

19 19 37 38 39 41

APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C l

D E R I V A T I O N O F THE GENERALIZED EQUATION OF ERNST LAYERED SOIL BELOW D R A I N S CONSTRUCTION OF GRAPH 11, BASED ON HOOGHOUDT's TABLE FOR r = 0.10 m CONSTRUCTION OF GRAPH 11, BASED ON THE GENERALIZED EQUATION O F ERNST FOR K, = K 2

43

APPENDIX C 2

44 46 47

1. Introduction

This Bulletin summarizes the latest developments that have taken place in The Netherlands on the subject of computing drain spacings using drainage equations, based on the assumption of steady-state conditions. Those based on nonsteady state conditions will be handled in a separate bulletin. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with drainage equations in general and with those developed in The Netherlands in particular (S.B.Hooghoudt en L.F.Ernst). These earlier contributions to the theory and practice of drainage equations have been summarized by Van Beers (1965), who dealt specifically with Dutch efforts in this field, and by Wesseling (1973), who also included methods developed in other countries. To avoid the need to consult those earlier publications, the main principles of the Hooghoudt equation are given in Section 2 and those of the Ernst equation in Section 3. When using equations based on steady-state conditions,one should realize that such conditions seldom occur in practice. Nevertheless the equations are extremely useful, because they make it possible:

*

to design a drainage system which has the same intensity everywhere even

though quite different hydrological conditions (transmissivity values) occur in the area

*

to carry out a sensitivity analysis, which gives one a good idea of the

of drain spacings.

The equations and graphs that have been available up to now are useful for the "normal" drainage situation. By "normal", we mean that there is only one pervious layer below drain level and only a slight difference between the soil permeability above drain level (K ) and that below drain level (K2).

1

Most equations and graphs have their shortcomings. In the following drainage situations, for instance, there is only one possible equation that can be used: a highly pervious soil layer above drain level and a poorly pervious soil layer below drain level: o n l y Eq.Hooghoudt a heavy clay layer of varying thickness overlying a sandy substratum: only Eq. Ernst the soil below drain level consists of two pervious layers, the lower layer being sand or gravel (aquifer): only Eq. Ernst

( T h i s a eommon oeeurrenee in drainage and 7 : s highZy significant

f o r the design.)

A i m o f this bu l e t i n

Because o these shortcomings and the inconvenience of working with different

equations and graphs, the question was raised whether a simple equation with a single graph could be developed to replace the existing ones. The problem was solved by Ernst ( 1 9 7 5 ) , who combined the Hooghoudt equation and the Ernst equation for radial flow, resulting in a single expression which we shall call the Hooghoudt-Ernst equation. Although the fundamentals of the equation have been published elsewhere by Ernst, it is the aim of this bulletin to focus attention on these recent developments and to illustrate the practical use of the equation and the corresponding graph which has been developed for this purpose (Graph I). The graph can be used for all the above drainage situations, although for the third one ( K 3 > > K 2 ) , an additional auxiliary graph will be needed. It will be demonstrated that no graph at all is needed for most drainage situations, especially if one has available a Scientific Pocket Calculator ( S P C ) . Although not strictly necessary, a special graph has nevertheless been prepared for normal drainage situations and the use of pipe drains (Graph 11). The reader will find that it gives a quick answer to many questions. It may be noted that with the issue of this bulletin (No.15), a l l graphs

tions and for the K

1 of Bulletin 8

(Hooghoudt, pipe draj.n) still remains useful for theoretically correct computa1

bulletin is preferable.

8

The reader will also note that in this new bulletin, a revised nomenclature

f o r various K- and D-UaZues

The modified meanings of these values are not only theoretically more correct but also promote an easier use of the K- and D-values. Last but not least, the importance of geo-hydrologica2 investigations, especially in irrigation projects, is emphasized because a drain spacing can be considerably influenced by layers beyond the reach of a soil auger.

Sensitivity analysis

The primary function of a drainage equation is the computation of drain spacings for drainage design. Since it summarizes in symbols all the factors that govern the drain spacing and the inter-relationship of these factors, it also allows a sensitivity analysis to be performed if there is a need to.

A sensitivity analysis reveals the relative influence of the various factors

involved: the permeability and thickness of the soil layers through which groundwater flow can occur (depth of a barrier), wetted perimeter of drains, depth of drains, etc. gations. This analysis will indicate whether approximate data will suffice useful under certain circumstances or whether there is a need for more detailed investiThe drainage specialist will find the sensitivity analysis a tool in guiding the required soil and geohydrological investigations,which differ from project to project, and in working out alternative solutions regarding the use of pipe drains or ditches, drain depth, etc. For a sensitivity analysis, however, it is a "conditio sine qua non" that the available equations and graphs should be such that the required calculations can be done easily and quickly.

In the opinion of the author, this condition has been fulfilled by the equations and graphs that will be presented in the following pages,especially if one has an SPC at his disposal.

