You are on page 1of 73

Tides and water levels

TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment


Raed lubbad Raed lubbad
08 September 2009
1
Water level fluctuations,
engineering aspects
2
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
C t l t t
Tides and Water Level >> Engineering aspects
Coastal structure
High water level Low water level High water level Low water level
Large waves!!
Broken waves!!
Overtopping Flooding!!
3
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
S d h
Tides and Water Level >> Engineering aspects
Sandy shores
High water level Low water level High water level Low water level
Large waves!!
small waves!!
Erode the beach!!
Recoverable??!!
4
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Water level fluctuations,
Classification
5
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tides and Water Level >> Types of water level fluctuations
id
Short Term
-Tides
-Storm surge
i
Short Term
-Barometric surge
-Seiche
Seasonal
Cli ti fl t ti
Long term
-Climatic fluctuations
-Eustatic
I t ti
o g te
-Isostatic
-Global climate Change
6
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tid Tides
7
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
What are tides?! What are tides?!
Alternate and regular rise and fall of sea level in oceans and Alternate and regular rise and fall of sea level in oceans and
other large bodies of water.
These changes are caused by the gravitational attraction of the
moon and, to a lesser extent, of the sun on the earth.
8
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Some useful tidal terms
Tides and Water Level >> Tides >>
Some useful tidal terms
Datum
Datum: Datum:
is a plane from which the heights of tide are measured; it is is a plane from which the heights of tide are measured; it is
usually fixed so that few tides fall below it. All heights are
referred to this.
9
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Some useful tidal terms
Tides and Water Level >> Tides >>
Some useful tidal terms
Datum
Rise
Rise: Rise:
is the height of high water on the adopted scale (measured from
the datum). )
Range:
i h diff i l l b h h i h f hi h d is the difference in level between the height of high water and
the height of the next succeeding or last preceding low water.
10
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Some sef l tidal terms
Tides and Water Level >> Tides >>
Some useful tidal terms
D t
Rise
Datum
Tid l Tidal currents:
the horizontal movement of water due to the tidal effects
Flood current:
associated with rising water Ebb current.
11
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
g
Some useful tidal terms
Tides and Water Level >> Tides >>
Some useful tidal terms
Tidal waves: Tidal waves:
the longest oceanic waves. They are characterised by the rhythmic
rise and fall of sea level over a period of several hours. rise and fall of sea level over a period of several hours.
12
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tidal range (typical values):
Tides and Water Level >> Tides >>
Tidal range (typical values):
O 0 61 Open ocean : 0.61 m
coastal areas : 2 - 3 m
Maximum: 12 m
(in Canada) (in Canada)
13
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Wh id ?!
Tides and Water Level >> Tides >>
What causes tides?!
Tide generating forces: due to the relative motion of the Earth,
Sun and Moon.
Th f th t th tid ti f The response of the oceans to the tide generating forces
14
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tid ti f Tide generating forces
15
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tides and Water Level >> Tides >> Tide generating forces >> Overview
The earth rotates around its own axis
The moon and the earth rotates around their common center of
gravity. The moon orbit around the earth is elliptical (27.32 day)
The earth and its moon rotate around the sun in elliptical orbit
(365 24 day)
16
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
(365.24 day)
Tides and Water Level >> Tides >> Tide generating forces >> Overview
The orbit of the moon around the earth is inclined to the orbit of
the earth. This means that the moon can be in the same level as
the equator only twice every lunar month.
17
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tides and Water Level >> Tides >> Tide generating forces >> Overview
Sun Sun
Solar day 24 h y
t 0 t = 24 h
Sun overhead X
t = 0
Sun overhead X again
t = 24 h
18
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tides and Water Level >> Tides >> Tide generating forces >> Overview
Lunar day 24 h 50 min y
19
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tides and Water Level >> Tides >> Tide generating forces >> Overview
The gravitational principleselaborated by Newtonin his
Principia is the basis for understanding the tide-generating forces.
20
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tides and Water Level >> Tides >> Tide generating forces >> Overview
Why dont, for example, the earth and its moon collide ?!
Answer: Thanks to the centrifugal forces
21
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tides and Water Level >> Tides >> Tide generating forces >> Overview
Common Centre of gravity, ccg.
m1/ m2 rotates around ccg with an angular velocity
g y g
F
g
F
g
F
c
F
c
m1
F
g
g c c
m2
r1
r2
d
2 2
1 2
2
g
m m
F
d


