x2
y2
x1
area3
x0 x1 x1
Torsion Properties for Line Segments and Computational Scheme
for Piecewise Straight Section Calculations
Closed Thin walled Sections
the new material consists of the "corrections for and Q
A = enclosed area
definition of
4 A
2
J =
(
(

J 1

c
=
(
h
c
ds
J
s
1
ds =
2 A
s
1
ds
as
b
(
2 A
(
t
b (
t (
1
ds
d
c
=
\
h
c
2 A
t
.
ds = d
c
0
(
1
ds
0 (
t
(
t
0
b
1
circ_integral =
(
ds =
X
i
(
2
Y
i
(
2
+ ) )
=
l
i
if we define
l
i
=
(
0
t
i
t
i
t
i segment
X
i
(
2
Y
i
(
2
+ ) )
i
length:
we now need calculation of the enclosed area A in this expression
area of triangle determined by two points and the origin:
area = area1 + area2 area3
y
area
x0,y0
x1,y1
y
x0,y0
x1,y1
y
area1
area2
x0,y0
x1,y1
y
area3
x0,y0
x1,y1
0,0
x
0,0
x
0,0
x
0,0
1 1 1
x0 area1 :=
2
y1 x1 area2 := (y0 + y1) (x0 x1) area3 :=
2
y0 ( )
2
area := area1 + area2 area3 1 1 1
area simplify y0 x1 +
2
y1 x0 area_2_pts_origin := (y1 x0 y0 x1)
2 2
area between three points:
x0,y0
x1,y1
x2,y2
area
1 1
area := (y1 x0 y0 x1) (y1 x2 y2 x1)
2 2
1 1
area := (y1 x0 y0 x1) + (y2 x1 y1 x2)
2 2
1
etc.........
area_enclosed :=
2
( X
i
Y
i 1
X
i 1
Y
i
)
+ +
i
1 notes_15a_tor_prop_clsd_calc.mcd
x
for a straight line segment
c
= constant
c
=
c
L
2area_enclosed
l
i
and is linear along line
circ_integral t
i
see torsion properties (open) for derivation of c part:
x
1
+ x
0
( y
1
y
0
)
y
1
+ y
0
( x
1
x
0
)
2area_enclosed
l
i
c
=
2 2 circ_integral t
i
c
= xm ( ) ym x
2area_enclosed
l
i
xm = midpoint
y
circ_integral t
i x = x1  x0
y = y1  y0
s
d
D
= d
D
= h
D
ds
=>
D
s
0
( ) + y
D
cos ( ) = ( h
D
ds = ( h
C
x
D
sin ( ) ds
( ) = c x
D
(
y
1
y
0
)
+ y
D
(
x
1
x
0
)
calculation of D and D aka identical to open
D
s
if we set
D0
= 0 at the start of a line segment, then
D1
=
D0
+
D
calculate "centroid" of warping wrt shear center:
a
i
Q
D
D
j
=
D
j
Dcg
+
Q
D
i
=
2
\

D
i
+
D
i 1.

Dcg
=
A
I
yD
=
t s
1
s
0
)
2 x
1
D
1
+ x
0
D
0
)
+ x
0
D
1
+ x
1
D
0
(
6
(
I
=
t s
1
s
0
)
(D
1
)
2
+ D
0
D
1
+ (D
0
)
2
(
(
I
xD
=
t s
1
s
0
)
2 y
1
D1
+ y
0
D
0
)
+ y
0
D
1
+ y
1
D
0
(
6
first moment of needs "correction" also

(
(
Q
ds
(
(
Q
ds
(
(
(
T
(
thus a "correction" is applied to Q for
q s , x) =
(
( 1
(
I
( 1 (
(
(
t
ds
(
ds
(
(
t
(
\
the closed section. the is for the closed section
(with it's correction applied)
first calculate as open which we did above, now calculate
(
Q
ds
(
we know is piecewise linear over s ( = hD*s as hD constant over segment) thus over segment:
2 notes_15a_tor_prop_clsd_calc.mcd
s0
1
s1
0
s0
Q
y
1
y
0
(
y
1
y
0
)
s ( ) :=
1 0
s + 0 s0

1 0
(
(
y =
x
1
x
0
x + y
0
x
0
(
x
1
x
0
)
s1 s0
\
s1 s0
.
s
( ) := ( ( ) t d + Q
0
Q
s
s0
s
1 1 0
t s
2
+
1
2 0 s1 2 s0 1 1 s0 1 0 s0 + 2 0 s1
(
s0
( ) t d collect, s
2
s1 s0 2 s1 s0
t s
2
s0
s1 s0
t
s1
(
s
(
( ( ) t d + Q
0
Q
s
(
( ) :=
(
s0
ds
t
s0
s1
(
1
(1 0)
t s
2
1
(2 0 s1 2 s0 1)
t s
1
s0
(s0 1 + 0 s0 2 0 s1)
t + Q
0 simplify (
2 ( s1 + s0) 2 (s1 + s0) 2 (s1 + s0)
ds

1
(
( t
collect, t, Q
0
, s1 , s0 , t
\
6
s0
copied from off the page:
=>

1
1 +
1
0

s1
2
+

1
1
2
0

s0 s1 +

1
1 +
1
0

s0
2
+ (s1 s0)
Q
0
\
6 3
. \
3 3
. \
6 3
.
t
=
(s1 s0)
Q
0
+

1
1 +
1
0

(s1 s0)
2
t
\
6 3
.
1
a reference Heins calculates this increment as
Q
s ( ) :=
2
1
(
Q
1
+ Q
0
)
\
s1
t
s0

.
+
12
(0 1) (s1 s0)
2
it can be shown that these are equivalent, but it is not obvious what motivated the second form
from open development:
1
Q
1
:= Q
0
+ (1 + 0) t (s1 s0)
linear => area is half endpoint *t* distance, t constant
2
1
simplify
2
(
Q
1
+ Q
0
)
(s1
t
s0)
+
1
(0 1) (s1 s0)
2(
(
collect, t, Q
0
, s1 , s0
\

6
1
1 +
1
0

.
s1
2
+

\
3
2
0
3
1
1

.
s0 s1 +

\
1
6
12 3
copied from off the page: (it is the same as above)

1
1 +
1
0

s1
2
+

1
1
2
0

s0 s1 +

1
1 +
1
0

s0
2
+ (s1 s0)
Q
0
\
6 3
. \
3 3
. \
6 3
.
t
3 notes_15a_tor_prop_clsd_calc.mcd
Q
_corr
+

s
i 1
s
i 
Q
i
+

1
i 1
+
1
3
i

.
(s
i 1
s
1
)
2
(
( + +
(
Q
ds
Q
_corr
=
i
\
t
i .
\
6
(
+ correction is then:
s
i 1
s
i
t
i
(
(
1
ds
i
(
t
or ....
1 +
2 \

Q
1 1
+ Q
i

.
\
s
i 1
t
i
s
1 
.
+ (
i
i 1
)( s
i 1
s
1
)
2
(
(
+ +
+
i
+
+
l
i
= s
i 1
s
i
s
i 1
s
i
t
i
i
and .
Q
i
:= Q
i
Q
_corr
t
i
l
i
+

1
i 1
+
1
3
i

.
(l
i
)
2
(
(
+
i
\
6
Q
_corr
=
l
i
t
i
i
or ....
1
2 \

Q
i 1
+ Q
i

l
i
+
1
(
i
i 1
) (l
i
)
2
(
(
+
+ . t
i
12
i
l
i
t
i
i
4 notes_15a_tor_prop_clsd_calc.mcd