2.1 Ditches reaching an impervious floor

For flow of groundwater to horizontal parallel ditches reaching an impervious floor (Fig.1) horizontal flow only, both above and below drain level may be assumed, and the drain discharge, under steady-state conditions can be computed with a simple drainage equation: 8K2D2h q=-+L2

4Klh2 or

L2

(1)

where q q2

=

=

drain discharge rate per unit surface area per unit time (m3 per day/m2 or miday) discharge rate for the flow below drain level

D2 = thickness of the pervious soil layer

=

cross-sectional area of flow at right angles to the direction of flow per unit length (metre) of drain (m2/m) hydraulic conductivity of the soil (flow region) below drain level (m/day) hydraulic conductivity of the soil (flow region) above drain level (m/day); for homogeneous soils K 1 = K2 hydraulic head - the height of the water table above drain level midway between drains (m); note that the water table is defined as the locus of points at atmospheric pressure drain spacing (m)

K2

K1 =

If, for the flow above the drains, one wants to avoid the use of a certain notation (h) for two quite different factors, being a hydraulic head and an average cross-section of flow area 8KzD2h

(4

as

q = 2L + - - L2 where

of the soil layer through which the flow above the drains takes place.

IO

F i g . 1.

Cross-sections of flow area. Steady-state conditions: discharge ( q ) = recharge ( R ) . Parallel spaced drains reaching an impervious f l o o r .

=

day. When the drain spacing is 40 m, the discharge per metre of drain is

X

40

0.2 m 3 per day; when this drain is 100 m long, the discharge

=

=

per sec., and in this case the discharge per ha will be 0.23 x 10,000/(40~100) 0.58 lit.Sec.ha.

=

0.116 lit.Sec.ha.

rate for the flow above and below the drains can be computed with the same horizontal flow equation; the only difference is the cross-section of flow area. Eq.(la) can be used for a drainage situation with two layers of different

permeability (K2 and KI), drain level being at the interface of these layers. The equation can also be used for homogeneous soils (K =K ) . This is possible 2 1 because Hooghoudt distinguishes primarily not soil layers but groundwater flow

r e g i o n s , split up into a flow above drain level and a flow below drain level.

These flow regions can coincide with soil layers but need not necessarily do so.

When ditches or pipe drains are located above an impervious layer, the flow lines will be partly horizontal, and partly radial as they converge when approaching the drains. This causes a restriction to flow (resistance to radial flow) due to a decrease in the available cross-section of flow area. The smaller the wetted perimeter of the drain, the greater the resistance to radial flow. In certain respects, this flow restriction can be compared to the traffic on a highway, where in a certain direction one of the lanes is blocked. In both cases, the available cross-sectional flow area has been reduced. For the drainage situation described above, the Hooghoudt equation expressed in terms of Eq.(la) reads 8Kndh q = - TL +where 8K1Dlh

L2

account the convergence of flow below the drain (q2) (radial flow) by reducing the pervious layer below the drain (D2) to such an extent that the horizontal resistance

(%)

of the

layer with a thickness D2 equals the horizontal resistance of the layer with a thickness d. This d-value is a function of the drain radius (r),

If we compare Eq.(la) with Eq.(2), it can be seen that both are horizontal

flow equations. The only difference being that the D -value of Eq.(la) (horizon2 tal flow only) has been changed into a d-value in Eq.(2) (horizontal and radial flow). Summarizing, the main principles of the approach of Hooghoudt are:

(1)

Primarily, he distinguishes groundwater flow r e g i o n s , split up into flow above and beZow drain level, and only secondarily does he distinguish soil layers;

(2)

for the flow region above drain level, only horizontal flow need be considered (transmissivity K D ) , whereas for the flow region below drain

1 1

level, both horizontal flow (transmissivity K D ) and radial flow have 2 2 to be taken into account;

12

(3)

s o i l and a s o i l w i t h t h e d r a i n s a t t h e i n t e r f a c e of two l a y e r s . The a d o p t i o n of t h e second p r i n c i p l e r e s u l t e d i n a change i n t h e o r i g i n a l E r n s t e q u a t i o n , w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e magnitude of t h e r a d i a l f l o w . The t h i r d p r i n c i p l e , d e a l i n g w i t h t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l s o l u t i o n of t h e problem of r a d i a l f l o w , h a s been changed. I n s t e a d of changing t h e D - v a l u e i n t o

( d r a i n s p a c i n g based on h o r i z o n t a l f l o w o n l y , L :

=

L -value

8KDh/q) i n t o a s m a l l e r

L-value

( a c t u a l d r a i n s p a c i n g based on h o r i z o n t a l and r a d i a l f l o w ) .