=
2 2
1 1 2 2 c
m r m r F
m r m r
e e = =
=
22
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
1 1 2 2
m r m r =
Tides and Water Level >> Tides >> Tide generating forces >> Assumptions
Only, the gravitational forces from the moon are considered in
the following. (the same calculation method can be used for the
solar-tide generating forces)
Let us consider that the system earth/moon rotates around a
common centre of gravity with a constant velocity . g y y
h f h h h i i l f f h In the centre of the earth the gravitational force from the moon
balance the centrifugal force. Because of the global balance, the
centrifugal force may at all places be set equal to the gravity force centrifugal force may at all places be set equal to the gravity force
acting in the centre of the earth.
23
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tides and Water Level >> Tides >> Tide generating forces >> Assumptions
Consider a fixed point P on the earths surface
P
V
Cancelled by the earth gravity
P
F
g0
F
c0
F
c0
F
gP
R
V
F
g0
F
c0
T
Tractive force: Tractive force:
Tide generating force
24
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
a
Tides and Water Level >> Tides >> Tide generating forces >> Equation
d
The maximum force acting g
occurs at

135 45 = and u
The force acting at the sublunar
point ( ) = 0

0 = u
25
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tides and Water Level >> Tides >> Tide generating forces >> Equation
The distribution of tide-generating force is determined in
relation to the position of the moon while the earth is rotating
on its axis.
The magnitude and direction of the tide-generating force e g ude dd ec o o e de ge e g o ce
at a given point on the earths surface is changing
continuously with time.
26
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
The response of the oceans to the tide generating forces
Equilibriumtide Equilibrium tide
27
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tides and Water Level >> Tides >> Equilibrium tide
Basic assumptions involved:
An ocean with a constant depth is covering the whole earth
The water respond instantly to the changing forces
(static response)
The surface of the water balances the tide-generating forces by
h i t l di t a horizontal pressure gradient
28
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tides and Water Level >> Tides >> Equilibrium tide
In spite of the unrealistic assumptions, the equilibrium tide
has proved to be a useful concept which exhibits a number of
qualitative features of the actual tides
29
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tides and Water Level >> Tides >> Equilibrium tide
Surface slope
balance
Pressure gradient
balance balance
id i f
tan
s
F
g s
,
o
c
= =
c
Tide generating forces
g s c
30
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tides and Water Level >> Tides >> Equilibrium tide
tan
s
F
g s
,
o
c
= =
c
T
s
F
s
cu
=
c
1
T
g s s
, cu c
=
c c g
T
g, = u
From the distribution of the tide-generating force, one may
calculate the distribution of the equilibrium tide around the earth
31
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tides and Water Level >> Tides >> Equilibrium tide >> Equation
3
2
1
(3cos 1)
2
M a
a E d
,
u
| |
=
|
\ .
2 a E d
\ .
The elevation has its maximum
value at

180 0 and = u
The elevation has its minimum
value at

90 = u
.
min max
1
2
, , =
max min
53.5cm , , =
Closed to the observed values in
th
32
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
the oceans
Equilibrium tide (moon + sun)
S i id Spring-tide
Neap-tide
33
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Equilibrium tide (moon + sun)
S i id Spring-tide
Neap-tide
34
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Daily inequality
l d h hi h d il Diurnal Tide- one where high waters occur once daily at
intervals averaging 24.8 hours
35
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Daily inequality
Semi-Diurnal Tide- one where high waters occur twice daily
at intervals averaging 12.4 hours
At the equator: always
Elsewhere : when the moon is in the level of the equator
36
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Other effects
The orbit of the moon and sun relative to the earth is elliptical
(The distance between the earth , sun and moon change in a
periodic fashion)
The earth large land masses will not turn through the tide,
but will movethewater massesalongwiththem(thisdisrupts but will move the water masses along with them (this disrupts
the simple equilibrium model)
The earth geography causes certain tidal constituents to
resonate locally. Thus some constituents are magnified in
i l i hil h di ( id h certain locations while others may disappear (tide at each
location is unique)
37
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Other effects
All th d ff t b i d t All the secondary effects can be viewed as separate
tide generators where each tide generator has its own
amplitude frequencyandphaseanglewithrespect to amplitude, frequency and phase angle with respect to
the others
Tides thus isa complex a addition of effects of the
moon, the sun and many secondary causes. Each
component is calleda tidal constituent
38
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tidal analysis and prediction
Tide analysis consists of separating a measured tide
f b d f d into as many of its constituents as can be identified
from the length of the record available
39
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Harmonic constituents of the tides
The tide-generating potential is a complicated function of
time, which may be resolved into the sum of a large number
of harmonic constituents
Species Constituent Symbol Period
Semidiurnal Principal lunar
P i i l l
M
2

S
12.42 hrs
12 00 h Principal solar
Large lunar elliptic
Luni-solar
S
2
N
2

K
2

12.00 hrs
12.66 hrs
11.97 hrs
Diurnal Luni-solar
Principal lunar
Principal solar
K
1
O
1

P
1

23.93 hrs
26.87 hrs
24.07 hrs
Long period Lunar fortnightly
Lunar monthly
Solar semiannual
M
f

M
m

S
sa
13.66 days
27.55 days
182.70 days
40
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Solar semiannual S
sa
182.70 days

Tidal currents Tidal currents
Is the horizontal movement of water due to the tidal effects
Tidal
wave
Tidal
current
41
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tidal currents Tidal currents
The tidal wave are very long compared to the water depth,
therefore the shallow water formulation of the linear wave
th b d t l l t th l it f ti theory can be used to calculate the velocity of propagation
of the tidal currents
The length of the tidal wave then:
T = 24.41 hrs for the lunar semi-diurnal constituent
42
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tidal currents Tidal currents
Example: Example:
d = 4000m C = 200m/s L = 9000km
d = 10m C = 10m/s L = 450km
d = 3m C = 5.5m/s L = 245km
Shallow water
43
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tidal currents
Since the length of the tidal waves are substantially large, the
propagation of such waves must be effected by the earth rotation propagation of such waves must be effected by the earth rotation
(Coriolis). In other words, the tides do not propagate in a straight
line, but rotate.
44
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tidal currents
In addition to the Coriolis effects some tides constituent resonate In addition to the Coriolis effects, some tides constituent resonate
(the amplitude is amplified) due to the different land mass
topography p g p y
Different coastal shapes will yield different tides
45
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tidal currents
Co-range lines
Co-tidal lines
Co range lines
Co-tidal lines
A hid i i t Amphidromic point
46
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tidal currents
Task:
Design a Coastal structure
Required:
Tide Data
Will This Data Change
by the Project?!!
47
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tidal currents
Now we shall compare the phase of the tidal currents (horizontal Now we shall compare the phase of the tidal currents (horizontal
tide) with the tidal water level fluctuations (vertical tide)
Deep open
ocean
Tidal inlet
and bay
48
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tidal currents
Deep Open Ocean
Tidal
I h di i f h id
Maximum current velocity
at high water
wave In the direction of the tide
propagation
Horizontal and vertical tides are in phase p
49
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tidal currents
Tidal inlet and bay
Small bay and large
entrance
Small bay and large
entrance entrance
b
entrance
Long bay or narrow
inlet
50
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tidal currents
Small bay and a large entrance
There is no phase lag between
the vertical tide in the bay and the vertical tide in the bay and
in the sea
At high water the flood current g
is zero (High water slack tide)
51
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tidal currents
Small bay and a large entrance
Water level
Flood current
52
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tidal currents
Small bay and a large entrance y g
The Current leads the water level by 90
Complete wave reflection!!
53
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tidal currents
Long bay or narrow inlet
The maximum water level in
the bay will occur later than in the bay will occur later than in
the sea
At high water the flood current g
is not zero
54
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tidal currents
Long bay or narrow inlet
Water level
Flood current Flood current
55
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Tidal currents
Long bay or narrow inlet
The Current leads the water level by less
h 90 than 90
56
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Types of water level fluctuations Types of water level fluctuations
id
Short Term
-Tides
-Storm surge
i
Short Term
-Barometric surge
-Seiche
seasonal
Cli ti fl t ti
Long term
-Climatic fluctuations
-Eustatic
I t ti
o g te
-Isostatic
-Global climate Change
57
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Storm Surge g
Is an increase in water level resulting from the shear stress by
onshore wind over the water surface onshore wind over the water surface
O h i j i d i h f Occurs at the same time as major wave action and is the cause of
most worlds disastrous flooding and coastal damage
Greatest concern in design
58
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Storm Surge g
Wind
Slope of water
Shear stress
surface
1D simple model:
( )
D d S +
( )
, D d S = +
The above equation computes maximum surge (good for feasibility
study and conservative design
59
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Storm Surge g
Negative storm surge may occur in enclosed
bodies of water such as lakes bodies of water such as lakes
60
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Types of water level fluctuations Types of water level fluctuations
id
Short Term
-Tides
-Storm surge
i
Short Term
-Barometric surge
-Seiche
seasonal
Cli ti fl t ti
Long term
-Climatic fluctuations
-Eustatic
I t ti
o g te
-Isostatic
-Global climate Change
61
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Barometric Surge
Strong winds are the result of large pressure fluctuations
Barometric surge will accompany the storm surge g p y g
High pressure Low pressure
Wind
High pressure Low pressure
h A
S
62
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Barometric Surge
( ) ( )
total total
P A P B =
A B
( ) ( )
total total
P h P h
A B
A B
atm w A atm w B
atm atm w B w A
P gh P gh
P P gh gh