13

3.1 The original drain spacing equation of Ernst

The general principle underlying Ernst's basic equation (1962) is that the flow of groundwater to parallel drains, and consequently the corresponding available total hydraulic head (h), can be divided into three components: a vertical (v), a horizontal (h), and a radial (r) component or

where q is the flow rate and R is the resistance. Working out various resistance terms, we can write the Ernst equation as

h = qDV +

KV

q-+ L2 8KD

q-InnK2

aD2

(3)

K

=

thickness of the layer over which vertical flow is considered; in most cases this component is small and may be ignored (m) hydraulic conductivity for vertical flow (m/day) various layers for the horizontal flow component according to the hydraulic situation: one pervious layer below drain depth: KD = K D two pervious layers below drain depth:KD = (Fig.2a) (Fig.2b)

KD = the sum of the product of the permeability (K) and thickness (D) of the

1 1

=

1 1

+ K2D2, a

=

=

nr.

Eq.(3)

shows that the radial flow is taken into account for the total flow (q),

whereas the Hooghoudt equation considers radial flow only for the layer below drain level (q2). It should be noted that Eq.(3) has been developed for a drainage situation where K

<< K2 ( a clay layer on a sandy substratum) and can therefore only be I used where the flow above drain level is relatively small. However, if one uses 14

uncommon situation), the result is a considerable underestimate of drain spacing compared with the result obtained when the Hooghoudt equation is used. According to Ernst (1962) and Van Beers (1965), no acceptable formula has been found for the special case that KI >> K2, and it was formerly recommended that the Hooghoudt equation be used for this drainage situation. covers all K /K

1

Since that

2

ratios.

K3

Fig.2a.

S o i l below t h e d r a i n :

Fig.2b.

S o i l below the d r a i n :

....

- - - -

This new equation is based on a combination of the approach of Hooghoudt (radial flow only for the flow below the drains, q2) and the equation of Ernst for the radial flow component. Neglecting the resistance to vertical flow and rewriting Eq.(3), 8KDh we obtain

If we consider only horizontal flow above the drains (q ) and both horizontal

1

15

q=-+ L2

L * + - D

TI

aD2

(4)

LI^-

Introducing an equivalent drain spacing (L ),i.e. a drain spacing that would be found if horizontal flow only is considered, we get

Lo Substituting Eq.(5)

- 8KDh

4

(5)

After a somewhat complicated re-arrangement (see Appendix A) the generalized equation reads

where L Lo

=

=

drain spacing based on both horizontal and radial flow (m) drain spacing based on horizontal flow only (m)

c = Dz In

KiDi

B

=

- ,

=

aD 2

KD

the flow above the drain as a fraction of the total horizontal flow

GRAPH

I

To avoid a complicated trial-and-error method as required by the Hooghoudt

approach, Graph I has been prepared. For different c/Lo and B-values, it gives the corresponding L/L -value which, multiplied by LO' gives the required drain spacing (L-value). However, as will appear furtheron, this graph is usually only needed for the following specific situations:

16

K, >> K2

or

B > 0.1;

there are two pervious layers below drain level, K3D3 > K2D2, and no Scientific Pocket Calculator (SPC) is available; one wants to compare the generalized equation with other drainage equations or one wants to prepare a specific graph ( s e e Section 4.1 and Appendix C 1 ) .

NOTE: Comparing t h e Hooghoudt equation u i t h t h e E r n s t equation and using

u = 4r i n s t e a d o f u = m, a g r e a t e r s i m i t a r i t y is o b t a i n e d .

In most actual situations the B-factor (K D /KD ratio) will be small and there1 1

fore

Neglecting B, and rewriting Eq. (7) (multiplying by L3/L and substituting 8KDh/q for L 2 ) , we obtain the equation for the B

L2

=

O line of Graph I:

DP 8L Dz In + - 8KDh/q TI

If we compare Eq.(8) with the original Ernst equation (3a), it can be seen KD that the factor - of Eq. (3a) has changed into , which equals DP. However, KP KP KzD2 for a drainage situation with two pervious layers below drain level, KZ becomes K2D2 + K3D3 and the equation f o r this situation reads KP

L2

8L KZDP TI

K3D3

KP

In - - 8 KD h/q = O

aDs

is very

useful if an SPC is available; if not, Graph I has to be used. Eq.(8), on the other hand, will seldom be used. The simple reason for this

2 2

is that for most drainage situations with a barrier (only K D ) , a simplified equation can be used.

17

After Graph I had been prepared on linear paper, it was found that for c/L values < 0.3 and B-values < 0.1, the following relations hold LILo

=

CfL

or

- c

(see Graph I)

(10)

The question then arose whether these conditions were normal or whether they were rather exceptional.In practice,the simplified equation proved to be almost always applicable.In addition,it was found from the calculations needed for the preparation of Graph II(r = 0.10 m, all K- and D-values) that, except for some uncommon situations (K = 0.25 m/day, D > 5 m), D

the equation L

- c is a

D2 In

Note: Many years ago W.T.Moody, an engineer w i t h t h e U.S.5ureau of Reclamation proposed a similar correction iD l n spacing (Maasland 1 9 5 6 , D

D G) to

proposed by Moody and t h a t i n this b u l l e t i n is t h a t now t h e conditions under which t h e correction may be applied are p r e c i s e l y defined.

18

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