+ = +
=
( )
A B
atm atm w B w A
atm w
P g h A = A
atm
P
h
A
A =
Results in water level
w
h
g
A =
rise of about 0.1m/1kPa
63
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Types of water level fluctuations Types of water level fluctuations
id
Short Term
-Tides
-Storm surge
i
Short Term
-Barometric surge
-Seiche
seasonal
Cli ti fl t ti
Long term
-Climatic fluctuations
-Eustatic
I t ti
o g te
-Isostatic
-Global climate Change
64
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Seiche Seiche
When the wind that formed a storm surge stops blowing, the
water level will start to oscillate back and forth (seiche)
The oscillations will continue for some time because the
friction forces are quite small
65
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Seiche Seiche
Closed Basin
2
1
e
h
B
L
n
=
+
h
66
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Seiche
Open ended basin
(Open coast)
4
1 2
e
h
B
L
n
=
+
h
67
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Seiche Seiche
htt // t l d l d /f lt / d/ i h ht l http://www.coastal.udel.edu/faculty/rad/seiche.html
68
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Types of water level fluctuations Types of water level fluctuations
id
Short Term
-Tides
-Storm surge
i
Short Term
-Barometric surge
-Seiche
seasonal
Cli ti fl t ti
Long term
-Climatic fluctuations
-Eustatic
I t ti
o g te
-Isostatic
-Global climate Change
69
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Water level fluctuations in the ocean Water level fluctuations in the ocean
Tsunami:
Tsunami generates due to sudden transfer of a large amount of
acoustic or mechanical energy into the ocean. This may be
called as impulsively generated waves called as impulsively generated waves
Tsunami may be generated due to Submarine Earthquakes,
Landslides, Volcanic Eruptions, Explosions
70
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Water level fluctuations in the ocean Water level fluctuations in the ocean
Eustatic(Sea) Level Changes:
refers to a global change in ocean water levels, resulting from
melting or freezing of the polar ice caps and thermal
expansion of the water mass with temperature change expansion of the water mass with temperature change
partly responsible for the fact that most beaches around the
World eroding over the long time.
71
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Water level fluctuations in the ocean Water level fluctuations in the ocean
I sostatic(Land) EmergenceandSubsidence: sostat c( a d) e ge cea dSubsde ce:
is a result of the adjustment of the earths crust to the release
of pressure exerted by the 1 to 2 km thick ice sheet that
covered it during the last glaciations
72
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level
Water level fluctuations in the ocean Water level fluctuations in the ocean
Global ClimateChange:
The most potential and dangerous change in water level
results from the recent trends in climate changes globally
The global warming after the last glaciations has resulted in The global warming after the last glaciations has resulted in
sea level rise of 100 to 150 m through melting of the polar ice
caps and thermal expansion of the water in the ocean p p
73
PhD student: Raed Lubbad
TBA4265 Marine Physical Environment Tides and Water Level